Publications

Found 8032 results

Sort by: [ Author  (Asc)] Title Type Year
Filters: First Letter Of Last Name is M  [Clear All Filters]
A B C D E F G H I J K L [M] N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   [Show ALL]
M
M.O O, Immaculate* M, P G, Baker P, G K, I I. "Polydisperse Low Diameter "Non-Toxic' Silver Nanoparticles Encapsulated by Rooibos Tea Templates." Nanohybrids. 2014;8:57-72.
M.O.C. Ota, C. Oluwalana a HGOM-GOSRCM, a M.W. Mureithi, J. Townend SASAOMJS. "Antibody and T cell responses during acute and convalescent stages of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease." International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2011;15:282-288.
M.OGUTU. "Impact of Gender on Perception of Managerial Leadership.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Management,. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1996. Abstract

Summing multipliers is an important class of operators in the geometric theory of general Banach spaces. They are particularly useful in the study of the structure of the classical spaces. The work done by Grothendieck and Pietsch provides a good basis for the study of this class of operators. The topic of this study is Aspects on (p,q)-summing multipliers. (p,q)-summing multipliers are sequences of bounded linear operators mapping weakly p-summable sequences into strongly q-summable sequences. This study is concerned with using the concepts of absolute and p-summing multipliers to characterize the space of all (p,q)-summing multipliers. In particular we show that the space of all (p, q)-summing multipliers is complete. This is accomplished through a detailed study of the concepts of the summing operators and absolute and p-summing multipliers

M.OGUTU. "Psychic Distances as an explanatory variable for Kenyan Export Development. International Journal of Finance and Accounting Behaviour, 2009.". In: International Journal of Finance and Accounting Behaviour, 2009. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2009. Abstract

Summing multipliers is an important class of operators in the geometric theory of general Banach spaces. They are particularly useful in the study of the structure of the classical spaces. The work done by Grothendieck and Pietsch provides a good basis for the study of this class of operators. The topic of this study is Aspects on (p,q)-summing multipliers. (p,q)-summing multipliers are sequences of bounded linear operators mapping weakly p-summable sequences into strongly q-summable sequences. This study is concerned with using the concepts of absolute and p-summing multipliers to characterize the space of all (p,q)-summing multipliers. In particular we show that the space of all (p, q)-summing multipliers is complete. This is accomplished through a detailed study of the concepts of the summing operators and absolute and p-summing multipliers

M.OGUTU. "Self-image and Retail Store Patronage .". In: Journal of Vocational Behaviour. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1982. Abstract

Summing multipliers is an important class of operators in the geometric theory of general Banach spaces. They are particularly useful in the study of the structure of the classical spaces. The work done by Grothendieck and Pietsch provides a good basis for the study of this class of operators. The topic of this study is Aspects on (p,q)-summing multipliers. (p,q)-summing multipliers are sequences of bounded linear operators mapping weakly p-summable sequences into strongly q-summable sequences. This study is concerned with using the concepts of absolute and p-summing multipliers to characterize the space of all (p,q)-summing multipliers. In particular we show that the space of all (p, q)-summing multipliers is complete. This is accomplished through a detailed study of the concepts of the summing operators and absolute and p-summing multipliers

M.OGUTU. "A Critique of Markov Analysis in Forecasting Market shares (Co-author, Business Management Review).". In: Vol. 4 No. 2, A Dar es salaam University Journal. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1997. Abstract

Summing multipliers is an important class of operators in the geometric theory of general Banach spaces. They are particularly useful in the study of the structure of the classical spaces. The work done by Grothendieck and Pietsch provides a good basis for the study of this class of operators. The topic of this study is Aspects on (p,q)-summing multipliers. (p,q)-summing multipliers are sequences of bounded linear operators mapping weakly p-summable sequences into strongly q-summable sequences. This study is concerned with using the concepts of absolute and p-summing multipliers to characterize the space of all (p,q)-summing multipliers. In particular we show that the space of all (p, q)-summing multipliers is complete. This is accomplished through a detailed study of the concepts of the summing operators and absolute and p-summing multipliers

M.OGUTU. "A Critique of Markov Analysis in Forecasting Market shares (Co.". In: A Dar-es-Salaam University Journal. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1997. Abstract

Summing multipliers is an important class of operators in the geometric theory of general Banach spaces. They are particularly useful in the study of the structure of the classical spaces. The work done by Grothendieck and Pietsch provides a good basis for the study of this class of operators. The topic of this study is Aspects on (p,q)-summing multipliers. (p,q)-summing multipliers are sequences of bounded linear operators mapping weakly p-summable sequences into strongly q-summable sequences. This study is concerned with using the concepts of absolute and p-summing multipliers to characterize the space of all (p,q)-summing multipliers. In particular we show that the space of all (p, q)-summing multipliers is complete. This is accomplished through a detailed study of the concepts of the summing operators and absolute and p-summing multipliers

M.OGUTU. "An investigation into the effect of management factors on performance of micro, small and medium enterprises in Kenya. .". In: International Journal of Business and Management, Vol.5 No 11. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2010. Abstract

Summing multipliers is an important class of operators in the geometric theory of general Banach spaces. They are particularly useful in the study of the structure of the classical spaces. The work done by Grothendieck and Pietsch provides a good basis for the study of this class of operators. The topic of this study is Aspects on (p,q)-summing multipliers. (p,q)-summing multipliers are sequences of bounded linear operators mapping weakly p-summable sequences into strongly q-summable sequences. This study is concerned with using the concepts of absolute and p-summing multipliers to characterize the space of all (p,q)-summing multipliers. In particular we show that the space of all (p, q)-summing multipliers is complete. This is accomplished through a detailed study of the concepts of the summing operators and absolute and p-summing multipliers

M.P Okemwa, E.A Rogena RGFDG. "Pattern of road traffic fatalities in Nairobi." Annals of African surgery. 2008;3.
M.W N, A.O M, J.K M. "Vitamin A supplementation awareness among mothers of children under five years old at Mbagathi District Hospital, Nairobi, ." Kenya. East African Journal of Public Health. 2010;7(3):238-246.
M.W. W, Hansted L, Gikungu M, G K, AS B. "Characterization of Kenyan Honeys Based on Their Physicochemical Properties, Botanical and Geographical Origin." International Journal of Food Science . 2019;2019(2932509):10.
M.W. G, Mwaura F, Wamalwa J. "Pollution along the Altitudinal Gradient of the Likii River, Laikipia County, ." Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health, . 2019;7(1) :39-52.
Ma. "3rd Annual East Africa Transport & Infrastructure Projects 2016.". In: 3rd Annual East Africa Transport & Infrastructure Projects 2016 . Nairobi,Kenya; 2016.transport__infrastructure_projects_2016.pdf
Maalim H, Omuga B, Ongeso A, Okube T. "Determinants of Mode of Delivery Among Postnatal Mothers Admitted in Wajir County Referral Hospital, Kenya." EC Gynaecology. 2017;6(4):128-138. Abstract

Background: Globally, giving birth through the natural process, ‘Vaginally’ has been widely accepted as unquestioned mode of birth. On the other hand, use of caesarean Section (CS), which involves a surgical incision, has also been utilized as a mode of delivery especially among women with medical or obstetric indications. Delivery through CS is a life saving measure which plays a crucial role in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality from direct causes such as hemorrhage, infection, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and obstructed labor [1]. In Kenya, the National maternal mortality rate was 362/100,000. However, in the study area, Wajir county, it was 1683/100,000 [2]. Advances in technology and its adoption in reproductive health have resulted in an increase in the number of Caesarean delivery in the recent years. This has increased options for preferred mode of delivery for mothers and plays a significant role in reduction of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity rates. However, in most African countries, mainly in rural and marginalized areas, use of caesarian section remains low even when there is clear indication. Despite this, limited studies to establish determinants of modes of delivery have been done especially in remote rural areas such as Wajir County.
Objective: The main objective of this study was to establish determinants of mode of delivery among postnatal mothers admitted in Wajir County referral Hospital.
Materials and Methods: A hospital based descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. Mixed method of quantitative and qualitative data was employed among 178 postnatal mothers who were systematically sampled from Wajir county Referral hospital.
Quantitative data was collected using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire and qualitative data was collected using Focus group discussion from the postnatal mothers. Descriptive analysis using means, frequency and proportions was computed. Chi-square test
(p < 0.05) with corresponding 95% confidence interval was used to determine the association between the various variables.
Results: The prevalence of Caesarian Section delivery among the respondents was 32%. Analyses with Chi-Square test of independence revealed that maternal age (p = 0.001), marital status (p = 0.016), level of education (p = 0.007), parity (p = 0.03), FGM practice
(p = 0.001) and belonging to the social health groups (p = 0.001) were the variables significantly associated with mode of delivery. A substantial number of women did not have sufficient knowledge on delivery options, benefits and risks to inform their decisions on delivery modes.
Conclusion: Vaginal Delivery is the most preferred mode of delivery even when CS is medically indicated. Caesarian section acceptance remains low due to lack of correct knowledge, poor attitude towards CS and lack of proper women counseling during ANC visits. Therefore, there is need for educational and economic empowerment of women and girls complemented with effective community sensitization and awareness campaigns on delivery-related complications, risks and alternative delivery options for emergency cases.
Keywords: Mode of Delivery; Postnatal Mothers; Wajir County Referral Hospital; Vaginal Delivery

Maalu J,, J.N Kiiru, et al. "Impact Assessment of WEDCO Enterprise. IDS Occasional.". In: University of Nairobi. CHAK Times; 1998.
Maalu J, Kabui E. "Perception of Entrepreneurship as a career by students from selected public secondary schools in Nairobi." DBA Africa management Review. 2012;2(3):101-120. AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT
This study sought to determine how students of public secondary schools in Nairobi perceive entrepreneurship as a career and whether they would want to pursue a career in entrepreneurship upon completion of school. The study bore in mind that both exogenous and endogenous factors have the potential to influence the students’ perception of entrepreneurship and thus contribute in determining their entrepreneurial intentions. As such learning Business Studies in secondary school and having parents/ guardians in self employment was viewed as having prior exposure to entrepreneurship. Data for this study was obtained by use of a questionnaire administered to randomly selected students from selected schools that were representative of public secondary schools in Nairobi. They were 135 respondents who comprised of both male and female students and students ranging from Form one (1) to Form four (4). The research revealed that although majority of students had a positive perception of entrepreneurship as a career option, there were various factors that were perceived as hindrances or challenges. Key of these was the fear of failure, lack of sufficient knowledge to start and run own business and the inadequate funds to start business. The study also revealed that there was no significant difference in the perception of entrepreneurship between students who had had prior exposure through Business Studies subject at school and those who had not studied the subject. It was also observed that students who had parents/ guardians in self employment were not highly motivated to go into entrepreneurship so as to continue in family business.
Key words: Career choice, entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial perceptions

Maalu J, Mshenga P, Owuor G. "Market segmentation and Micro and small Business Growth. The Case of Furniture Manufacturers in Mombasa." Egerton Journal of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education. 2004;2(july): Egerton University Press. AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT
Despite the significant role played by micro- and small –scale enterprises (MSEs) in Kenya’s economic development, the furniture sub-sector has over the years experienced constraints that have limited it from realizing its full potential. This paper uses data from a clustered random sample of 60 furniture manufacturers from Mombasa District to identify market segmentation strategies used by these MSEs, and to establish the effects of these strategies on business growth. A chi-square statistical method is used to analyse the data. Results reveal that a 62% of the respondents employed market segmentation in their businesses, and that the business owners’ education level and the age of the business significantly influenced the market segmentation strategy employed. Further, the segmentation marketing strategy leads to growth in a firm’s market share. The results also indicate that the most commonly used segmentation variables include: income, benefit sought, and social classification. The implication of this result is the critical importance of empowering the MSE owners with knowledge of market segmentation that would facilitate the production of furniture items that are determined by consumer demand.

Key words: segmentation, micro and small business, growth

Maalu J, McCormick D. "Innovation hubs and small enterprises in Africa:Setting the policy agenda." Africa Journal of Business and Management. 2012;1(2):85-94. AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT

Innovation is the key to survival in a dynamic environment. The concept of innovation finds application at all levels, micro – firm level, macro – national level and regional level. Efforts towards promoting innovation at national and regional level will impact directly on the other lower levels. This theoretical paper attempts to indicate the role of innovation hubs, place of small enterprises and the policy agenda that development planners need to focus on. It is argued that while a lot of empirical work has been carried out on innovation hubs and small enterprises, the literature is based on the western context which does not reflect the realities of the African business systems.

Key words: innovation, innovation hubs, small enterprises, African business systems, sme policy.

Maalu J, Mwachinalo S. "Knowledge management strategy and organizational change in commercial banks in Kenya." Review of Social Sciences. 2016;1(7):32-43.
Maalu J, McCormick D, K'OBONYO PO. "Succession strategy and performance of small and medium family business in Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of education and research. 2013;1(6). AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT
Succession is an inevitable event in the life of a family business. The mode and the strategies employed to facilitate the trans-generational transition of ownership and control have been observed to have a significant influence on the survival and performance of family businesses. Against the background of minimal research on family business succession in Kenya, and rich entrepreneurship, this study aimed at determining the nature of business succession strategies and their influence on the performance of small and medium family businesses in Nairobi. Data on the businesses’ transition strategies and their performance were obtained from 249 SMEs through a structured questionnaire and interviews. The results indicate that family owned SMEs in Nairobi did not explicitly document their succession strategy. However contrary to expectations regarding the nature of succession, it was evident that they make significant unwritten plans for trans-generational succession. While the study did not indicate a strong and significant relationship between succession and firm performance, it emerged from the case studies that firms that went through smooth succession also recorded significant growth post transition. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the pertinent theories, previous research findings and family business management.

