Publications


2008

Munavu, RM, Ogutu DM, Wasanga PM.  2008.  Sustainable articulation pathways and linkages between upper secondary and higher education in Africa. AbstractWebsite

Abstract: The recent and rising increase in enrollment at th e primary school level since the
introduction of th e FPE in 2003 has led to a corresponding and signif icant rise in enrollment
rates at the secondary school level. This has translated into an increased demand for higher
education in the country. The demand for higher education is driven by the realiz ation that
this level of education forms the princi pal pillar of development. The current development
agen da in Kenya is inspired by the realization that there are many available options and …

2006

Musau, RM, Munavu RM.  2006.  Biomass. Website

2005

Munavu, RM.  2005.  Health and Natural Resources: The Extraction of Useful Chemicals from Plants and their Impact on Socio-Economic Development. Abstract

Poverty reduction strategies in developing countries are based on the need to develop and
improve the quality of life of people. The successful strategies link wealth creating activities
of adding value to local resources with employment creation. These strategies lead to
increased capacity to produce needed consumer goods such as food, fuel, construction
materials, textiles and pharmaceuticals starting from local resources. Most value-adding
transformations of materials to consumer goods use chemicals conversion processes

1997

Were, O, Benn M, Munavu R.  1997.  Chinchona Alkaloid from Dendrosenecio kilimanjari subsp. cottonii. Planta medica. 63(1):90-92. AbstractFull text link

Investigation of the Tanzanian Dendrosenecio kilimanjari subsp. cottonii resulted in
the isolation of the cinchona alkaloid, cinchonidine (2). Conversion of cinchonidine to deoxy-
cinchonidine was achieved in high yield using zinc dust in aqueous sulphuric acid. This
illustrates the first reduction of a quinoline system using these reagents.

Were, O, Munavu R.  1997.  Cinchona alkaloid from Dendrosenecio kilimanjari subsp cottonii . Planta Medica. 63(6):578-578.

1995

M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1995.  The Principal alkaloid of Senecio Schweinfurthii", