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DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Attitudes toward psychiatry: a survey of medical students at the University of Nairobi, Kenya.Acad Psychiatry. 2008 Mar-Apr;32(2):154-9.PMID: 18349338 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].". In: PMID: 18349338 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2008. Abstract
Ndetei DM, Khasakhala L, Ongecha-Owuor F, Kuria M, Mutiso V, Syanda J, Kokonya D. Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. dmndetei@mentalhealthafrica.com OBJECTIVES: The authors aim to determine the attitudes of University of Nairobi, Kenya, medical students toward psychiatry. METHODS: The study design was cross-sectional. Self-administered sociodemographic and the Attitudes Toward Psychiatry-30 items (ATP-30) questionnaires were distributed sequentially to every third medical student in his or her lecture theater before or immediately after the lectures. Analysis was done using SPSS version 11.5 and the results are presented in tables. RESULTS: Nearly 75% of the students had overall favorable attitudes toward psychiatry but only 14.3% considered psychiatry as a potential career choice. Sixty-six percent reported that they would not choose psychiatry as a career while the remaining 19.7% were not decided. CONCLUSIONS: There is dissonance between positive attitudes toward psychiatry and the choice of psychiatry as a potential career. Therefore, there is a need to bridge the gap by addressing the various factors that potentially account for this dissonance. PMID: 18349338 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Ndetei DM;, Khasakhala L;, Ongecha-Owuor F;, Kuria M;, Mutiso V;, Syanda J;, Kokonya D. Attitudes toward Psychiatry: A Survey of Medical Students at the University of Nairobi, Kenya.; 2008. Abstract

A dissonance between a positive attitude toward psy- chiatry as a specialty and the choice of psychiatryas acareerhasbeennotedinanumberofstudies(1–5).Various explanations have been proposed for this phenomenon. According to one of the studies, the teaching of psychiatry at the undergraduatelevelwasdisorganizedornot done properly (1). Other studies have reported that compared to other specialists, psychiatrists are perceived to earnlessmoney,tobelessrespected,andtohavelessprestige (1, 6). Notwithstanding, psychiatry has been rated higher than any other discipline on intellectual challenge (5). Although the studies mentioned so far (1–5) generally reported that disparity between a positive attitude and choice as a career exists, the actual levels of dissonance varybetweenstudiesandbetweencountries.Oneprobable explanationforthiswidevariationcouldbethedifferences

Akusala KG, Aagaard-Hansen J, Isaac NK, Simiyu W. "Attitudes to Body Image among the Rural Luo of Bondo sub-County, Western Kenya.". 2015.
Virginia Ng’endo Kinuthia, Wahome RG. "Attitudes on land-use systems and social mindset transformations after group ranch subdivision in Kenya." Land Use Policy. 2019;87:104004.
Gatumu HN. "The Attitudes of Teachers and Students towards the Use of Punishment in Secondary Schools in Kaloleni Kilifi District.". In: Kenyatta University Research Conference. kenyatta University; 2009.
Nzuve SNM, K. SC. "Attitudes of Shop Floor Employees Toward Women Managers In Fuel Depots: A Case Of The Fuel Depots In Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic Of The Congo." Problems of Management in the 21st Century [PMC]. . 2014;9(3):206-212. Abstract

The International Labour Organization and all organizations of human rights advocate against any form of negative attitude in employment based on gender, its terms, promotion and relations. Shop floor employees play a very important role in the daily advancement and profitability of an organisation. The purpose of this study was to establish the attitude of shop floor employees toward women managers in fuel depots in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with the population consisting of one hundred and ninety three (193) shop floor employees. A semi structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data. In total one hundred and twenty one (121) shop floor employees responded yielding a response rate of sixty three percent (63%). The findings of this study indicate that a negative attitude toward woman managers is prevalent in the Fuel Depots of Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. At the fuel depots, the number of women working was less than a third of the males. In spite of this, women managers are rated higher in management qualities and are considered to be more honest, diligent, compassionate, creative and intelligent when compared to their male counterparts. The study recommends a culture change among employees in fuel depots in Lubumbashi in order to enable them perceive women as equal partners at the work place.

Kipturgo MK, Kivuti-Bitok LW, Karani AK, Muiva MM. "Attitudes of nursing staff towards computerisation: a case of two hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya." BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2014;14:35. Abstract

The health sector is faced with constant changes as new approaches to tackle illnesses are unveiled through research. Information, communication and technology have greatly transformed healthcare practice the world over. Nursing is continually exposed to a variety of changes. Variables including age, educational level, years worked in nursing, computer knowledge and experience have been found to influence the attitudes of nurses towards computerisation. The purpose of the study was to determine the attitudes of nurses towards the use of computers and the factors that influence these attitudes.

Kipturgo MK, LK-BW, AKK, Muiva MM. "Attitudes of nursing staff towards computerisation: a case of two hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya." BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making . 2014;14(35):1-8.
TOM DONDICHO. "Attitudes of Maasai pastoralists towards Amboseli National Park.". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. Mila,7: 49-56.; 2006.
TOM DONDICHO. "Attitudes of Maasai pastoralists towards Amboseli National Park.". In: Journal of Dental Research, 2002. Mila,7: 49-56.; 2006. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
C.Onyango, Olungah CO, Oleche OM. "Attitudes of Informal Sector Workers towards Saving for Retirement." International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 2016;3(4):12-19.
Oduor J. "Attitudes and Motivations in Learning the Korean Language by the University of Nairobi Students." The Nairobi Journal of Literature: Introducing Korean Studies in Kenya. 2015;8:77-94.
DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "Attitudes & problems of implementing a policy of English across the Curriculum. A Paper presented at a National Seminar Analysis English across the Curriculum, Nairobi 1993.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1993. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

Inyega J, Muchemi G. "Attitude towards undergraduate training in agriculture and veterinary sciences by secondary school students, teachers and parents in Kenya." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heautagogy in Academic Practice. 2020;1(1):8-18.
MUTUKU DRMUTIEPIUS. "Attitude towards girls work in selected urban areas in Kenya (study funded by ILO IPEC).". In: African Crop Science Conference. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2006. Abstract
Attitude towards girls work in selected urban areas in Kenya (study funded by ILO IPEC)
KYALO DN, RUTERE JW. "The attitude of Inmates and Adult Education Custodians Towards Post Literacy Programs in Government Prisons, Nairobi, Kenya’ .". In: ODL conference on Utilization of Open And Distance Learning in Addressing Educational Challenges in Kenya Towards Fulfillment of the Vision 2030. Kikuyu Campus, UoN; 2013.
CM M, MV G, C K. "Attitude and practices of sedation amongst critical care nurses working in a Kenyan national hospital." African Journal of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. 2014;14(2):35-41.
NJAMBI DRCHEGEMARGARET. "Attended the 11th International Ottawa Conference on Medical Education on 2004 in Barcelona where co- presented the research work.". In: Commun Statist. Theor. Meth. Vol. 16, No. 10, 3095 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2004. Abstract
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NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "Attempts to coordinate the work of traditional and modern doctors in Nairobi in 1980. Kimani VN. Soc Sci Med [B]. 1981 Jul;15(3):421-2.". In: Soc Sci Med [B]. 1981 Jul;15(3):421-2. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1981. Abstract

45 Kenyan traditional healers were interviewed with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases. Traditional management of eye diseases is based on the healers' concept of the disease causation as well as their knowledge of the herbal, animal and chemical substances that possess (or are reported to possess) remedial effect on the disease. While many of the healers interviewed failed to give a clear distinction between the various eye conditions, diseases such as cataract, foreign bodies and injuries were recognized easily. In almost all cases the medicinal substances were first diluted in water before they were applied to the eyes. Human milk, blood and the white of the egg were the animal substances listed as medicinal to various eye conditions. A solution of sugar was one of the chemical substances used in the treatment of specific eye conditions. Given correct information, some of these healers could f

OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "An attempt to separate Long and Short Range forces by Gaussian Method.". In: J. Math. Phys. 20, 878. University of Nairobi Press; 1979. Abstract
OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to identify health-care seeking and related behaviors relevant to controlling sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. METHODS. A total of 380 patients with sexually transmitted diseases (n = 189 men and 191 women) at eight public clinics were questioned about their health-care seeking and sexual behaviors. RESULTS. Women waited longer than men to attend study clinics and were more likely to continue to have sex while symptomatic. A large proportion of patients had sought treatment previously in both the public and private sectors without relief of symptoms, resulting in delays in presenting to study clinics. For women, being married and giving a recent history of selling sex were both independently associated with continuing to have sex while symptomatic. CONCLUSIONS. Reducing the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya will require improved access, particularly for women, to effective health services, preferably at the point of first contact with the health system. It is also critical to encourage people to reduce sexual activity while symptomatic, seek treatment promptly, and increase condom use.
GITURO WAINAINA. "Attainment and Maintenance of Universal Primary Education in Commonwealth Developing Countries: Lessons from Past Qualitative and Quantitative Regression. A Case of Kenya.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2006.
Wambui K. "Attaining Excellence in Media Training in East Africa .". In: the Challenges of Media Training and Practice in East Africa. University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; 2009.
MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD. "Attahiru, S., Shiundu, P. M., Onyari, M., and Mathu E. M. (2003) .". In: The Journ. of Geol. Soc. Japan, vol. 110 No. 2 pp. I-IV. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003. Abstract
Tala Quarrry in African Geoscience Review Vol. 9 Number 4 pp. 385-396.  
M DRONYARIJOHN. "Attahiru S, Shiundu PM, Onyari JM and Mathu EM (2003), Removal of Cu (II) from an aqueous solution using a micaceous mineral of Kenyan origin,.". In: Adsorption Science Technology , 21 (3), 269-283. University of Nairobi Press; 2003. Abstract
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L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Attachments to the Sun, Edited with Dougal Blackburn, Alfred Horsfall et. Al, London Edwad Arnold: 1978.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1978. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

M ENGDROGOLAJULIUS. "ATPS Workshop of Researchers, Naro Moru.". In: E.A. Medical J. 58: 593-600. The Kenya Medical Association; 1994. Abstract

The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.

