Bio

DR. WARUIRU ROBERT M Biography

Dr, R.M. Waruiru holds a BVM from University of Nairobi (UoN), Kenya, MSc. from Cornell University, USA and a PhD. in Veterinary Parasitology from UoN, Kenya. He is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology (VPMP), UoN. He has taught for over 30 years at undergraduate and postgraduate levels besides conducting extensive research in Veterinary Parasitology, and supervision of MSc. and PhD students. Dr. Waruiru has specialties in large animal, poultry and fish Parasitology and, is involved in consultancy and diagnostic services in the department of VPMP.

Publications


2020

Waruiru, RM, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Wanja DW, Mwadime JM, Ngowi HA.  2020.  Fish husbandry practices and water quality in central Kenya: potential risk factors for fish mortality and infectious Diseases. Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International . 2020
Waruiru, RM, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Nguhiu JM, Wamboi P.  2020.  Haemato- biochemical changes and prevalence of parasitic infections of indigenous chicken sold in markets of Kiambu County, Kenya. International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine. 8(1):18-25.

2019

Waruiru, RM, Gathumbi PK, Okumu PO, Ogolla KO, Chebet J, Aboge GO.  2019.  Efficacy of ivermectin, liquid paraffin, and carbaryl against mange of farmed rabbits in central Kenya. Hindawi Journal of Tropical Medicine.. 2019
Waruiru, RM, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Mwadime JM, Wanja DW, Ngowi HA.  2019.  Bacterial pathogens isolated from farmed fish and source pond water in Kirinyaga County, Kenya.. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquactic Studies. 7(2):295-301..
Waruiru, RM, Mbuthia PG, Nyaga PN, Xu C, Mulei IR, Evensen, Mutoloki S.  2019.  First detection and isolation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus from farmed rainbow trout in Nyeri County, Kenya. . Journal of Fish Diseases. 2019:1-8.

2018

Waruiru, RM, Gathumbi JK, Mulei IR, Mbuthia PG, Eriksen GS, Mwihia EW, Maina JG, Mutoloki S, Ludvig JL.  2018.  Occurrence and levels of aflatoxins in fish feeds and their potential effects on fish in Nyeri, Kenya.. Toxins. 2018
Waruiru, RM, Gathumbi PK, Ogolla KO, Okumu PO, Chebet J, Kitala PM.  2018.  Efficacy of suphachloropyrazine, amprolium hydrochloride, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and diclazuril against experimental and natural rabbit coccidiosis. . Hindawi Journal of Veterinary Medicine . 2018
Waruiru, RM, Gathumbi PK, Okumu PO, Ogolla KO.  2018.  Effects of anticoccidial drugs on gross and histopathological lesions caused by experimental rabbit coccidiosis. SOJ Veterinary Sciences . 4(3):1-9.
Waruiru, RM, Gathumbi PK, Okumu PO, Ogola KO, Chebet J, Wanyoike M, Aboge GO.  2018.  Prevalence, control and risk factors associated with rabbit mange in Kiambu and Nyeri counties, Kenya. . Livestock Research for Rural Development. 30(108)
Waruiru, RM, Mbuthia PG, Nyaga PN, Mulei IR, Njagi LW, Mwihia EW, Evensen, Gamil AAA, Mutoloki S.  2018.  Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus isolated from farmed rainbow trout and tilapia in Kenya is identical to European isolates. Journal of Fish Diseases . 2018:1-10.
Waruiru, R.M., Mbuthia PG, Thaiyah AG, Murugami JW, Mavuti SK, Ngowi HA, Mdegela RH, Maina KW, Otieno RO.  2018.  Helminth parasites of farmed fish and water birds in Kirinyaga County, Kenya.. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquactic Studies. 6(3):06-12.
., Waruiru, RM, Mbuthia PG, Mdegela RH, Murugami JW, Maina KW.  2018.  Comparative management practices and parasitic infestations of farmed tilapia in Kiambu and Kirinyaga counties, Kenya.. Scholars Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences,. 5(3):156-161.
Waruiru, RM, Mbuthia PG, Mavuti SK, Njagi LW.  2018.  Prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal helminth infestations of free range domestic ducks in Kenya.. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 30(66)

