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Obiero L, Abdi A. "An Assessment of the Performance of the Social Protection Program for the Elderly Persons." The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies. 2018;6(3):220-226.
Dindi E. "An assessment of the performance of the geophysical methods as a tool for the detection of zones of potential subsidence in the area southwest of Nakuru town, Kenya." Environmental Earth Sciences. 2015;73(7):3643-3653. AbstractWebsite

The area to the southwest of Nakuru town in Kenya located within the Kenya Rift Valley is prone to incidences of ground subsidence especially toward the end of the heavy rain season. The zones affected by subsidence are typically linear, trending approximately north–south conforming to the structural trend of the Kenya Rift Valley. These ground subsidence incidences have in the past led to collapse of houses and damage to roads that happen to be located above the affected linear zones. This study set out to investigate the potential of geophysical methods to delineate these linear zones. Two profiles of lengths 2,430 and 2,850 m, respectively, were selected for this purpose. The study was conducted immediately after one major incidence of subsidence when the zones affected were still fresh and observable. Magnetics, very low-frequency electromagnetics (VLF-EM), and gravity methods were used in the study. The choice of these methods was dictated by their widely known applicability in the detection of linear structures, especially faults. The results of the study have shown that the linear zones affected yield good response to magnetic and VLF-EM methods. Anomalies similar to those detected across fresh subsidence zones were also detected at locations where there was no surface expression of subsidence, suggesting that the latter locations are potential zones of future subsidence. Further, there were locations along the profile that were without any anomalies. The relatively low sensitivity of the zones to the gravity method is attributed to the very narrow nature of these zone and hence limited low-density material to generate appreciable negative gravity anomalies. It is concluded from this study that geophysics permits identifying the potential areas to develop surficial collapse and to identify sectors that are potentially dangerous because they present similar signatures as the sectors with surficial evidence and sectors without anomalies. The sectors without anomalies are interpreted as having a different subsoil structure to that with sinkholes.

E. K. Genga, C.F.OTIENO, E. N. Ogola, Maritim MC. "Assessment of the Perceived Quality of Life of Non insulin Dependent D iabetic patients attending t he Diabetes Clinic in Kenyatta National H ospital." IOSR Journal Of Pharmacy. 2014;4(3):15-21. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diabetes Mellitus is a common and demanding health related problem that has a wide effect on every day’s life of the patients. It can have a profound effect on quality of life in terms of social and psychological well-being as well as physical ill-health. It is one of the most psychologically demanding of the chronic diseases; with psychosocial factors pertinent to nearly every aspect of the disease and its treatment.
OBJECTIVE: To Assess the perceived Health-related quality of life of diabetic patients not on insulin therapy using the WHOQoL-Bref (World Health Organization Quality of Life – Brief).
STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study.
STUDY SITE: The study was conducted on patients attending the Diabetic clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.
RESULTS: Study recruited 139 patients with type2 diabetes not on insulin therapy. The study population was predominantly female (61%) , majority were 40-60yrs, having had diabetes for less than 5yrs, 75% having more than one complication. Most (75%) of the study participants were poorly controlled with HbA1C mean score of 8.04% .Majority of the study participants( 84%) achieved a good score on the HRQoL scale using the WHOQoL-Bref tool. The determinants of HRQoL in our study were: age of study participants, duration of diabetes, presence of complications and income related factors. Age of the study subjects had significant association only in the social domain of HRQoL with a p-value of 0.037. Level of income had a significant association with overall HRQoL score (p-value of 0.029), psychological domain (p value of 0.023) and in the social domain (p-value of 0.029). Health care financing was significantly associated with psychological domain (p-value 0.006) and environmental domain (p-value 0f 0.04) and overall score (p-value 0.011). There was an association between employment status and HRQoL. Having a job improved the scores in physical domain (p-value of 0.013) and social domain (p value of 0.020). Duration with diabetes had significant association with physical domain where the p value was 0.007. The HRQoL of the study subjects was associated significantly with the number of complications. Indeed the association of complications with the HRQoL involved physical domain (p-value of <0.0001) and psychological domain (p-value of 0.041) which directly impacted on the overall total score (p value of 0.041).
CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that diabetes affected HRQoL of our study participants. There is a need for interventions programs to improve glycemic control and inclusion of HRQoL assessment as part of patients on follow up. Age and duration of disease are not modifiable but complications can be reduced by better health care initiaves. Income-related factors can be modifiable through poverty alleviation and pooled health care financing.

Genga EK, Otieno CF, OGOLA EN, Maritim MC. "Assessment of the Perceived Quality of Life of Non insulin Dependent D iabetic patients attending t he Diabetes Clinic in Kenyatta National H ospital." IOSR Journal Of Pharmacy. 2014;4(3):15-21. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diabetes Mellitus is a common and demanding health related problem that has a wide effect on every day’s life of the patients. It can have a profound effect on quality of life in terms of social and psychological well-being as well as physical ill-health. It is one of the most psychologically demanding of the chronic diseases; with psychosocial factors pertinent to nearly every aspect of the disease and its treatment.
OBJECTIVE: To Assess the perceived Health-related quality of life of diabetic patients not on insulin therapy using the WHOQoL-Bref (World Health Organization Quality of Life – Brief).
STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study.
STUDY SITE: The study was conducted on patients attending the Diabetic clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.
RESULTS: Study recruited 139 patients with type2 diabetes not on insulin therapy. The study population was predominantly female (61%) , majority were 40-60yrs, having had diabetes for less than 5yrs, 75% having more than one complication. Most (75%) of the study participants were poorly controlled with HbA1C mean score of 8.04% .Majority of the study participants( 84%) achieved a good score on the HRQoL scale using the WHOQoL-Bref tool. The determinants of HRQoL in our study were: age of study participants, duration of diabetes, presence of complications and income related factors. Age of the study subjects had significant association only in the social domain of HRQoL with a p-value of 0.037. Level of income had a significant association with overall HRQoL score (p-value of 0.029), psychological domain (p value of 0.023) and in the social domain (p-value of 0.029). Health care financing was significantly associated with psychological domain (p-value 0.006) and environmental domain (p-value 0f 0.04) and overall score (p-value 0.011). There was an association between employment status and HRQoL. Having a job improved the scores in physical domain (p-value of 0.013) and social domain (p value of 0.020). Duration with diabetes had significant association with physical domain where the p value was 0.007. The HRQoL of the study subjects was associated significantly with the number of complications. Indeed the association of complications with the HRQoL involved physical domain (p-value of <0.0001) and psychological domain (p-value of 0.041) which directly impacted on the overall total score (p value of 0.041).
CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that diabetes affected HRQoL of our study participants. There is a need for interventions programs to improve glycemic control and inclusion of HRQoL assessment as part of patients on follow up. Age and duration of disease are not modifiable but complications can be reduced by better health care initiaves. Income-related factors can be modifiable through poverty alleviation and pooled health care financing.

Genga EK, Otieno CF, OGOLA EN, Maritim MC. "Assessment of the Perceived Quality of Life of Non insulin Dependent D iabetic patients attending t he Diabetes Clinic in Kenyatta National H ospital.". 2014. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diabetes Mellitus is a common and demanding health related problem that has a wide effect on every day’s life of the patients. It can have a profound effect on quality of life in terms of social and psychological well-being as well as physical ill-health. It is one of the most psychologically demanding of the chronic diseases; with psychosocial factors pertinent to nearly every aspect of the disease and its treatment.
OBJECTIVE: To Assess the perceived Health-related quality of life of diabetic patients not on insulin therapy using the WHOQoL-Bref (World Health Organization Quality of Life – Brief).
STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study.
STUDY SITE: The study was conducted on patients attending the Diabetic clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.
RESULTS: Study recruited 139 patients with type2 diabetes not on insulin therapy. The study population was predominantly female (61%) , majority were 40-60yrs, having had diabetes for less than 5yrs, 75% having more than one complication. Most (75%) of the study participants were poorly controlled with HbA1C mean score of 8.04% .Majority of the study participants( 84%) achieved a good score on the HRQoL scale using the WHOQoL-Bref tool. The determinants of HRQoL in our study were: age of study participants, duration of diabetes, presence of complications and income related factors. Age of the study subjects had significant association only in the social domain of HRQoL with a p-value of 0.037. Level of income had a significant association with overall HRQoL score (p-value of 0.029), psychological domain (p value of 0.023) and in the social domain (p-value of 0.029). Health care financing was significantly associated with psychological domain (p-value 0.006) and environmental domain (p-value 0f 0.04) and overall score (p-value 0.011). There was an association between employment status and HRQoL. Having a job improved the scores in physical domain (p-value of 0.013) and social domain (p value of 0.020). Duration with diabetes had significant association with physical domain where the p value was 0.007. The HRQoL of the study subjects was associated significantly with the number of complications. Indeed the association of complications with the HRQoL involved physical domain (p-value of <0.0001) and psychological domain (p-value of 0.041) which directly impacted on the overall total score (p value of 0.041).
CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that diabetes affected HRQoL of our study participants. There is a need for interventions programs to improve glycemic control and inclusion of HRQoL assessment as part of patients on follow up. Age and duration of disease are not modifiable but complications can be reduced by better health care initiaves. Income-related factors can be modifiable through poverty alleviation and pooled health care financing.

Awori KO. Assessment of the outcome of lower limb amputations as seen in Kenyatta National Hospital.; 2004. Abstract

This study was designed to assess the outcome of lower limb amputations as managed at the Kenyatta National Hospital. A prospective analysis of consecutive patients who underwent lower limb amputations at the Kenyatta National Hospital between July 1st, 2003 and June 30th, 2004 was performed. Data on the management and outcome were collected using questionnaires administered to the patients while admitted and in the follow-up clinics. The main outcome measures were the duration of hospital stay, duration of wound healing, need for operative revision, need to convert to a higher amputation level, degree of mobility and the thirty-day postoperative mortality. A total of74 patients (46 males) underwent 77 lower limb amputations. The mean age at operation was 44.4 years (range 7 months - 96 years). Ninety one percent were major amputations; 42 AKA ( 3 bilateral), 24 BKA and 4 hip disarticulations. Open amputations comprised 23% of the total. Extremity gangrene due to peripheral vascular diseases was the main indication for amputation (55%). Anaemia was the most common co-morbid condition (27%) followed by diabetes (18%), while stump infection was the commonest complication (33%). The thirty-day mortality rate was 13.5%. The healing rate for BKA was significantly less than for AKA, with a 21% rate of eventual conversion of BKA to AKA. Most of the patients (70%) were ambulating on crutches The average duration of hospital stay was 29.3 days. There was no patient who was using a prosthetic limb during the study period.

K OE, V.O M, A A’oD, A O. "Assessment of the Level of Organochlorine Pesticides Contamination in Kales, Water and Soil from Naivasha, Kenya. ." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology . 2017;3(5):205-213.
Okworo EK, Madadi VO, Abong’o DA, Ochieng A. "Assessment of the Level of Organochlorine Pesticides Contamination in Kales, Water and Soil from Naivasha, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;3(5):205-213.
H. NGUETTIJ, K IMUNGIJ, W. OM, J WANG’OMBE, F. MBACHAMW, E. MITEMAS. "Assessment of the knowledge and use of pesticides by the tomato farmers in Mwea Region, Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research . 2018;13(8):379-388.
Gor S. "An Assessment of the Informal Sector Trade in Kenya." Journal of International Law and Trade Policy. 2012;13 (1):101-113.
Achieng B. O; Rambo C.M. & Odundo P.A.(2015). "Assessment of the Influence of the Level of Human Resources as a component of Institutional Capacity on Academic Performance of Students in Public Secondary Schools in Usigu Division – Bondo District, Kenya." Published in International Journal of Marketing and Technology. ISSN: 2249 – 1058 . 2015;5(5).
S.Senda T, Lance W. Robinson, K.K.Gachene C, Kironchi G, Doyo J. "An assessment of the implications of alternative scales of communal land tenure formalization in pastoral systems." Land use Policy. 2020;94.
Schnabel. DC, Dimbuson. WB, Bedno. SA, Martin. SK. An Assessment of the Implementation of the First Comprehensive Influenza Surveillance Activity in Kenya. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: MediTech Media Conferencing, Inc. Atlanta, GA 30328; 2007. Abstract
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I.B.B Yonah, S.B.B. Oteng'i LCB. "Assessment of the growing Season over the Unimodal Rainfall Regime Region of Tanzania." Tanzania Meteorological Society. 2006;7(1).tjms_cb.pdf
Ng’ang’a, J.C., Ritho, N C, Nzuma, M.J., Moyo, S., Herrero, M. "An Assessment of the Factors Influencing Household Willingness to Pay for Non-marketed Benefit of Cattle in the Agro-pastoral Systems of Mozambique." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2013;8(18):1949-1957.
Muthumbi W, De Boever P, D'haese I, D'hooge W, Verstraete W, Comhaire F, Pieters JG, Top EM. "Assessment of the estrogenic activity of flue gases from burning processes by means of the yeast based human estrogen receptor (hER) bioassay.". 2002.Website
"An assessment of the efficiency of the dairy bull dam selection methodology in Kenya.". 2007. Abstract

Data consisting of 5670 lactation records made by 2958 cows between 1990 and 2004 from 18 Ayrshire herds were used to evaluate the efficiency of the current bull dam selection method in Kenya. A univariate DF-REML procedure and the animal model with relationship was used to estimate Breeding Values (BVs) for unadjusted total lactation milk yield, as used by the current methodology. The mean milk yield was 4085 Kg with SD of 1396 Kg, and the breeding values (BVs) for milk yield for all the animals ranged from - 979 kg to + 1115 Kg. with a heritability of 0.18 ± 0.045. The BVs were then arranged in descending order and then ranked. Based on the unadjusted lactation records, the BVs for the top 100 cows ranged from +550 Kg to +1115 Kg. Only 25 of the 113 bull dams that were included in the study were ranked in the top 100 cows. The results indicate that there are a large number of cows in the national herd with high genetic merit that had been left out of the breeding programme using the current bull dam selection methodology and that cows with lower genetic merit have been used due to the inefficiency of the current bull dam selection method. Thus, the current method of bull dam selection is inefficient and needs to be improved by genetic evaluation of all the cows before bull dam selection