Peng B, Xu K, Zhang H, Ning Z, Shao H, Ni G, Lu H, Zhang X, Zhu Y, Zhu H. "Atomically sharp 1D SbSeI, SbSI and SbSBr with high stability and novel properties for microelectronic, optoelectronic, and thermoelectric applications." arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.05732. 2017. Abstract
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Hendrickson WA, Ward KB. "Atomic models for the polypeptide backbones of myohemerythrin and hemerythrin." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.. 1975;66(4):1349-56.
Mulrennan JA, Lamdin JM, Bolton HT, Hammond CL. "Atmospheric levels of propoxur aboard submarines after residual spraying." J. Econ. Entomol.. 1975;68(6):755-60.
Onyatta JO, Yusuf AO, Ooko JO. "Atmospheric Corrosion Studies in Kenya: Past, Present and Future." African Corrosion Journal. 2016;2(1):25-31.
Ooko J, Onyatta JO, Yusuf AO. "Atmospheric corrosion studies in Kenya. Past, present and future." African Corrosion Journal. 2016;2(1):25-32.afr_cor_j_corrosion.pdf
Garelick S, Russell JM, Dee S, Verschuren D, Olago DO. "Atmospheric controls on precipitation isotopes and hydroclimate in high-elevation regions in Eastern Africa since the Last Glacial Maximum.". 2021;567:116984. AbstractWebsite

Tropical Africa experienced large changes in hydroclimatic conditions since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), ∼26.5 to 19 thousand years (ka or kyr) ago. The hydrogen isotopic composition of fossil leaf waxes (δDwax), assumed to record past variations in the hydrogen isotopic composition of precipitation (δDprecip), is increasingly being used to study past hydroclimatic change in Africa, and are commonly interpreted to reflect variation in the amount of precipitation through time (i.e., the amount effect). Although there are now many such δDprecip records from tropical Africa, there are few robust δDprecip records from easternmost equatorial Africa of sufficient length and resolution to evaluate the mechanisms governing hydroclimate variation during and since the LGM. We produced a new δDprecip record based on analyses of δDwax in sediment cores collected from Lake Rutundu, situated at an elevation of 3,078 meters above sea level (m asl) on Mt. Kenya. This record displays large variations in δDprecip corresponding with known climate events over the past 25 kyr, including D-enrichment during the Heinrich 1 stadial (H1) and the Younger Dryas (YD), and D-depletion during the Holocene portion of the African Humid Period (AHP). We also observe D-depletion during the LGM relative to the late Holocene, which, considering the amount effect, could be interpreted to imply that LGM climate conditions were wetter than today. However, because other hydroclimate proxies at this site indicate a drier LGM climate at Lake Rutundu, and since precipitation isotopes at this high-elevation site are likely influenced by different processes than at low elevations, we used a single-column Rayleigh distillation model to evaluate temperature and altitude-related effects on high-elevation δDprecip. This revealed that a change in the temperature lapse rate exerts strong control on δDprecip in this high-elevation setting, and that a steeper lapse rate could explain the observed D-depletion during the LGM at our site. Comparison of the Lake Rutundu δDprecip record with other leaf-wax based δDprecip records from East Africa indicates that changes in the meridional precipitation gradient associated with the mean annual position and intensity of the tropical rain belt, in turn driven by precessional insolation forcing, were likely a primary control on East African hydroclimate over the past 25 kyr, thereby contributing to overall regional drying during the LGM.

Garelick S, Russell JM, Dee S, Verschuren D, Olago DO. "Atmospheric controls on precipitation isotopes and hydroclimate in high-elevation regions in Eastern Africa since the Last Glacial Maximum.". 2021;567:116984. AbstractWebsite

Tropical Africa experienced large changes in hydroclimatic conditions since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), ∼26.5 to 19 thousand years (ka or kyr) ago. The hydrogen isotopic composition of fossil leaf waxes (δDwax), assumed to record past variations in the hydrogen isotopic composition of precipitation (δDprecip), is increasingly being used to study past hydroclimatic change in Africa, and are commonly interpreted to reflect variation in the amount of precipitation through time (i.e., the amount effect). Although there are now many such δDprecip records from tropical Africa, there are few robust δDprecip records from easternmost equatorial Africa of sufficient length and resolution to evaluate the mechanisms governing hydroclimate variation during and since the LGM. We produced a new δDprecip record based on analyses of δDwax in sediment cores collected from Lake Rutundu, situated at an elevation of 3,078 meters above sea level (m asl) on Mt. Kenya. This record displays large variations in δDprecip corresponding with known climate events over the past 25 kyr, including D-enrichment during the Heinrich 1 stadial (H1) and the Younger Dryas (YD), and D-depletion during the Holocene portion of the African Humid Period (AHP). We also observe D-depletion during the LGM relative to the late Holocene, which, considering the amount effect, could be interpreted to imply that LGM climate conditions were wetter than today. However, because other hydroclimate proxies at this site indicate a drier LGM climate at Lake Rutundu, and since precipitation isotopes at this high-elevation site are likely influenced by different processes than at low elevations, we used a single-column Rayleigh distillation model to evaluate temperature and altitude-related effects on high-elevation δDprecip. This revealed that a change in the temperature lapse rate exerts strong control on δDprecip in this high-elevation setting, and that a steeper lapse rate could explain the observed D-depletion during the LGM at our site. Comparison of the Lake Rutundu δDprecip record with other leaf-wax based δDprecip records from East Africa indicates that changes in the meridional precipitation gradient associated with the mean annual position and intensity of the tropical rain belt, in turn driven by precessional insolation forcing, were likely a primary control on East African hydroclimate over the past 25 kyr, thereby contributing to overall regional drying during the LGM.

GATARI MJ. Atmospheric aerosol studies in Kenya. erepository.uonbi.ac.ke; 2006. AbstractWebsite

There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which …

Bose S, Yap L-F, Fung M, Starzcynski J, Saleh A, Morgan S, Dawson C, Chukwuma MB, Maina E, Buettner M, Wei W, Arrand J, Lim PVH, Young LS, Teo SH, Stankovic T, Woodman CBJ, Murray PG. "The ATM tumour suppressor gene is down-regulated in EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma." J. Pathol.. 2009;217(3):345-52. Abstract

A micro-array analysis using biopsies from patients with EBV-positive undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and from cancer-free controls revealed down-regulation of tumour suppressor genes (TSG) not previously associated with this disease; one such gene was the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. Q-PCR confirmed down-regulation of ATM mRNA and ATM protein expression in tumour cells was weak or absent in almost all cases. In NPC cell lines, however, ATM was down-regulated only in the EBV-positive line, C666.1, and in none of five EBV-negative lines. In vitro infection of EBV-negative NPC cell lines with a recombinant EBV was followed by the down-regulation of ATM mRNA and protein, and only EBV-positive cells showed a defective DNA damage response following gamma-irradiation. Our data suggest that loss of ATM function could be an important step in the pathogenesis of NPC, and may have implications for the treatment of this disease.

Murray PG, Woodman CB, Stankovic T, Teo SH, Young LS, Lim PV, Arrand J, Wei W, Buettner M, Maina E, others. "The ATM Tumour Suppressor Gene Is Down-regulated In EBV-associated Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.". 2009. Abstract
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Nyakwada William, Laban A. Ogallo ROEA. "The Atlantic-Indian Ocean Dipole and it's Influence on East African Seasonal Rainfall." Journal of Meteorology and related Sciences. 2009;3:21-35.jkms_vol3_n01_for_editing_kinguyu.pdf
OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Atina. J.O..Ogutu E. O The prevalence of Hepatitis A,B & C and HIV seroprevalence among patients with acute icteric hepatitis at the Kenyatta National Hospital East African medical journal april 2004 issue.". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Apr;81(4):183-7. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2004. Abstract
Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis A, B, C and HIV seropositivity among patients with acute icteric hepatitis. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Eighty four patients aged above six months with a history of jaundice not exceeding six months were recruited. There were 47 males and 17 females with an age range of eight months to 67 years and a median age of 25 years. METHODS: History was obtained physical examination done and blood taken for determination of bilirubin, ALT, AST and ALP levels. Sera that had disproportionately greater transaminase than ALP elevation were assayed for IgM anti-HAV, IgM anti-HBc, HbsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV antibodies. RESULTS: Evidence of hepatitis A, B, and C was round in 41.7%, 26.2%, and 7.1% of the patients respectively, 13.1% of the patients were HBsAg carriers while 30.1% of all patients were HIV positive. Thirty two patients did not have evidence of hepatitis A, B, or C infection and this group was significantly associated with HIV infection (p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Hepatitis A was the commonest overall type of acute icteric hepatitis seen at the KNH, and among patients aged 15 years and below. Hepatitis B was the leading identified cause of acute hepatitis among those aged over 15 years. Hepatitis C accounted for 7.1% of acute icteric hepatitis 30.1% of all patients and 50% of those admitted with acute hepatitis were also HIV positive.
THEURI DRNJOKAJESSE. "Atieno F.O. , Robin Reid and Njoka J.T. And E. Harris 2002: Land use trends and their effects on range vegetation; the case of Greater Amboseli Ecosystem: Paper presented at the Annual GL-CRSP Conference in Guadalajara, Mexico, 16th - 18th March 2002.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2002. Abstract
This paper deals with the derivation of logistic model for cattle, sheep and goats in a commercial ranching system in Machakos District, Kenya, a savannah ecosystem with average annual rainfall of 589.3  159.3mm and an area of 10,117ha. It involves modeling livestock population dynamics as discrete-time logistic equations wiyh fixed carrying capacities. The fixed carrying capacities are generated endogenously using time-series ranch data, covering a period of 15 years, from 1987 to 2001, in a commercial ranching enterprise. The model incorporates interaction parameters, generated endogenously. The estimation of the logistic models involves estimation of econometric models for each livestock species, followed by the recovery of the logistic model mathematically. Optimisation procedures are employed to determine the optimal stocking levels and the optimal off-take levels. The model-generated carrying capacities are 2,985, 791 and 201 animal units (AU) for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. Optimal stocking levels are 1,369, 154 and 69 Aus for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively, while the optimal off-take levels are 857, 88 and 63 for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. This shows that the logistic model-based system analysis is applicable to the management of mixed-species commercial ranching enterprises.
J PROFGICHAGAFRANCIS. "Atibu, F.S. and Gichaga, F.J. .". In: Kenya Journal of Sciences.Series A. Vol. 10 No.2. (pp 41 . UN-HABITAT; 1996. Abstract

A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.