Key words: Succession strategy, family owned SME, performance.

Maalu J, Nzuve S, Muindi FK. "A survey of personal goals and perceptions of entrepreneurial ability among students of the School of Business, University of Nairobi." Africa Journal of Business and Management. 2012;1(1):12-24. AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT
A great deal of research has investigated the reason for the creation of new enterprises and the entrepreneurial characteristics of those individuals responsible for the emergence of new firms. This was a study on how do the students of the university of Nairobi business school perceive their entrepreneurial ability in relation to personal goals? The goals in entrepreneurial ability are influenced by factors such as: maximum utilization of own skills and talents; full control of own future; achievement of what one values personally; being “my own boss”; the freedom/opportunity to make own decisions; the opportunity to learn new things; financial security; performing challenging and exciting work; having peace of mind with a peaceful and stress-free life; allocation of enough free time for family, hobbies, leisure, and other interests; an opportunity to extend one’s range of abilities, a goal to accumulate wealth; desire to live an adventurous and exciting life; the goal to start own business, striving for an idea to own business, an ultimate goal to be self employed and the wish to become an influential person to the future.
Key words: Personal Goals, Entrepreneurial Ability and Business School Students.

Maalu J, Wekesa LC. "Firm strategy impact on performance of small and medium enterprises." Prime journal of Social Science (PJSS) ISSN:2315-5051 . 2013;2(1):176-180. AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT
Managers of business firms employ various strategies to be more competitive and profitable. However, the question whether strategy positively impacts on performance abounds. Thus the paper was aimed at seeking answers to the question by providing a systematic review of various studies on the relationship between strategy and firm performance. Existing studies have used various strategy topologies to examine the relationship between strategy and firm performance. The most prominent ones include the typology of Chandler (1962), Miles and Snow (1978), Porter (1980) and Mintzberg (1990). There is almost unanimous agreement among studies that business organizations with a clear and consistent strategy will perform better than firms without such a strategy. It is clear from the studies that the trajectory to high levels of performance is partly based upon a strategy that would strengthen firm’s dynamic strategic capabilities which are critical mechanism between the business activities and performance.
Key words: Entrepreneurship, firm performance, strategy, topologies, SMEs.

Maalu J MS. "Determinants of community participation in constituency development fund projects in Mvita Constituency, Mombasa County, Kenya." Prime Journal of Social Sciences (PJSS).. 2014;3 (8)(July 2014):842-849.
Maany I. "Tardive dyskinesia." Dis Nerv Syst. 1976;37(10):587.
Mabetsela, N, Marx, S, G.O O. Optimization of enzymatic conversion of maize stover to bioethanol. Sommerset West, South Africa; 2009.
Mabeya JM;, Nderitu JH;, Wambua EW. "Pesticide Use and Implications in Horticultural Export Crops in Kenya."; 2002. Abstract

Horticultural exports earned Kenya 14 billion and 20 billion shillings in the years 2000 and 2001 respectively, from an estimated volume of 99 million tonnes and 93 million tonnes respectively. This indicates an increase in value of the exports, and makes horticulture the second highest foreign income earner after tea. Pesticides are a major production cost in the large-scale enterprises. Every year large amounts of pesticides are used to manage pests in horticulture, so as to ensure high quality production especially for export market. Local markets have also evolved as to demand high quality blemish free horticultural products. This has made farmers to increase use of pesticides and other agrochemicals. The types, quantities and market value of pesticides imported and sold for various crops would indicate the trend of pesticides usage in Kenya. The horticultural exports from this country are subject to stringent European Union (EU) requirements on Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs). The EU being the most important export destination, the issue of MRLs should urgently be addressed. Measures need to be put in place to ensure that Kenya does not lose its horticultural export niche. These may include, developing and devising crop protection strategies based on the farmers’ needs, strengthening various relevant institutions and developing sound pest management policies.

Mabeya JM;, and Nderitu JH, Wambua EW. " Pesticide use and implications in horticultural export crops in Kenya.". In: Proc. Of the Second horticultural Conference on Sustainable horticultural production in the tropics. Nairobi; 2002.
Mabuka, Jennifer; Nduati RW; O-DK; PD; OJ. "HIV-Specific Antibodies Capable of ADCC Are Common in Breastmilk and Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Transmission in Women with High Viral Loads.". 2012. Abstract

There are limited data describing the functional characteristics of HIV-1 specific antibodies in breast milk (BM) and their role in breastfeeding transmission. The ability of BM antibodies to bind HIV-1 envelope, neutralize heterologous and autologous viruses and direct antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) were analyzed in BM and plasma obtained soon after delivery from 10 non-transmitting and 9 transmitting women with high systemic viral loads and plasma neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). Because subtype A is the dominant subtype in this cohort, a subtype A envelope variant that was sensitive to plasma NAbs was used to assess the different antibody activities. We found that NAbs against the subtype A heterologous virus and/or the woman's autologous viruses were rare in IgG and IgA purified from breast milk supernatant (BMS) – only 4 of 19 women had any detectable NAb activity against either virus. Detected NAbs were of low potency (median IC50 value of 10 versus 647 for the corresponding plasma) and were not associated with infant infection (p=0.58). The low NAb activity in BMS versus plasma was reflected in binding antibody levels: HIV-1 envelope specific IgG titers were 2.2 log10 lower (compared to 0.59 log10 lower for IgA) in BMS versus plasma. In contrast, antibodies capable of ADCC were common and could be detected in the BMS from all 19 women. BMS envelope-specific IgG titers were associated with both detection of IgG NAbs (p=0.0001)and BMS ADCC activity (p=0.014). Importantly, BMS ADCC capacity was inversely associated with infant infection risk (p=0.039). Our findings indicate that BMS has low levels of envelope specific IgG and IgA with limited neutralizing activity. However, this small study of women with high plasma viral loads suggests that breastmilk ADCC activity is a correlate of transmission that may impact infant infection risk.

Mabuka J, Goo L, Omenda MM, Ruth Nduati, Overbaugh J. "HIV-1 maternal and infant variants show similar sensitivity to broadly neutralizing antibodies, but sensitivity varies by subtype." AIDS. 2013;27(10):1535-44. Abstract

To protect against HIV infection, passively transferred and/or vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) need to effectively target diverse subtypes that are transmitted globally. These variants are a limited subset of those present during chronic infection and display some unique features. In the case of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), transmitted variants tend to be resistant to neutralization by maternal autologous NAbs.

Macangi J;, Olubayo F;, Nderitu J;, R; N, El-Bedewy R;, Obudho E;. "Effect of aphids and virus diseases on yield of seed potatoes in Kenya."; 2003. Abstract

Experiments were conducted at 2 sites to determine the relationship between aphid populations, virus incidence and yields on 4 potato varieties (Solanum tuberosome). These varieties were planted at Tigoni and Kabete during short rains, October 2001 – January, 2002) and long rains, (March to July, 2002). The experimental design was completly randomised block design with 3 replicates. Sampling was done every 2 weeks from crop emergence to maturity. Aphid populations were assessed based on a random collection of 15 leaf samples per plot and virus incidence was assessed basing on number of plants infested per plot. At harvest, season, yields were measured for each treatment and compared with the average scores of aphids and virus incidence over the season. A regression analysis of this data revealed that there was a significant decrease in yields with increase in virus incidence at both sites (P<0.05). Similarlly, there was a significant decrease in yield with increase in aphid populations at the Kabete site but not at the Tigoni site. Although no significant relationship between the aphid populations and virus incidence was observed at either Tigoni or Kabete, as the populations of aphids increased, the virus incidence also increased. It is therefore, necessary to control aphid populations to reduce virus spread in order to achieve optimal yields of seed and ware potato in Kenya

Macangi J;, Olubayo F;, Nderitu J;, R; N, El-Bedewy R;, Obudho E;. "Effect of aphids and virus diseases on yield of seed potatoes in Kenya."; 2003. Abstract

Experiments were conducted at 2 sites to determine the relationship between aphid populations, virus incidence and yields on 4 potato varieties (Solanum tuberosome). These varieties were planted at Tigoni and Kabete during short rains, October 2001 – January, 2002) and long rains, (March to July, 2002). The experimental design was completly randomised block design with 3 replicates. Sampling was done every 2 weeks from crop emergence to maturity. Aphid populations were assessed based on a random collection of 15 leaf samples per plot and virus incidence was assessed basing on number of plants infested per plot. At harvest, season, yields were measured for each treatment and compared with the average scores of aphids and virus incidence over the season. A regression analysis of this data revealed that there was a significant decrease in yields with increase in virus incidence at both sites (P<0.05). Similarlly, there was a significant decrease in yield with increase in aphid populations at the Kabete site but not at the Tigoni site. Although no significant relationship between the aphid populations and virus incidence was observed at either Tigoni or Kabete, as the populations of aphids increased, the virus incidence also increased. It is therefore, necessary to control aphid populations to reduce virus spread in order to achieve optimal yields of seed and ware potato in Kenya

Macaques R, Ott-Joslin JE, Lasiey BL, Zucker EL, Miller TJ, Bennett B, Stover J. "Zoo Zoology.". 1987.Website
Machangi JM;, Gitonga LM;, Nderitu JH;, Maniania NK;, Kabira JN. "Biological Control Agents Of Aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) On Potatoes(Solanum Tuberosum L.) In Kenya.".; 2010.
Machangi JM;, Olubayo E;, Nje ru RW;, Nderitu JH;, Aura J. "Occurrence of Four Major Potato Viruses in three Main Potato Growing Areas in Kenya."; 2002.
Machangi JM;, Olubayo E;, Nje ru RW;, Nderitu JH;, Aura J. "Occurrence of Four Major Potato Viruses in three Main Potato Growing Areas in Kenya."; 2002.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1992: Ng.". In: Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 102: 244-250. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract

Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Dental School, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in 513 primary school children in Nairobi. The clinical examination was performed in a room with natural daylight using Thylstrup & Fejerskov's index (TFI). Overall, 18% of 6-8-yr-olds had dental fluorosis in the primary dentition and 76% of 13-15-yr-olds in the permanent dentition. There was no significant sex difference (P > 0.05) in either the prevalence or the severity of fluorosis. In children with mixed dentition, the prevalence and severity of fluorosis was higher in the permanent teeth. In the permanent dentition, no clear difference was demonstrable in the severity between the anterior and the posterior teeth. The degree of fluorosis in most of the children in the area served with river water (0.2-0.4 ppm F-) was of a very mild form. However, in the area served with borehole waters, 48% of the children and 40% of the teeth were found to have TFI scores > or = 5. Measures to reduce dental fluorosis are necessary in the latter area.

MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "2000: Ng.". In: Afr. J. Oral Hlth Sci. 1:16-18. Elsevier; 2000. Abstract
Kiambu District Hospital, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence of hypodontia (except 3rd molars) in a population of orthodontic patients. DESIGN: A retrospective case study. SETTING: Private orthodontic practice in Nairobi PATIENTS: Six hundred and fifteen orthodontic patients aged eight to fifteen years. RESULTS: Hypodontia occurred in 39 children (6.3%). The missing teeth were observed in 24 males (7.2%) and 15 females (5.3%). Of the children with hypodontia, about 80% lacked one or two teeth, 54% had hypodontia involving anterior teeth, 18% lacked single posterior teeth and 8% had two or more teeth missing in the same quadrant. The highest recorded number of missing teeth in any one individual was seven. The most frequently missing teeth were mandibular 2nd premolars (30%), maxillary 2nd premolars (24%) and maxillary lateral incisors (22%) in that order. CONCLUSIONS: Our data for hypodontia were within the wide range reported in the literature. The finding of patients with hypodontia involving the anterior teeth and others missing more than two teeth in the same quadrant was an indication of a great need for orthodontic treatment. The present findings reiterate the neeed for a thorough radiographic evaluation of patients prior to removal of permanent teeth for orthodontic reasons.
Macharia PN;, Ekaya WN. "Vegetation degradation and its influence on rangeland of condition and trend in semi-arid Mashuru division, Kajiado district, Kenya :oil."; 2005. Abstract

Rangeland condition and trend in Mashuru s. .DivIsion of Kajiado District in Kenya has been deteriorating in terms of grazing capacity due to degradation of vegetation resources. Therefore a research study was conducted in 2001/2 with the objective of analyzing the types of vegetation degradation, their causes and their influence on rangeland condition and trend. The results ofthe qualitative study showed that excessive use of the woody species by humans for woodfuel, building and fencing materials, medicine and ornamentals had led ,I I to vegetation degradation due to loss of cover, change in plant composition and biodiversity. On the other hand, overgrazing and ecological succession of the grazing ]ands had led to bush encroachment and thickening. These types of vegetation degradation have had an overall effect of loss of grass cover and hence loss of grazing capacity for livestock, especially cattle. The causes of vegetation decrease or increase over the last 30 years have been due to deforestation (trees and shrubs), bush encroachment and thickening, change in plant species composition and natural calamities such as droughts, wild fires and armyworm invasions at various times. The overall results indicated that there has been a downward trend in range condition over the last 30 years which had affected livestock productivity. There is need therefore, for concerted efforts to be made to reverse or halt further vegetation degradation in the area through the participation of the local people, governmental and non-governmental organizations presently involved in rehabilitation and conservation of vegetation resources in the area.

MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Ng'ang'a PM, Valderhaug J.The prevalence of fractured permanent incisors in 13 to 15-year-old school children in Nairobi.Afr Dent J. 1988 Oct;2(2):76-9.". In: Afr Dent J. 1988 Oct;2(2):76-9. Elsevier; 1988. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The present longitudinal study was conducted on ten children from age 5-6 years to determine the post-eruptive enamel changes of fluorosed permanent incisors. The children were born and reared in an area of Kenya with a water fluoride level of 14-45 parts per million. The incisors were examined and photographed periodically from the time of eruption over a period of 2 1/2 years. It was noted that the fluorosed incisor was intact as it erupted and then it underwent a variety of changes. In some there was mechanical breakdown (pitting) of the chalky white enamel which occurred rapidly initially and then the breakdown slowed down by 2 years. In others, there was smoothening of the pitted enamel resulting in a translucent appearance. Alternatively there was some degree of patchy staining of the enamel without surface breakdown. Much of the cervical 1/3 of the enamel remained intact even in teeth with severe breakdown. In most cases, these changes were bilaterally symmetrical. The possible reasons for these changes are discussed.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "2001: Ngatia, E.M., Imungi J.K., Muita J.W., Ng.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 78:673 . Elsevier; 2001. Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Although multiple supernumerary teeth without any associated syndromes are rare, their occurrence can create a variety of clinical problems such as derangement of the occlusion, prevention of eruption of permanent teeth, damage to adjacent teeth, cystic degeneration and root resorption. Hence, clinical and radiographic evaluation of patients should always be thorough in order to detect their presence. Furthermore, because the clinical management of multiple supernumerary teeth poses a great challenge to clinicians, timely, appropriate consultation and interdisciplinary approach to treatment is extremely important. We report two cases, a 14 year-old boy with eight and a 13-year-old girl with seven supernumerary teeth not associated with syndromes. In the boy, the teeth were bilaterally distributed in all quadrants in the premolar regions, and in the girl they were distributed bilaterally in the premolar regions in the mandible and bilaterally distal to the upper third molars. The clinical implications and management are discussed.
Macharia EW;, Mwaniki SW;, Kibata GN;, Nderitu J. "Sweet potato insect pests: identification and mode of damage."; 1992.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Aasrum E, Ng'ang'a PM, Dahm S, Ogaard B. Tensile bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with a fluoride-releasing light-curing adhesive. An in vitro comparative study.". In: Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1993 Jul;104(1):48-50. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract
Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. A light-curing, fluoride-releasing adhesive (VP 862, Vivadent, Liechtenstein) for bonding of brackets has been produced for inhibition of white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment. The tensile bond strength after 24 hours and 6 months was investigated and compared with two other light-curing adhesives (Transbond, 3M Corp., Monrovia, Calif., and Heliosit-Orthodontic, Vivadent, Liechtenstein) and two chemical-curing adhesives (Concise, 3M, Monrovia Calif., and Saga Bond, Saga Orthodontics, Kongsvinger, Norway). All adhesives produced adequate strength to be recommended for clinical use. The light-curing adhesives produced slightly lower bond strengths after 24 hours and 6 months, except Transbond, which showed an increase in bond strength in this period approaching the two chemical adhesives.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Maina SW, Ng'ang'a PM. Root canal treatment and pulpotomy in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1991 Apr;68(4):243-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 Apr;68(4):243-8. Elsevier; 1991. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, University of Nairobi. This study was carried out to evaluate the practice and depth of knowledge of root canal treatment and pulpotomy by dentists in Kenya. Questionnaires were prepared and mailed to 114 dentists whose addresses were available. Sixty seven (58.8%) dentists responded. Of these, 67.2% carried out root canal treatment (RCT) and 43.3% carried out pulpotomy. The main reasons given by most dentists in the public hospitals for not carrying out these procedures routinely were lack of facilities and materials. Furthermore, it was found that amongst those who carried out these procedures, some used outdated techniques and materials. In order to reduce the large number of teeth lost through extraction, materials and equipment should be made available to enable dentists carry out root canal treatment and pulpotomies routinely. It is also necessary to have continuing dental education amongst dentists to update their knowledge of these procedures.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "2001: Ngatia E.M., Ng.". In: Afr. J. Oral Hlth Sci, 2: 22-29. Elsevier; 2001. Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Although multiple supernumerary teeth without any associated syndromes are rare, their occurrence can create a variety of clinical problems such as derangement of the occlusion, prevention of eruption of permanent teeth, damage to adjacent teeth, cystic degeneration and root resorption. Hence, clinical and radiographic evaluation of patients should always be thorough in order to detect their presence. Furthermore, because the clinical management of multiple supernumerary teeth poses a great challenge to clinicians, timely, appropriate consultation and interdisciplinary approach to treatment is extremely important. We report two cases, a 14 year-old boy with eight and a 13-year-old girl with seven supernumerary teeth not associated with syndromes. In the boy, the teeth were bilaterally distributed in all quadrants in the premolar regions, and in the girl they were distributed bilaterally in the premolar regions in the mandible and bilaterally distal to the upper third molars. The clinical implications and management are discussed.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1993: Cruz R., Ng.". In: Scand J Dent Res. 1993 Feb;101(1):5-8. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

Department of Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The uptake of alkali soluble and alkali insoluble fluoride on and in fluorotic enamel was investigated in vitro. Teeth from Kenya, assigned score 3 in accordance with Thylstrup-Fejerskov's fluorosis index, were used. The enamel was treated with either a neutral 2% NaF solution, a 0.2% NaF solution (pH 5.5), or the supernatant from a 0.1% NaF-containing toothpaste (pH 7). The treatment time was 1 h. The reaction product formed on the enamel was analyzed by KOH extraction and acid etching. Significantly higher amounts of alkali soluble fluoride were formed on the enamel from the 2% and 0.2% NaF solutions, as compared with the control. There was also a significant increase in the firmly bound fluoride after treatment with the neutral 2% NaF solution.

MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1991: Maina S. W. ,Ng.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 68:243-248. Elsevier; 1991. Abstract
The purpose of this study was to record the caries status in children attending public primary schools in Nairobi. The sample comprised 513 children, 262 aged 6-8 years and 251 aged 13-15 years. The children were drawn from six randomly selected schools in the city. Clinical examination was carried out in a room with natural daylight, using the WHO (1977) criteria. Fifty-four per cent of the 6- to 8-year-olds and 50% of the 13- to 15-year-olds were caries-free. The mean dmft in the 6- to 8-year-olds was 1.7, and the mean dmfs was 3.5. The mean DMFT in the 13- to 15-year-olds was 1.8, and the mean DMFS was 2.9. The d- and D-components dominated and were mainly located in the occlusal surfaces. The f-component of the dmft and the F-component of the DMFT comprised 1% and 10%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) in the prevalence of caries between males and females in the younger age group. In the older age group, however, females had a higher (p < 0.05) prevalence than males. In general, the study showed a low caries prevalence in Nairobi children.
Macharia M. "Surviving through Informality in Nairobi.". In: Overleven door informaliteit in Nairobi . Belgium: Handboek Ruimtelijke Kwaliteit: Het SPINDUS project. ASP: Brussels. pp. 213-221. ; 2013.
Macharia PN;, Gachene CKK;, Mureithi JG;, Kinyamario JI;, Ekaya WN;, Thuranira EG. "The effect of introduced forage legumes on improvement of soil fertility in natural pastures of semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya."; 2011. Abstract

A two phase study was carried out from 2002 to 2005 in the semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya to determine the effect of introduced forage legumes on soil fertility improvement of natural pastures. During legume evaluation phase, Neonotonia wightii (Glycine), Macroptilium atropurpureum (Siratro), Lablab purpureus cv. Rongai (Dolichos), Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) and Stylosanthes scabra var. Seca (Stylo) were screened for adaptability and growth performance under the semi-arid conditions for two years. Results of soil analysis showed there were significant increases in soil pH (4.92 to 5.36), organic carbon (1.17 to 2.57%) , nitrogen (0.17 to 0.22%) and potassium (1.23 to 1.68 me%) probably due to the large amounts of organic residues produced by the legumes (particularly Glycine, Siratro and Stylo which are perennials). The calcium content decreased significantly from 7.97 to 4.50 me% (which was attributed to plant uptake) while the decrease of phosphorus was not significant. During the second phase of study for 1½ years Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were integrated into natural pastures. The results showed that only the soil pH significantly increased from 5.23 to 5.31 while all the other nutrients decreased results, which were attributed to production of less organic residues by the legumes compared to the residues produced during the legume evaluation phase. The study concluded that Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were capable of improving the soil fertility of semi-arid natural pastures only if the respective dry matter production was 10.31, 7.81 and 3.52 tha-1, amounts which were able to produce large amounts of organic residues.

MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Ng'ang'a PM, Ng'ang'a RN. Maxillary incisor root forms in orthodontic patients in Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2003 Feb;80(2):101-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Feb;80(2):101-4. Elsevier; 2003. Abstract
{ Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, radiographically, the root forms of maxillary incisors in a sample of patients seeking orthodontic treatment in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: A retrospective study of maxillary incisor root forms based on periapical radiographs. SETTING: A private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprised 393 maxillary incisors in 100 consecutive subjects (51 boys, 49 girls) aged 9-24 years. Intra-oral periapical radiographs of the incisors were evaluated. An index was used to categorise the roots as follows: 0=normal
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Malocclusion in children aged 3-6 years in Nairobi, Kenya.Kabue MM, Moracha JK, Ng'ang'a PM. East Afr Med J. 1995 Apr;72(4):210-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Apr;72(4):210-2. Elsevier; 1995. Abstract
Dental Surgeon, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. The prevalence of malocclusion in the deciduous dentition of 221 children aged 3-6 years in Nairobi, Kenya is reported. The children were drawn from six randomly selected preprimary schools (kindergarten, nurseries, and pre-units) from different areas of the city. Overall, 51% of the children were found to have some form of malocclusion. Maxillary overjet accounted for 13%, deep bite 13%, dental midline displacement 6%, frontal openbite 12% and anterior crossbite 5%. Anthropoid spaces were observed in 85% of the children, while over 60% had spacing in the incisor region. Straight terminal plane of the deciduous second molars was diagnosed in 53% of the children, mesial step in 43% and distal step occlusion in one percent of the children. The results suggest a need for interceptive orthodontic treatment in some of the children.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Ng'ang'a PM, Grimsdottir MR. Possible hazards of the transpalatal bar: report of cases.ASDC J Dent Child. 1992 Jul-Aug;59(4):282-4.". In: ASDC J Dent Child. 1992 Jul-Aug;59(4):282-4. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
University of Oslo, Department of Orthodontics, Dental Faculty, Norway. PMID: 1430499 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER, MUTHONI DRNGATIAEDITH. "Ngatia EM, Ng'ang'a PM, Muita JW, Imungi JK. Dietary patterns and nutritional status of pre-school children in Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 2005 Oct;82(10):520-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Oct;82(10):520-5. Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the dietary patterns and nutritional status of pre-school children in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Pre-schools in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and four pre-school children (149 males and 155 females) aged three to five years were assessed. RESULTS: About 96% of the children had been breastfed 46.7% of them for 12-24 months (46.7%), and the mean breastfeeding duration was 20.17 months. The most commonly consumed foods on a daily basis were fruits, vegetables bread, ugali, porridge and milk. The level of malnutrition was low with underweight at 16% stunting 4.3% and wasting 1.0%. The factors that positively correlated with child nutritional status were the age of the mother and father. CONCLUSIONS: The children were consuming a variety of foods both at home and in school, and this together with the high literacy levels the parents/guardians could have contributed towards the good nutritional status.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Ng'ang'a PM, Ohito F, Ogaard B, Valderhaug J. The prevalence of malocclusion in 13- to 15-year-old children in Nairobi, Kenya.Acta Odontol Scand. 1996 Apr;54(2):126-30.". In: Acta Odontol Scand. 1996 Apr;54(2):126-30. Elsevier; 1996. Abstract
Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, University of Nairobi Dental School, Kenya. Data on occlusal features and the need for orthodontic treatment in Kenya is scanty. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of malocclusion in children in Nairobi, Kenya. Nine hundred and nineteen children aged 13-15 years (468 male, 451 female) were examined. The registration method used was that described by Bjork et al. The prevalence of malocclusion was 72%. The predominant anteroposterior relationship of the dental arches was neutral occlusion (93%). Specific malocclusion traits were highest for crowding (19%), rotations (19%), posterior crossbite (10%), maxillary overjet (10%), and frontal open bite (8%). There was no statistically significant difference in the overall prevalence of malocclusion between males and females, but some occlusal traits were significantly higher in males. Although the findings indicate that the present population is not characterized by a substantial difference in the overall prevalence of malocclusion compared with other communities, some traits differed in prevalence from those reported elsewhere.
Macharia FK, Mwangi PW, Yenesew A, Bukachi F, Nyaga NM, Wafula DK. "Hepatoprotective effects of Erythrina abyssinica Lam Ex Dc against Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Sprague Dawley Rats." BioRxiv. 2019:577-607. Abstract