Abdirahman FA, Wahome RG. "Assessment of the effects of Newcastle disease vaccination on chicken mortality and egg production rates in Machakos town sub-county, Kenya." International Journal of Livestock Production. 2022;12(4):168-175.
Nyakundi, Mberia H, Ndeti N. "An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Communication Campaigns in Enhancing Knowledge of Mental Health Among Secondary School students in Nairobi County, Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies,. 2014;Vol. 2,(Issue 12,):pp 96-107.
Ochiba, N. K, Abong’o DA, Onyatta JO. "The Assessment of The Effect of Proximity of Septic Tanks on The Levels of Selected Heavy Metals in Borehole Water from Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2021;8(4):64-76.
Ochiba NK, Abong’o DA, Onyatta JO. "The Assessment of The Effect of Proximity of Septic Tanks on The Levels of Selected Heavy Metals in Borehole Water from Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2021;8(4):64-76. AbstractInternational Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology

Description
The study was carried out to evaluate the levels of heavy metals in groundwater samples from ten selected boreholes in Ongata Rongai town, Kajiado County. The selected heavy metals analyzed were: Zn, Pb, Hg, Mn, Cd and Cr in the dry and wet seasons. The effect of the proximity of septic tanks distance to borehole was also determined. The statistical analyses of the data using a 2-way ANOVA showed 95% confidence level (p< 0.05) interdependence of the distance from the boreholes and contaminant levels. The study showed that heavy metals were below the maximum recommended level and the guideline values of World Health Organization and Kenya Bureau of Standards. The analyses of the selected heavy metals, by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, revealed that the detected levels of Mn (0.03±0.01-0.26±0.01 mgl-1) were higher than those recommended by WHO and KEBS of 0.01 mgl-1, while Zn (0.11±0.02-0.73±0.01 mgl-1) are within acceptable levels of WHO (3.0 mgl-1) and KEBS (5.0 mgl-1). There was no strong correlation between the distance of borehole from septic tanks and heavy metal levels in water samples. The low detected values should not be overlooked as the heavy metals are capable of bio-accumulating in body tissues.

"Assessment of the Effect of Integration of Information Communication Technology in Secondary School Management in Kenya." African Journal of Educational and Social Science Research. 2013;1(ISSN 2304 – 2885):65-76 .kimani_7.pdf
Mumbua MJ, Irungu P, Nyikal RA, Kirimi L. "An assessment of the effect of a national fertiliser subsidy programme on farmer participation in private fertiliser markets in the North Rift region of Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics (AfJARE). 2016;11(4):292-304.
Wanjala G. "An Assessment of the contribution of Education to Entrepreneural Development in Kenya : The case of the Kenya Institute of Management." THE FOUNTAIN , Journal of Educational Research. 2010;4(2):10-35. Abstract

This paper discusses the research that was carried out to assess the usefulness of the educational solutions that were adopted to respond to government policy of enhancing entrepreneurial development. The main arguement of the thesis is that entrepreneurs are not always born , they can be made and developed through appropriate education and training. The purpose of the study was to determine whether there is a causal relationship between entrepreneurial development and education using the Entrepreneural Development Unit (EDU) of the Kenya Institute of Management (KIM) as an illustrative case. Taking the conceptual perspective that human capital formation is an essential process to the socio-economic development of nations , the study had five objectives and three research questions. It was a qualitative study looking at a single institution as an illustrative case of a policy intervention to enhance entrepreneurship. The study used the poisson process of the stochastic family of models to assess the contribution of education to entrepreneural development. The sample size for the study included 50 EDU graduates sampled using cluster sampling techniques such as area sampling and systematic list sampling ; 10 government officials , 15 trainers and other staff from KIM and 2 officials from the sponsoring body - all of whom were purposively sampled because they were viewed as information-rich cases. Questionnaires , interviews , observation checklists and document study were the instruments that were used to collect data.

Wambua BN, Muhigirwa E. "An Assessment of the Causes of Tick Resistance to Acaricides use on Cattle in kazo County Kiruhura District, Uganda." International Journal of Applied Science and Technology. 2019;Vol. 9( No. 2):doi:10.30845/ijast.v9n2p5.
Williams F, Constantine KL, Ali AA, Karanja TW, Kibet S. "An assessment of the capacity and responsiveness of a national system to address the threat of invasive species: a systems approach." CABI Agriculture and Bioscience. 2021;2(42):1-17.
Mwenda JN. An Assessment of the Cadastral Survey System in Kenya. Fredericton, NB, Canada: University of New Brunswick; 1986.
M DRKITALAPHILIP, BAARO DRGATHURAPETER, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, OLAKEKAN DRMUSTAPHAAMIDU, MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "An Assessment of the Bacteriological Quality of Drinking Water from Boreholes and Domestic Tanks in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya.". In: journal. FARA; 2002. Abstract
The microbiological quality of ground water (boreholes) and domestic tanks in five locations of Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, was determined. Two boreholes and twelve domestic tanks were sampled from each location. Seven (70%) out of 10 boreholes were contaminated with faecal coliforms. Total bacterial counts ranged from 1 to 6280 per ml of water while the coliform counts ranged from 0 to 161. Out of 70 water samples screened for faecal coliforms, 63 (90%) were positive. Faecal Streptococci were isolated in 71% of the samples.
M DRKITALAPHILIP, BAARO DRGATHURAPETER, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, OLAKEKAN DRMUSTAPHAAMIDU, MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "An Assessment of the Bacteriological Quality of Drinking Water from Boreholes and Domestic Tanks in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya.". In: journal. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2002. Abstract
The microbiological quality of ground water (boreholes) and domestic tanks in five locations of Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, was determined. Two boreholes and twelve domestic tanks were sampled from each location. Seven (70%) out of 10 boreholes were contaminated with faecal coliforms. Total bacterial counts ranged from 1 to 6280 per ml of water while the coliform counts ranged from 0 to 161. Out of 70 water samples screened for faecal coliforms, 63 (90%) were positive. Faecal Streptococci were isolated in 71% of the samples.
M DRKITALAPHILIP, BAARO DRGATHURAPETER, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, OLAKEKAN DRMUSTAPHAAMIDU, MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "An Assessment of the Bacteriological Quality of Drinking Water from Boreholes and Domestic Tanks in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2002. Abstract
The microbiological quality of ground water (boreholes) and domestic tanks in five locations of Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, was determined. Two boreholes and twelve domestic tanks were sampled from each location. Seven (70%) out of 10 boreholes were contaminated with faecal coliforms. Total bacterial counts ranged from 1 to 6280 per ml of water while the coliform counts ranged from 0 to 161. Out of 70 water samples screened for faecal coliforms, 63 (90%) were positive. Faecal Streptococci were isolated in 71% of the samples.
M DRKITALAPHILIP, BAARO DRGATHURAPETER, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, OLAKEKAN DRMUSTAPHAAMIDU, MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "An Assessment of the Bacteriological Quality of Drinking Water from Boreholes and Domestic Tanks in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya.". In: journal. Departmental seminar; 2002. Abstract
The microbiological quality of ground water (boreholes) and domestic tanks in five locations of Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, was determined. Two boreholes and twelve domestic tanks were sampled from each location. Seven (70%) out of 10 boreholes were contaminated with faecal coliforms. Total bacterial counts ranged from 1 to 6280 per ml of water while the coliform counts ranged from 0 to 161. Out of 70 water samples screened for faecal coliforms, 63 (90%) were positive. Faecal Streptococci were isolated in 71% of the samples.
M DRKITALAPHILIP, BAARO DRGATHURAPETER, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, OLAKEKAN DRMUSTAPHAAMIDU, MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "An Assessment of the Bacteriological Quality of Drinking Water from Boreholes and Domestic Tanks in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya.". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 2002. Abstract
The microbiological quality of ground water (boreholes) and domestic tanks in five locations of Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, was determined. Two boreholes and twelve domestic tanks were sampled from each location. Seven (70%) out of 10 boreholes were contaminated with faecal coliforms. Total bacterial counts ranged from 1 to 6280 per ml of water while the coliform counts ranged from 0 to 161. Out of 70 water samples screened for faecal coliforms, 63 (90%) were positive. Faecal Streptococci were isolated in 71% of the samples.
"An Assessment of the Bacteriological Quality of Drinking Water from Boreholes and Domestic Tanks in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya.". 2002. Abstract

The microbiological quality of ground water (boreholes) and domestic tanks in five locations of Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, was determined. Two boreholes and twelve domestic tanks were sampled from each location. Seven (70%) out of 10 boreholes were contaminated with faecal coliforms. Total bacterial counts ranged from 1 to 6280 per ml of water while the coliform counts ranged from 0 to 161. Out of 70 water samples screened for faecal coliforms, 63 (90%) were positive. Faecal Streptococci were isolated in 71% of the samples.

Kamau G, Njiraine D. "An Assessment of the Accessibility of Electronic Information Resources by Academic Library Users: A Case of the University of Nairobi.". In: Emerging Trends in Information and Knowledge Management. Eldoret; 2017.
L. Fusilli, M. O. Collins, G. Laneve, A. Palombo, Pignatti S, and Santini F. "Assessment of the abnormal growth of floating macrophytes in Winam Gulf (Kenya) by using MODIS imagery time series." International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation. 2013;20:33-41.
Ritho, N C, Nzuma J, Moyo S, Herrero M. "An assessment of the factors influencing household willingness to pay for non-marketed benefit of cattle in the agro-pastoral systems of Mozambique." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2013;8(18).
Birgen J, Wafula G, Yusuf A, Onyatta J. "Assessment of Sulphur Dioxide Levels in Selected Sites in Athi River, Kenya." International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD). 2017;1(5):416-422.
Birgen J, Yusuf AO, Wafula G, Onyatta JO. "Assessment of sulphur dioxide levels in selected sites in Athi River, Kenya." International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development. 2017;1(5):416-422.scan_trend.pdf
Makori AO, Nyongesa AW, Odongo HO, Masai RJ. "Assessment of stress on serum estradiol and cortisol levels in female subordinate naked mole rats following isolation from natal colony." Journal of Biosciences and Medicines. 2020;8:9-17.
Onyango CM, Onwonga RN, Kimenju JW. "Assessment of Spider Plant (Cleome gynandra L.) Germplasm for Agronomic Traits in Vegetable and Seed Production: A Green House Study." American Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 2016;10(1):1-10.
Jennifer NM, Kinyamario JI, Chira RM, Musila W. "Assessment of soil seed bank from six different vegetation types in Kakamega forest, Western Kenya." Afr. J. Biotech. . 2011;10(65):14384-14391.
Namoi NL, Onwonga RN, Onyango CM, Karuku GN, Kathumo VM. "Assessment of Soil Nutrient Balances in Organic Based Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Cropping Systems of Yatta Subcounty, Kenya." American Journal of Experimental Agriculture . 2014;4(12 ):1557-1578.
Namoi NL, Onwonga RN, Onyango CM, Karuku GN, Kathumo VN. "Assessment of Soil Nutrient Balances in Organic Based Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Cropping Systems of Yatta Sub-county, Kenya." American Journal of Experimental Agriculture . 2014;4(12):1557-1578.
 Namoi NL, Onwonga RN, Onyango CM, Karuku GN, Kathumo VM. "Assessment of Soil Nutrient Balances in Organic Based Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Cropping Systems of Yatta Sub-county, Kenya." American Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 2014;4(2):1557-1578.
Luvai AK, Obiero JPO, Omuto CT. "Assessment of Soil Loss in a Typical Ungauged Dam Catchment using RUSLE Model (Maruba Dam, Kenya)." Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2021;Vol 11(No. 16):56-68.
Ayuke FO, Opondo-Mbai ML, Rao MR, Swift MJ. "An assessment of Soil Fertility Management strategies in Agroecosystems (biomass transfer technology) on Belowground Biodiversity-Soil macrofauna biomass.". In: proceedings of the 8th Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility and Programme African Network meeting. Arusha, Tanzania; 2001. Abstract

During 1997 short rains (Oct 1997-Feb 1998), a study was undertaken to assess how biomass transfer within
agroecosystem influence soil biodiversity (soil macrofauna biomass). This was part of a larger experiment conducted to test the hypothesis that diversity, abundance and function of soil invertebrate fauna are related to the quality of organic residues used. Leaf biomass of tithonia (Tithonia diversifolia [Hemseley) A. Grey) biomass and senna (Senna spectabilis D.C. & H.S. Irwin) biomass at 5 t ha -1 dry weight were incorporated into the soil and these were compared with the control without any input and fertilizer at 120 kg N, 150 kg P and 100 kg K ha-1 from urea and triple super phosphate (TSP). Macrofauna biomass (fresh weight), was monitored in soil monoliths (25cm x 25cm x 30cm) at the beginning of the season, six weeks after sowing maize and at maize harvest. Addition of organic residues increased faunal biomass substantially over the fertilized and unfertilized controls. Whereas senna increased total biomass by 45% and tithonia by 49%, the two organic residues did not differ significantly between them. Addition of either senna or tithonia significantly increased earthworm biomass by 390% over no input control. Even though termite biomass increased by 160% in senna and 120% in tithonia over no input control, F test was not significant because of high variability between replications of the same treatment. Fertilizer use did not change biomass of termites and earthworms. This study shows that: (1) addition of organic residues significantly increase faunal biomass indicating a likelihood that soil invertebrate functions can be manipulated by external inputs of organic residues (2) under arable land use system characterized by low amount, range and diversity of food resources, quality of organic residues do not play a significant role in influencing foraging behaviour of soil invertebrates. It therefore remains to be demonstrated whether mixing litter of organic residues of different quality may change this foraging behaviour and consequently the invertebrate functions in agroecosystem.