Faxon DP, Fuster V, Libby P, Beckman JA, Hiatt WR, Thompson RW, Topper JN, Annex BH, Rundback JH, Fabunmi RP, Robertson RM, Loscalzo J. "Atherosclerotic {Vascular} {Disease} {Conference} {Writing} {Group} {III}: {Pathophysiology}." Circulation. 2004;109:2617-2625. AbstractWebsite
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Virmani R, Kolodgie FD, Burke AP, Finn AV, Gold HK, Tulenko TN, Wrenn SP, Narula J. "Atherosclerotic {Plaque} {Progression} and {Vulnerability} to {Rupture} {Angiogenesis} as a {Source} of {Intraplaque} {Hemorrhage}." Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 2005;25:2054-2061. AbstractWebsite

Observational studies of necrotic core progression identify intraplaque hemorrhage as a critical factor in atherosclerotic plaque growth and destabilization. The rapid accumulation of erythrocyte membranes causes an abrupt change in plaque substrate characterized by increased free cholesterol within the lipid core and excessive macrophage infiltration. Neoangiogenesis is associated closely with plaque progression, and microvascular incompetence is a likely source of intraplaque hemorrhage. Intimal neovascularization is predominantly thought to arise from the adventitia, where there are a plethora of pre-existing vasa vasorum. In lesions that have early necrotic cores, the majority of vessels invading from the adventitia occur at specific sites of medial wall disruption. A breech in the medial wall likely facilitates the rapid in-growth of microvessels from the adventitia, and exposure to an atherosclerotic environment stimulates abnormal vascular development characterized by disorganized branching and immature endothelial tubes with “leaky” imperfect linings. This network of immature blood vessels is a viable source of intraplaque hemorrhage providing erythrocyte-derived phospholipids and free cholesterol. The rapid change in plaque substrate caused by the excessive accumulation of erythrocytes may promote the transition from a stable to an unstable lesion. This review discusses the potential role of intraplaque vasa vasorum in lesion instability as it relates to plaque rupture.

Virmani R, Kolodgie FD, Burke AP, Finn AV, Gold HK, Tulenko TN, Wrenn SP, Narula J. "Atherosclerotic {Plaque} {Progression} and {Vulnerability} to {Rupture} {Angiogenesis} as a {Source} of {Intraplaque} {Hemorrhage}." Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 2005;25:2054-2061. AbstractWebsite

Observational studies of necrotic core progression identify intraplaque hemorrhage as a critical factor in atherosclerotic plaque growth and destabilization. The rapid accumulation of erythrocyte membranes causes an abrupt change in plaque substrate characterized by increased free cholesterol within the lipid core and excessive macrophage infiltration. Neoangiogenesis is associated closely with plaque progression, and microvascular incompetence is a likely source of intraplaque hemorrhage. Intimal neovascularization is predominantly thought to arise from the adventitia, where there are a plethora of pre-existing vasa vasorum. In lesions that have early necrotic cores, the majority of vessels invading from the adventitia occur at specific sites of medial wall disruption. A breech in the medial wall likely facilitates the rapid in-growth of microvessels from the adventitia, and exposure to an atherosclerotic environment stimulates abnormal vascular development characterized by disorganized branching and immature endothelial tubes with “leaky” imperfect linings. This network of immature blood vessels is a viable source of intraplaque hemorrhage providing erythrocyte-derived phospholipids and free cholesterol. The rapid change in plaque substrate caused by the excessive accumulation of erythrocytes may promote the transition from a stable to an unstable lesion. This review discusses the potential role of intraplaque vasa vasorum in lesion instability as it relates to plaque rupture.

Falk E, Thim T, Kristensen IB. "Atherosclerotic plaque, adventitia, perivascular fat, and carotid imaging." JACC. Cardiovascular imaging. 2009;2:183-186. Abstract
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Mallika V, Goswami B, Rajappa M. "Atherosclerosis pathophysiology and the role of novel risk factors: a clinicobiochemical perspective." Angiology. 2007;58:513-522. Abstract

Atherosclerosis is the root cause of the biggest killer of the 21st century. Mechanisms contributing to atherogenesis are multiple and complex. A number of theories-including the role of dyslipidemia, hypercoagulability, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation and infection by certain pathogens-have been propounded from time to time explain this complex phenomenon. Recently it has been suggested that atherosclerosis is a multifactorial, multistep disease that involves chronic inflammation at every step, from initiation to progression, and that all the risk factors contribute to pathogenesis by aggravating the underlying inflammatory process. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis will aid in devising pharmaceutical and lifestyle modifications for reducing mortality resulting from coronary artery disease (CAD).A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the Web sites of the National Library of Medicine (http:// www.ncbl.nlm.nih.gov/) and PubMed Central, the US National Library of Medicine's digital archive of life sciences literature (http:// www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/). The data were accessed from books and journals in which relevant articles in this field were published. The whole spectrum of coronary artery disease evolves through various events that lead to the formation and progression of atherosclerotic plaque and finally its complications. Atherosclerosis is the culprit behind coronary artery disease, cerebral vascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease. The pathogenic mechanisms are varied and complex. Of late, the role of lipoprotein (a), homocysteine, and inflammation and infection as prime culprits in pathogenesis of CAD is the subject of intense research and debate. The appreciation of the role of inflammation in atherosclerosis provides a mechanistic framework to understand the clinical benefits of newer therapeutic strategies, and a better understanding of pathogenesis aids in formulating preventive and therapeutic strategies in reducing mortality resulting from CAD.An in-depth knowledge of the various pathogenic mechanisms involved in atherosclerosis can help in substantiating the current existing knowledge about the CAD epidemic. This knowledge will help clinicians to better manage the disease, which affects Indians in its most severe form.

Bruce IN. "Atherogenesis and autoimmune disease: the model of lupus." Lupus. 2005;14:687-690. Abstract

Accelerated atherosclerosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Certain 'classic' risk factors are associated with atherosclerosis risk in SLE. However, these factors alone do not fully explain the excess risk observed. Atherosclerosis is increasingly recognized as a chronic inflammatory condition and in SLE, complement activation and immune complex formation may promote atheroma development. Similarly, autoantibody production, especially those in the anticardiolipin (ACLA) family are gaining increasing attention. The role of steroids may not be completely straightforward, low doses may have a beneficial anti-inflammatory role whereas higher doses may exacerbate metabolic factors. In contrast, antimalarials have a beneficial effect on lipids as well as anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet effects. The aetiology of atherosclerosis in SLE is therefore multifactorial. A better understanding of the interface of autoimmunity and atherogenesis in the context of SLE will benefit lupus patients and will also help us better understand the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in general.

TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Athari za Ndani na za Kilimwengu: Ujenzi wa Jadi ya Ushairi wa Kiswahili." . https:// creative commons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ . 2017:116-132.
Mwaniki JM, TIMAMMY RAYYA, Ndung'u MN. "Athari za Mtagusano Kati ya Jamii na Ekolojia Katika Ushairi wa Mberia: BaraJingine na Rangi ya Anga." East African Journal of Swahili Studies. 2019;Volume 4(1):23-34.
Mwaliwa HC. "Athari ya Kiswahili kwa Lugha Zingine za Kiafrika.". In: Kiswahili katika Elimu ya Juu. Eldoret: Moi University Press; 2019.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Ataya, W.M.. Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Ruminjo J.K., Wanjala S.M., Munyao G. The onset of spermaturia and the development of Pubertal changes among urban boys in Kenya. J. Obstet, Gynaecol. E.C. Afric 15 (1) 19 (1999).". In: J. Obstet, Gynaecol. E.C. Afric 15 (1) 19 (1999). uon press; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine if women receiving intrauterine devices (IUCDs) outside of menses have an acceptable rate of insertion problems and subsequent IUCD-related complications. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and prospective cohort study of insertions at times other than during menses. SETTING: The study was carried out in two government family planning (FP) clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: After appropriate pre-test and post-test HIV counselling, 1686 women requesting IUCDs at two FP clinics between 1994 and 1995 in Nairobi were enrolled at baseline into a study examining the effect of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) infection on IUCD-related complications. Six hundred and forty nine women (156 HIV-infected and 493 HIV-uninfected) were selected for the four month follow up study. They were classified according to their menstrual cycle status at time of IUCD insertion. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Problems at the time of insertion (pain, bleeding, immediate expulsion) and IUCD-related complications through four months. RESULTS: Rates of immediate insertion problems were low in the women who had insertions during menses (7.0%), outside of menses (4.0%) or had oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (2.6%). The adjusted odds ratios for IUCD insertion problems outside of menses and in oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (versus women with insertion during menses) were 0.54 (95 % CI 0.18-1.59) and 0.39 (95% CI 0.12-1.29) respectively. IUCD-related complications were higher in the oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (11.5%) or insertion outside of menses (6.9%), than the within menses (4.3%) groups. However, the differences were not statistically significant. Adjusted odds ratios for IUCD outside of menses and oligomenorrhoea/amenorrhea groups were 1.65 (95% CI 0.21-12.91) and 2.72 (95% CI 0.34-21.71) respectively. CONCLUSION: The results confirm that the IUCD can be safely inserted outside of menses with minimal insertion difficulties and subsequent complications. Availability of IUCDs outside of menses may enhance IUCD acceptance in Kenya and create better opportunity for visual screening of the cervix for sexually transmitted infections.
b c A.O. Opere a, * MWSP. "At site flood frequency analysis for the Nile Equatorial basins." Physics and Chemistry of the Earth . 2006;2006(31):919-927.opere_jpce-abstract.pdf
Malonza I, Keli F, Kaul R, Kimani J, Bwayo JJ, Ngugi EN, Plummer FA, Temmerman M, Moses S. "Asymptomatic STDs and HIV Among Female Sex Workers in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2000. Abstract
n/a
KAMAU DRGACHIIMICHAEL, WINGA MRODHIAMBOJOHN. "Asymmetrical Single Replicate Designs.". In: South African Statistical Journal. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1998. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
PAUL PROFBAKI. "Astrophysics In The Quest for Renewable Source of Energy, Proceedings of The Third TWAS .". In: The Third TWAS . Heinrich Boll Foundation.; Submitted.
and Maloba, F. KGOHNJMGJ. "Astrocytosis as a biomarker for late stage human African Trypanosomiasis in the vervet monkey mode." Scientia Parasitologica. 2011;12:53-59.
E.N. PN. "Associationsof Sexual RiskTaking Among Kenyan Female Sex Workers After Enrollment in an HIV-l Prevention Trial.". 2004. Abstract