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome recognized as the most prevalent chronic liver disease across all age groups. NFLD is strongly associated with obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Extensive research efforts are geared, through pharmacological approach, towards preventing or reversing this. Erythrina abyssinica Lam ex DC is an indigenous tree used widely used in traditional medicine, including for the treatment of liver related diseases, and has been shown to possess hypoglycemic, anti-oxidant, antimicrobial and anti-plasmodia effects. The present study is aimed at establishing the effects of E. abyssinica on the development of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease induced by a high-fat and high-sugar diet in rats, in-vivo model. Methods: Forty rats (40) were randomly divided into five groups: positive control (pioglitazone), Negative control (high fat/high sugar diet), low test dose (200 mg/kg), high test dose (400 mg/kg) and normal group (standard chow pellets and fresh water). The inhibitory effect of the stem bark extract of E. abyssinica on the development of NAFLD was evaluated by chronic administration the herb extracts to rats on a high-fat/high-sugar diet. Biochemical indices of hepatic function including serum lipid profile, serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels were then determined. Histological analysis of liver samples was carried out to quantify the degree of steato-hepatitis. Liver weights were taken and used to determine the hepatic index. The data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA, and Tukey9s post-hoc tests

MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1992: Ng.". In: Acta Odontol Scand. 1992 Oct;50(5):269-72. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Dental School, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose of this study was to record the caries status in children attending public primary schools in Nairobi. The sample comprised 513 children, 262 aged 6-8 years and 251 aged 13-15 years. The children were drawn from six randomly selected schools in the city. Clinical examination was carried out in a room with natural daylight, using the WHO (1977) criteria. Fifty-four per cent of the 6- to 8-year-olds and 50% of the 13- to 15-year-olds were caries-free. The mean dmft in the 6- to 8-year-olds was 1.7, and the mean dmfs was 3.5. The mean DMFT in the 13- to 15-year-olds was 1.8, and the mean DMFS was 2.9. The d- and D-components dominated and were mainly located in the occlusal surfaces. The f-component of the dmft and the F-component of the DMFT comprised 1% and 10%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) in the prevalence of caries between males and females in the younger age group. In the older age group, however, females had a higher (p < 0.05) prevalence than males. In general, the study showed a low caries prevalence in Nairobi children.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1997: Ng.". In: Acta Odontol Scand. 55: 325-32. Elsevier; 1997. Abstract
Kiambu District Hospital, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence of hypodontia (except 3rd molars) in a population of orthodontic patients. DESIGN: A retrospective case study. SETTING: Private orthodontic practice in Nairobi PATIENTS: Six hundred and fifteen orthodontic patients aged eight to fifteen years. RESULTS: Hypodontia occurred in 39 children (6.3%). The missing teeth were observed in 24 males (7.2%) and 15 females (5.3%). Of the children with hypodontia, about 80% lacked one or two teeth, 54% had hypodontia involving anterior teeth, 18% lacked single posterior teeth and 8% had two or more teeth missing in the same quadrant. The highest recorded number of missing teeth in any one individual was seven. The most frequently missing teeth were mandibular 2nd premolars (30%), maxillary 2nd premolars (24%) and maxillary lateral incisors (22%) in that order. CONCLUSIONS: Our data for hypodontia were within the wide range reported in the literature. The finding of patients with hypodontia involving the anterior teeth and others missing more than two teeth in the same quadrant was an indication of a great need for orthodontic treatment. The present findings reiterate the neeed for a thorough radiographic evaluation of patients prior to removal of permanent teeth for orthodontic reasons.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER, MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Ng'ang'a RN, Ng'ang'a PM. Hypodontia of permanent teeth in a Kenyan population.East Afr Med J. 2001 Apr;78(4):200-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Apr;78(4):200-3. Elsevier; 2001. Abstract
Kiambu District Hospital, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence of hypodontia (except 3rd molars) in a population of orthodontic patients. DESIGN: A retrospective case study. SETTING: Private orthodontic practice in Nairobi PATIENTS: Six hundred and fifteen orthodontic patients aged eight to fifteen years. RESULTS: Hypodontia occurred in 39 children (6.3%). The missing teeth were observed in 24 males (7.2%) and 15 females (5.3%). Of the children with hypodontia, about 80% lacked one or two teeth, 54% had hypodontia involving anterior teeth, 18% lacked single posterior teeth and 8% had two or more teeth missing in the same quadrant. The highest recorded number of missing teeth in any one individual was seven. The most frequently missing teeth were mandibular 2nd premolars (30%), maxillary 2nd premolars (24%) and maxillary lateral incisors (22%) in that order. CONCLUSIONS: Our data for hypodontia were within the wide range reported in the literature. The finding of patients with hypodontia involving the anterior teeth and others missing more than two teeth in the same quadrant was an indication of a great need for orthodontic treatment. The present findings reiterate the neeed for a thorough radiographic evaluation of patients prior to removal of permanent teeth for orthodontic reasons.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Ng'ang'a PM, Ogaard B. Dental caries and fluorides in relation to fixed orthodontic treatment: a review.East Afr Med J. 1993 Feb;70(2):75-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Feb;70(2):75-7. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract
Dental School, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. This paper reviews the cariological aspects of fixed orthodontic treatment and discusses the role played by topical fluorides. During fixed orthodontic treatment, carious lesions may occur in the form of white spots. These may constitute an aesthetic problem. The clinical management of white spot lesions remains unresolved. In order to prevent development of these lesions, the use of topical fluorides is advocated. The need for patient co-operation in the use of self-administered topical fluorides is critical. To reduce this critical need, the use of fluoride-releasing orthodontic cements is recommended. The literature suggests that calcium fluoride, which is the major reaction product on enamel during topical fluoride application, plays an important role in the cariostatic mechanism.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Ng'ang'a PM, Chindia ML, Hassanali J. Clinical report on longitudinal post-eruptive changes in fluorotic enamel observed in 10 cases over a 2 1/2 year period.East Afr Med J. 1990 Jan;67(1):17-23.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Jan;67(1):17-23. Elsevier; 1990. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The present longitudinal study was conducted on ten children from age 5-6 years to determine the post-eruptive enamel changes of fluorosed permanent incisors. The children were born and reared in an area of Kenya with a water fluoride level of 14-45 parts per million. The incisors were examined and photographed periodically from the time of eruption over a period of 2 1/2 years. It was noted that the fluorosed incisor was intact as it erupted and then it underwent a variety of changes. In some there was mechanical breakdown (pitting) of the chalky white enamel which occurred rapidly initially and then the breakdown slowed down by 2 years. In others, there was smoothening of the pitted enamel resulting in a translucent appearance. Alternatively there was some degree of patchy staining of the enamel without surface breakdown. Much of the cervical 1/3 of the enamel remained intact even in teeth with severe breakdown. In most cases, these changes were bilaterally symmetrical. The possible reasons for these changes are discussed.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "2001: Ng.". In: Afr. J. Oral Hlth Sci. 2: 35-38. Elsevier; 2001. Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Although multiple supernumerary teeth without any associated syndromes are rare, their occurrence can create a variety of clinical problems such as derangement of the occlusion, prevention of eruption of permanent teeth, damage to adjacent teeth, cystic degeneration and root resorption. Hence, clinical and radiographic evaluation of patients should always be thorough in order to detect their presence. Furthermore, because the clinical management of multiple supernumerary teeth poses a great challenge to clinicians, timely, appropriate consultation and interdisciplinary approach to treatment is extremely important. We report two cases, a 14 year-old boy with eight and a 13-year-old girl with seven supernumerary teeth not associated with syndromes. In the boy, the teeth were bilaterally distributed in all quadrants in the premolar regions, and in the girl they were distributed bilaterally in the premolar regions in the mandible and bilaterally distal to the upper third molars. The clinical implications and management are discussed.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1993: Ng.". In: Oral Epidemiol. 21:15-18. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

Department of Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The uptake of alkali soluble and alkali insoluble fluoride on and in fluorotic enamel was investigated in vitro. Teeth from Kenya, assigned score 3 in accordance with Thylstrup-Fejerskov's fluorosis index, were used. The enamel was treated with either a neutral 2% NaF solution, a 0.2% NaF solution (pH 5.5), or the supernatant from a 0.1% NaF-containing toothpaste (pH 7). The treatment time was 1 h. The reaction product formed on the enamel was analyzed by KOH extraction and acid etching. Significantly higher amounts of alkali soluble fluoride were formed on the enamel from the 2% and 0.2% NaF solutions, as compared with the control. There was also a significant increase in the firmly bound fluoride after treatment with the neutral 2% NaF solution.

MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Ng.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 Dec;68(12):980-8. Elsevier; 1991. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Two hundred and fifty one African children aged 13-15 years were examined for specific intra- and inter-arch malocclusions and tooth loss. The children were from 6 schools randomly selected from 154 primary schools in Nairobi. Overall, 47% of the children were found to have malocclusion, the most frequently encountered anomaly being crowding. Some of the anomalies showed prevalences which differed markedly from those previously reported for American and British Caucasians of comparable age-groups. Nineteen per cent of the children had missing teeth due to caries, 5.6% due to extractions as part of orthodontic treatment and 13% due to other reasons. The mean number of permanent teeth missing due to caries was 0.2, orthodontic treatment 0.1 and due to other reasons 0.2. Almost all the teeth lost as a result of caries were molars and those due to orthodontic indications were premolars. No teeth were recorded as missing due to periodontal disease or trauma. The study indicated a need to exercise caution in trying to relate the numerical values for prevalence of malocclusions in current textbooks to the present population. The results also showed that the proportion of permanent teeth lost was small.
Macharia SM, Mulei CM, Gathuma JM, Kagiko MM. "Serological survey of leptospiral antibodies in cattle, sheep and goats in Nyandarua district of Kenya.". 1994. Abstract

Leptospirosis is a common zoonotic disease of a world-wide importance. It causes economic loss to livestock industry from abortions, stillbirths, deaths, decreased milk production and infertility, The Leptospira organisms survive best in areas with high rainfall, soil pH of around neutral and temperature range of about 7-34°Cl11. A study was carried out to establish the prevalence of leptospiral antibodies in cattle, sheep and goats in Nyandarua district which has climatic conditions favour¬able to survival of Leptospira organisms. The district has a high relative humidity (65%)' high annual average rainfall (839 mm), annual average temperature of about 14.1°C and an average soil pH of 6.4(31.

Macharia PN;, Gachene CKK;, Mureithi JG;, Kinyamario JI;, Ekaya WN;, Thuranira EG. "The effect of introduced forage legumes on improvement of soil fertility in natural pastures of semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya."; 2011. Abstract

A two phase study was carried out from 2002 to 2005 in the semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya to determine the effect of introduced forage legumes on soil fertility improvement of natural pastures. During legume evaluation phase, Neonotonia wightii (Glycine), Macroptilium atropurpureum (Siratro), Lablab purpureus cv. Rongai (Dolichos), Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) and Stylosanthes scabra var. Seca (Stylo) were screened for adaptability and growth performance under the semi-arid conditions for two years. Results of soil analysis showed there were significant increases in soil pH (4.92 to 5.36), organic carbon (1.17 to 2.57%) , nitrogen (0.17 to 0.22%) and potassium (1.23 to 1.68 me%) probably due to the large amounts of organic residues produced by the legumes (particularly Glycine, Siratro and Stylo which are perennials). The calcium content decreased significantly from 7.97 to 4.50 me% (which was attributed to plant uptake) while the decrease of phosphorus was not significant. During the second phase of study for 1½ years Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were integrated into natural pastures. The results showed that only the soil pH significantly increased from 5.23 to 5.31 while all the other nutrients decreased results, which were attributed to production of less organic residues by the legumes compared to the residues produced during the legume evaluation phase. The study concluded that Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were capable of improving the soil fertility of semi-arid natural pastures only if the respective dry matter production was 10.31, 7.81 and 3.52 tha-1, amounts which were able to produce large amounts of organic residues.

Macharia CM, Nderitu JH. "The effect of maize stem borers infestation on yield of maize." E. Afr. Agri. For. J.. 1997;4(4).
Macharia JW, Wandiga SO, Njenga LW, Madadi VO. "Moringa oleifera and Ceramic Filters for Escherichia coli and Turbidity removal from drinking water." IOSR-JAC. 2016;9(5):46-55.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER, MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Ng'ang'a PM, Guthua SW, Ng'ang'a RN. Multiple supernumerary teeth in association with malocclusion: report of two cases.East Afr Med J. 2002 Apr;79(4):221-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Apr;79(4):221-3. Elsevier; 2002. Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Although multiple supernumerary teeth without any associated syndromes are rare, their occurrence can create a variety of clinical problems such as derangement of the occlusion, prevention of eruption of permanent teeth, damage to adjacent teeth, cystic degeneration and root resorption. Hence, clinical and radiographic evaluation of patients should always be thorough in order to detect their presence. Furthermore, because the clinical management of multiple supernumerary teeth poses a great challenge to clinicians, timely, appropriate consultation and interdisciplinary approach to treatment is extremely important. We report two cases, a 14 year-old boy with eight and a 13-year-old girl with seven supernumerary teeth not associated with syndromes. In the boy, the teeth were bilaterally distributed in all quadrants in the premolar regions, and in the girl they were distributed bilaterally in the premolar regions in the mandible and bilaterally distal to the upper third molars. The clinical implications and management are discussed.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Chindia ML, Ng'ang'a PM. Alcohol injection in the management of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia: a report of six cases.East Afr Med J. 1994 Jan;71(1):49-50.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Jan;71(1):49-50. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Sugery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The report revisits the role of alcohol in the treatment of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (PTN). The study included 6 patients, 3 male and 3 female, average age 50 years. In 3 cases PTN involved both the infraorbital and mental nerves; in 2 cases the infraorbital alone while one case had buccal branch involvement. In each case 2mls standard Lignocaine was infiltrated at each site followed by 2mls 60% sterile alcohol. All patients reported swelling postoperatively. One case with mental and infraorbital nerve involvement complained of oral dysaesthesia. Another patient with similar involvement failed to respond and developed trismus. Responders remained pain-free for 9 months on average. While paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (PTN) has been recognised for centuries, the aetiology and definitive treatment remain obscure. Since this is a debilitating condition, management should aim at improving the quality of life. Alcohol is available, affordable and offers useful results where medical resources provide limited PTN treatment modalities.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Chindia ML, Valderhaug J, Ng'ang'a PM. Oral health habits and periodontal health among a group of university students in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1992 Jun;69(6):337-40.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Jun;69(6):337-40. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose of this study was to determine the oral health habits and periodontal health among a group of university students in Kenya. The study comprised 243 randomly selected first year students, mean age 23 years, at the University of Nairobi. Questionnaire response showed that 39% of the participants had visited a dentist before, mainly for extraction. Sixteen per cent said they visited a dentist at least once a year and 96% said they brushed daily. Clinical examination was done in a room with natural daylight using the WHO criteria. Plaque was visible on 35% of the surfaces. 11% of gingival sites examined bled on probing. Only one participant had pocket depth greater than or equal to 4 mm. Supra- and sub-gingival calculus was recorded at 18% of index tooth surfaces. The study will be considered as a baseline for later studies on oral health trends in similar populations.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER, MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Ng'ang'a PM.Status of orthodontic services in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 2004 Jan;81(1):1-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Jan;81(1):1-2. Elsevier; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the dietary patterns and nutritional status of pre-school children in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Pre-schools in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and four pre-school children (149 males and 155 females) aged three to five years were assessed. RESULTS: About 96% of the children had been breastfed 46.7% of them for 12-24 months (46.7%), and the mean breastfeeding duration was 20.17 months. The most commonly consumed foods on a daily basis were fruits, vegetables bread, ugali, porridge and milk. The level of malnutrition was low with underweight at 16% stunting 4.3% and wasting 1.0%. The factors that positively correlated with child nutritional status were the age of the mother and father. CONCLUSIONS: The children were consuming a variety of foods both at home and in school, and this together with the high literacy levels the parents/guardians could have contributed towards the good nutritional status.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1995: Kabue M. M., Moracha, J. Ng.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 72: 210-212. Elsevier; 1995. Abstract
Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, University of Nairobi Dental School, Kenya. Data on occlusal features and the need for orthodontic treatment in Kenya is scanty. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of malocclusion in children in Nairobi, Kenya. Nine hundred and nineteen children aged 13-15 years (468 male, 451 female) were examined. The registration method used was that described by Bjork et al. The prevalence of malocclusion was 72%. The predominant anteroposterior relationship of the dental arches was neutral occlusion (93%). Specific malocclusion traits were highest for crowding (19%), rotations (19%), posterior crossbite (10%), maxillary overjet (10%), and frontal open bite (8%). There was no statistically significant difference in the overall prevalence of malocclusion between males and females, but some occlusal traits were significantly higher in males. Although the findings indicate that the present population is not characterized by a substantial difference in the overall prevalence of malocclusion compared with other communities, some traits differed in prevalence from those reported elsewhere.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1992: Chindia M. L., Valderhaug J., Ng.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 69:337 . Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Dental School, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose of this study was to record the caries status in children attending public primary schools in Nairobi. The sample comprised 513 children, 262 aged 6-8 years and 251 aged 13-15 years. The children were drawn from six randomly selected schools in the city. Clinical examination was carried out in a room with natural daylight, using the WHO (1977) criteria. Fifty-four per cent of the 6- to 8-year-olds and 50% of the 13- to 15-year-olds were caries-free. The mean dmft in the 6- to 8-year-olds was 1.7, and the mean dmfs was 3.5. The mean DMFT in the 13- to 15-year-olds was 1.8, and the mean DMFS was 2.9. The d- and D-components dominated and were mainly located in the occlusal surfaces. The f-component of the dmft and the F-component of the DMFT comprised 1% and 10%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) in the prevalence of caries between males and females in the younger age group. In the older age group, however, females had a higher (p < 0.05) prevalence than males. In general, the study showed a low caries prevalence in Nairobi children.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER, MUSAKULU DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "Rwakatema DS, Ng'ang'a PM, Kemoli AM.Orthodontic treatment needs among 12-15 year-olds in Moshi, Tanzania. East Afr Med J. 2007 May;84(5):226-32.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 May;84(5):226-32. Elsevier; 2007. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To assess malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among 12-15-year-olds in Moshi municipality, Tanzania. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Moshi municipality, Tanzania. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and eighty nine randomly selected primary school children in Moshi municipality in the year 2003. RESULTS: Maxillary median diastema occurred in 20.1% of the children. Crowding and spacing in the incisor segments occurred in 41.2% and 28.4% respectively with significantly more crowding in males than in females (p = 0.009). Anterior irregularities occurred in 46% of the sample in the maxilla and 51.6% in the mandible. These irregularities were significantly more common in the females than in males in the maxilla and mandible (p = 0.014
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER, MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Ng'ang'a PM, Stenvik A, Ohito F, Ogaard B. The need and demand for orthodontic treatment in 13- to 15-year-olds in Nairobi, Kenya.Acta Odontol Scand. 1997 Oct;55(5):325-8.". In: Acta Odontol Scand. 1997 Oct;55(5):325-8. Elsevier; 1997. Abstract

Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, University of Nairobi Dental School, Kenya. The need for orthodontic treatment in Kenya was previously not been investigated. This study was undertaken to assess the need for orthodontic treatment in 13- to 15-year-old children in Nairobi. The objective need was assessed in 919 children by using the Norwegian treatment need index, and the subjective need was assessed in 739 children by using a structured questionnaire. Objective treatment need was recorded in 29% and subjective need in 33% of the children. Less than 1% were allocated the 'very great need' category. Relatively more girls than boys were dissatisfied with the appearance of their teeth, and a significantly higher number of girls (P < 0.001) said they would like to have their teeth straightened. The children's perceived need for treatment correlated significantly with the treatment need index. Fixed appliances were found necessary for correcting malocclusion in 23% of the children and removable appliances in 6%. Future studies in Kenya should be directed at determining the societal perception of malocclusion, upon which treatment standards may be based.

MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER, MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER, MUSAKULU DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "Rwakatema DS, Ng'ang'a PM, Kemoli AM. Awareness and concern about malocclusion among 12-15 year-old children in Moshi, Tanzania.East Afr Med J. 2006 Apr;83(4):92-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Apr;83(4):92-7. E Afr Med J; 2006. Abstract
Department of Dentistry, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College, Tumaini University, P.O. Box 3010, Moshi, Tanzania. OBJECTIVE: To assess awareness and concern about malocclusion in 12-15 year-olds in Moshi, Tanzania. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Moshi Municipality in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and ninety eight randomly selected Public primary school children aged 12-15 years (158 males and 140 females). RESULTS: About 56% of the respondents thought their teeth were properly aligned. However only 29.1% of the respondents reported being dissatisfied with the way their teeth appeared in their mouth. About 25% of the respondents found their teeth to have been worse than most of their age-mates. Children who reported to have been teased due to their malocclusion comprised 25.8%. Those who thought it was unpleasant to stay with malaligned teeth constituted 55.7% of the respondents. Subjective orthodontic treatment need was reported by 69.1% of the sample. Majority of the children (75%) were ready to accept orthodontic treatment. There were significant correlations between factors of awareness and those of concern about malocclusion among the subjects. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of very little orthodontic treatment exposure in this population, awareness and concern about malocclusion was reported by a significant proportion of the children. These findings form a baseline line for future studies on the trends of awareness and concern towards malocclusion in this population. They will also be useful in the planning of orthodontic services in Tanzania.
Macharia RW, Kibera PFN, Munyoki JN, Kinoti MW. "Influence of Organizational Demographics on the Relationship between Green Marketing Practices and Customer Satisfaction in the Soft Drink Industry in Nairobi Kenya ." Journal of Marketing and Consumer Research . 2017;32(2422):64-78.
Macharia WM, Njeru EK, Muli- Musiime F, Nantulya V. "Severe road traffic injuries in Kenya, quality of care and access.". 2009. Abstract

Road traffic Injury (RTI) is a rapidly growing, yet preventable, public health problem worldwide (1-1) that is projected to become the third leading cause of morbidity and mortality by the year 2020~. Road crashes have enormous impact on national economies and represent a major human tragedy. In 1985 alone, motor vehicle crashes cost United States more than 75 billion US dollarsQ. It has been estimated that there are over 1.18 million road traffic injury related deaths amrually world wide, with 74% occurring in developing countries 1,1. The young and socio-economically disadvantaged tend to experience disproportionately higher RTI fatality rates.8,.2. In East Africa, road traffic crashes are among the top causes of death from ~uries. Fatality from RTI in Kenya is estimated to have increased by 578% between 1962 and 1992, rising from 7.3 to 8.6 per 100,000 population Most of the road traffic crashes occurred on major rural roads and were associated with higher case fatality rate than those occurring in urban areas 10,11. Reports of fatal crashes on roads in Kenya have continued to feature prominently in the local dailies and electronic media in the form of news flashes and editorials. Despite the public health importance of RTI, there is little, if any, published infurmation on how RTI casualties are handled at the crash scenes, evacuated to health facilities or received and managed at the facilities. This survey was motivated by the need to map out the magnitude of road traffic ~uries in Kenya in order to provide baseline data to policy makers and other stakeholders who may wish to undertake interventions to improve road safety in the country. The aim of this study was therefore, to determine access and quality of health care fur road traffic ~ury (RTI) casualties in Kenya. We also undertook to :find out the extent to which health care facilities in Kenya were prepared to manage RTI emergencies. Since the time when this study was conducted, there have not been any targeted efforts to address this concern in the country. While availability of medical supplies may have some how improved as an indirect result of rising economic growth realized over the last few years, access to care and quality of services are unlikely to have changed much.

MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "2000: Ng.". In: Afr. J. Oral Hlth Sci. 1:8-11. Elsevier; 2000. Abstract
Kiambu District Hospital, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence of hypodontia (except 3rd molars) in a population of orthodontic patients. DESIGN: A retrospective case study. SETTING: Private orthodontic practice in Nairobi PATIENTS: Six hundred and fifteen orthodontic patients aged eight to fifteen years. RESULTS: Hypodontia occurred in 39 children (6.3%). The missing teeth were observed in 24 males (7.2%) and 15 females (5.3%). Of the children with hypodontia, about 80% lacked one or two teeth, 54% had hypodontia involving anterior teeth, 18% lacked single posterior teeth and 8% had two or more teeth missing in the same quadrant. The highest recorded number of missing teeth in any one individual was seven. The most frequently missing teeth were mandibular 2nd premolars (30%), maxillary 2nd premolars (24%) and maxillary lateral incisors (22%) in that order. CONCLUSIONS: Our data for hypodontia were within the wide range reported in the literature. The finding of patients with hypodontia involving the anterior teeth and others missing more than two teeth in the same quadrant was an indication of a great need for orthodontic treatment. The present findings reiterate the neeed for a thorough radiographic evaluation of patients prior to removal of permanent teeth for orthodontic reasons.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER, MUSAKULU DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "Rwakatema DS, Ng'ang'a PM, Kemoli AM.Orthodontic treatment needs among 12-15 year-olds in Moshi, Tanzania. East Afr Med J. 2007 May;84(5):226-32.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 May;84(5):226-32. E Afr Med J; 2007. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To assess malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among 12-15-year-olds in Moshi municipality, Tanzania. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Moshi municipality, Tanzania. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and eighty nine randomly selected primary school children in Moshi municipality in the year 2003. RESULTS: Maxillary median diastema occurred in 20.1% of the children. Crowding and spacing in the incisor segments occurred in 41.2% and 28.4% respectively with significantly more crowding in males than in females (p = 0.009). Anterior irregularities occurred in 46% of the sample in the maxilla and 51.6% in the mandible. These irregularities were significantly more common in the females than in males in the maxilla and mandible (p = 0.014
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Ng'ang'a PM, Valderhaug J.Prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in primary schoolchildren in Nairobi, Kenya.Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1993 Feb;21(1):15-8.". In: Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1993 Feb;21(1):15-8. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Dental School, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in 513 primary school children in Nairobi. The clinical examination was performed in a room with natural daylight using Thylstrup & Fejerskov's index (TFI). Overall, 18% of 6-8-yr-olds had dental fluorosis in the primary dentition and 76% of 13-15-yr-olds in the permanent dentition. There was no significant sex difference (P > 0.05) in either the prevalence or the severity of fluorosis. In children with mixed dentition, the prevalence and severity of fluorosis was higher in the permanent teeth. In the permanent dentition, no clear difference was demonstrable in the severity between the anterior and the posterior teeth. The degree of fluorosis in most of the children in the area served with river water (0.2-0.4 ppm F-) was of a very mild form. However, in the area served with borehole waters, 48% of the children and 40% of the teeth were found to have TFI scores > or = 5. Measures to reduce dental fluorosis are necessary in the latter area.

MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1988: Ng.". In: Afr.Dent. J. 2: 76-79. Elsevier; 1988. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The present longitudinal study was conducted on ten children from age 5-6 years to determine the post-eruptive enamel changes of fluorosed permanent incisors. The children were born and reared in an area of Kenya with a water fluoride level of 14-45 parts per million. The incisors were examined and photographed periodically from the time of eruption over a period of 2 1/2 years. It was noted that the fluorosed incisor was intact as it erupted and then it underwent a variety of changes. In some there was mechanical breakdown (pitting) of the chalky white enamel which occurred rapidly initially and then the breakdown slowed down by 2 years. In others, there was smoothening of the pitted enamel resulting in a translucent appearance. Alternatively there was some degree of patchy staining of the enamel without surface breakdown. Much of the cervical 1/3 of the enamel remained intact even in teeth with severe breakdown. In most cases, these changes were bilaterally symmetrical. The possible reasons for these changes are discussed.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "2001: Ngatia E.M., Ng.". In: Afr. J. Oral Hlth Sci. 2:44-46. Elsevier; 2001. Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Although multiple supernumerary teeth without any associated syndromes are rare, their occurrence can create a variety of clinical problems such as derangement of the occlusion, prevention of eruption of permanent teeth, damage to adjacent teeth, cystic degeneration and root resorption. Hence, clinical and radiographic evaluation of patients should always be thorough in order to detect their presence. Furthermore, because the clinical management of multiple supernumerary teeth poses a great challenge to clinicians, timely, appropriate consultation and interdisciplinary approach to treatment is extremely important. We report two cases, a 14 year-old boy with eight and a 13-year-old girl with seven supernumerary teeth not associated with syndromes. In the boy, the teeth were bilaterally distributed in all quadrants in the premolar regions, and in the girl they were distributed bilaterally in the premolar regions in the mandible and bilaterally distal to the upper third molars. The clinical implications and management are discussed.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1993: Aasrum E., Ng.". In: Am. J. Orthod. Dentofac Orthop 104:48-50. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

Department of Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The uptake of alkali soluble and alkali insoluble fluoride on and in fluorotic enamel was investigated in vitro. Teeth from Kenya, assigned score 3 in accordance with Thylstrup-Fejerskov's fluorosis index, were used. The enamel was treated with either a neutral 2% NaF solution, a 0.2% NaF solution (pH 5.5), or the supernatant from a 0.1% NaF-containing toothpaste (pH 7). The treatment time was 1 h. The reaction product formed on the enamel was analyzed by KOH extraction and acid etching. Significantly higher amounts of alkali soluble fluoride were formed on the enamel from the 2% and 0.2% NaF solutions, as compared with the control. There was also a significant increase in the firmly bound fluoride after treatment with the neutral 2% NaF solution.

MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Ng.". In: Acta Odontol Scand. 1991 Oct;49(5):303-9. Elsevier; 1991. Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Dental School, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on the oral hygiene practices, oral hygiene status, and periodontal health among primary school children in Nairobi. The study group consisted of 513 children, 262 aged 6-8 years and 251 aged 13-15 years. The children were from 6 schools randomly selected among the 154 public primary schools in the city. The clinical examination was performed in a room with natural daylight, using the WHO (1980) criteria. Although most of the children reported brushing habits, 75% of the index tooth surfaces in the younger and 55% in the older age group had visible plaque. In both age groups about 25% of the index sites had gingivitis. Moderate amounts of calculus were recorded among the older children. Only two children had periodontal pockets greater than or equal to 4 mm. There was no statistically significant difference (p greater than 0.05) between males and females recorded with plaque and gingivitis in the younger age group. In the older group, however, a significantly higher proportion of males (p less than 0.05) were recorded with plaque and gingivitis. The oral hygiene practices and oral hygiene status were poorer among children from low than from high socioeconomic status. Provision of dental health education for children in Nairobi is recommended.
Macharia PN;, Gachene CKK;, Mureithi JG;, Kinyamario JI;, Ekaya WN;, Thuranira EG. "The effect of introduced forage legumes on improvement of soil fertility in natural pastures of semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya."; 2011. Abstract

A two phase study was carried out from 2002 to 2005 in the semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya to determine the effect of introduced forage legumes on soil fertility improvement of natural pastures. During legume evaluation phase, Neonotonia wightii (Glycine), Macroptilium atropurpureum (Siratro), Lablab purpureus cv. Rongai (Dolichos), Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) and Stylosanthes scabra var. Seca (Stylo) were screened for adaptability and growth performance under the semi-arid conditions for two years. Results of soil analysis showed there were significant increases in soil pH (4.92 to 5.36), organic carbon (1.17 to 2.57%) , nitrogen (0.17 to 0.22%) and potassium (1.23 to 1.68 me%) probably due to the large amounts of organic residues produced by the legumes (particularly Glycine, Siratro and Stylo which are perennials). The calcium content decreased significantly from 7.97 to 4.50 me% (which was attributed to plant uptake) while the decrease of phosphorus was not significant. During the second phase of study for 1½ years Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were integrated into natural pastures. The results showed that only the soil pH significantly increased from 5.23 to 5.31 while all the other nutrients decreased results, which were attributed to production of less organic residues by the legumes compared to the residues produced during the legume evaluation phase. The study concluded that Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were capable of improving the soil fertility of semi-arid natural pastures only if the respective dry matter production was 10.31, 7.81 and 3.52 tha-1, amounts which were able to produce large amounts of organic residues.

MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "2001: Ng.". In: E. Afr Med. J. 78: 200-203. Elsevier; 2001. Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Although multiple supernumerary teeth without any associated syndromes are rare, their occurrence can create a variety of clinical problems such as derangement of the occlusion, prevention of eruption of permanent teeth, damage to adjacent teeth, cystic degeneration and root resorption. Hence, clinical and radiographic evaluation of patients should always be thorough in order to detect their presence. Furthermore, because the clinical management of multiple supernumerary teeth poses a great challenge to clinicians, timely, appropriate consultation and interdisciplinary approach to treatment is extremely important. We report two cases, a 14 year-old boy with eight and a 13-year-old girl with seven supernumerary teeth not associated with syndromes. In the boy, the teeth were bilaterally distributed in all quadrants in the premolar regions, and in the girl they were distributed bilaterally in the premolar regions in the mandible and bilaterally distal to the upper third molars. The clinical implications and management are discussed.
Macharia WM. "Highlight on childhood lymphomas.". 1996.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1993: Ng.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Mar;70(3):175-8. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

Department of Dental Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The prevalence of dental caries, malocclusion and fractured incisors was investigated in 245 children from a pastoral community in Kenya. Forty-eight per cent of them were found to be caries-free. The overall mean DMFT was 1.9 (s.d. 2.7). Among those with caries, the mean DMFT was 3.0 (s.d. 2.0). Fifty-eight per cent of the children had malocclusion. Overall, 84% of the sample had Angle's Class I, 11% Class II and 5% Class III molar relation. The prevalence of fractured incisors was 15%. Most of the fractures were in the maxilla and involved enamel only. Minimal treatment had been carried out on the children.

MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Ng'ang'a PM, Valderhaug J. Dental caries in primary school children in Nairobi, Kenya. Acta Odontol Scand. 1992 Oct;50(5):269-72.". In: Acta Odontol Scand. 1992 Oct;50(5):269-72. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
The purpose of this study was to record the caries status in children attending public primary schools in Nairobi. The sample comprised 513 children, 262 aged 6-8 years and 251 aged 13-15 years. The children were drawn from six randomly selected schools in the city. Clinical examination was carried out in a room with natural daylight, using the WHO (1977) criteria. Fifty-four per cent of the 6- to 8-year-olds and 50% of the 13- to 15-year-olds were caries-free. The mean dmft in the 6- to 8-year-olds was 1.7, and the mean dmfs was 3.5. The mean DMFT in the 13- to 15-year-olds was 1.8, and the mean DMFS was 2.9. The d- and D-components dominated and were mainly located in the occlusal surfaces. The f-component of the dmft and the F-component of the DMFT comprised 1% and 10%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) in the prevalence of caries between males and females in the younger age group. In the older age group, however, females had a higher (p < 0.05) prevalence than males. In general, the study showed a low caries prevalence in Nairobi children.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Sanya BO, Ng'ang'a PM, Ng'ang'a RN. Causes and pattern of missing permanent teeth among Kenyans.East Afr Med J. 2004 Jun;81(6):322-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Jun;81(6):322-5. Elsevier; 2004. Abstract
Malindi District Hospital, PO Box 4, Malindi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the causes and pattern of missing permanent teeth among Kenyans. DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Five districts in Kenya. SUBJECTS: Seven hundred and twenty two persons aged 6-85 years (346 males and 376 females). METHODS: This study was undertaken in October 2001 during the National Dental Health Action Month organised by the Kenya Dental Association. Six centres in five districts were identified and subjects randomly selected. Intra- oral examination was done visually and results were recorded on specially designed clinical examination forms. RESULTS: The mean number of missing teeth in the population was 1.60. Among those with missing teeth, the mean number of missing teeth was 3.35. The most commonly missing teeth were lower molars followed by upper molars. No record of complete edentulousness in both jaws was encountered. Dental caries was the commonest cause of tooth loss (52.6%), followed by periodontal disease (27.6%). Extractions, as a form of traditional practice, accounted for 12.3% of total tooth loss. Orthodontic treatment and trauma accounted for 2.2% and 2.0% respectively of total tooth loss. The upper and lower posteriors were the commonest teeth lost due to dental caries and periodontal disease. Teeth lost due to trauma were mostly upper anteriors, whereas those extracted due to traditional practices were exclusively lower anteriors. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show that the commonly lost teeth are molars and the principal cause of tooth loss is dental caries followed by periodontal disease. Overall, very few extractions had been done for orthodontic reasons.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Ng'ang'a PM, Ogaard B, Cruz R, Chindia ML, Aasrum E. Tensile strength of orthodontic brackets bonded directly to fluorotic and nonfluorotic teeth: an in vitro comparative study.Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1992 Sep;102(3):244-50.". In: Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1992 Sep;102(3):244-50. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract

Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics Dental School, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Information related to bonding of orthodontic brackets to fluorotic teeth is scanty. The purpose of this study was to compare, in vitro, the tensile bond strength and the bond failure site of brackets bonded directly to fluorotic and nonfluorotic teeth. The etching patterns were also evaluated. The study involved 26 teeth classified as score 3 and 4, and 26 as score 0 with the Thylstrup and Fejerskov's (TF) fluorosis index. In addition to the clinical classification, difference in the concentration of fluoride in the teeth was verified by acid etching. Brackets were bonded with a composite resin after etching the enamel surface with 40% phosphoric acid for 60 seconds. Tensile bond strength was determined with an Instron testing machine. The bond failure site was assessed by the percentage of residue cement on the tooth surface after debonding and the etching pattern by SEM. The mean concentration of fluoride was 2888.5 ppm (SD 1081.7) in the fluorotic teeth and 1227.1 ppm (SD 526.3) in the nonfluorotic teeth. The mean bond strength was 7.8 N/mm2 (SD 1.47) for the fluorotic teeth and 8.6 N/mm2 (SD 2.19) for the nonfluorotic teeth. The difference between the means for bond strength was not statistically significant (p greater than 0.05). Bond failure site was primarily at the bracket-adhesive interface. The mean percentage of adhesive on the enamel surface after debonding was 70% (SD 25.90) for the fluorotic teeth and 75% (SD 24.66) for nonfluorotic teeth. The difference in the means was not statistically significant (p greater than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER, MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER, MUSAKULU DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "Rwakatema DS, Ng'ang'a PM, Kemoli AM. Awareness and concern about malocclusion among 12-15 year-old children in Moshi, Tanzania.East Afr Med J. 2006 Apr;83(4):92-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Apr;83(4):92-7. Elsevier; 2006. Abstract
Department of Dentistry, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College, Tumaini University, P.O. Box 3010, Moshi, Tanzania. OBJECTIVE: To assess awareness and concern about malocclusion in 12-15 year-olds in Moshi, Tanzania. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Moshi Municipality in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and ninety eight randomly selected Public primary school children aged 12-15 years (158 males and 140 females). RESULTS: About 56% of the respondents thought their teeth were properly aligned. However only 29.1% of the respondents reported being dissatisfied with the way their teeth appeared in their mouth. About 25% of the respondents found their teeth to have been worse than most of their age-mates. Children who reported to have been teased due to their malocclusion comprised 25.8%. Those who thought it was unpleasant to stay with malaligned teeth constituted 55.7% of the respondents. Subjective orthodontic treatment need was reported by 69.1% of the sample. Majority of the children (75%) were ready to accept orthodontic treatment. There were significant correlations between factors of awareness and those of concern about malocclusion among the subjects. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of very little orthodontic treatment exposure in this population, awareness and concern about malocclusion was reported by a significant proportion of the children. These findings form a baseline line for future studies on the trends of awareness and concern towards malocclusion in this population. They will also be useful in the planning of orthodontic services in Tanzania.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1996: Ng.". In: Acta Odontol Scand. 54:12 . Elsevier; 1996. Abstract

Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, University of Nairobi Dental School, Kenya. The need for orthodontic treatment in Kenya was previously not been investigated. This study was undertaken to assess the need for orthodontic treatment in 13- to 15-year-old children in Nairobi. The objective need was assessed in 919 children by using the Norwegian treatment need index, and the subjective need was assessed in 739 children by using a structured questionnaire. Objective treatment need was recorded in 29% and subjective need in 33% of the children. Less than 1% were allocated the 'very great need' category. Relatively more girls than boys were dissatisfied with the appearance of their teeth, and a significantly higher number of girls (P < 0.001) said they would like to have their teeth straightened. The children's perceived need for treatment correlated significantly with the treatment need index. Fixed appliances were found necessary for correcting malocclusion in 23% of the children and removable appliances in 6%. Future studies in Kenya should be directed at determining the societal perception of malocclusion, upon which treatment standards may be based.