Key words: Biomass transfer, macrofauna, biomass, earthworms, termites

James. N. Mugo, Nancy N. Karanja, Gachene CS, Klaus Dittert, Nyawade SO, Schulte-Geldermann E. "Assessment of soil fertility and potato crop nutrient status in Central and Eastern Highlands of Kenya." Nature research. 2020.
Mugo JN, Karanja NN, Gachene CK, Klaus Dittert, Nyawade SO, Schulte-Geldermann E. "Assessment of soil fertility and potato crop nutrient status in central and eastern highlands of Kenya.". 2020.
Oliver Wasonga, Alemayehu F, Mwangi JK, Onwonga R, others. "Assessment of Shoreline Changes in the Period 1969-2010 in Watamuarea, Kenya.". 2015. Abstract
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Fikir Alemayehu, Onwonga Richard MJK, V WO. "Assessment of Shoreline Changes in the Period 1969-2010 in Watamu area, Kenya." Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: H Environment & Earth Science. 2014;14. Abstract
n/a
Njenga L, Nguli1 M, M. J. Gatari1, Shepherd2 K. "Assessment of Selected Micronutrients in Common Beans in Kenya.". In: INTERNATIONAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY CONFERENCE. Best western Meridian Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Ochiba N.K,.A. A’oD, J.O. O. "Assessment of selected heavy metals levels in borehole water in Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, Kenya." Journal of Science and Technology. 2020;6:9-17.
wekesah CW. Assessment of renewable energy resources potential for rural electrification in Kenya .; 1995. Abstract

Increased international pnces of petroleum-based products, rapid depletion of fuel-wood supplies and increased environmental concerns over air quality, global warming and acid rain, among other factors, have prompted a world-wide growth of interest in the utilization of renewable energy resources for electrification purposes, especially in the isolated rural areas. This research study was done in order to know quantitatively, how much potential electrical power can be harnessed from the hydro and solar resources in Kenya as well as its seasonal and daily profiles for the purpose of rural electrification. The daily profile of the rural loads was also determined and compared with the profiles of the two renewable energy sources (solar and hydro). Further, the cost of electrical energy from the two renewable energy sources was compared with that obtained from extension of the grid network. Mini- and micro-hydropower sites and the potential electrical power at each site were determined with the aid of 1:50,0000 scale topographic maps and river flow data available at the Survey of Kenya Institute and Ministry of Water Development respectively. On the other hand, solar sites and the potential electrical power associated with each site were determined with the aid of solar radiation data from Kenya Meteorological Department. Nairobi. The potential electrical power at each solar site was determined assuming 12% solar cell conversion efficiency. A daily rural load curve was determined from consumption data taken at Gachororo Village, Thika District. Further data on country-wide rural loads was obtained from Kenya Power and Lighting Company. (vi) The cost of electrical energy from both small hydropower and grid supplies was found to be strongly dependent on the annual capacity factor and the supply-to-load distance. The cost of solar supplies was strongly influenced by the fact that the ratings of the solar panels available on the market are low, being mostly less than 100 peak watts. Hence solar PV installations have very high cost per kW of installed capacity, which reflects high cost per kWhof electrical energy delivered. Gachororo Village is about 100 metres from the nearest grid point and 10 km from the nearest small hydro site. At an annual capacity factor of 30%, grid extension was the cheapest way of power supply to the village (KSh 2.60 per unit), followed by small hydropower (KSh 16.60 per unit) and finally by solar photovoltaic supply (KSh 155.30 for a 51 W installation). The distance beyond which grid supply becomes more expensive compared to small hydro supply was found to be 35.33 km at 30% annual capacity factor.

OLAKEKAN DRMUSTAPHAAMIDU. "Assessment of quality of trace element measurements by EDXRF technique: a statistical approach Radiation Physics and Chemistry.". In: 71(2004) 791-792. Departmental seminar; 2004. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
Onono JO, Kithuka J. "Assessment of Provision of Extension Services and Advocacy on Donkey Health and Welfare in Kenya." Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics Sociology. 2020;38(5):15-28.
Nabulindo DSM. Assessment of preoperative evaluation of geriatric Patients by anaesthetists at the Kenyatta national hospital.; 2010. Abstract

Geriatric is a term used to refer to any patient aged 65years and above. These patients have special needs when it comes to the practice and conduct of anaesthesia. Physiological changes in various organ systems occuring with age compounded by the high incidence of comorbidities in the elderly affect the conduct of anaesthesia .Currently about 1000 geriatric patients are admitted annually into orthopedic, gynecological and general surgical wards at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and most of them require some form of surgery. Part of the preparation before surgery includes preanaesthetic evaluation by the anaesthetist who will administer anaesthesia on the day of surgery. Currently there is no anaesthetist with a subspecialization in geriatric anaesthesia at KNH. Objective. The objective of this study was to assess the practice of preanaesthetic evaluation of geriatric patients by the anaesthetists at KNH and compare it with the international guidelines formulated by the American Society of Anaesthesiologists. Methodology. The study was an observational, descriptive, cross- sectional study of preanaesthetic evaluations by anaesthetists at KNH done on 100 geriatric patients scheduled for elective surgery.The study site was the KNH general surgical, orthopedic and gynecological wards.The eligible patients who formed the basis of a preanaesthetic review and the anaesthetists were required to fill a consent form before being recruited. Data was collected using a questionnaire from the patients' medical records .The data collected included demographic information,risk assessment,whether functional/mental status was assessed,presence of co-morbidities and if preoperative optimization and medical consultation was requested for 7 Results. Data from the medical records of 100 geriatric patients scheduled for elective surgery was collected with focus on the preanaesthetic evaluation.The ages ranged from 65 - 92 years with a mean of 72.6 years.90% of the patients in the study had a preanaesthetic evaluation done by anaesthetists of different cadres. Most of the patients (81%) were evaluated on the day before surgery.57.8% of the patients were found to have at least one co-morbid condition.ASA physical status was used for risk stratification in all patients although the functional and mental status of the patients was only evaluated in 8.9% of those evaluated.Prepoerative tests were mainly used routinely without considering the patients co-morbidities or the type of surgery.Preoperative optimization of geriatric patients at KNH was requested for by anaesthetists but requests for medical consultation were made for only 11.1% of the evaluated patients. Conclusions. The preoperative evaluation of geriatric patients at KNH does not meet the international standards as per guidelines formulated by the ASA.

Rwigi S, Muthama NJ, Opere A, Opijah FJ. "Assessment of Potential Changes in Hydrologically Relevant Rainfall Statistics over the Sondu River Basin in Kenya Under a Changing Climate." J. Meteorol. 2016;9:2-12. AbstractJ. Meteorol

Scenarios of past, present and intermediate future climates for Sondu River basin were analysed in this study to evaluate the potential changes in hydrologically relevant rainfall statistics that are likely to be observed by the middle of this century as a result of climate change. These climate scenarios were developed by applying dynamical downscaling of the relatively course resolution climate scenarios simulated by the fourth generation coupled Ocean-Atmosphere European Community Hamburg Model (ECHAM4) using the Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) modelling system. The regional climate scenarios, which were available at a daily time-step and a spatial grid resolution of 0.5˚ over the Eastern Africa region, were matched to the Sondu river basin in the western region of Kenya. The possible hydrological impacts of climate change were assessed by applying the scenarios in a daily time-step hydrological model. The analysis of hydrologically relevant rainfall statistics focussed on determining changes in rainfall patterns and the likely hydrological implications to the basin. The results indicated that more rainfall is projected for the region in the immediate and intermediate future in form of increased seasonal rainfall during the December-January-February (DJF), March-April-May (MAM) and September-October-November (SON) seasons resulting from increased number of days of rainfall and higher probabilities of a wet day following a dry day in a month. Based on these scenarios, the combination of the wetter antecedent conditions and the more rain days in a month will result in more surface runoff being generated which will not only have implications on the water balance but also the water quality in the basin.

Key Words: climate change, climate scenarios, climate modelling, climate downscaling, Sondu Basin, Kenya

Rwigi S, Muthama NJ, Opere A, Opijah FJ. "Assessment of Potential Changes in Hydrologically Relevant Rainfall Statistics over the Sondu River Basin in Kenya Under a Changing Climate." J. Meteorol. 2016. AbstractMetoffice.gov.uk

Scenarios of past, present and intermediate future climates for Sondu River basin were analysed in this study to evaluate the potential changes in hydrologically relevant rainfall statistics that are likely to be observed by the middle of this century as a result of climate change. These climate scenarios were developed by applying dynamical downscaling of the relatively course resolution climate scenarios simulated by the fourth generation coupled Ocean-Atmosphere European Community Hamburg Model (ECHAM4) using the Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) modelling system. The regional climate scenarios, which were available at a daily time-step and a spatial grid resolution of 0.5 over the Eastern Africa region, were matched to the Sondu river basin in the western region of Kenya. The possible hydrological impacts of climate change were assessed by applying the scenarios in a daily time-step hydrological model. The analysis of hydrologically relevant rainfall statistics focussed on determining changes in rainfall patterns and the likely hydrological implications to the basin. The results indicated that more rainfall is projected for the region in the immediate and intermediate future in form of increased seasonal rainfall during the December-January-February (DJF), March-April-May (MAM) and September-October-November (SON) seasons resulting from increased number of days of rainfall and higher probabilities of a wet day following a dry day in a month.

Kibe RS, Muthama NJ, Alfred OO, Franklin OJ. "Assessment of Potential Changes in Hydrologically Relevant Rainfall Statistics over the Sondu River Basin in Kenya Under a Changing Climate .". 2016. Abstract

Abstract
Scenarios of past, present and intermediate future climates for Sondu River basin were analysed in this study to evaluate the potential changes in hydrologically relevant rainfall statistics that are likely to be observed by the middle of this century as a result of climate change. These climate scenarios were developed by applying dynamical downscaling of the relatively course resolution climate scenarios simulated by the fourth generation coupled Ocean-Atmosphere European Community Hamburg Model (ECHAM4) using the Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) modelling system. The regional climate scenarios, which were available at a daily time-step and a spatial grid resolution of 0.5˚ over the Eastern Africa region, were matched to the Sondu river basin in the western region of Kenya. The possible hydrological impacts of climate change were assessed by applying the scenarios in a daily time-step hydrological model. The analysis of hydrologically relevant rainfall statistics focussed on determining changes in rainfall patterns and the likely hydrological implications to the basin. The results indicated that more rainfall is projected for the region in the immediate and intermediate future in form of increased seasonal rainfall during the December-January-February (DJF), March-April-May (MAM) and September-October-November (SON) seasons resulting from increased number of days of rainfall and higher probabilities of a wet day following a dry day in a month. Based on these scenarios, the combination of the wetter antecedent conditions and the more rain days in a month will result in more surface runoff being generated which will not only have implications on the water balance but also the water quality in the basin.
Key Words: climate change, climate scenarios, climate modelling, climate downscaling, Sondu Basin, Kenya

Mutai BK, Muthama NJ, Ng'ang'a JK, Mwanthi MA, Wagner T. Assessment of Population Exposure to Future Climate Change-Induced Exceedances of Health-Based Air Pollutants over Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
K LJ, Jumba IO, Keter JK, Wekesa Chamuku W, Oduor FDO. "Assessment of Physical Properties of Gum Arabic from Acasia Senegal Varieties in Baringo District, Kenya." African Journal of Plant Science. 2010; 4(4):95-98.
J. K. Lelon1*, I. O. Jumba2, J. K. Keter2, Chemuku W, Oduor2 FDO. "Assessment of physical properties of gum arabic from Acacia Senegal varieties in Baringo District, Kenya." African Journal of Plant Science . 2010;Vol. 4(4),(ISSN 1996-0824 © 2010 Academic Journals):pp. 95-98. Abstract

A study was conducted to assess the physical properties of gum arabic obtained from two Acacia Senegal varieties (var.Senegal and Mar.kerensis). in Marigat division, Baringo district. Gum arabic samples from the experimental sites at Solit, Kapkun, Kimorok and Maoi were collected, dried and analysed to establish their physical characteristics. Moisture content in gum arabic obtained from variety kerensls in Kimorok and Maoi (17.5 ± 1.00 and 15.4 ± 0.50%) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of variety Senegal in Solit and Kapkun (15.0 ± 0.50 and 14.9 ± 1.80%), while internal energy (33.4 and 33.76%) were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from those of variety Senegal found in Kapkun and Solit (33.0 and 32.96%), respectively. Ash content in gum arabic from variety Senegal in Solit and Kapkun (2.94 and 3.16%) was higher (P < 0.05) than those of variety kerensis found in Kimorok and Maoi (2.88 and 2.72%). In Kapkun, volatile matter in gum arabic from variety Senegal (64.2%) was higher (P < 0.05) than the quantities of variety kerensis found in Kimorok, Solit and Maoi (63.8, 63.7 and 63.6%), respectively. Moisture content in gum arabic from variety Senegal in Solit and Kapkun (15.0 ± 0.40 and 14.9 ± 1.80%) fell within international specifications (13 to 15%), while variety kerensis in Kimorok and Maoi (17.5 and 15.4%) fell outside the specifications. Moisture, ash and volatile matter contents in gum arabic from A. Senegal variety Senegal were 14.9, 3.16 and 64.24%, while A. Senegal variety kerensis had 15.2, 2.88 and 63.8%, respectively. Moisture content in gum arabic from A. Senegal variety Senegal fell within international specifications while A. Senegal variety kerensis fell outside the specifications. Ash, volatile matter and internal energy contents in gum arabic from A. Senegal variety kerensis and variety Senegal fell within the specifications. The gum arabic from A. Senegal variety Senegal in Solit and Kapkun was of better quality than that of A. Senegal variety kerensis in Kimorok and Maoi.

Rintaugu EG, Ngetich EDK. "Assessment of physical fitness components as prediction factors of long jump performance." International Journal of Current Research. 2013;5(1):17-21.
S. PROFEL-BUSAIDYABDULGAFURH. "Assessment of Physical Changes and Natural System Responses;.". In: Nairobi. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 1976. Abstract
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Gichure M, Onono J, Wahome R, Gathura P. "Assessment of Phenotypic Characteristics and Work Suitability for Working Donkeys in the Central Highlands in Kenya." Veterinary Medicine International. 2020;2020.
Gichure M, Onono J, Wahome R, Gathura P. "Assessment of Phenotypic Characteristics and Work Suitability for Working Donkeys in the Central Highlands in Kenya." Veterinary Medicine International. 2020.
Gichure M, Onono J, Wahome R, Gathura P. "Assessment of Phenotypic Characteristics and Work Suitability for Working Donkeys in the Central Highlands in Kenya." Veterinary Medicine International. 2020;Volume 2020 :https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8816983.
and Jackson N Ombui GMGMEA. "ASSESSMENT OF PERFORMANCE AND COMPETITIVENESS OF SOMALILAND LIVESTOCK SECTOR USING VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS." International Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine. 2014;2(1).abstract.pdf
Noor LM;, Wahome RG;, Wakhungu JW;, Wanyoike MM. "Assessment of Pastoral Camel Production System in Moyale District, Kenya.". 2002. Abstract

Data was collected in a survey to assess the Somali and Borana camel production system in Moyale district. The survey focussed on calf, health, nutritional, reproductive and breeding management aspects. The respective percentages of respondents allowing calves access to initial colostrum, attend calvings, splitting herds (home/nomadic), camels manifesting bone eating (an indication of poor minerai nutrition) and owners allowing inbreeding were: 25, 96,57,98 and 69. The home-based camels were more frequently watered. Serving bulls were kept in the herd for an averageof between 4.5 and 7 years. Age at first calving and calving interval reported in the questionnaire were 57.4 ± 12.8 (n=296) and 27.5 ±9.1 (n=528) months respectively. In conclusion, camel production can be greatly improved by use of simple and basic technologies in calf management, camel health care. mineral supplementation and breeding management.

Mutero CM, Mbogo C, Mwangangi J, Imbahale S, Kibe L, Orindi B, Girma M, Njui A, Lwande W, Affognon H, Gichuki C, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana. "An assessment of participatory integrated vector management for malaria control in Kenya." Environmental health perspectives. 2015;123(11):1145.
EK Mmboneiza, Chege MN, Omuga BO. "Assessment of Parents’ Perception of Quality of Pediatric Oncology Inpatient Care at Kenyatta National Hospital." Asia Pac J Oncol Nurs. 2017;2017 Jan-Mar; (4(1):): 29-37. Abstractassessment_of_parents_perception_of_quality_of_pediatric_oncology_inpatient_care_at_kenyatta_national_hospital.pdf

Assessment of Parents’ Perception of Quality of Pediatric Oncology Inpatient Care at Kenyatta National Hospital

Eunice Mmbone Keiza, MSN, Margaret Njambi Chege, and Blasio Osogo Omuga

Asia Pac J Oncol Nurs. 2017 Jan-Mar; 4(1): 29–37.
doi: 10.4103/2347-5625.199071

Abstract
Objective:
Adequate knowledge of parents’ perception of quality of pediatric cancer care helps to identify the areas of care improvement which would contribute to disease outcome in regard to the quality of life and satisfaction with the care provided. The aim of the study was to assess the parents’ perception of the quality of Pediatric Oncology Inpatient Care at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Methods:
A cross-sectional descriptive quantitative and qualitative study was undertaken using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire and a focused group discussion guide. Assessment of parents’ perception of quality of care was done in relation to the institution's structures and care delivery processes. These included the ward environment, resources for cancer treatment, care processes, service providers, and parents’ knowledge empowerment. Participants were systematically selected. Parents’ perception was defined as satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the care provided. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.) and presented as frequencies and percentages. Chi-square was used to test the significant association between variables. Level of significance was set at a P ≤ 0.05.
Results:
A total of 107 respondents were interviewed and 57.9% were satisfied with the overall quality of care they received. The determinants of overall satisfaction in this study were found to be related to resources for cancer treatment (odds ratio [OR] =3.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.39–6.90; P = 0.005), care delivery processes (OR = 2.87; 95% CI = 1.28–6.43; P = 0.009), and the ward environment (OR = 2.59; 95% CI = 1.17–5.74; P = 0.018).
Conclusions:
The parents were moderately satisfied with the oncology care services their children received. The gaps identified in service delivery included those related to the availability of the required resources for efficient care delivery and also educational as well as psychosocial needs of the parents.
Keywords: Parents, pediatric oncology, perception, quality of care

Njoroge PK. Assessment of parental sex education to own adolescents among parents in a Peri urban community.; Submitted. Abstract

This was a Survey of Parents' Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of sex education to their own adolescents. The study was conducted between January and March in three divisions of Kiambaa Division of Kiambu District, Central Province of Kenya. This study area is located about 20 km from the city of Nairobi. The study population were parents with at least one child in adolescence. Depending on availability either one or both parents were included in the study. The study instrument was structured, mainly pre-coded questionnaire. The data was obtained through personal interviews conducted from house La ho u sc . The sample population was made up of 729 parents, 70.4% of whom were females. The survey found that 46.3% of parents gave sex education to their own adolescents, majority of them giving it to those of their sex only. Parents gave their adolescents sex education from a mean age (of the adolescent) of 10.33 years (SD=3.51) and the practice was associated with Parents Social, Economic and Demographic factors. 'Of these factors, knowledge that own adolescents received sex education from sources other than the parent had highest odds ratio 10R=4.l8). Age of the parent was the only other factor with odds for the practice (OR=.l.03 ). The level of sex education given to adolescents was higher for girls than for boys. The level of practice to boys was associated with age and socio-economic status (SES) inde~ of the parent. Knowledge of sex education among parents was high and associated with a parents' sex and SES index. Males scored signi ficantly higher than females and parents of Jow SES scored significantly higher than those of high SES index. The attitude to sex education was positive, with nearly all parents feeling that sex education for adolescents was appropriate and that it should be given by own parents, starting from a mean age of 10.61 years (SD=2. 84) and that it should include contraceptive education. The study recommended further studies on parents to understand why the level of practice is unmatched with the high levels of knowledge and attitude and to determine why those parents who know that their adolescents receive sex education from other sources are more likely to give sex education to their adolescents than those who did not. 'Other recommendations were: a study to assess the feasibility of using PTA' s to impart sex education to adolescents in schools, beginning Family Life education in primary schools at standard four (corresponding to age .10-11 years),and establishing of community based centres for sex education counselling for parents with adolescents and adolescents out of school.

J. MRMANGALAMICHAEL. "Assessment Of Ozone, Nitrogen Oxide, Air Particulate Matter(PM10) And Trace Elements Levels In The Ambient Air Of Nairobi City.". In: Workshop on Air Pollution Studies in Southern and East Africa, University of Botswana, Gaborone,. University of Nairobi.; 2004.
Mercy BJ, Zakayo T. "Assessment of Nutritional Status and Biomarkers among Chronic Haemodialysis Patients." International Journal of Professional Practice. 2013;4(2):132-138.
Aluvaala J, Nyamai R, Were F, Wasunna A, Kosgei R, Karumbi J, Gathara D, English M. "Assessment of neonatal care in clinical training facilities in Kenya." Arch. Dis. Child.. 2014. Abstractassessment_of_neonatal_care_in_clinical_training.pdf

An audit of neonatal care services provided by clinical training centres was undertaken to identify areas requiring improvement as part of wider efforts to improve newborn survival in Kenya.

Aluvaala J, Nyamai R, Were F, Wasunna A, Kosgei R, Karumbi J, Gathara D, English M. "Assessment of neonatal care in clinical training facilities in Kenya.". 2014;10(306423):42-47. Abstractassessment_of_neonatal_care_in_clinical_training_facilities_in_kenya..pdf

Objective
An audit of neonatal care services provided by clinical training centres was undertaken to identify areas requiring improvement as part of wider efforts to improve newborn survival in Kenya.
Design
Cross-sectional study using indicators based on prior work in Kenya. Statistical analyses were descriptive with adjustment for clustering of data.
Setting Neonatal units of 22 public hospitals.
Patients Neonates aged <7 days.
Main outcome measures
Quality of care was assessed in terms of availability of basic resources (principally equipment and drugs) and audit of case records for documentation of patient assessment and treatment at admission.
Results
All hospitals had oxygen, 19/22 had resuscitation and phototherapy equipment, but some key resources were missing—for example kangaroo care was available in 14/22. Out of 1249 records, 56.9% (95% CI 36.2% to 77.6%) had a standard neonatal admission form. A median score of 0 out of 3 for symptoms of severe illness (IQR 0–3) and a median score of 6 out of 8 for signs of severe illness (IQR 4–7) were documented.
Maternal HIV status was documented in 674/1249
(54%, 95% CI 41.9% to 66.1%) cases. Drug doses
exceeded recommendations by >20% in prescriptions for
penicillin (11.6%, 95% CI 3.4% to 32.8%) and
gentamicin (18.5%, 95% CI 13.4% to 25%),
respectively.
Conclusions
Basic resources are generally available, but there are deficiencies in key areas. Poor documentation limits the use of routine data for quality improvement. Significant opportunities exist for improvement in service delivery and adherence to guidelines in hospitals providing professional training.

Aluvaala J, Nyamai R, Were F, Wasunna A, Kosgei R, Karumbi J, Gathara D, English M. "Assessment of neonatal care in clinical training facilities in Kenya." Arch Dis Child. 2016;(100):42-47. Abstractassessment_of_neonatal_care_in_clinical_training_facilities_in_kenya.pdf

Objective: An audit of neonatal care services provided by clinical training centres was undertaken to identify areas requiring improvement as part of wider efforts to improve newborn survival in Kenya.
Design: Cross-sectional study using indicators based on prior work in Kenya. Statistical analyses were descriptive with adjustment for clustering of data. Setting Neonatal units of 22 public hospitals. Patients Neonates aged <7 days.
Main outcome measures: Quality of care was assessed in terms of availability of basic resources (principally equipment and drugs) and audit of case records for documentation of patient assessment and treatment at admission.
Results: All hospitals had oxygen, 19/22 had resuscitation and phototherapy equipment, but some key resources were missing—for example kangaroo care was available in 14/22. Out of 1249 records, 56.9% (95% CI 36.2% to 77.6%) had a standard neonatal admission form. A median score of 0 out of 3 for symptoms of severe illness (IQR 0–3) and a median score of 6 out of 8 for signs of severe illness (IQR 4–7) were documented. Maternal HIV status was documented in 674/1249 (54%, 95% CI 41.9% to 66.1%) cases. Drug doses exceeded recommendations by >20% in prescriptions for penicillin (11.6%, 95% CI 3.4% to 32.8%) and gentamicin (18.5%, 95% CI 13.4% to 25%), respectively.
Conclusions: Basic resources are generally available, but there are deficiencies in key areas. Poor documentation limits the use of routine data for quality improvement. Significant opportunities exist for improvement in service delivery and adherence to guidelines in hospitals providing professional training.

Silvanus SK, Veronica N, Hudson N, Isaac J, Fredrick O. "Assessment of mineral deficiencies among grazing areas in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya." Int. J. Nutr. Food Sci. 2014;3:44-48. AbstractInt. J. Nutr. Food Sci

Description
A study conducted in the major grazing areas of Uasin Gishu involved twenty-eight (28) soils, twenty-eight (28) forage and forty-two (42) serum samples collected in six divisions at different sites. The purpose of the study was to determine the macro-and trace elements in soils, forages and animal serum, and compare to the recommended standards so as to identify those that could be presenting deficiencies in the area. Soils were extracted for available macro-minerals; Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca) magnesium (Mg) and trace elements; Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn; the forage samples were assayed for the same elements plus phosphorus as total concentration on dry matter (DM) basis while blood serum was analyzed for the same forage elements plus molybdenum (Mo). Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and UV/visible spectrophotometer were used to analyze the metal elements and molybdenum respectively. Soil and Forage analysis of samples from southern region including Kesses and Ainabkoi revealed lower levels in both macro and trace elements analyzed. Serum samples from grazing areas situated in southern region revealed similar deficiencies in most minerals. The factors responsible for the variations as soil pH, forage species and cattle breed were investigated using correlation analysis.

MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "An assessment of microbiological quality of borehole water in the suburbs of the city of Nairobi, Kenya. East. Afr. Med. J. 67: 105 .". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1991. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
Joseph Muiruri, Wahome R, Karatu K. "Assessment of methods practiced in the disposal of solid waste in Eastleigh Nairobi County, Kenya [J]." AIMS Environmental Science. 2020;7(5):434-448.
Ondiek GO. "Assessment of materials management in the Kenyan manufacturing firms-Exploratory survey of manufacturing firms based in Nairobi .". 2005. Abstractondiek_kenya1.pdfWebsite

Materials play a big part in the manufacturing firms as it account for about 56% of the annual turnover. This research analyzed the attention and recognition the Kenyan manufacturing firms are giving to the materials management. The motivation of the study was based on the fact that long-term success and survival of any Organization depends entirely on how well organization are managing their costs. The study was a survey of medium and large manufacturing firms based in Nairobi. The data was collected using a structured questionnaire consisting mainly of close-ended questions and some few open-ended questions. The main objective of this study was to determine the kind of attention and recognition the Kenyan manufacturing firms are giving to material management and also shed light on the benefits of adopting good materials management practices. A sample size of 55 firms was collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The research revealed that not much attention was given to materials management as only about 23 percent of the firms had in charge of materials reporting directly to the chief executive officer. At least quite a number of large firms had well established departments to manage materials compared to medium firms. The conclusion drawn from the research was that Kenyan firms were not practicing professionalism in materials management and that materials management was more suited for large firms. Recommendations made were that, owing to the large sum of money companies were spending on materials and material related activities, a lot of emphasis and attention needed to be given to materials management. Materials management needs to be recognized as a top management function.

J. A M. "Assessment of Marketing Productivity on the Performance of Hotel firms in Kenya." Prime Journal of Social Science. 2016;5:1343-1351. Abstract
n/a
Mbatia OLE. "The assessment of marketing of horticultural produce in Kenya."; 1984. Abstract

The main concern of this paper is to assess the marketing of horticultural produce in Kenya. In 1950 the Horticultural Cooperative Union (HCU) was organized to help mostly European farmers to market fruit and vegetables. The HCU has been faced with some financial problems, mainly due to loss in customers and inactive members. The HCU shares about 15 to 20 % of the total Kenya exports. There are some producers-exporters specialized in exporting flowers and some commodities like French beans, pineapples and capsicum. The climatical conditions and ecological zones are good, enabling many fruit and vegetables to be produced in Kenya. The major export products are flowers, pineapples, French beans, capsicum and fresh fruits. The trade channels are mainly directed to the British market, which is dominant with a share of 50.64 % in 1982 and European markets (mainly West Germany, having a market share of 15.5 % in 1982 and France with a market share of 12.20 % for the same year 1982). In 1974 the main export to West Germany was pineapple which amounted to 24.9 % of all fresh produce imported from Kenya, second was capsicums with 10.8 %. Kenya fresh fruit and vegetables show a high demand on European markets. This market is a very competitive one. The countries in the Mediterranean region and in the tropical equatorial part of the African Continent pose a challenging position to this market. There is free entry and free exit to this market. When Kenya wants to have a sizable share of this market also in the future, it has to maintain a high quality at a reasonable price. This means that quality control, proper packaging and efficient transportation to the market have to be improved. The smallholders need to be supported when entering the market and need close advisory in order to supply high quality produce. Kenya should be willing to invest in areas like market research, market intelligence and export promotion. In addition the local consumption of fruit and vegetables should be encouraged as a part of the National Food Policy Program.

Alemayehu F, Richard O, James KM, Wasonga OV. "Assessment of mangrove covers change and biomass in mida creek, Kenya." Open Journal of Forestry. 2014;2014. Abstract
n/a
Were FH. Assessment of Levels of Selected Heavy Metals among Industrial Workers and Related Occupational Health Effects in the City of Nairobi and Athi River Township in Kenya. Kamau GN, Shiundu PM, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013. Abstract

The study assessed the concentrations of heavy metals among factory workers (N = 282) and their related adverse health effects in Nairobi and Athi River Township in Kenya. Sets of whole blood, spot urine, scalp hair and personal breathing zone air samples were collected from these workers in various sections of 6 different plants, and analysed for cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) levels using atomic absorption spectrophotometery. This method of analysis was validated using certified reference whole blood samples, BCR®-635 and BCR®-636. The results indicated mean airborne Pb levels ± standard deviation (SD) in production sections as follows: 183.2 ± 53.6 ug/rrr' in battery recycling, 133.5 ± 39.6 ug/m' in battery manufacturing, 126.2 ± 39.9 ug/rrr' in steel and scrap welding, 76.3 ± 33.2 ug/nr' in paint manufacturing, 27.3 ± 12.1 ug/rn" in leather and tannery, and 5.5 ± 3.6 !!g/m3 in the pharmaceutical plant. The average airborne Pb levels in production sections were significantly high (P < 0.05) when t·.... .• compared to those in their respective office areas, which was: 23.9 ± 6.9 ug/rrr', 18.8 ± 1.6 ug/m", 23.5 ± 5.8 ug/m:', 13.8 ± 3.0 ug/rn", 8.0 ± 2.7 ug/m" and 2.1 ± 0.2 ug/nr'. In all cases, the average airborne Pb levels in production areas markedly exceeded the U.S. Occupational Safety Health Administrations' Permissible Exposure Limit of 50 ug/rrr' ~ over an 8-hour Time-Weighted Average except for leather and tannery, and pharmaceutical plant. Blood lead (BPb) levels of all employees correlated positively (r = 0.86) with airborne Pb. All the determined mean BPb values in production workers exceeded 30 ug/dl, proposed by of the American Conference of Governmental for Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) biological exposure indices (BEls), except for employees in leather and tannery, and pharmaceutical plant. Similarly, levels of Cd, Ni and Cr in the ambient air correlated positively (r = 0.99 Cd, 0.89 Ni and 0.84 Cr, N = 282) with those in the urinary samples. The production areas of steel and scrap welding plant had the highest mean levels of 0.13 ± 0.05 ug/rrr' Cd and 10-:-3±4.3 ug/rrr' Ni in the breathing zone air compared to those in the other plants. In this* facility, 50% (20 of 40) and 27.5% (11 of 40) of employees had urinary Ni and Cd levels that exceeded the ACGIH BEls. The average airborne Cr levels of 23.4 ± 11.6 ug/rrr' were highest in production areas of leather and tannery industry, where urinary mean Cr levels of 35.2 ± 12.1 ug/g exceeded the BEIs. Nearly 71% (22 of 31) and 27.5% (11 of 40) of leather tanners and steel and v scrap welders, respectively had urinary Cr levels that exceeded this limit. A positive correlation of r = 0.55 Cr; 0.61 Pb; 0.58 Cd and 0.30 Ni was also observed in the levels between these metals in the ambient air and hair samples. The relationship between levels of heavy metals in the hair and other biomarkers of exposure further indicated correlation coefficient values (r) of 0.57 for urinary-Cr; 0.51, urinary-Cd; 0.21, urinary- Ni; 0.59, blood-Pb; and 0.42 for blood-Cd. The results also established that a high proportion of steel and scrap welders (47.3%, N 19), battery recyclers (39%, N = 16) and battery manufacturers (37.5%, N = 15) had hypertensive range of blood pressure with high incidences of cardiovascular diseases and related symptoms, which were associated with significantly high levels of Pb and Cd. Almost 10.7% of production workers (N = 233) were anaemic, which was associated with elevated levels of BPb. Leather tanners (48.3%, N = 15) and steel and scrap welders (47.5%, N = 19) had high prevalence of respiratory illnesses that were marked by severely reduced forced' vital capacity (FVC) .' . and forced expiratory volume of air in thi -(l.i;t second (FEV i). These were indication of airway obstructions. It was further observed that leather tanners (41.9%, N = 13) and steel and scrap welders (40.0%, N = 13) had high occurrences of dermatological conditions that manifested in the form of rashes and itching and which were associated with elevated airborne levels of Cr and Ni.

Gathumbi J.K., Kanja L.W., Maitho T.E., Mbaria J.M., Nduhiu J.G., Gitau F.K., J.G. N, Lucy M.W, K. M. "Assessment of lead and copper in fish and soil sediments in Kirinyaga South District, Kenya." Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation. 2013;8 (3):145-150.
Omwenga I, Kanja L, Nguta JM, Mbaria JM, Irungu P. "Assessment of lead and cadmium residues in farmed fish in Machakos and Kiambu counties, Kenya." Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry. 2014;96(1):58-67.
Maina J, Wandiga S, B Gyampoh, Charles KKG. "Assessment of land use and land cover change using GIS and remote sensing: A case study of Kieni, Central Kenya." Journal of Remote Sensing & GIS. 2020;9(1):1-5.
Murila F, Obimbo MM, R. M. "Assessment of knowledge on neonatal resuscitation amongst health care providers in Kenya." Pan Afr Med J. 2012;11:78. Epub 2012 Apr 24.. 2012. Abstract

Abstract
INTRODUCTION:
Competence in neonatal resuscitation, which represents the most urgent pediatric clinical situation, is critical in delivery rooms to ensure safety and health of newly born infants. The challenges experienced by health care providers during this procedure are unique due to different causes of cardio respiratory arrest. This study aimed at assessing the knowledge of health providers on neonatal resuscitation.
METHODS:
Data were gathered among 192 health providers drawn from all counties of Kenya. The clinicians were asked to complete questionnaires which were in two parts as; demographic information and assessment of their knowledge by different scenarios which were formatted in the multiple choice questions. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0 for windows. The results are presented using tables.
RESULTS:
All the participants were aged 23 years and above with at least a certificate training. Most medical providers had heard of neonatal resuscitation (85.4%) with only 23 receiving formal training. The average duration of neonatal training was 3 hours with 50% having missed out on practical exposure. When asked on steps of resuscitation, only 68 (35.4%) of the participants scored above 85%. More than 70% of them considered their knowledge about neonatal resuscitation inadequate and blamed it on inadequate medical training programs.
CONCLUSION:
Health providers, as the key personnel in the management of neonatal resuscitation, in this survey seem to have inadequate training and knowledge on this subject. Increasing the duration and quality of formal training should be considered during the pre-service medical education to ensure acceptable neonatal outcome.

Murila F, Obimbo MM, Musoke R. "Assessment of knowledge on neonatal resuscitation amongst health care providers in Kenya." Pan Afr Med J. 2012;11:78. Abstract

Competence in neonatal resuscitation, which represents the most urgent pediatric clinical situation, is critical in delivery rooms to ensure safety and health of newly born infants. The challenges experienced by health care providers during this procedure are unique due to different causes of cardio respiratory arrest. This study aimed at assessing the knowledge of health providers on neonatal resuscitation.

Omolo MJ. Assessment Of Knowledge And Attitude On Antiretroviral Therapy Among Nursing Students.; Submitted. Abstract

Title: Assessment of knowledge and attitude on antiretroviral therapy among nursing students. Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitude of final year nursing students at Kenyatta National Hospital. Specific Objectives were to establish the knowledge of nursing students on Anti-retroviral therapy and to determine the attitude of students towards patients who are on Anti-retroviral therapy Method: The study done at Kenyatta National hospital administered questionnaires to 150 students and 138 were found eligible. Data collected was analyzed using STATA. Results: The findings of the study showed that 39.8% of the nursing students had knowledge about Anti-Retroviral drugs; 42% of the students had some ideas while 18% of the students did not have adequate knowledge. Married and older students seemed to have better knowledge on ART compared to young and single Nurses significant at a P-value of 0.033. Attitude towards ART was positive from 34.8% of the students while 65.2% of the nursing students had not expressed their feeling. There was significant association between attitude and sex. Conclusion: This study confirmed lack of adequate knowledge on Antiretroviral therapy among newly qualified nursing students. The study recommended inclusion of HIV/AIDS based units in the basic training of nurses

Mulaku GC, Kiema JBK, Siriba DN. "Assessment of Kenya’s Readiness for Geospatial Data Infrastructure Take off." Survey Review. 2006;39(306):328-337.
Kibet CW. "Assessment of Kenya’s montane forest ecosystems: A case study on the Cherangani Hills in Western Kenya." International Journal of Science Arts and Commerce . 2016;1(9).
Mulaku GC, Kiema JB, Siriba DN. "Assessment of Kenya's readiness for Geospatial data Infrastructure take off." Survey Review (UK)[ISSN 0039-6265]. 2007;39(306):328-337. Abstract

Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi. Four hundred and thirty six pupils in two primary schools in Kibwezi, Kenya aged between seven and sixteen years and positive for S. mansoni were treated as follows: 320 pupils with a single dose of praziquantel at 40 mg/kg body weight and 116 controls with a placebo. Immediate and delayed side effects of praziquantel were observed. The main side-effects were abdominal pain (36.3%), headache (35.3%) and nausea (13.1%). There was correlation between frequencies of these side-effects and intensity of infection measured as eggs per gram of faeces. Other side-effects included dizziness (9.7%), fever (7.8%), urticaria and bloody diarrhoea. Overall, the side-effects of praziquantel were mild and transient, and did not require any intervention. For ethical reasons, all pupils who served as controls were treated with praziquantel after the study. PMID: 8898462 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

MWAURA MRMBUGUAJOHN. "An assessment of job satisfaction and motivational patterns of secondary schools business studies teachers in Nairobi province.". In: East African Medical Journal 69(10):583 . University of Nairobi Press; 1995. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
and Mary W. Thongoh1*, H. M. Mutembei2 M3 K1JBE. "An Assessment of Integration of MSMEs and CSA into Livestock Red Meat Value Chain: A Case Study of Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Climate Change. 2021;11(4):1-17.30387-article_text-56879-2-10-20210607.pdf
Rosenthal NR, Barrett EJ. "An assessment of insulin action in hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic diabetic patients." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 1985;60:607-610. Abstract

The effect of insulin treatment on the rate of decline of plasma glucose concentration was determined in nine patients with hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketosis [HHNK; mean plasma glucose, 999 +/- 59 (+/- SEM) mg/dl] and in six normal subjects rendered hyperglycemic by a combined infusion of somatostatin and glucose (mean plasma glucose, 653 +/- 28 mg/dl). Both the fractional glucose turnover and the half-time of the fall in plasma glucose during low dose (5-10 U/h) insulin treatment were reduced 10-fold (P less than 0.001) in the diabetic patients compared with the hyperglycemic normal subjects. In the hyperosmolar patients, the mean glucose clearance during insulin treatment was only 7% that in the normal subjects (P less than 0.001). The rate of plasma glucose decline in our hyperosmolar patients after hydration and insulin administration was 80 +/- 7 mg/dl X h. This decline is comparable to the results reported in other series, although in striking contrast to the 508 +/- 32 mg/dl X h decline in normal subjects (P less than 0.001). Our findings do not support the clinical impression that HHNK patients are insulin sensitive. We conclude that marked resistance to infused insulin delays the correction of hyperglycemia during treatment of HHNK and suggest that resistance to the normal basal insulin levels encountered in some HHNK patients may contribute in part to the development of the hyperosmolar state.