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Associationsof Sexual RiskTaking Among Kenyan Female Sex
Workers After Enrollment in an HIV-l Prevention Trial
G. Yadav, * R. Saskin,f§ E. N. Ngugi, # J. Kimani, 11F. Keli, 11K. Fonck; 11** K. S. MacDonald, ti
J. J. Bwayo,II M. Temmerman, ** The Kibera HJV Study Group, S. Moses, II and R. Kault§lI
Background: Female sex workers (FSWs) often lack the ability to
negotiate safer sex and arc at high risk for mv-I infection and sexually
transmitted infections (STIs).
Methods: Seronegative FSWs were enrolled in an STlJHIV-! prevention
trial in Nairobi, Kenya. Demographies and sexual risk taking
were assessed every 3 months. Predictors of reduced risk taking were
defined using multivariate logistic regression.
Results: Foul' hundred sixty-six FSWs were enrolled and followed
for just over 2 years each. A spectrum of sex work was apparent:
FSWs working in night clubs were younger, charged more for sex,
and used condoms more frequently; FSWs working from home were
older, charged less, and used condoms the least; and those working in
bars were intermediate. Increases in reported condom use were most
significant and sustained for FSWs working from home and charging
less for sex and were poorly maintained for bar-based FSWs. Selfreported
lower condom use, higher client numbers, and alcohol use
were associated with higher STl rates.
Conclusions: Home-based FSWs and those charging less for sex
used condoms the least at baseline but showed the greatest and most
sustained improvements over time. Potential response heterogeneity
Received for publication December 8, 2003; accepted May 6, 2004.
From the *Faculty of Arts and Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto,
Ontario, Canada; [Dcpartrnent of Medicine, University of Toronto,
Toronto, Ontario, Canada; ~Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto. Ontario,
Canada; §University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; BOepart.
men! of Community Health Sciences and Medicine, University of
Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 1jDepartment of Medical Microbiology,
University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya; #Department of'Communiry
Health, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya; and "International
Centre for Reproductive Health, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
University of Ghent. Ghent, Belgium.
Members of The Kibera HIV Study Group are listed under ACknowledgments.
Supported by The Rockefeller Foundation (2000 HE 025), the European Cornmission
(DG Vlllf8, contract no. 7-RPR-28), the Canadian Research Chair
Programme (to R.K.), the Ontario HIV Treatment Network (to K.M.;
Career Scientist), and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (to S.M.;
Investigator Award).
Reprints: Rupert Kaul, Clinical Science Division, Medical Sciences Building
#6356, University of Toronto. Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S IA8 (e-mail:
rupert. kaul@utoronto.ca).
Copyright i\:i 2004 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
I Acquir Immune Defie Syndr • Volume 00, Number 0, Month ° 2004
in FSW subgroups should be considered in the design of Hlv-I prevention
programs.
Key Words: female sex workers, male condom, prospective, Africa,
workplace
(J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004;00:000-000)
Female sex workers (FSWs) play an important role in the
dynamics of the HIV -1 epidemic in Africa. Factors including
gender inequality, economic disempowerment, and lack of
resources and education combine to place these women at an
enormously increased risk of acquiring HlV-I infection. 1.2 Infected
FSWs may also act as "core groups" in the HIV-l epidemic,
with male clients serving as bridges into the general
population.v" For these reasons, many HIV -1 prevention programs
have focused specifically on FSWs5 and have often
been very successful in reducing high-risk sexual behavior
and/or rates of sexually transmitted infections (STls) and
HIV-l infection.v"? However, there is a broad spectrum of
commercial sex work, with varying levels of sexual risk taking
and prevalence ofHIV-J infection among different FSW subpopulations.
I I It is therefore possible that the uptake or durability
ofHIV-l risk reduction interventions will vary, depending
on the demographics of the subpopulation targeted. It is
important to carefully document and evaluate the efficacy of
prevention programs in different situations and populations, 12
because resources allocated to HIV-l prevention fall far short
of what is necessary. J3
In 1998, a trial of antibiotic prophylaxis for acquisition
of both STls and HIV -1 infection was initiated in a cohort of
HIV -l-seronegative sex workers from the Kibera district of
Nairobi.14•15 A risk reduction program was provided for all
enrolled FSWs, and this was very successful in reducing rates
of high-risk behavior and STIsY However, self-identified
FSWs in this cohort practiced sex work in a number of very
different environments, as has- been reported for sex worker
cohorts elsewhere in Africa. II Therefore, tile purpose of this
study was to determine whether baseline factors could be identified
that predicted a greater or more sustained response to the
risk reduction intervention (ie, increased condom use and/or
Yadav et of / Aequir Immune Oefie Syncfr • Volume 00, Number 0, Month °2004
reduced client numbers), with the aim of improving our understanding
of how prevention strategies can be targeted to better
address the needs of vulnerable FSWs.
METHODS
Recruitment into this HIV/STI prevention trial was mediated
through a previously established network of FSW peer
educators 10,16 from May 1998 to January 2002. The study design
and baseline findings have been reported previously.v'"
Sex workers were defined as women who reported receiving
money or gifts in exchange for sex during the month before
initial screening. FSWs attended the clinic every month and
were administered the study drug as directly observed therapy.
All study subjects were provided with HIV -I prevention services
that included peer and clinic risk reduction counseling,
the provision of free condoms, and prompt treatment of symptomatic
STls. Two standardized l-hour risk reduction counseling
sessions were provided to all women at enrollment, and
subsequent clinic-based counseling was provided based on the
clients' perceived needs and self-reported risk behavior. Peerbased
risk reduction counseling was also provided to all study
participants through a series on monthly cohort "barazas" and
smaller community meetings. This peer-based counseling followed
a previously described model.'? with the addition of
counseling regarding the need to negotiate consistent condom
use with regular clients and boyfriends in addition to their
more commercial clients. I I A behavioral questionnaire was
administered at baseline and at 3-month intervals to assess
risk-taking behavior. Ethics approvals for the study were obtained
from institutional review boards at Kenyatta National
Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, and the University of Manitoba,
Winnipeg Manitoba, Canada.
Laboratory Methods
All women underwent complete physical examination
and STI testing and treatment at enrollment, every 6 months,
and whenever clinically indicated. Cervical swabs were obtained
for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis
polymerase chain reaction assays (Amplicor PCR Diagnostics,
Roche Diagnostic Systems. Ontario, Canada) and for N. gonorrhoeae
culture. If a genital ulcer was present, a swab of the
@ ulcer base was taken for M-polymerase chain reaction detection
of Haemophilus ducreyi, herpes simplex virus, and Treponema
palliduin (Roche Molecular Systems, Ontario, Canada).
Trichomonas iaginalis culture was performed using In Pouch
TV (Biorned Diagnostics, San Jose, CA), and blood specimens
were obtained for mV-I and syphilis serology. Any infections
identified were treated according to the Kenya National STl
Treatment Guidelines. In addition, monthly urine specimens
were collected at the time of directly observed study drug administration,
stored at -20°C, and tested for N. gonorrhoeae
and C. trachoma/is by polymerase chain reaction assay after
study completion.
2
Statistical Analysis
All FSWs undergoing HIV-I counseling and testing
completed a baseline clinic questionnaire and had ongoing access
to medical care through the clinic, whether they agreed to
participate in the randomized trial. For enrolled FSWs, selfreported
condom use, weekly client numbers, and hormonal
contraceptive use were recorded at baseline and every 3
months. Condom use was reported on a scale of 0 to 5, where
o represented no condom use and 5 represented condom use
with all clients. All other demographic and behavioral data
were collected only at the time of enrollment. Women were
divided into 3 groups based on their place of work 14 as follows:
group 1, work only from their own or client's home; group 2,
work from a nightclub or disco; group 3, work in a local bar or
lodging.
Baseline (enrollment) associations of sexual risk taking,
prevalent STls, and HIV -1 infection were examined using a
table for either l-way analysis of variance (for continuous variables)
or l test (for dichotomous variables) in SPSS version
10.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL). The impact of baseline demographic
and behavioral factors on subsequent changes in risk taking
and STI rates was then prospectively modeled using multivariate
Poisson regression and logistic regression models for
correlated data (generalized estimating equations; PROC
GENMOD, SAS for Windows version 8.1, SAS Institute,
Cary, NC). Variables included in the model were those previously
associated with increased risk taking in other FSW cohorts
and those associated with differences in risk taking in the
baseline analysis (P < 0.05). These were place of work, charge
per sex act (dichotomized into charge for sex more or less the
cohort average), daily alcohol consumption, ever smoking,
and age at enrollment. Rates of condom use were analyzed
only at visits where women reported at least 1 weekly client
(ie, they were still active in sex work).
RESULTS
Cohort Characteristics and Follow-up
Four hundred sixty-six HIV -l=-seronegative FSWs were
enrolled in the trial from May 1998 to January 2002. Participants
were encouraged to remain in the trial for at least 2 years,
after which time they were free to choose to continue in the
trial or to exit the trial and attend the clinic as needed for routine
medical care. The mean duration of follow-up was 760
days, for a total of 969.6 person years of follow-up, and the
mean number of visits was 23.9.
Risk-Taking Behavior at Study Enrollment
When grouped according to place of work, significant
differences were observed between FSW subgroups with respect
to several behavioral and biologic variables at baseline
(Table I). Women working out of their homes or their clients' ffl@~!
e]004 Lippincott Williams & I-Vilkins