2017

Waruiru, RM, Mbuthia PG, Munyua WK, Otieno RO, Maina AN, Mutune MN.  2017.  Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in indigenous chickens slaughtered at live bird markets of Nairobi County, Kenya.. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 29(233)
Waruiru, RM, Munyua WK, Mavuti SK, Otieno RO, Mutune MN, Maina VM.  2017.  Effects of medicated urea-molasses block supplementation on productivity and gastrointestinal nematode infestation of sheep in central Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Development. . 29(161)
Waruiru, RM, Munyua WK, Gathumbi PK, Ogolla KO, Chebet J, Okumu PO, Wanyoike M, Gichure JN, Kitala P, Mailu S.  2017.  Farmer practices that influence risk factors, prevalence and control strategies of rabbit coccidiosis in central Kenya. . Livestock Research for Rural Development. 29(134)
Waruiru, RM, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW, Mutune MN, Mavuti SK, Otieno RO.  2017.  Prevalence of ecto- and haemo-parasites of free-range local ducks in Kenya. . Livestock Research for Rural Development. 29(126)
Waruiru, RM, Mavuti SK, Otieno RO, Gitari RN.  2017.  Efficacy of copper oxide wire particles against predominant gastrointestinal nematodes of indigenous goats in Kenya.. Scholars Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences. 4(12):522-526.
Waruiru, RM, Murugami JW, Maina KW, Mbuthia PG, Thaiyah AG, Ngowi HA, Mdegela RH.  2017.  Predation and its associated risk factors in fish farms in Kirinyaga County, Kenya.. International Journal of Innovative Research and Advanced Studies. 4(8):209-214.
Waruiru, RM, Maina KW, Mbuthia PG, Nzalawahe J, Murugami JW, Njagi LW, Mdegela RH, Mavuti SK.  2017.  Risk factors associated with parasites of farmed fish in Kiambu County, Kenya. . International Journal of Fisheries and Aquactic Studies. 5(4):217-223.
Waruiru, RM, Mavuti SK, Mbuthia PG, Maina JG, Mbaria JM, Otieno RO.  2017.  Prevalence of ecto- and endo-parasitic infections of farmed tilapia and catfish in Nyeri County, Kenya.. Livestock Research for Rural Development.. 29:122.
Waruiru, RM, Mavuti SK, Mbuthia PG, Maina JG, Mbaria JM.  2017.  Evaluation of fish farmer management practices in Nyeri County, Kenya.. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquactic Studies. 5(3):165-170.

2016

Waruiru, RM, Murigu MM, Nana P, Nga’nga’ CJ, Ekesi S, N. M.  2016.  Laboratory and field evaluation of entomopathogenic fungi for the control of amitraz- resistant and susceptible strains of Rhipicephalus decoloratus.. Veterinary Parasitology. 225:12-18.

2012

Mavuti, SK;, Mbuthia PG;, Waruiru RM;, N, L.W.jagi;, Mutune. MN;, Otieno RO;, Msoffe PLM.  2012.  Prevalence Of Haemoparasites In Free-range Local Duck. Abstract

A study was conducted between November 2008 and March 2009 to determine the prevalence of haemoparasites in different age and sex groups of free-range local ducks in Nairobi and its environs. The ducks were categorized into ducklings (<2 months), growers (2 to 6 months) and adult ducks (>6 months). A total of 47 adults, 50 growers and 48 ducklings comprising 77 females and 68 males were sampled. Two thin blood smears were prepared from each bird, processed and examined for haemoparasites. Data obtained was analyzed as number of ducks of different age and sex groups infected with a particular haemoparasite. Haemoparasites were observed in 70/145 (48.28 %) of the ducks. Four haemoparasites identified were Aegyptinella pullorum 59/145 (40.69 %), Leucocytozoon caulleryi 10/145 (6.90 %), Haemoproteus species 1/145 (0.69 %) and Eperythrozoon species 5/145 (3.45 %). Their prevalence was 38.57 % (27/70), 24.29 % (17/70), 20.0 % (14/70) and 17.14 % (12/70) (p>0.05) for Embakasi, Westlands, Kasarani and Thika districts, respectively. Grower ducks had a prevalence of 35.71 % (25/70), adults, 34.29 % (24/70) and ducklings, 30.0 % (21/70) (p>0.05). Male and female ducks had an equal prevalence of 50.0 % (35/70). This study has demonstrated the occurrence of haemoparasites in different sexes and age groups of apparently healthy appearing ducks for the first time in Kenya. Their impact on duck productivity need further investigation and control strategies initiated to improve the industry

2011

Waruiru, RM, Mbuthia PG, Ngatia TA, Gichohi CM, Kamundia PW, Mutune MN, Otieno RO.  2011.  Prevalence and intensity of Paracamallanus species infection in farmed and wild catfish.. The Kenya Veterinarian. 35:25-32..