O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Assessment of inpatient paediatric care in first referral level hospitals in 13 districts in Kenya. Lancet . 2004 Jun 12; 363 ( 9425 ): 1948-53 . PMID: 15194254 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] English M, Esamai F, Wasunna A, Were F, Ogutu B, Wamae A, Snow .". In: Lancet . 2004 Jun 12; 363 ( 9425 ): 1948-53 . John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2004. Abstract

KEMRI Centre for Geographic Medicine Research, PO Box 230, Kilifi, Kenya. menglish@wtnairobi.mimcom.net

BACKGROUND: The district hospital is considered essential for delivering basic, cost-effective health care to children in resource poor countries. We aimed to investigate the performance of these facilities in Kenya. METHODS: Government hospitals providing first referral level care were prospectively sampled from 13 Kenyan districts. Workload statistics and data documenting the management and care of admitted children were obtained by specially trained health workers. FINDINGS: Data from 14 hospitals were surveyed with routine statistics showing considerable variation in inpatient paediatric mortality (range 4-15%) and specific case fatality rates (eg, anaemia 3-46%). The value of these routine data is seriously undermined by missing data, apparent avoidance of a diagnosis of HIV/AIDS, and absence of standard definitions. Case management practices are often not in line with national or international guidelines. For malaria, signs defining severity such as the level of consciousness and degree of respiratory distress are often not documented (range per hospital 0-100% and 9-77%, respectively), loading doses of quinine are rarely given (3% of cases) and dose errors are not uncommon. Resource constraints such as a lack of nutritional supplements for malnourished children also restrict the provision of basic, effective care. INTERPRETATION: Even crude performance measures suggest there is a great need to improve care and data quality, and to identify and tackle key health system constraints at the first referral level in Kenya. Appropriate intervention might lead to more effective use of health workers' efforts in such hospitals.

PMID: 15194254 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Assessment of inpatient paediatric care in first referral level hospitals in 13 districts in Kenya. Lancet . 2004 Jun 12; 363 ( 9425 ): 1948-53 . PMID: 15194254 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] English M, Esamai F, Wasunna A, Were F, Ogutu B, Wamae A, Snow .". In: Lancet . 2004 Jun 12; 363 ( 9425 ): 1948-53 . F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2004. Abstract

KEMRI Centre for Geographic Medicine Research, PO Box 230, Kilifi, Kenya. menglish@wtnairobi.mimcom.net

BACKGROUND: The district hospital is considered essential for delivering basic, cost-effective health care to children in resource poor countries. We aimed to investigate the performance of these facilities in Kenya. METHODS: Government hospitals providing first referral level care were prospectively sampled from 13 Kenyan districts. Workload statistics and data documenting the management and care of admitted children were obtained by specially trained health workers. FINDINGS: Data from 14 hospitals were surveyed with routine statistics showing considerable variation in inpatient paediatric mortality (range 4-15%) and specific case fatality rates (eg, anaemia 3-46%). The value of these routine data is seriously undermined by missing data, apparent avoidance of a diagnosis of HIV/AIDS, and absence of standard definitions. Case management practices are often not in line with national or international guidelines. For malaria, signs defining severity such as the level of consciousness and degree of respiratory distress are often not documented (range per hospital 0-100% and 9-77%, respectively), loading doses of quinine are rarely given (3% of cases) and dose errors are not uncommon. Resource constraints such as a lack of nutritional supplements for malnourished children also restrict the provision of basic, effective care. INTERPRETATION: Even crude performance measures suggest there is a great need to improve care and data quality, and to identify and tackle key health system constraints at the first referral level in Kenya. Appropriate intervention might lead to more effective use of health workers' efforts in such hospitals.

PMID: 15194254 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

English M, Esamai F, Wasunna A, Were F, Ogutu B, Wamae A, Snow RW, Peshu N. "Assessment of inpatient paediatric care in first referral level hospitals in 13 districts in Kenya." Lancet. 2004;363(9425):1948-53. Abstract

The district hospital is considered essential for delivering basic, cost-effective health care to children in resource poor countries. We aimed to investigate the performance of these facilities in Kenya.

English M, Esamai F, Wasunna A, Were F, Ogutu B, Wamae A, Snow RW, Peshu N. "Assessment of inpatient paediatric care in first referral level hospitals in 13 districts in Kenya.". 2004. Abstractassessment_of_inpatient_paediatric_care_at_first_referal_hospitals_in_13_districts_in_kenya.pdf

Background
The district hospital is considered essential for delivering basic, cost-effective health care to children in resource poor countries. We aimed to investigate the performance of these facilities in Kenya.
Methods Government hospitals providing first referral level care were prospectively sampled from 13 Kenyan districts.
Workload statistics and data documenting the management and care of admitted children were obtained by specially trained health workers.
Findings
Data from 14 hospitals were surveyed with routine statistics showing considerable variation in inpatient paediatric mortality (range 4–15%) and specific case fatality rates (eg, anaemia 3–46%). The value of these routine data is seriously undermined by missing data, apparent avoidance of a diagnosis of HIV/AIDS, and absence of standard definitions. Case management practices are often not in line with national or international guidelines. For malaria, signs defining severity such as the level of consciousness and degree of respiratory distress are often not documented (range per hospital 0–100% and 9–77%, respectively), loading doses of quinine are rarely given (3% of cases) and dose errors are not uncommon. Resource constraints such as a lack of nutritional supplements for malnourished children also restrict the provision of basic, effective care.
Interpretation
Even crude performance measures suggest there is a great need to improve care and data quality, and to identify and tackle key health system constraints at the first referral level in Kenya. Appropriate intervention might lead to more effective use of health workers’ efforts in such hospitals.

GATARI MJ, Boman J, Wagner A, Janhäll S,... "Assessment of inorganic content of PM2. 5 particles sampled in a rural area north-east of Hanoi, Vietnam." Science of the total …. 2006. AbstractWebsite

Atmospheric aerosols from seven rural sites in northern Vietnam, east of Hanoi, were sampled and analyzed. The aim of the study was to evaluate trace elemental and black carbon (BC) concentrations in fine particles (PM 2.5) and to investigate the influence of the …

Bailasha NK, Njororai WW, Rintaugu EG, Andanje M. "Assessment of injuries in physical education lessons in Kenya science teachers college, Kenya:." West Africa journal of Physical education (WAJOPHE). 2004;8:153-189.
Njororai WWS, Gitonga ER, N.K. B, Mwisukha A. "Assessment of injuries in PE lessons in Kenya Science Teachers College, Kenya." West African Journal of Physical and Health Education. 2004;8:152-159.
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "Assessment of infection and/or contamination of cv. Rosecoco GLP-2 bean seed by Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola in Kenya. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal 60 (3) 149-155 (1995).". In: Proceedings of the International Workshop under European Commission contract N. ERB IC18 CT97 0139: pp 95-104 (1998). J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 1995. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
Ogot M, Elliott G, Glumac N. "An assessment of in-person and remotely operated laboratories." Journal of Engineering education. 2003;92:57-64. Abstract

Increasingly mechanical engineering departments are beginning to incorporate remotely operated laboratories into their laboratory curriculums. Yet very few studies exist detailing the extent to which this new medium for laboratory delivery fulfills the educational goals of traditional in‐person laboratories. This paper describes a comparison of educational outcomes between in‐person and remotely operated laboratories in the mechanical engineering curriculum. The study carried out in the 2001 Fall semester was performed using a remotely operated and an in‐person jet thrust laboratory. The laboratories illustrate the fundamentals of compressible fluid mechanics as part of an undergraduate mechanical engineering curriculum. The results from this study indicated no significant difference in the educational outcomes between students who performed the in‐person or the remote experiment.

Obure C, A AT. "Assessment of Implementation of Inter-University Council For East Africa`s quality assurance principles and guidelines at the University of Nairobi." International Journal of Social and development Concerns. 2018. AbstractWebsite

This study sought to assess the implementation of these quality assurance principles and guidelines of Inter-University Council of East Africa (IUCEA) at the University of Nairobi with specific focus on Governance and Management of the University and academic staff. It was grounded on the General System Theory (GST) originally developed by Ludwig Von Bertalanffy and applied the convergent parallel mixed methods design. Various instruments were developed, pilot-tested, revised and administered to collect data from the respondents. Data was analysed using both qualitative and quantitative procedures. The study revealed that a majority of the academic staff were qualified to teach in university according to the prerequisite of the Commission for University Education and the IUCEA guidelines. The findings also indicate that most of the academic staff was PhD holders. On incentives and staff remuneration, majority of the lecturers maintained that there were no incentives given and that the Government and the University management and a majority of the lecturers, deans and HoDs registered their dissatisfactions as far as the working conditions were concerned.

"Assessment of impacts climate change on runoff: River Nzoia catchment, Kenya." 4th International SWAT conference. 2007: 81-92. AbstractSWAT

To investigate the impact of climate change on runoff of Nzoia river catchment in Kenya (and other water balance components)

Mustapha AO, Patel JP, Rathore IVS. "Assessment of human exposures to natural sources of radiation in Kenya." Radiation protection dosimetry. 1999;82:285-292. Abstract
n/a
Nyagol J, Kisato V, Ochuk W, Wakio M. "Assessment of hormonal receptors and Her-2/neu status in breast cancer using cell block: a case study. ." J. Afr. Cancer.. 2013;5:180-184.
Kasangaki P, Gideon Nyamasyo, Paul Ndegwa RK. "Assessment of Honeybee Colony Performance in the Agro-Ecological Zones of Uganda." Current Investigations in Agriculture and Current Research. 2018;1(5):122-127.
Kisangaki P, Nyamasyo G, Ndegwa P, Kajobe R. "Assessment of honey bee colony performance in the agro-ecological zones of Uganda." Current Investigations in Agriculture and Current Research. 2018;1(5):1-6.
S. M. Githigia, M. Mutugi, P. G. Kareru, F. K. Njonge, R. Waihenya, Nyakundi. WO. "Assessment of herbal anthelmintics used by the farmers in Kirinyaga county, Kenya, for the treatment of helminthiosis in cattle." African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2013;Vol. 7(29):2100-2104. Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess and validate the herbal anthelmintic remedies used by farmers in
Kirinyaga county, Kenya for the treatment of their cattle against gastrointestinal nematodes. The herbs
used were identified via questionnaire surveys through focused group discussions. The aqueous
extracts of plants used: Aspillia pluriseta, Vernonia lasiopus, Entada leptostachya and Erythrina
abyssinica were prepared and using dosage between 10 and 30%, the viability of infective strongyle
larvae were assessed for a period of 48 h. The results of the in vitro antihelmintic study indicated a high
to moderate anthelmintic activity for the tested extracts. E. leptostachya exhibited the highest in vitro
anthelmintic activity, while E. abyssinica had the lowest activity. The anthelmintic activity may have
been due to the presence of saponins in the herbal remedies. There was a positive correlation between
the saponin concentration and the anthelmintic activity of the extracts. In general, the in vitro
anthelmintic activity increased with the extract concentration for the medicinal plants examined.

Onyatta JO, Abong'o DA, Muinde V. "Assessment of heavy metals in selected urban farms in Nairobi County, Kenya.". In: . East and Southern Africa Environment/Analytical chemistry conference in Africa. Mombasa, Kenya; 2016.
Ondiere VB, Vincent MO, Ochieng AA, Oduor FDO. "Assessment of Heavy Metals Contamination in Lake Elementaita Drainage Basin, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;3(5):283-289.
Maina DM, Kinyua AM, MANGALA MJ, GATARI MJ. Assessment of heavy metal pollution of L." Victoria. erepository.uonbi.ac.ke; 1997. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Maina DM, Kinyua AM, MANGALA MJ, GATARI MJ. "Assessment of heavy metal pollution of L." Victoria. 1997. Abstract
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Geno KPO, Ralwala AO. "Assessment of Heat Stress Exposure on Construction Workers in Hot and Humid Environments during the Covid-19 Pandemic Period.". In: (Re)Setting Built Environment Theory and Practice in a Post-pandemic World: Disrupted Buildings or Design for Disruption. School of Architecture and Building Sciences (SABS) online (virtual) conference, JKUAT; 2021.
Koteng POG, Ralwala AO. "Assessment of Heat Stress Exposure on Construction Workers in Hot and Humid Environments during the Covid-19 Pandemic Period. .". In: (Re)Setting Built Environment Theory and Practice in a Post-pandemic World: Disrupted Buildings or Design for Disruption. School of Architecture and Building Sciences (SABS) online (virtual) conference, JKUAT; 2021.
Kimani G.N., S. C. "An assessment of Head Teachers Preparedness in School Management on First Appointment in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya." Kenya Journal of Educational Management. 2013;6(ISSN 2074 – 5400).kimani_9.pdf
PN R, GO O, O AE, L A, J K. "Assessment of Guideline Concordant Antibiotic Prescribing for Patients with Community Acquired Pneumonia at The Kenyatta National Hospital Medical Wards." Journal of Kenya Association of Physicians. 2022;5(1):34-42. Abstractassessment_of_guideline_concordant_antibiotic_prescribing.pdf