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Associations of Sexual Risk Taking Among Kenyan Female Sex Workers After Enrollment in an HIV-1 Prevention Trial. Yadav G, Saskin R, Ngugi E, Kimani J, Keli F, Fonck K, Macdonald KS, Bwayo JJ, Temmerman M, Moses S, Kaul R; The Kibera HIV Study Group. J Ac.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Mar 1;38(3):329-334. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2005. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
E.N. PN. "Associations of sexual risk taking among Kenyan female sex workers after enrollment in an HIV-1 prevention trial.". 2005. Abstract

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Mar 1;38(3):329-34.
Associations of sexual risk taking among Kenyan female sex workers after enrollment in an HIV-1 prevention trial.
Yadav G, Saskin R, Ngugi E, Kimani J, Keli F, Fonck K, Macdonald KS, Bwayo JJ, Temmerman M, Moses S, Kaul R; Kibera HIV Study Group.
Source

Faculty of Arts and Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Abstract
BACKGROUND:

Female sex workers (FSWs) often lack the ability to negotiate safer sex and are at high risk for HIV-1 infection and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
METHODS:

Seronegative FSWs were enrolled in an STI/HIV-1 prevention trial in Nairobi, Kenya. Demographics and sexual risk taking were assessed every 3 months. Predictors of reduced risk taking were defined using multivariate logistic regression.
RESULTS:

Four hundred sixty-six FSWs were enrolled and followed for just over 2 years each. A spectrum of sex work was apparent: FSWs working in night clubs were younger, charged more for sex, and used condoms more frequently; FSWs working from home were older, charged less, and used condoms the least; and those working in bars were intermediate. Increases in reported condom use were most significant and sustained for FSWs working from home and charging less for sex and were poorly maintained for bar-based FSWs. Self-reported lower condom use, higher client numbers, and alcohol use were associated with higher STI rates.
CONCLUSIONS:

Home-based FSWs and those charging less for sex used condoms the least at baseline but showed the greatest and most sustained improvements over time. Potential response heterogeneity in FSW subgroups should be considered in the design of HIV-1 prevention programs.

PMID:
15735453
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Yadav G, Saskin R, Ngugi E, Kimani J, Keli F, Fonck K, MacDonald KS, Bwayo JJ, Temmerman M, Moses S, others. "Associations of sexual risk taking among Kenyan female sex workers after enrollment in an HIV-1 prevention trial." JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2005;38:329-334. Abstract
n/a
Mbindyo SN, Gitau GK, Mulei CM, Mbugua SW, others. "Associations of kennel management practices with morbidity and mortality of adult dogs in Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2017;6:153-158. Abstract
n/a
G WE, W B, P W, JT K. "Associations of Interleukin-1 Polymorphisms with Chronic Periodontitis in Two Different Kenyan Ethnic Groups." Journal of International Academy of Periodontology. 2018.
E.N. PN. "Associations of human leukocyte antigen DRB with resistance or susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in the Pumwani Sex Worker Cohort.". 2008. Abstract

AIDS. 2008 May 31;22(9):1029-38. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282ffb3db.
Associations of human leukocyte antigen DRB with resistance or susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in the Pumwani Sex Worker Cohort.
Lacap PA, Huntington JD, Luo M, Nagelkerke NJ, Bielawny T, Kimani J, Wachihi C, Ngugi EN, Plummer FA.
Source
National Microbiology Laboratory, Winnipeg, Canada.
Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
A group of commercial sex workers in the Pumwani Sex Worker Cohort, established in 1985 in Nairobi, Kenya, remain HIV-1 uninfected despite heavy exposure to HIV-1 through active sex work. Previous studies showed that this resistance is associated with a strong CD4+ T-cell response, which suggested that human leukocyte antigen class II antigens are important in resistance/susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. DRB1 is the most polymorphic locus among class II genes and forms haplotypes with DRB3, DRB4 and DRB5. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of DRB alleles/haplotypes on resistance/susceptibility to HIV-1 infection.
DESIGN:
In total, 1090 women enrolled in the Pumwani cohort were genotyped for DRB1, DRB3, DRB4 and DRB5 using a high-resolution sequence-based method. Allele/haplotype frequencies were compared between HIV-positive women and women who have remained HIV negative for more than 3 years despite frequent exposure.
METHODS:
Human leukocyte antigen DRB genes were amplified, sequenced and genotyped using a two-step sequence-based method. Allele/haplotype frequencies were determined using PyPop32-0.6.0. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 11.0 for Windows.
RESULTS:
Three DRB1 alleles were associated with resistance: DRB1*010101 (P = 0.016; odd ratio (OR): 2.55; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-5.61), DRB1*010201 (P = 0.019; OR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.10-3.15), and DRB1*1102 (P = 0.025; OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.07-2.78). DRB1*030201 (P = 0.038; OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.23-0.98), DRB1*070101 (P = 0.035; OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30-0.97), DRB1*1503 (P = 0.0004; OR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.19-0.64), and DRB5*010101 (P = 0.001; OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.20-0.67) were associated with susceptibility. The haplotype DRB1*1102-DRB3*020201 was associated with HIV-1 resistance (P = 0.041; OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.02-2.78),
whereas the haplotypes DRB1*070101-DRB4*01010101 (P = 0.041; OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.28-0.98) and DRB1*1503-DRB5*01010101 (P = 0.0002; OR: 0.30; 95% CI: 0.15-0.58) were associated with susceptibility. These associations with resistance/susceptibility to HIV-1 were independent of previously reported alleles HLA-DRB1*01 and HLA-A*2301.
CONCLUSION:
Our findings indicate that human leukocyte antigen DRB-specific CD4+ T-cell responses are an important factor in resistance/susceptibility to HIV-1 infection.
PMID:
18520346
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Richards S, Vanleeuwen J, Shepelo G, Gitau GK, Kamunde C, Uehlinger F, Wichtel J. "Associations of farm management practices with annual milk sales on smallholder dairy farms in Kenya." Veterinary World. 2015;8(1):88-96.
Anyenda EO, Higashi T, Kambayashi Y, Nguyen TTT, et al. "Associations of Cough Prevalence with Ambient Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen and Sulphur Dioxide." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2016;13:800.
Hassan WM, Lavreys L, Chohan V, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Holmes KK, McClelland SR. "Associations between intravaginal practices and bacterial vaginosis in Kenyan female sex workers without symptoms of vaginal infections." Sex Transm Dis. 2007;34(6):384-8. Abstract

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is highly prevalent among African women and has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV-1.

"Associations Between Intravaginal Practices and Bacterial Vaginosis in Kenyan Female Sex Workers Without Symptoms of Vaginal Infections.". 2007. Abstract

Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is highly prevalent among
African women and has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes,
sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV-1.
Goal: The goal of this study was to analyze the relationship among
intravaginal practices, bathing, and BV.
Study Design: The authors conducted a cross-sectional study of
HIV-1-seronegative Kenyan female sex workers without symptoms of
vaginal infections.
Results: Of 237 women enrolled, 206 (87%) reported vaginal washing
using either a finger or cloth. Increasing frequency of vaginal
washing was associated with a higher likelihood of BV (2 test for
trend, P  0.05). In multivariate analysis, vaginal lubrication with
petroleum jelly (odds ratio [OR]  2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 
1.4 –5.6), lubrication with saliva (OR  2.3, 95% CI  1.1– 4.8), and
bathing less than the median for the cohort (14 times/week; OR  4.6,
95% CI  1.2–17.5) were associated with a significantly higher likelihood
of BV.
Conclusions: Modification of intravaginal and general hygiene
practices should be evaluated as potential strategies for reducing the
risk of BV