Macharia G, Kungu A LA. "Spectrum of endoscopic findings at Kenyatta National Hospital. .". In: Kenya Pediatrics Association Annual Scientific Conference, Mombasa 2012.; 2012.
Macharia-Mutie CW, Brouwer ID, Mwangi AM, Kok FJ. "Complementary Feeding Practices and Dietary Intake among Children 12-23 months in Mwingi District Kenya." Int. J. Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health . 2010;3(1):45-56.
Macharia-Mutie CW, Moreno-Londono AM, den Wiel VAM, Mwangi AM, Brouwer ID. "Sensory Acceptability and Factors Predicting the Consumption of Grain Amaranth in Kenya." Ecology of Food & Nutrition . 2011;50(5):375-392.
Macharia-Mutie CW, Moretti D, den Briel VN, Omusundi AM, Mwangi AM, Kok FJ, Zimmerman MB, Brouwer ID. "Maize porridge enriched with a micronutrient powder containing low-dose iron as NaFeEDTA but not amaranth grain flour reduces anemia and iron deficiency in Kenyan pre-school children." Journal of Nutrition . 2012;142:1756-1763.
Macharia. J, Thenya T. "Conservation and Management Assessment of Ondiri Swamp, a Shared Natural Resource." Report Prepared fro Royal Netherlands Embassy; 2007. Abstract
n/a
Macharia. J, Thenya T. "Proceedings of Ondiri Swamp stakeholders' workshop." held on 18th Oct 2006 at Wida highway hotel; 2007. Abstract
n/a
Macharia. J, Thenya T. "Conservation and Management Assessment of Ondiri Swamp, a Shared Natural Resource." Report Prepared fro Royal Netherlands Embassy; 2006. Abstract
n/a
Machasio RM, Nyabanda R MTM. "Proportion of Variant Anatomy of the Circle of Willis and Association with Vascular Anomalies on Cerebral CT Angiography." Radiology Research and Practice. 2019;2019(1):Article ID 6380801, 7 pages.
MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "Preparation of "side-chain to side-chain" cyclic peptides by Allyl and Alloc strategy: potential for library synthesis.". In: Journal of Peptide Research, 2001, 57, 250-256. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001. Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "Odor composition of preferred (buffalo and ox) and nonpreferred (warebuck) host of some savanna tsetse.". In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, 2002, 28(5). International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2002. Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER, BHALENDU PROFBHATT. "Synthesis of 12,13-dihydroxyoctadec-9-enoic, octanedioic and nonanedioic acids from Vernonia galamensis Seed oil.". In: Kenya Chemical Society Inaugural Conference Proceedings. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1993. Abstract
18) , P.M. Muturi, S. Dirlikov and P.M. Gitu. .
MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "Synthesis of Carboxamide Protected Asparagine and Glutamine Derivatives.". In: Inter. J. Biochem. Phy., 4, 3, 22. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1994. Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "The use of allyl (All) and allyloxycarbonyl (Alloc) protecting groups in the preparation of cyclic glucagon analogues.". In: presented at the 16th American Peptide Society Symposium, June 26-July 1, Minneapolis, Minnesota. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1999. Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER, BHALENDU PROFBHATT. "Synthesis of 12,13-dihydroxyoctadec-9-enoic, octanedioic and nonanedioic acids from Vernonia galamensis Seed oil.". In: Kenya Chemical Society Inaugural Conference Proceedings. B.M. Bhatt and P.M. Gitu; 1993. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "PolymericAntioxidant from vernonia oil.". In: Mycromolecular Chemistry and Physics, 2001, 202(13), 2790-2796. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001. Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "Protection of the amide side-chain of asparagine with 1-tetralynil group in the sollidphase peptide synthesis of lysine-vasopressin.". In: South Africa Journal of Chemistry, 2002, 55, 87-96. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2002. Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "Solid Phase Synthesis of (2-Isoluecine-4-Leucine)oxytocin and (2-phenylalanine-4-Leucine)oxytocin and Some of Their Pharmacological Properties.". In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1973. Abstract
18) , P.M. Muturi, S. Dirlikov and P.M. Gitu. .
MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "I-Tetralinyl group for asparagine side-chainprotection and application for Boc-solid phase peptide synthesis of mesotocin.". In: Journal of Kenya Chemical Society, 2004, 2(1), 14-18. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2004. Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "HF Cleavage of Carboxamide Protected Asparagine and Glutamine Derivatives.". In: Inter. J. Biochem. Phy. 3, 20. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1994. Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "Design and Synthesis of truncated and conformationally constricted glucagon analogues.". In: presented at the 16thAmerican Peptide Symposium, June 26-July 1, Minneapolis, Minnesota. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1999. Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "A new Approach to Search for the Bioactive Conformation of Glucagon Position Cyclization Scanning.". In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2001, 44, 3109 - 3116. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001. Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "Isdolation and in Vitro antiplasmodial Activities of Alkaloid from Teclea trichocarpa: In Vivo antimalaria activity and X-ray crystal structure of normelicopicine.". In: J. Nat. Prod. 2002, 65, 956-959. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2002. Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "The Preparation and use of Carboxamide Protected Asparagine and Glucagon Derivatives; Chemistry and Biology of Peptides.". In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1972. Abstract
1) , V. J. Hruby, F. A. Muscio, W. Brown, and P. M. Gitu, 1972, 331.
MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "Synthesis of Side Chain Conformationally Restricted alpha-Amino Acids.". In: Methods of Organic Chemistry, Volume E 22c, 5-51. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2003. Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "Vernonia and Epoxidized Linseed and Soybean Oils; as Low Reactive Diluents in Alkyd Coatings.". In: Pigments & Resin Technology,3(23), 3-7. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1994. Abstract
18) , P.M. Muturi, S. Dirlikov and P.M. Gitu. .
MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "Gynadropsis gynandra essential oil and its constituents as tick (Rhippicephalus appendiculatus) repellents.". In: Phytochemistry, 50, 401 - 405. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1999. Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "Potential Antitermite Compouds from Juniperus procera extracts.". In: Chemosphere, 2000, 41, 1071-1074. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2000. Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
Machera M, ed) SA(. Opening a Can of Worms: A Debate on Female Sexuality in the Lecture Theatre. Uppsala: Nordic Africa Institute; 2004.
Macheyeki AS, Chapola LS, Manhiça V, Chisambi J, Feitio P, Ayele A, Barongo J, Ferdinand RW, Ghebrebrhan O, Goitom B, Hlatywayo JD, Kianji GK, Marohbe I, Mulowezi A, Mutamina D, Mwano JM, Shumba B, andTumwikiri. "Active Fault Mapping in Karonga-Malawi after the December 19, 2009 Ms 6.2 Seismic Event.". 2014.
Machio PM. "Determinants of Neonatal and Under-five Mortality in Kenya: Do Antenatal and Skilled Delivery Care Services Matter?" Journal of African Development, African Finance and Economic Association. 2018;20(1):59-67.
Machio P. "The Effect of Chronic Illness on Labor Market Outcomes in Kenya.". In: Center for the Study of Africa Economies. Oxford, UK; 2012.
Machio P. Demand for Maternal Health Care Services in Kenya. University of Nairobi; 2008.
Machua SK, Mukuria JC, Mukuria JC, Ngure RM, Gitu PM. "Modulation of partially purified rat liver mitochondrial carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I using two glutamic acid analogues." Unique Research Journal . 2014;1(1):001-010. Abstract Unique Research Journal

Description
Mitochondrial carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I (CPS I) is the first enzyme involved in urea biosynthesis in ureotelic mammals and has an absolute requirement for N-acetyl-L-glutamate (NAG) or N-carbamyl-L-glutamate (NCLG) in absence of NAG as its allosteric modulator. To investigate effect of diet on CPS I activation, three male albino rats were maintained under normal laboratory diet (control) and another three on high protein egg white diet for 10 days. The percentage mean weight gain for the normal diet was 6.4% while the percentage mean weight loss for the high protein diet group 18.6%. The rats were sacrificed and CPS I isolated from the liver mitochondria through differential centrifugation and partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration on Sephadex G-200 and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Lactate dehydrogenase-pyruvate kinase (LDH-PK) coupled assay system was devised to determine the effect of NAG and its structural analogue NCLG in the activation of CPS I from rats fed on the two diets. CPS I activity of 268.16 nmol/min/mg in the control group doubled to 553.86 nmol/min/mg in rats fed on high protein. An initial velocity of CPS I of 3.07 nmol/min/mg was observed when activated by 0.57 mM NAG and a lowered activity of 2.2 nmol/min/mg when replaced with 0.57 mM NCLG. Both NAG and NCLG activated CPS I at all concentrations tested in the assay system devised with improved activity seen when CPS I activity was measured in presence of NAG.

Machuka JS;, Waithaka K;, Gopalan HNB. "Discovery and Innovation, 5(1): 75-80."; 1993.
Machuki VN, Aosa E. "The influence of the external environment on the performance of publicly quoted companies in Kenya." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management . 2011;1(7):pp. 205-218. Abstract

This study investigated the effect of the external environment on corporate performance. Based on a survey of 23 companies listed on the Nairobi Stock Exchange, three environmental dimensions of complexity, dynamism and munificence were used to describe Kenya’s business environment. Performance implications of these environmental dimensions were then examined. The study reports that for the surveyed companies, varying degrees of external environmental complexity, dynamism, and munificence exist which tend to be mostly manifested in economic factors, competitive rivalry, market factors, technological factors, regulatory factors as well as threat of new entrants. Consequently, these factors appeared to have great influence in the companies’ strategic decision making. However, the overall results for the effect of external environment on corporate performance were statistically not significant. Based on the findings, implications of the study and suggestions for further study are presented.

Key Words: External environment, corporate performance, publicly quoted companies, Kenya

Machuki VN, K’Obonyo, P.O. "Organizational Strategic Behaviour and Performance of Publicly Quoted Companies in Kenya." Business Administration and Management Journal. 2011;1(7):219-232.
Machuki VN. "Strategy Implementation: Practices and Challenges in a Multidivisional Company (The Case of Cooper Motors Corporation, Kenya)." LAP Lambert Academic Publishing AG & KG. ISBN: 978-3-8443-1275-1; 2011. Abstract
n/a
Machuki, V. N. AE, K. LN. "Firm-Level Institutions and Performance of Publicly Quoted Companies in Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Vol. 2(21) pp. 289-312; 2012. Abstract
n/a
Machumi F, Midiwo JO, Jacob MR, Khan SI, Tekwani BL, Walker LA, Muhammad I. "Phytochemical, Antiparasitic and Antimicrobial Investigations of Terminalia brownii.". 2013. AbstractPhytochemical, Antiparasitic and Antimicrobial Investigations of Terminalia brownii

Terminalia brownii is an African medicinal plant used to treat parasitic and microbial infections [1]. Chromatographic separations on the stem bark extract aimed at identifying the active components led to isolation of a new oleanane-type triterpenoid, along with seven known oleanane-type triterpenoids and seven ellagic acid derivatives. The new compound was identified using spectroscopic methods as 3β,24-O-ethylidenyl-2α,19α-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (1). The compounds were evaluated for their antiplasmodial, antileishmanial and antimicrobial activities giving the most potent antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 2.76 µg/mL for 23-galloylarjunolic acid (2) against P. falciparum W2 strain and the most potent antimicrobial activity with IC50 values of 0.32 µg/mL for diellagic lactone (3) against C. glabrata.