Background: Pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity
and mortality globally. Despite the proven benefits of
guideline concordant antibiotic prescribing, research
has shown that adherence to clinical guideline
recommendations is dismal.
Objectives: The study aims to determine utilization of
Kenyatta National Hospital antibiotic guideline titled
‘The KNH guide to empiric antimicrobial therapy
2018’ in the management of community acquired
pneumonia in the Kenyatta National Hospital medical
wards and the perceived barriers towards the utilization
of this guideline.
Materials and methods: A check list derived from the
Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) guide to empiric
antimicrobial therapy 2018 was used to assess guideline
concordance based on seven quality indicators:
empiric antibiotic, dose and route of administration,
switch to oral antibiotics, duration of antibiotics (at
least 5 days), collection of microbiological samples
before initiating antibiotics, review of antibiotics at 48
hours and once the culture results are out. Online selfadministered questionnaires were used to determine
attitude and perceived barriers towards utilization
of the KNH guideline among the Internal Medicine
registrars and medical officers.
Analysis: Descriptive statistics were applied in
the representation of each of the seven quality
indicators. These were then compared with the
guideline recommendations and adherence to the
guideline for each parameter was expressed as a
percentage of the total number of patients admitted
with community acquired pneumonia. These were
then graded into the following categories based on the
level of concordance: Good >90%, Intermediate 60-
90%, poor <60%. Questions on the attitude and the
perceived barriers towards KNH guideline utilization
were answered using a 5 point Likert scale. Perceived
barrier statements that were positively formulated
were then recorded so that a lower score meant a
lower level of the perceived barriers and vice versa.
Percentages were then calculated for the total number
of doctors that agreed or strongly agreed that the
barrier was applicable. An open ended question on the
top three barriers to the KNH guideline utilization was
also included in the questionnaire.
Results: For each of the other quality indicators,
adherence to the KNH guideline for patients with
community acquired pneumonia was as follows:
empiric antibiotic choice 48%, collection of samples
for culture prior to antibiotic administration 0%, review
of antibiotics at 48 hours 26.4%, review of antibiotics
with culture results 45.8%, total duration of antibiotics
28.8% and time to switch to oral antibiotics 3.6%. The
top three barriers towards guideline utilization among
the doctors were: unavailability of drugs (52.7%),
inaccessibility of the KNH guideline (45.1%) and lack
of or delay of investigations (34.1%).
Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that the level
of adherence to the seven quality indicators from the
KNH guide is poor with the overall adherence being
35.5%. The recommendation least adhered to was
collection of microbiological samples before initiation
of empiric antibiotics. The most commonly identified
barriers to utilization of the guideline were external
and guideline related barriers.
Key words: Guide to empiric antimicrobial therapy
2018, Guideline Concordance antibiotic prescribing,
Community acquired pneumonia

Mwendia SW;, Mwangi DM;, Wahome RG;, Wanyoike M. "Assessment of growth rate and yields of three Napier grass varieties in Central Highlands of Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

An evaluation of the performance of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) cultivars Kakamega-I (ILRI accession No. 16971), Kakamega-II (ILRI accession No. 16978) and Muguga Bana was carried out in the Lower Highland Zone 3 (LH3) at KARI-Muguga South, Central Kenya. Kakamega-I has been shown to be resistant to Napier grass head smut disease while Muguga Bana is susceptible but popular in Central Kenya. The varieties were planted in a Complete Randomised Design (CRD) without application of manure or fertiliser. Dry matter yields (DM), leaf to stem ratio and tiller numbers were recorded for six consecutive harvests. Growth rates were measured during the fourth, fifth and sixth ratoon (regrowths). The varieties produced similar (P > 0.05) number of tillers but differed in the tiller heights and subsequent growth rates. Kakamega-I produced significantly the tallest tillers and had the highest growth rate followed by Kakamega-II and Muguga Bana respectively. Cumulative DM yields (t/ha) for six harvests was highest for Kakamega-I (68.3 t/ha). Leaf to stem ratio was higher for Muguga Bana (4.98) than both Kakamega-I and Kakamega-II, which were similar in this aspect (2.49 and 3.32). The higher dry matter yields in Kakamega-I was attributed to the faster growth rate than the other varieties.

Ochungo EA, Ouma GO, Obiero JPO, Odero NA. "An Assessment of Groundwater Grab Syndrome in Langata Sub County, Nairobi City-Kenya." Journal of Water Resource and Protection. 2019;11:651-673.
M. MBURU, D. WAMALWA, and WAINAINA BASHIRAL. "ASSESSMENT OF GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE PROFILES OF PAEDIATRIC PATIENTS ON CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY AT THE KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL, KENYA ." East African Medical Journal Vol. 89 No. 6 June 2012 . 2012. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: An accurate estimation of renal function in children is important in optimising the dose of many drugs used in paediatric oncology for allows clinical monitoring of the nephrotoxic effects of cytotoxic agents such as cisplatin. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is widely accepted as the best index of renal function in patients. Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment in the paediatric oncology unit at the Kenyatta National Hospital.
Objectives: To determine the glomerular filtration rate profiles of paediatric oncology patients and to assess changes that had occured over a period of at least six months of continuing cancer chemotherapy.
Design: Cross-sectional hospital based survey.
Setting: General Paediatric wards, including Paediatric Oncology and Paediatric Ophthalmology ward. Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.
Subjects: Paediatric patients who had an established diagnosis of cancer and had been on chemotherapy for at least six months.
Results: Out of the 115 children enrolled in the study 43 had abnormal kidney function. This gave a prevalence of 37% (95%CI 28-46).The other 72 children had normal kidney function. Patients aged less than five years and those with solid tumors had a higher likelihood of having an abnormal GFR compared to their older counterparts and those with lymphomas and leukemias
Conclusions: Monitoring of GFR should be done regularly as decline occurs as one continues on chemotherapy especially for the ones below 5yrs and those with solid malignancies.

Ndambiri HK;, Ritho C;, Mbogoh SG;, Ng’ang’a SI;, Muiruri EJ;, Nyangweso PM;, Kipsat MJ;, Ogada JO;, Omboto PI;, Kefa C;, Kubowon PC;, Cherotwo FH. "Assessment of Farmers' Adaptation to the Effects of Climate Change in Kenya: the Case of Kyuso District.". 2012. Abstract

The study was carried out to assess how farmers in Kyuso District have adapted to the effects of climate change. Survey data was collected from 246 farmers from six locations that were sampled out through a multistage and simple random sampling procedure. The probit regression model was fitted into the data in order to assess factors influencing farmers’ adaptation to the effects of climate change. The analysis revealed that 85% of the farmers had adapted in various ways to the effects of climate change. In this regard, the age of the farmer, gender, education, farming experience, farm income, access to climate information, household size, local agro-ecology, distance to input/output market, access to credit, access to water for irrigation, precipitation and temperature were found to have significant influence on the probability of farmers to adapt to climate change. The study suggests that more policy efforts should thus be geared towards helping all the farmers in the district to adapt to climate change.

Angeline W Maina, John M Wagacha FBMJMCWWP. "Assessment of Farmers Maize Production Practices and Effect of Triple-Layer Hermetic Storage on the Population of Fusarium Spp. and Fumonisin Contamination.". 2016. AbstractWebsite

Fumonisin contamination of maize by Fusarium spp. is a major risk in food security, human
and animal health. A study was carried out in Kaiti District, Makueni County in Kenya, to
assess the effectiveness of triple-layer hermetic (PICS™) bags in the management of
Fusarium spp. and fumonisin contamination of stored maize grains. Maize production
practices including scale of production, methods of land preparation, variety grown and
storage methods were obtained with a questionnaire. Fusarium spp. in soil and maize …

Maina AW, Wagacha JM, Wagacha JM, Mwaura FB, Muthomi JW, Woloshuk CP. "Assessment of Farmers Maize Production Practices and Effect of Triple-Layer Hermetic Storage on the Population of Fusarium Spp. and Fumonisin Contamination." World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;5(1):21-30.
Ongoche IC, Otieno DJ, Oluoch-Kosura. "Assessment of factors influencing smallholder farmers’ adoption of mushroom for livelihood diversification in Western Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research (AJAR). 2017;12(30)(ISSN – 1991-637x):2461-2467.
Nguli M, Gatari MJ, Keith Shepherd, Njenga L, Boman J. "Assessment of Essential Micronutrient Levels in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Kenya by Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF)." X-Ray Spectrometry. 2022;2022. Abstract

This study reports concentrations of Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn analysed from Kenyan bean grains and leaves using Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma – Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) methods. Samples of fresh bean leaves and 7 species of dry grains were collected from small scale farmers in Machakos and Kiambu counties. They were delivered to the laboratory where bean grain samples for TXRF analysis were prepared and leaves for both TXRF and ICP-OES. Standard methods of sample preparation successfully tested and used by other authors were used, Average elemental concentrations of the samples were then compared with established sufficiency values mainly given in ranges. Bean leaves from Muguga had sufficient Mn, Ni and Cu concentrations while 6% of the samples had Zn concentrations higher than the sufficiency range. Fe concentrations were consistently high with 97% of the samples having concentrations that were higher than the sufficiency range. No deficiencies were observed from bean leaves from Kyevaluki. For dry bean grains, deficiencies were observed in which four species were found to be deficient in Mn while Zn deficiency was observed in all the species. Fe concentrations were above the sufficiency ranges for all the species but not to toxic levels and 29% of the samples had Cu concentrations that were within the sufficiency range. The obtained data will be essential information for both farmers and policy makers on the nutritional quality of beans in the sampled areas. However, further studies are recommended including soil analysis and elemental bioavailability for full nutritional assessment. Keywords: ICP-OES, hidden hunger, mortality rate, cognitive development, bioavailable

K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Assessment of erosion damage in Ndome and Ghazi, Taita Taveta, Kenya: Towards an integrated erosion management approach. GeoJournal 56: 171-176.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
Waswa F;, Gachene CKK;, Eggers H. "Assessment of erosion damage in Ndome and Ghazi, Taita Taveta, Kenya: Towards an integrated erosion management approach."; 2002. Abstract

Aerial photograph interpretation on erosion trends from 1961 to 1998 showed that by 1998, approximately 17 and 50% of agricultural land in Ndome and Ghazi respectively had been permanently lost due to the combined effect of rill, inter-rill, and gully erosion, and sand deposition. Although abnormally heavy rains received between 1996–98 caused much of the present land damage, the severity of the damage was enhanced by inappropriate and persistent human perturbations in the land-system notably through vegetative degradation and destruction of soil structure through inappropriate tillage practices. With soil organic matter contents of 1.6 and 1.9%, and clay ratios of 10.1 and 10.6 for Ndome and Ghazi, respectively, the areas inherent erodibility was considered as high thus pointing to the need for careful use and management of the soil resource. That farmers appreciated only land quality indicators that were visible to the naked eye and that directly affected their subsistence, revealed a knowledge gap that saw damages from intrinsic processes like rill and inter-rill erosion proceed unnoticed. This paper argues that the spread of erosion damage in rural agro-ecosystems is survival-driven. And as a remedy to this problem, there is need for the diversification of livelihood endeavours to alternative off-farm income sources to reduce pressure on the already fragile land resource. Further, being the ultimate implementers of conservation technologies and by virtue of the multiplicity and inter-relation of rural household needs, adoption of an integrated erosion management approach with food security as paramount presents the most practical entry point for sustainable land management in such rural agro-ecosystems

Mutua GK;, Kinyari P;, Githuku C;, Kironchi G;, Kang’ethe E;, Prain G;, Njenga M;, Karanja NN. "Assessment of environmental and public health hazards in wastewater used for urban agriculture in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

Thirty percent of residents in Nairobi practise urban agriculture (UA) with a majority of the farmers using untreated sewage to irrigate crop and fodder. Due to the environmental and health risks associated with wastewater irrigation, a study was carried out in partnership with farmers in Kibera and Maili Saba which are informal settlements along the Ngong River, a tributary of the Nairobi River Basin. Soil, water, crops and human faecal samples from the farming and non-farming households were analysed to elucidate sources, types and level of heavy metal pollutants in the wastewater and the pathogen loads in humans and vegetable crops. Heavy metal accumulation in soils collected from Kibera and Maili Saba were Cd (14.3 mg kg-1), Cr (9.7 mg kg-1) and Pb (1.7 mg kg-1) and Cd (98.7 mg kg-1), Cr (4.0 mg kg-1) and Pb (74.3 mg kg-1), respectively. This led to high phytoaccumulation of Cd, Cr and Pb in the crops that exceeded the maximum permissible limits. No parasitic eggs were detected in the vegetables but coliform count in the wastewater was 4.8 x108±2.2 x1011/100ml. Soils irrigated with this water had parasitic eggs and non-parasitic larvae counts of 54.62 and 27.5/kg respectively. Faecal coliform and parasitic eggs of common intestinal parasites increased in leafy vegetable sampled from the informal markets along the value chain.

Gathumbi JK, Njue LG, Ombui JN, Kanja LW. "Assessment of Effectiveness of Garlic Extract from Laikipia County, on Shelf-Life of Meat." Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development. 2017;5(5):632-641.
and Njue LG., Ombui JN. KLWGJK. "Assessment of effectiveness of garlic extract from Laikipia County on shelf life of meat." Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development. 2017;5(5):632-641.
Mburu DK, Ngugi PK, Ogollah K. "AN ASSESSMENT OF EFFECT OF RISK IDENTIFICATION MANAGEMENT STRATEGY ON SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE IN MANUFACTURING COMPANIES IN KENYA ." International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management . 2015;3(4):71.mburu_ngugi_and_ogollah_2015.pdf
MARY MWIANDI. "An assessment of economic developments along River Nyando drainage system, western Kenya, since 1963.". In: Unifob Global Seminar. University of Bergen; 2009.
Gichamba A, Wagacha PW, Ochieng DO. "An Assessment of e-Extension Platforms in Kenya.". 2017. Abstract

The use of ICT in agriculture within developing countries has quickly gained
popularity among development agencies, the private sector and even the government. ICT
for agriculture (ICT4Ag) services such as trade platforms, notification platforms and
advisory/extension services have been developed. This has been catalyzed by the growing
number of farmers with access to ICT devices such as mobile phones. Among the available
services, advisory/extension platforms have gained popularity among farmers an

Gichamba A, Wagacha PW, Ochieng DO. "An Assessment of e-Extension Platforms in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Studies in Sciences and Engineering Technology . 2017;3(7):36-40. Abstractfull text link

The use of ICT in agriculture within
developing countries has quickly gained popularity
among development agencies, the private sector and
even the government. ICT for agriculture (ICT4Ag)
services such as trade platforms, notification platforms
and advisory/extension services have been developed.
This has been catalyzed by the growing number of
farmers with access to ICT devices such as mobile
phones. Among the available services, advisory/extension
platforms have gained popularity among farmers and
agriculture stakeholders in the developing world. These
platforms have proven to be of importance to farmers
who are curious about new farming methodologies,
strategies to improve their yields, breeding techniques,
among other factors. The ICT platforms employed
include SMS, mobile applications, Interactive Voice
Response systems, social media platform such as
Facebook and Twitter, chat applications such as
Whatsapp, blogs, radio programs and tv programs. The
aim of this research was to assess the e-Extension
platforms used in Kenya, whose purpose is to advise
millions of farmers across different parts of the country
using ICT platforms. 28 government e-Extension officers
employed to advise farmers using ICT platforms were
interviewed. The officers represented 15 different
counties in Kenya. The study made important findings
that would inform the government, agriculture extension
content providers, and other stakeholders on critical
aspects to be considered in deploying and managing eextension
platforms among a population of diverse users
within a developing country.