Folayan M, Tantawi ME, Schroth RJ, Vukovic A. "Associations between early childhood caries and malnutrition and anaemia: a global perspective." BMC Nutrition J. 2020;2020:=;6:16.(2020:=;6:16.):2020:=;6:16.
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH. "Association of levels of HIV-1-infected breast milk cells and risk of mother-to-child transmission. J Infect Dis. 2004 Nov 15;190(10):1880-8. 2004 Oct 07. Rousseau CM, Nduati RW, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC,Mbori-Ngacha DA, Kreiss JK, Overbaugh J.". In: J Infect Dis. 2007 Jan 15;195(2):220-9. Epub 2006 Dec 13. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004. Abstract
Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. Background. There is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of breast-feeding on maternal mortality from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and little is known about the effects of breast-feeding on markers of HIV-1 disease progression.Methods. HIV-1-seropositive women were enrolled during pregnancy and received short-course zidovudine. HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4 cell counts were determined at baseline and at months 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 postpartum and were compared between breast-feeding and formula-feeding mothers.Results. Of 296 women, 98 formula fed and 198 breast-fed. At baseline, formula-feeding women had a higher education level and prevalence of HIV-1-related illness than did breast-feeding women; however, the groups did not differ with respect to CD4 cell counts and HIV-1 RNA levels. Between months 1 and 24 postpartum, CD4 cell counts decreased 3.9 cells/ mu L/month (P<.001), HIV-1 RNA levels increased 0.005 log(10) copies/mL/month (P=.03), and body mass index (BMI) decreased 0.03 kg/m(2)/month (P<.001). The rate of CD4 cell count decline was higher in breast-feeding mothers (7.2 cells/ mu L/month) than in mothers who never breast-fed (4.0 cells/ mu L/month) (P=.01). BMI decreased more rapidly in breast-feeding women (P=.04), whereas HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality did not differ significantly between breast-feeding and formula-feeding women.Conclusions. Breast-feeding was associated with significant decreases in CD4 cell counts and BMI. HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality were not increased, suggesting a limited adverse impact of breast-feeding in mothers receiving extended care for HIV-1 infection.
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH. "Association of levels of HIV-1-infected breast milk cells and risk of mother-to-child transmission. J Infect Dis. 2004 Nov 15;190(10):1880-8. 2004 Oct 07. Rousseau CM, Nduati RW, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC,Mbori-Ngacha DA, Kreiss JK, Overbaugh J.". In: J Infect Dis. 2007 Jan 15;195(2):220-9. Epub 2006 Dec 13. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2004. Abstract
Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. Background. There is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of breast-feeding on maternal mortality from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and little is known about the effects of breast-feeding on markers of HIV-1 disease progression.Methods. HIV-1-seropositive women were enrolled during pregnancy and received short-course zidovudine. HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4 cell counts were determined at baseline and at months 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 postpartum and were compared between breast-feeding and formula-feeding mothers.Results. Of 296 women, 98 formula fed and 198 breast-fed. At baseline, formula-feeding women had a higher education level and prevalence of HIV-1-related illness than did breast-feeding women; however, the groups did not differ with respect to CD4 cell counts and HIV-1 RNA levels. Between months 1 and 24 postpartum, CD4 cell counts decreased 3.9 cells/ mu L/month (P<.001), HIV-1 RNA levels increased 0.005 log(10) copies/mL/month (P=.03), and body mass index (BMI) decreased 0.03 kg/m(2)/month (P<.001). The rate of CD4 cell count decline was higher in breast-feeding mothers (7.2 cells/ mu L/month) than in mothers who never breast-fed (4.0 cells/ mu L/month) (P=.01). BMI decreased more rapidly in breast-feeding women (P=.04), whereas HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality did not differ significantly between breast-feeding and formula-feeding women.Conclusions. Breast-feeding was associated with significant decreases in CD4 cell counts and BMI. HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality were not increased, suggesting a limited adverse impact of breast-feeding in mothers receiving extended care for HIV-1 infection.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "Association of Graduate Planners (1991) Green Cities: Visioning A More Livable Habitat. Waterloo: School of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Waterloo, Canada. Working Paper No. 28.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 1991. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
RJ M, LW G, AM K. "Association of fever and diarrhea with infant teething among mothers attending two health centres in Nairobi." J Kenya Dent Assoc. 2015;2015; 6(2): 265-272(2015; 6(2): 265-272):2015; 6(2): 265-272.
James RM, Gathece LW, Kemoli AM. "Association of fever and diarrhea with infant teething among mothers attending two health centres in Nairobi." Journal of the Kenya Dental Association. 2015;6(2):265-272.
James RM, Gathece LW, Kemoli AM. "Association of fever and diarrhea with infant teething among mothers attending two health centres in Nairobi." Journal of the Kenya Dental Association. 2015;6. Abstract
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James RM, Gathece LW, Kemoli AM. "Association of fever and diarrhea with infant teething among mothers attending two health centres in Nairobi." Journal of the Kenya dental association. 2015;6. Abstract
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Gron KL, Ornbjerg LM, Hetland ML, Aslam F, Khan NA, Jacobs JW, Oyoo O, Stropuviene S, et al. "The association of fatigue, comorbidity burden, disease activity, disability and gross domestic product in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Results from 34 countries participating in the Quest-RA program." Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology. 2014. Abstract

Abstract
OBJECTIVES:

The aim is to assess the prevalence of comorbidities and to further analyse to which degree fatigue can be explained by comorbidity burden, disease activity, disability and gross domestic product (GDP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
METHODS:

Nine thousands eight hundred seventy-four patients from 34 countries, 16 with high GDP (>24.000 US dollars [USD] per capita) and 18 low-GDP countries (<24.000 USD) participated in the Quantitative Standard monitoring of Patients with RA (QUEST-RA) study. The prevalence of 31 comorbid conditions, fatigue (0-10 cm visual analogue scale [VAS] [10=worst]), disease activity in 28 joints (DAS28), and physical disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire score [HAQ]) were assessed. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to assess the association between fatigue and comorbidities, disease activity, disability and GDP.
RESULTS:

Overall, patients reported a median of 2 comorbid conditions of which hypertension (31.5%), osteoporosis (17.6%), osteoarthritis (15.5%) and hyperlipidaemia (14.2%) were the most prevalent. The majority of comorbidities were more common in high-GDP countries. The median fatigue score was 4.4 (4.8 in low-GDP countries and 3.8 in high-GDP countries, p<0.001). In low-GDP countries 25.4% of the patients had a high level of fatigue (>6.6) compared with 23.0% in high-GDP countries (p<0.001). In univariate analysis, fatigue increased with increasing number of comorbidities, disease activity and disability in both high- and low-GDP countries. In multivariate analysis of all countries, these 3 variables explained 29.4% of the variability, whereas GDP was not significant.
CONCLUSIONS:

Fatigue is a widespread problem associated with high comorbidity burden, disease activity and disability regardless of GDP.

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Association of Chlamydia trachomatis heat-shock protein 60 antibody and HLA class II DQ alleles Gaur LK, Peeling RW, Cheang M, Kimani J, Bwayo JJ, Plummer F, Brunham RC. Infect Dis 1999 Jul; 180(1): 234-7.". In: Infect Dis 1999 Jul; 180(1): 234-7. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1999. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
Lokken EM, Manguro GO, Abdallah A, Ngacha C, Shafi J, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Srinivasan S, Fiedler TL, Munch MM, Fredricks DN, McClelland SR, Balkus JE. "Association between vaginal washing and detection of by culture and quantitative PCR in HIV-seronegative Kenyan women: a cross-sectional analysis." Sex Transm Infect. 2019. Abstract

Vaginal washing has been associated with reductions in cultivable and an increased risk of both bacterial vaginosis (BV) and HIV infection. The effect of vaginal washing on the quantity of individual species is not well characterised. This analysis tested the hypothesis that vaginal washing would be associated with a lower likelihood of spp. detected by both culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR).

Gwako GN, Were F, Obimbo MM, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Gachuno OW, Gichangi PB. "Association between utilization and quality of antenatal care with stillbirths in four tertiary hospitals in a low-income urban setting." Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2021;100(4):676-683. Abstract

About 2.6 million stillbirths per year occur globally with 98% occurring in low- and middle-income countries including Kenya, where an estimated 35 000 stillbirths occur annually. Most studies have focused on the direct causes of stillbirth. The aim of this study was to determine the association between antenatal care utilization and quality with stillbirth in a Kenyan set up. This information is key when planning strategies to reduce the stillbirth burden.

Okumu RA, Muiva M, Wagoro M, Abdallah F, Oweya E. "Association between socioeconomic and psychological experiences of parents with children on Leukemia treatment in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Asia-Pacific journal of oncology nursing. 2017;4:38. Abstract
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Mwachaka P, Amayo A, Mwang’ombe N, Kitunguu P. "Association Between Serum Sodium Abnormalities and Clinicoradiologic Parameters in Se." Ann Afr Surg. 2021;18(3):155-162.
Nyagetuba MJK, Saidi H, Githaiga J. "The association between pitch conditions and incidence of injury in rugby." Ann. Afr. Surg.. 2015;12(2):73-76.
Mumbi JN, Mulli TK, Kamundia R. Association between periodontal diseases and tobacco use among adult males in Nairobi. Macigo FG, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1996. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

McClelland SR, Richardson BA, Wanje GH, Graham SM, Mutunga E, Peshu N, Kiarie JN, Kurth AE, Jaoko W. "Association between participant self-report and biological outcomes used to measure sexual risk behavior in human immunodeficiency virus-1-seropositive female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya." Sex Transm Dis. 2011;38(5):429-33. Abstract

Few studies have examined the association between self-reported sexual risk behaviors and biologic outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-seropositive African adults.

Gwako GN, Obimbo MM, Gichangi PB, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Gachuno OW, Were F. "Association between obstetric and medical risk factors and stillbirths in a low-income urban setting." Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2021;154(2):331-336. Abstract

To evaluate the association between obstetric and medical risk factors and stillbirths in a Kenyan set-up.