2010

Kamundia, PW;, Mbuthia PG;, Waruiru RM;, Njagi LW;, Nyaga PN;, Mdegela RH;, Byarugaba DK;, Otieno RO.  2010.  Trypanosoma infection in carrier fish of Lake Victoria, Kenya..

2008

  2008.  Preliminary study of the prevalence of helminths and their associated pathological lesions in four fish species.. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 56:38-46..
Kagira, JM, Kanyari PWN, Munyua WK, Waruiru RM.  2008.  Relationship between the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode infections and management practises in pig herds in Thika District, Kenya. Abstract

Thirty five (35) commercial pig herds in Thika District, Kenya were surveyed to determine the relationship between nematode parasitism and management practices. In each herd, faecal samples were collected from 25 pigs in all the age groups and examined for the presence of nematode eggs. Management factors of the herds were recorded by a questionnaire administered during visits and its association with the occurrence of nematode species examined using the chi-square analysis. High prevalence of the nematode was significantly (p<0.05) related to irregular worm control program, dung removal and disinfection. Other significant (p<0.05) factors were presence of non-concrete floors, lack of bedding, late weaning, small herds sizes and provision of low quality non-commercial feeds. These associations were most significant for the Oesophagostomum spp. The highest prevalences of Oesophagostomum spp/Trichuris suis, Ascaris suum and Strongyloides ransomi were recorded in farms using piperazine, levamisole and fenbendazole, respectively. The epidemiology of the gastrointestinal nematodes is discussed in relationship with the various management practices in different pig herds.

2007

2006

Gichohi, CM;, Mbuthia PG;, Waruiru RM;, Ngatia TA;, Maingi EM;, Weda EH;, Otieno R.  2006.  Preliminary study on the occurrence of endoparasites and their associated pathological lesions in four fish species.

2005

M, DRWARUIRUROBERT.  2005.  Waruiru, R.M., Mutune, M.N. & Otieno, R.O., 2005. Gastrointestinal parasite infections of sheep and goats in a semi-arid area of Machakos District, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 53: 25-34.. Nature Biotechnology, 24(9): 1067-1068.. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.

2004

Waruiru, RM, Ngotho JW, Mutune MN.  2004.  Effect of urea-molasses block supplementation on grazing weaner goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. . Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. 71:285-289.
M, DRWARUIRUROBERT.  2004.  Maina, A.N., Mbuthia, P.G., Ngatia, T.A., Waruiru, R.M.& Bebora, L.C., 2004. Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria species and parasitic lungworm infection in marketed indidenous chickens. In: Proc. of the Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Verinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya, November 3-5.. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M, DRWARUIRUROBERT.  2004.  Waruiru, R.M., Mutune, M.N. & Otieno, R.O., 2004. Efficacy of copper oxide needles for the control of gastrointestinal nematode infections of goats.. In: Proc. 13th Annual meeting of the ENRECA Livestock Helminth Research Project, University of Nairobi, Kenya, April 26-28.. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M, DRWARUIRUROBERT.  2004.  Waruiru, R.M., 2004. The influence of supplementation with urea-molasses blocks on weight gain and nematode infection of dairy calves in central Kenya. Vet. Res. Commun., 28: 307-315.. Nature Biotechnology, 24(9): 1067-1068.. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.

2003

Waruiru, RW, Mutune M, Kilelu ES.  2003.  Rift Valley fever virus antibody analysis in Machakos district.
M, DRWARUIRUROBERT.  2003.  Waruiru, R.M., Ngotho, J.W. & Mutune, M.N., 2003. The influence of urea-molasses block supplementation on weight gain and gastrointestinal nematode parasitism of goats in central Kenya.. In: Proc. 12th Annual meeting of the ENRECA Livestock Helminth Research Project, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania, June 21-24. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.

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