Gichamba A, Wagacha PW, Ochieng DO. "An Assessment of e-Extension Platforms in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Studies in Sciences and Engineering Technology (IJISSET). 2017;3:36-40. Abstract

The use of ICT in agriculture within developing countries has quickly gained popularity among development agencies, the private sector and even the government. ICT for agriculture (ICT4Ag) services such as trade platforms, notification platforms and advisory/extension services have been developed. This has been catalyzed by the growing number of farmers with access to ICT devices such as mobile phones. Among the available services, advisory/extension platforms have gained popularity among farmers and agriculture stakeholders in the developing world. These platforms have proven to be of importance to farmers who are curious about new farming methodologies, strategies to improve their yields, breeding techniques, among other factors. The ICT platforms employed include SMS, mobile applications, Interactive Voice Response systems, social media platform such as Facebook and Twitter, chat applications such as Whatsapp, blogs, radio programs and tv programs. The aim of this research was to assess the e-Extension platforms used in Kenya, whose purpose is to advise millions of farmers across different parts of the country using ICT platforms. 28 government e-Extension officers employed to advise farmers using ICT platforms were interviewed. The officers represented 15 different counties in Kenya. The study made important findings that would inform the government, agriculture extension content providers, and other stakeholders on critical aspects to be considered in deploying and managing eextension platforms among a population of diverse users within a developing country.

Karimi PN. Assessment of drug utilisation and patient knowledge on management of hypertension.; 2008. Abstract

Hypertension is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. It is a chronic disease and hence requires long-term management. Inadequate control leads to complications that may be fatal if not treated. 5-10 % of the general population is hypertensive. Unfortunately, most victims are not aware of their status and diagnosis is usually accidental especially after complications have set in. Objective The overall objective of this study was to assess patient's knowledge on proper management of hypertension and the types of antihypertensive drugs used at KNH. Aspects covered included types of drugs used, lifestyle issues such as salt intake, exercise, weight loss, use of alcohol and smoking status. Methods The study was conducted at KNH in the department of internal medicine. A cross sectional study design was used and the target population was hypertensive patients. Data was collected using a questionnaire that was filled after interviewing the patients and looking at their hospital records. Fifty patients were selected using systematic random sampling. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution tables, charts and graphs. Statistical techniques used included percentages, figures and mean, standard deviation and confidence intervals. Relationship between variables was evaluated using chi-square. Results All the patients were adults with a mean age of 56.16 years and majority were females (76%). Majority of the respondents were overweight with a mean body mass index of 27.9Kg/m2 • Minority (12.2%) had no formal education and majority (53.2%) was not aware of the normal blood pressure reading. Most patients were unaware of the fact that hypertension can cause complications such as heart failure ( 56%), kidney damage (64%), visual damage (60%) and disturbance of circulation to lower limbs (70%). On average, patients were aware of four out of six non pharmacological measures in the management of hypertension had mixed. All the respondents were either on two (28%), 11 three (50%) or four (22%) antihypertensive drugs. The drugs that were mainly prescribed included Hydrochlorthiazide (58%), Losartan (38%), Amlodipine (34%), Nifedipine (32%), Enalapril (30%) and Atenolol (30%). The association between education level and awareness of complications was statistically significant but that between education level and awareness of non pharmacological management had mixed results. Conclusion A significant proportion of the respondents were not aware of complications and non pharmacological measures of managing hypertension. Antihypertensive drugs were not rationally prescribed. Recommendation Patient education regarding non-pharmacological methods of management and awareness of complications of hypertension should be intensified and rational prescribing should be practiced at KNH.

Degu A, Njogu P, Weru I, Karimi P. "Assessment of drug therapy problems among patients with cervical cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Gynecol. Oncol. Res. Pract. 2017;4(15):1-15.
J KC, O OFD, DA A. "Assessment of Domestic Water Quality of Dams in Chepalungu Sub-county, Bomet County, Kenya." The International Journal of Science & Technology. 2017;5(6):144-130.
Muraga JM, Wandiga SO, Abong'o DA. "Assessment Of Dissolved Ions And Microbial Coliforms In Water From Selected Sites Of The Upper Athi River Subcatchment Area, Kenya.". 2019. Abstracterepository.uonbi.ac.ke

The Upper Athi River sub-catchment area has experienced exponential growth of human population since the turn of the century. This has led to establishment of satellite towns such as Ngong, Kiserian, Ongata Rongai, Mlolongo, Kitengela and Ruai. These towns have either no or inadequate supply of water from the local governments, that is, Kajiado, Machakos and Nairobi. Communities in this area of study have therefore resorted to obtaining ground water through drilling boreholes and digging shallow wells for their domestic needs. This is done without proper information on whether the water meets quality standards set out by Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS). This study therefore sought to assess the water quality in this area to determine whether ground water meets these standards. It also compared these levels of dissolved ions and coliforms to those of river water in the recharge area of the Upper Athi sub-catchment area. Twenty one water samples comprising of eleven boreholes, five shallow wells and five river water samples were collected from the Upper Athi sub-catchment area in the months of December 2011 which was a dry month and in May 2012 which was a wet month. The samples were analysed for dissolved ions and microbial coliforms. The metal ions analysed included Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb and Zn while anions included Cl-, CO32-/HCO3-, F-, NO2-/NO3- and SO42- as well as faecal coliforms. Physical parameters analysed included pH, electrical conductivity (EC) turbidity, total dissolved solids and colour. The analysis of cations was carried out using atomic absorption spectrophotometry while chlorides and total alkalinity were analysed using titrimetric method. Levels of fluoride and nitrate were analysed using ion selective electrodes, sulphate using gravimetric method and microbial coliforms using lactose broth methods. The results showed that levels of dissolved ions in ground water were higher than in surface water while surface water had higher number of faecal coliforms. The high levels of dissolved ions in ground water was attributed to the geology of area while high levels of iron and faecal coliforms in river water samples was attributed to anthropogenic activities The results from the samples analyzed show that pH of boreholes and shallow wells (ground water) water was higher than that of river water (surface water). pH levels ranged from 7.16±0.003 - 9.34±0.004 for ground water and 7.24±0.002-8.00±0.003 for surface water. Electrical conductivity was also higher in ground water ranging from 669±0.002μS/cm-1568±0.004μS/cm while that of surface water ranged from 382±0.003μS/cm-1202±0.002μS/cm at Magadi road. Turbidity was vi higher for surface water than that of ground water ranging from 74.3±0.004 NTU- 95.4±0.003 NTU and below detection limits (BDL) levels for ground water with the exception being borehole at Athi Primary school which had turbidity of 18.6±0.03 NTU. Colour was high for surface water ranging from 159±0.002 c.u to 343±.004 c.u while that of ground water ranged from 1.5±0.003 51.2±0.004 c.u in borehole 5 located at Athi Primary School. Total Dissolved Solids were higher in ground water ranging from 231.68.00±0.003mg/l - 1003.52±0.004mg/l in shallow well located at near Brookshine School, Kangundo road while that of surface water ranged from 244.48±0.002mg/l-769.28±0.003mg/l. From the chemical parameters analysis, fluorides were significantly higher in ground water ranging from 0.37±0.003 to 9.36±0.002 ppm at Mlolongo which exceeded the KEBS limits for drinking water of 1.5ppm. Iron levels were higher in river water samples ranging from 2.11±0.002 to 18.401±0.003 ppm at Kangundo Road Bridge. Even though ground water had lower levels of iron that river water, it ranged from <0.001ppm to 1.93ppm against the 0.3ppm recommended by KEBS. Lead levels in ground water ranged from <0.001ppm to 2.64ppm at borehole BH4 located at Brookshine School. This was way above the recommended levels of 0.03ppm by KEBS. The levels of microbial coliforms were higher in river water ranging from 140-294 c.f.u/100ml during the dry month of December 2011 and 156-309 c.f.u/100ml during the wet month of May 2012. Ground water recorded coliforms ranging from zero to 40 c.f.u/100ml. Within the ground water system shallow wells had a higher count of coliforms than in boreholes. The high levels of fluorides have led to increased cases of dental fluorosis especially among young children in the area of study. Adults are at risk on increased bone fractures in their lifetime. High levels of lead in some ground water could lead to mental retardation since lead is a very toxic metal even at very low levels. There is therefore need to develop a long-term plan of providing safe drinking water by the county governments. There is also the need to establish regulations that require private water vendors and water companies to invest in water treatment plants that reduce levels of dissolved ions in ground water before distributing the water to local communities

Muraga JM. Assessment Of Dissolved Ions And Microbial Coliforms In Water From Selected Sites Of The Upper Athi River Subcatchment Area, Kenya.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2019. Abstract

Description
The Upper Athi River sub-catchment area has experienced exponential growth of human population since the turn of the century. This has led to establishment of satellite towns such as Ngong, Kiserian, Ongata Rongai, Mlolongo, Kitengela and Ruai. These towns have either no or inadequate supply of water from the local governments, that is, Kajiado, Machakos and Nairobi. Communities in this area of study have therefore resorted to obtaining ground water through drilling boreholes and digging shallow wells for their domestic needs. This is done without proper information on whether the water meets quality standards set out by Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS). This study therefore sought to assess the water quality in this area to determine whether ground water meets these standards. It also compared these levels of dissolved ions and coliforms to those of river water in the recharge area of the Upper Athi sub-catchment area. Twenty one water samples comprising of eleven boreholes, five shallow wells and five river water samples were collected from the Upper Athi sub-catchment area in the months of December 2011 which was a dry month and in May 2012 which was a wet month. The samples were analysed for dissolved ions and microbial coliforms. The metal ions analysed included Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb and Zn while anions included Cl-, CO32-/HCO3-, F-, NO2-/NO3- and SO42- as well as faecal coliforms. Physical parameters analysed included pH, electrical conductivity (EC) turbidity, total dissolved solids and colour. The analysis of cations was carried out using atomic absorption spectrophotometry while chlorides …

Ngigi MW;, Okello JJ;, Lagarkvist C;, Karanja N, Mburu J. "Assessment of developing-country urban consumers’ willingness to pay for quality of leafy vegetables: The case of middle and high income consumers in Nairobi, Kenya."; 2010. Abstract

The improvement in income in developing countries has led to emergence of middle and high income consumers in urban centers. Improvement in income usually causes the shift to consumption of non-staples including leafy vegetables. Thus in major developing country urban centers there has been rapid expansion of the grocery sections featuring leafy vegetables in leading retail stores. Specialty stores have also emerged featuring broad range vegetables. Many middle and high income consumers shop these stores. This study examines the willing of the middle and high income consumers who shop specialized stores to pay for quality of leafy vegetables and drivers of willingness to pay for quality. The study uses contingent valuation and the payment card method in eliciting consumers’ WTP. It considers a broad range of quality attributes including safety, nutrition, environmental friendliness, hygiene in handling. The study finds that mean willingness to pay for quality is higher among high income consumers (>60%). It also finds that income, age of children the consumer has, access to information of food safety are among the significant drivers of kale consumers’ willingness to pay for quality of kales. The study concludes that there is demand for quality of leafy vegetables and discusses policy implications.

Ngigi MW;, Okello JJ;, Lagarkvist C;, Karanja N;, Mburu J. "Assessment of developing-country urban consumers’ willingness to pay for quality of leafy vegetables: The case of middle and high income consumers in Nairobi, Kenya."; 2010. Abstract

The improvement in income in developing countries has led to emergence of middle and high income consumers in urban centers. Improvement in income usually causes the shift to consumption of non-staples including leafy vegetables. Thus in major developing country urban centers there has been rapid expansion of the grocery sections featuring leafy vegetables in leading retail stores. Specialty stores have also emerged featuring broad range vegetables. Many middle and high income consumers shop these stores. This study examines the willing of the middle and high income consumers who shop specialized stores to pay for quality of leafy vegetables and drivers of willingness to pay for quality. The study uses contingent valuation and the payment card method in eliciting consumers’ WTP. It considers a broad range of quality attributes including safety, nutrition, environmental friendliness, hygiene in handling. The study finds that mean willingness to pay for quality is higher among high income consumers (>60%). It also finds that income, age of children the consumer has, access to information of food safety are among the significant drivers of kale consumers’ willingness to pay for quality of kales. The study concludes that there is demand for quality of leafy vegetables and discusses policy implications.

Moni, N.A., Nzuma, M.J., Munei, K. "Assessment of Demand for Meat in Rural and Peri-urban Areas of Central Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development. 2016;4(10):480-488.

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