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Association between Mycoplasma genitalium and acute endometritis. Cohen CR, Manhart LE, Bukusi EA, Astete S, Brunham RC, Holmes KK, Sinei SK, Bwayo JJ, Totten PA. Lancet. 2002 Mar 2;359(9308):765-6.". In: Lancet. 2002 Mar 2;359(9308):765-6. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2002. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
Olang’ P.O.R, Wamalwa D.C. O-OJ:. "Association between maternal hypotension during caeserean section under spinal anesthesia and neonatal acidemia." East African Medical Journal. 2012;89(10):317-321.
Hori D, Tsujiguchi H, Kambayashi Y, Kitaoka M, et al. "The association between lifestyles and mental health using General Health Questionnaire 12-items are different dependently on age and sex: a population-based cross-sectional study." Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine. 2016;21(6):410-421.
Wangaria WS, Okunya LO. "ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FORMAL CONTINUOUS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND JOB SATISFACTION AMONG CLINICAL OFFICERS IN NAIROBI COUNTY, KENYA." International Journal of Education and Social Science Research . 2019;2(2):43-67.
Folayan MO, Tantawi ME, Schroth R, Kemoli AM, Gaffar B, Amalia R, Feldens CA. "Association between environmental health, ecosystem vitality and early childhood caries." Front Pediatr. 2020;2020; 8:196.(2020; 8:196.):2020; 8:196.
MO F, M ET, NM A, OB A-B, RJ S, JL C, JI V, BO G, R A, A K, A V, CA F. "Association between early childhood caries and poverty in low and middle-income countries." BMC Oral health. 2020;2020; 20:8(2020; 20:8):2020; 20:8.
MO F, M O, ME T, A K, OB A-B, B G. "Association between early childhood caries and intimate partner violence in 20 low-and middle-income countries: 2007-2017." Head and neck Surgery Dentistry Journal. 2020.
Okunya LO, Mwangi DN. "ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DURATION OF INSTITUTIONALIZATION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL COPING STRATEGIES AMONG ADOLESCENTS ." International Journal of Education and Social Science Research . 2018;1(6).diana_njoki_coping_paper_ijessr_01_99.pdf
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Association between cervical shedding of herpes simplex virus and HIV-1. McClelland RS, Wang CC, Overbaugh J, Richardson BA, Corey L, Ashley RL, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK. AIDS. 2002 Dec 6;16(18):2425-30.". In: AIDS. 2002 Dec 6;16(18):2425-30. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2002. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
Maingi N, Scott ME. "The association between biological characteristics in Haemonchus contortus and thiabendazole resistance.". In: Meeting of the Canadian Society of Zoologists. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada; 1988.
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Association and Path Coefficient Analysis for Yield and its components in Maize.". In: Kenya Jour. of Sci., Ser. B,9 (1&2) pp45-48. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1988. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
Moturi CA, Kahonge VW. "Association Analysis of Pharmaceutical Imports in Kenya." International Journal of Computer Applications Technology and Research. 2015;4(6):467-474. AbstractWebsite

The objective of this study was to apply Data Mining in the analysis of imports of pharmaceutical products in Kenya with the aim of discovering patterns of association and correlation among the various product groups. The RapidMiner Data Mining was used to analyze data obtained from the Pharmacy and Poison Board, the regulator of pharmaceutical products in the country, covering the period 2008 to 2010. The CRISP method was used to get a business understanding of the Board, understand the nature of the data held, prepare the data for analyze and actual analysis of the data. The results of the study discovered various patterns through correlation and association analysis of various product groups. The results were presented through various graphs and discussed with the domain experts.These patterns are similar to prescription patterns from studies in Ethiopia, Nigeria and India. The research will provide regulators of pharmaceutical products, not only in Kenya but other African countries, a better insight into the patterns of imports and exports of pharmaceutical products. This would result into better controls, not only in import and exports of the products, but also enforcement on their usage in order to avert negative effects to the citizens.

Narang S., Seawright J.A., T.K. M, N.L.Willis. "Assignment of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and glucose oxidase to chromosome 2 of Anopheles albimanus.Can." J.Genet.Cytol. 1983;25:567.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Assey R.J., Balemba O.B., Owiti G.O. and Wango E.O. (2003). Prenatal ovarian follicular development in the zebu (Bos indicus). Tanzanian Vet J. 21(2):.". In: Biennial Conference. Faculty of Vet. Medicine. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2003. Abstract
Although a relationship between Lapiat and post-Lapita ceramic traditions has long been suspected, a systematic and detailed examination of the similarities and differences has not been previously made. An important first step is to determine the nature of change from one to the other by examining pottery from sites which have the full ceramic sequence. My analyses of the assemblages from Manus and New Island demonstrate continuity between the two traditions.
Koech KJ, Kabui AC, Migosi J. "Assessment on the Influence of Top Leadership on Service Delivery in the Kenya Police Service in Kitui County." International Journal of Business and Commerce. 2016;5(8):40-46.
Ibrahim, Farah A; Kahn H. "Assessment of world views .". 1987.Website
Kavoo DM, Ali SH, Kihara AB, Kosgei RJ, Tweya H, Kizito W, Ogutu O, Tauta CN. "An assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene (wash) practices and quality of routinely collected data in Machakos County, Kenya ." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93(10).
Simeon Lesrima, GH Nyamasyo KKK. "Assessment of Water resources Access, Use and Management, in the Upper Ewaso Nyiro North River Basin: A Case for Laikipia County." Journal of International Business, Innovation and Strategic Management. 2018;1(8):1-21.
Chebet EB, Kibet JK, Mbui D. "The assessment of water quality in river Molo water basin, Kenya." Applied Water Science. 2020;10(4):1-10. AbstractApplied Water Science

Description
The monitoring of water quality for both domestic and commercial use is absolutely essential for policy formulation that affects both public and environmental health. This study investigates the quality of water of river Molo system which lies in the Kenyan Rift Valley. The river is considered a vital source of water for the residents and industrial activities in Nakuru and Baringo Counties. Six water samples were collected during the dry season of December 2017. Various physicochemical parameters were determined in situ by use of a portable pH meter. These parameters included pH, temperature, electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids (TDS). Anions such as fluorides, sulfates, phosphates, nitrates, chlorides, carbonates and bicarbonates were determined using conventional methods such as titrimetry and (ultra-violet visible) UV–Vis techniques. The cations including sodium, potassium, calcium and …
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and Inkani, A.I KNGOIA. "Assessment of Water Demand and Supply Situations in Rural Areas of Katsina State, Nigeria." The Nigerian Geographical Journal, New Series. 2015;Vo. 10(No. 2):1-12.publications.docx
Njeru L. "An Assessment of Vulnerability and Risks of Climate Change and Possible Solutions to Enhance Resilience to Adapt to the Change in Meru County, Kenya." Scholars Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences . 2017;4(7)( e-ISSN 2348–1854):267-272.
Hayes, P. FO-MMKRKMNGJE, O. Anzala, F. Roman BBEEHSFPCPBJM, and Gilmour J. "Assessment of Viral Inhibition Activity in Low Seroprevalent Adenovirus-35 Vectored Hiv Vaccines+/- Adjuvanted Protein or Electroporated DNA." AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014;30 Suppl 1:A188.
Dulo, Wasonga. Assessment of Urban Water Supply: Case Study of Athi Town.. Lulu Publishers. ISBN- 978-1-105-09985-4; 2011.Website
Gitau AK, Oyieke FO, Mukabana WR. "Assessment of tungiasis management knowledge in Kandara sub county, Kenya." Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 2021;9(4):127-136.
Gitau 2. AK, Oyieke FA, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana. "Assessment of tungiasis management knowledge in Kandara sub county Mukabana, ." Journal of Entomology and Zoology studies. 2021;9(4):127-136.2021-2.pdf
Otadoh JA, Okoth SA, Ochanda J, Kahindi JP. "Assessment of Trichoderma isolates for virulence efficacy on Fusarium oxysporum F. sp. Phaseoli.". 2011;(13):99-107. Abstract

Trichoderma has been widely studied for their biocontrol ability, but their use as biocontrol agents in agriculture is limited due to the unpredictable efficiency which is affected by biotic and abiotic factors in soil. Isolates of Trichoderma from Embu soils were evaluated for their ability to control Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli., in vitro and promote seedling growth in the greenhouse. Bioassays were run using dual cultures and diffusible compound production analysis. The Trichoderma isolates significantly (p < 0.01) reduced the mycelial growth of the pathogen. The principle mechanisms of niche competition, mycoparasitism, and antibiosis were observed in growth of the pathogen mycelium in the presence of Trichoderma spp., through development of inhibition zones. There was coiling of hyphae around the pathogen mycelium coupled by lysising of cell wall Trichoderma spp., where T. reesei and T. koningii were the most effective isolates. Studies were indicative of the synergistic ability of Trichoderma spp., being an effective biocontrol of bean seedlings against Fusarium wilt while also promoting plant growth.

Liavoga BA, Kathumo VM, Onwonga RN, Karuku GN, Onyango CM. "Assessment of trends in land cover and crop type change over two decades in Yatta sub county,Kenya." International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2014;Vol. 2(No. 3):46-52.
Liavoga B. A., V. M. Kathumo OKORNGN. "Assessment of Trends in Land Cover and Crop Type Change Over Two Decades in Yatta Sub County, Kenya." International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2014;Vol. 2, ( No. 3):46-52.
 Liavoga BA, Kathumo VM, Onwonga RN, Karuku GN, Onyango CM. "Assessment of trends in land cover and crop type change over two decades in Yatta sub county, Kenya." International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2014;2(3):46-52.
OLEWE-NYUNYA PROFJD. ASSESSMENT OF TRAINING IN POLICY ANALYSIS.; 1992.
Wesonga FD;, Kitala PM;, Gathuma JM;, Njenga MJ;, Ngumi PN. "An assessment of tick-borne diseases constraints to livestock production in a smallholder livestock production system in Machakos District, Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

The principle objective of the study was to determine the tick- borne diseases constraints to livestock production in Machakos District. The survey was carried out in eight randomly selected sub- locations spread across the district. Two hundred farmers were recruited into the study. All cattle from the selected farms were bled to determine the prevalence of tick- borne diseases. Clinical examination of sick animals was carried out during the survey. Questionnaires with questions designed to identify and rank various tick- borne disease production constraints, occurrence of tick- borne diseases, mortality and disease control strategies were administered. A total of 634 zebu and 15 cross- breed (Friesian-zebu crosses) cattle were sampled on the 200 farms for blood parasite infections (serology and direct parasite detection) and tick infestation. From the farmers’ perceptive, East Coast fever (ECF) and anaplasma were ranked as the main tick -borne diseases prevalent in the district. Although babesia was not ranked as one of the main tick-borne diseases in the district by the farmers, serological analysis did indicate a high prevalence of the disease. Tick challenge was high in seven of the eight sub-locations where the survey was carried out. The most common tick species were Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi, Rhipicephalus pulchellus and Boophilus decoloratus. Veterinary services in the district are inadequate with up to 92 % of the farmers in one of the sub-locations treating their sick animals without the assistance of qualified veterinary personnel.