Machumi F, Yenesew A, Midiwo JO, Heydenreich M, Kleinpeter E, Khan S, Tekwani BL, Walker LA, Muhammad I. "Antiparasitic and anticancer carvotacetone derivatives from Sphaeranthus bullatus.". 2012.Website
Maciel S, Okeyo AM, Amimo J, Scholtz MM, Neser FWC, Martins M. "The effect of geographical region of birth on the reproductive performance of the Nguni in southern Mozambique." South African Journal Of Animal Science. 2013;43(5 (1)):59-62.
Maciel S;, Mwai OA;, Amimo JO;, Moyo S;, Scholtz M;, Neser F;, Martins M. "Environmental descriptors influencing performance of the Nguni ecotypes."; 2009.
Maciel S, Amimo J, Martins M, Okeyo AM, Scholtz MM, Neser FWC. "Feedlot performance of the Nguni ecotypes in southern Mozambique." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2013;25(6):article 111.
Maciel S;, Mwai OA;, Amimo JO;, Moyo S;, Scholtz M;, Neser F;, Martins M. "Environmental descriptors influencing performance of the Nguni ecotypes."; 2009.
Macigo FG, Gathece LW, Guthua SW, Wagaiyu EG, Mulli TK. "Oral Hygiene Practices and Risk of Oral Leukoplakia." East African Medical Journal, 83 (4), 74-79, 2006.. 2006;83(4):74-79. AbstractWebsite

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

Macigo FG, James RM, Ogunbodede E, Gathece LW. "Sugar consumption and dental caries experience in Kenya." International Dental Journal. 2016.
Mackatiani C. "Evolution of Technical Education Policy in Kenya ." Journal of Education Management Society of Kenya. 2012.
Mackatiani, Caleb Imbova NMKGDJ &. "Learning Achievement: Illusions of Teacher-Centered Approaches in Primary Schools in Kenya." The International Institute for Science, Technology and Education. 2018;9(18):46-54.
Mackatiani C, Imbovah M, Imbova N. "PEACE AND DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES." Journal of International affairs and global strategy Journal of International affairs and global strategy Journal of International affairs and global strat . 2014;21(1):2224-8951. Abstractpeace_and_development_in_africa-1.doc

This paper provides a critical appraisal of continental peace and development in Africa. Since the formation of Organization of African Unity (O.A.U) in early 1960s, African states agreed to strengthen their relalationship at continental and regional levels. The primary aim was a drive for liberty. With most of African countries attaining independence, there was a shift to regional economic cooperation, trade and conflict issues. Organizations such as the African Union (AU), the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), and the Southern African Development Community (SADC) emerged in order to address security issues and economic development. This is as a result of the cooperation of countries in specific regions. With growing leadership crises, conflicts have developed in various regions leading to political unrest in most countries. This has led to security issues being focal points of concern. As a result, peace agreements were signed and developmental activities being initiated. The paper examines Global and African peace and security architecture. The paper further assesses prospects that have arisen because of peace. It also analyzes challenges that arise due to peace initiatives and how they affect development in Africa. Particular attention is given to the crises in the Central African Republic, Rwanda, DRC Congo, Ivory Coast, Egypt, Chad Angola, Sudan, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Nigeria, South Sudan, Uganda, and Somalia.

Mackatiani C. "Evolution of modern slavery." AFRICE Journal. 2013.
Mackatiani C. "Fallacy of institutionalized Schooling in Kenya." Journal of Education Management Society of Kenya. 2012.
Mackelprang RD, Bosire R, Guthrie BL, Choi RY, Liu A, Gatuguta A, Rositch AF, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "High rates of relationship dissolution among heterosexual HIV-serodiscordant couples in Kenya." AIDS Behav. 2014;18(1):189-93. Abstract

HIV-1 serodiscordant couples may experience increased risks of relationship dissolution; however, longitudinal stability of these relationships is poorly understood. We determined rates and correlates of separation among 469 serodiscordant couples in Nairobi and found that 113 (24 %) separated during 2 years of follow-up. Couples with a female HIV-1 infected partner (F+M-) and no income were more likely to separate than M+F- couples without income (HR = 5.0; 95 % CI 1.1-25.0), and F+M- and M+F- couples with income (HR = 2.4; 95 % CI 1.3-4.5 and HR = 2.3; 95 % CI 1.2-4.8, respectively). High separation rates may be important for couple support services and for conducting discordant couple studies.

Mackelprang RD, Carrington M, G J-S, Lohman-Payne B, Richardson BA, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, Gao X, Majiwa M, Mbori-Ngacha D, C. F. "Maternal human leukocyte antigen A*2301 is associated with increased mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. ." J Infect Dis. 2010 Oct 15;202(8):1273-7. doi: 10.1086/656318. 10. . 2010. Abstract

Abstract
We examined associations between maternal human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and vertical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission in a perinatal cohort of 277 HIV-infected women in Nairobi. HLA class I genes were amplified by using sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes, and analyses were performed using logistic regression. Maternal HLA-A*2301 was associated with increased transmission risk before and after adjusting for maternal viral load (unadjusted: odds ratio [OR], 3.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42-7.27; P = .005; Pcorr = 0.04; adjusted: OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.26-7.51; P =.01; Pcorr is not significant). That maternal HLA-A*2301 was associated with transmission independent of plasma HIV-1 RNA levels suggests that HLA may alter infectivity through mechanisms other than influencing HIV-1 load.

MacLeod DT, Choi NM, Briney B, Garces F, Ver LS, Landais E, Murrell B, Wrin T, Kilembe W, Liang C-H, Ramos A, Bian CB, Wickramasinghe L, Kong L, Eren K, Wu C-Y, Wong C-H, Kosakovsky Pond SL, Wilson IA, Burton DR, Poignard P. "Early Antibody Lineage Diversification and Independent Limb Maturation Lead to Broad HIV-1 Neutralization Targeting the Env High-Mannose Patch." Immunity. 2016;44(5):1215-26. Abstract

The high-mannose patch on HIV Env is a preferred target for broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs), but to date, no vaccination regimen has elicited bnAbs against this region. Here, we present the development of a bnAb lineage targeting the high-mannose patch in an HIV-1 subtype-C-infected donor from sub-Saharan Africa. The Abs first acquired autologous neutralization, then gradually matured to achieve breadth. One Ab neutralized >47% of HIV-1 strains with only ∼11% somatic hypermutation and no insertions or deletions. By sequencing autologous env, we determined key residues that triggered the lineage and participated in Ab-Env coevolution. Next-generation sequencing of the Ab repertoire showed an early expansive diversification of the lineage followed by independent maturation of individual limbs, several of them developing notable breadth and potency. Overall, the findings are encouraging from a vaccine standpoint and suggest immunization strategies mimicking the evolution of the entire high-mannose patch and promoting maturation of multiple diverse Ab pathways.

Maclure R;, Gakuru O;, Sotelo M. "Social policies and marginalized urban youth: centrist prescriptions and divergent practices .". 2001. AbstractWebsite

Although conditions of risk confronting urban youth are most visible in the immediate contexts of family and community, the degree to which specific social policies affect the status of adolescence is less understood. Between 1999 and 2002, with support from the International Development Research Centre, a team of researchers in Canada, Kenya and Nicaragua undertook a comparative inquiry into policy changes designed to influence social services impinging on the welfare of marginalized urban youth. Qualitative case studies focused on three stages of policy: a) the politics and macro-level forces underlying the formulation of social policies that affect urban youth; b) the institutional dynamics of policy implementation within selected urban sites and corresponding relations between units of local government and civil society organizations; and c) the actions and perspectives of groups of individuals who have been engaged in, and affected by, these policy processes. Despite the diversity of contexts and policies examined, case study findings revealed how the formulation of youth-oriented policies are shaped by dominant discourses that rarely accommodate the perspectives of youth themselves. Likewise, the implementation of such policies constitutes a complex set of practices that are subject to negotiation and different forms of appropriation, and therefore often exacerbate the marginalization of urban youth. In keeping with the qualitative and collaborative design of the project, the research helped to generate inter organizational dialogue within the communities that were the sites of inquiry. It also fostered insights regarding the role of collaborative international research as a catalyst for cross-national dialogue and a knowledge base for grassroots rights-oriented social change.

MacNeil MA, Heussy JK, Dacheux RF, Raviola E, Masland RH. "The population of bipolar cells in the rabbit retina." The Journal of comparative neurology. 2004;472:73-86. Abstract

The population of bipolar cells in the rabbit retina was studied using Golgi impregnation and photocatalyzed filling of single cells with dihydrorhodamine, a quantitative sampling technique. The Golgi method revealed the morphology and stratification of cells in detail. The photofilling method allowed us to estimate the frequency of the cell types. From a sample of 243 Golgi-impregnated bipolar cells and 107 photofilled cells, we identified 1 type of rod bipolar cell and 12 types of cone bipolar cells. An analysis based on retinal coverage indicates that this number of types could be contained within the number of bipolar cells known to exist. The dendrites of most cone bipolars contacted all the cones within the individual cone bipolar cell's dendritic field. Types of bipolar cell were encountered at roughly similar frequency, without any one type predominating. The rabbit retina thus contains about a dozen parallel and roughly equipotent through-pathways.

MacNeil MA, Heussy JK, Dacheux RF, Raviola E, Masland RH. "The population of bipolar cells in the rabbit retina." The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 2004;472:73-86. AbstractWebsite

The population of bipolar cells in the rabbit retina was studied using Golgi impregnation and photocatalyzed filling of single cells with dihydrorhodamine, a quantitative sampling technique. The Golgi method revealed the morphology and stratification of cells in detail. The photofilling method allowed us to estimate the frequency of the cell types. From a sample of 243 Golgi-impregnated bipolar cells and 107 photofilled cells, we identified 1 type of rod bipolar cell and 12 types of cone bipolar cells. An analysis based on retinal coverage indicates that this number of types could be contained within the number of bipolar cells known to exist. The dendrites of most cone bipolars contacted all the cones within the individual cone bipolar cell's dendritic field. Types of bipolar cell were encountered at roughly similar frequency, without any one type predominating. The rabbit retina thus contains about a dozen parallel and roughly equipotent through-pathways. J. Comp. Neurol. 472:73–86, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Macoco DK. Construction of a Gravity Map, .; 1973. Abstract

To display more clearly the gravity anomalies caused by geologic bodies in the upper parts of the crust, a new colored isostatic residual gravity map of the conterminous United States has been prepared using the gravity data set compiled for the Gravity Anomaly Map of the United States (Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 1982). The new isostatic residual gravity map is based on an Airy-Heiskanen model of local compensation, in which the surface load requiring compensation is defined by 5-min topographic and bathymetric data sets. A colored first-vertical-derivative map of isostatic residual gravity further enhances the short-wavelength anomalies produced by bodies at or near the surface and emphasizes the regional fabrics and trends in the gravity field. For the purpose of displaying gravity anomalies caused by shallow bodies of geologic significance, the nature of the isostatic model and the values of its parameters are of lesser importance than the application of an isostatic correction of some sort. Most isostatic models result in residual gravity maps that appear nearly identical in their main patterns and features. Anomalies on isostatic residual gravity maps should not be casually interpreted in terms of “undercompensation” or “overcompensation” because large-amplitude anomalies can be produced by crustal bodies in complete local isostatic equilibrium. Many isostatic residual gravity anomalies less than several hundred kilometers wide can be related to known geologic bodies. We present here a classification scheme that attempts to categorize such anomalies on the basis of tectonic environment. In general, highs correlate with intruded or accreted mafic material or with upthrusted crustal sections, whereas lows occur over low-density sedimentary or volcanic sections, felsic intrusive bodies, or down-warped crustal sections. Although some longer-wavelength anomalies, such as the broad gravity high centered over Montana, could be manifestations of density contrasts deep in the mantle, many such anomalies can also be modeled by geologically reasonable density contrasts that are isostatically compensated and confined to depths of less than several hundred kilometers, so that their source bodies need not be deep. The fact that certain of these broader anomalies have well-defined boundaries which correlate with near-surface geologic features increases the likelihood that their sources lie entirely within the lithosphere. If so, then the density contrasts required to explain the gravity data imply fundamental anomalies in chemical composition or thermal state for the crustal and upper mantle columns under these regions. We have investigated spectral analysis as a method to quantitatively characterize regional anomaly patterns. Contoured plots of normalized amplitude spectra were prepared for various areas of the isostatic residual gravity field of the United States. These Fourier domain representations show characteristic patterns that can be interpreted in terms of the trends and wavelengths of anomalies and may help to more objectively distinguish geologic basements with different origins or tectonic histories.

Madadi VO, Wandiga SO, Jumba IO. Mineralization Versus Degradation of 2,4-D in Tropical Soil. Arusha - Tanzania: The African Network for Chemical Analysis of Pesticides (ANCAP); 2004.
Madadi VO, Wandiga SO, Ndunda EN, Mavuti KM. "Analysis of Organochlorine Pesticides in Lake Naivasha Catchment." IJSRSET. 2017;3(5):139-149.
Madadi VO, Wandiga SO, Jumba IO. The status of persistent Organic pollutants in Lake Victoria catchments. Nairobi, Kenya: ILEC; 2005. Abstract

The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.

UoN Websites Search