Ndeti N, Mecha E. "Assessment of the Use of Contraceptives among young Women in Nairobi." Journal of African Communication Research. 2016;Vol. 7(No. 1):pg 103 to 117.
Simeon Lesrima, GH Nyamasyo KKK. "Assessment of the trends and presence of Water Related Conflicts in the Upper Ewaso Nyiro North River Basin: A Case for Laikipia County." Journal of International Business, Innovation and Strategic Management. 2018;1(8):22-40.
"Assessment of the Technical Competence and Ethical Behaviour of Community-based Animal Health Workers in Mwingi District, Kenya.". 2005. Abstract

This paper describes an assessment of the technical competence and ethical behaviour of Community-based Animal Health Workers (CAHWs) in Mwingi District, Kenya. From 99 trained CAHWs, 40 participated in the study. Using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire, direct observation of the relevant veterinary drug kits and participatory discussions, the study team found that the CAHWs knowledge of clinical signs of local livestock diseases and notifiable and zoonotic diseases and their ability to use veterinary drugs correctly and safely were adequate. Marks were awarded to the candidates according to an agreed marking scheme between the CAHWs’ trainers and study team members. The results showed that, overall, 36 out of 40 (90%) of the sampled CAHWs passed the tests. The existence of a referral system for CAHWs and refresher trainings helped to ensure that CAHW competence and ethical behaviour were maintained. However, it was also found that some areas of the current curriculum required more detailed input based on field experience. The CAHW system could serve as an alternative animal health care system in areas lacking veterinary services.

Baden LR, Karita E, Mutua G, Bekker L-G, Glenda Gray, Hoosen M. Coovadia, Page-Shipp L, Walsh SR, Nyombayire J, Anzala O, Roux S, Laher F, Innes C, Seaman MS, Cohen YZ, Peter L, Frahm N, McElrath JM, Hayes P, Swann E, Grunenberg N, Grazia-Pau M, Weijtens M, Sadoff J, Dally L, Lombardo A, Gilmour J, Cox J, Dolin R, Fast P, Barouch DH, Laufer DS. "Assessment of the Safety and Immunogenicity of 2 Novel Vaccine Platforms for HIV-1 Prevention: A Randomized Trial." Ann. Intern. Med.. 2016;164(5):313-22. Abstract

A prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine is a global health priority.

ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS, BAARO DRGATHURAPETER. "Assessment of the Rose-Bengal plate test for the diagnosis of human brucellosis in health facilities in Narok District, Kenya.". In: journal. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1998. Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
J. M’eruaki, Njeru L, Kiunga G. "An Assessment of the Roleof Internal Savings and LendingCommunities (SILC) in Community Empowerment in Igembe North SubCounty, Kenya." Scholars Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences (SJAHSS). 2017;5(8)(ISSN): 2347-5374.
Gitau AK2021, Oyieke FA, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana. "Assessment of the role played by domestic animals in jigger infection in Kandara sub-county, Kenya (case control study)." Pan African Medical Journal. 2021;39:231.2021-1.pdf
Gitau AK, Oyieke FA, W.R. Mukabana. "Assessment of the role played by domestic animals in jigger infection in Kandara sub-county, Kenya (case control study)." The Pan African Medical Journal. 2021;39:231.
Wachira SN, Ndwigah SN, Ongarora DSB, Okaru AO. "Assessment of the Quality of Sodium Hypochlorite and Hydrogen Peroxide product samples in Nairobi County." International Journal of Novel Research and Development. 2022;7(3):503-514.
Hassan S, Skilton RA, Pelle R, Odongo D, Bishop RP, Ahmed J, Seitzer U, Bakheit M, HASSAN SM, El Hussein AM. "Assessment of the prevalence of Theileria lestoquardi in sheep from the Sudan using serological and molecular methods." Prev Vet Med. 2019;169:104697. Abstract

Malignant theileriosis of sheep and goats caused by Theileria lestoquardi is considered to be among the most important tick borne diseases in the Sudan. Information on the prevalence of the disease in different parts of the Sudan is limited. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the disease in five states of the Sudan using molecular and serological assays. A total of 393 blood and serum samples from clinically asymptomatic sheep were analysed using nested reverse line blot (nRLB) and loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), as well as an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results indicated a sero-prevalence of 33.8% while RLB and LAMP assays revealed molecular prevalences of 29.5 and 22.6% respectively. The prevalence of Theileria lestoquardi varied significantly according to the geographical origin of the infected animals, whereas age and gender did not have a significant effect. RLB data indicated that T. lestoquardi usually occurred as a co-infection with the non-pathogenic Theileria ovis. Using RLB as a gold standard, a sensitivity of 68.1% and a specificity of 96.4% were recorded for LAMP and a sensitivity of 75.9% and a specificity of 83.8% for ELISA. The Kappa coefficient between nRLB and LAMP indicated a significant level of agreement (0.692), but only moderate concordance (0.572) between nRLB and ELISA. The results of the present study confirm and extend earlier findings regarding the widespread of T. lestoquardi infections in sheep in the Sudan. The data provide evidence that should enable the veterinary authorities to deploy appropriate control measures.

Mbaka M, Gathura PB, Njeruh FM, Mbaria JM, Kitala PM, Kaburia HK, Gitahi JN, Macharia JK, Kamau JM. "An Assessment of the Presence of Escherichia coli in the roof-collected rainwater from some areas around Nairobi." Kenya Veterinarian. 2004;27:97-102. Abstract
n/a
Kamau JM;, Macharia JK;, Gitahi JN;, Kaburia HK;, Kitala PM;, Mbaria JM;, Njeruh, F. M., M; Gathura PB, Mbaka M. "An Assessment of the Presence of Escherichia coli in the roof-collected rainwater from some areas around Nairobi.". 2004. Abstract

One of the sources of feacal contamination of rainwater harvested from roofs is wind-blown dust containing particulate matter from animal faeces, or through direct defecation. Since the primary habitat for Escherichia coli (E.coli) is the gastro-intestinal tract of mammals and birds (Atlas 1984), it\'s a good indictor of feacal contamination (Hazen, 1988). This study aimed to investigate the presence of E.coli. In rainwater samples collected from roofs in some areas around Nairobi, which have different levels of livestock density. Forty four of the 89 samples collected tested positive for the presence of E.coli from Ngong Division, which had a cattle density of 1446 per square Kilometre was, 55%, but it was not significantly different from both Kikuyu Division: cattle density of 166; both of which had 34% of the samples testing positive to E.coli (p=0.3094). It was concluded that rain water harvested from roofs for human consumption in the study area should be treated before use.

A MRKABURIAHF. "An assessment of the presence of Escherichia coli in the roof-collected rain water from some areas around Nairobi. The Kenya veterinarian 27: 97-102.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2004. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
M. M, Gathura PB, Njeru FM, P.M K, H.F.A K, J.N. G, J.K M, J.M K. "An assessment of the Presence of Escherichia coli in the Roof-collected Rain Water from some areas around Nairobi. ." . The Kenya veterinarian. 2004; 27: 97-102.
BAARO DRGATHURAPETER. "An assessment of the presence of E. coli in roof-collected rainwater from some areas around Nairobi. Kenya Vet. 73: 79 .". In: journal. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2004. Abstract
This study was conducted to evaluate the control of trypanosomosis in camels in Turkana district of Kenya using participatory approaches. Lapur division of the district was conveniently selected as the study area considering logistics and security concerns. Four main animal camps (adakars) formed the study units. Key informants from each adakar were selected for participatory research processes. Participatory mapping, semi-structured interviews, pair-wise comparisons and matrix scoring were the participatory methods employed. Five camel diseases in order of their importance, were identified, namely, camel trypanososmosis, tick infestation, non-specific diarrhoea, mange and harmorrhagic septicaemia. Twelve groups of the lay key informants agreed well on the presenting signs of theses diseases. Although trypanocides were considered by the informants to be reasonably available, the most preferred method for the control of camel trypanosomosis was the use of indigenous remedies. These indigenous remedies included the oral administration to sick camels with variety of herbs mixed with soups from goat, wildcat, bird or donkey meat. The results from this study revealed that camel trypanosomosis is an important disease in Turkana district. The prices of the available modern trypanocides in the management of camel trypanosomosis appeared to hamper the effective control of the disease. However, the efficacy of the widely used indigenous remedies remains undetermined.
Ogana W, Ntiba MJ, Kudoja WM. "Assessment of the potential impact of climate change on fisheries in Lake Victoria using the predictor rule. ." Importance of Mathematical Modelling in Biological and Biomedical Processes. Luboobi, L.S., J.Y.T. Mugisha and J. Kasozi, Eds. Makerere University Press, Kampala. 2004;(African Society for Biomathematics Series No. 1):pp. 139-148.

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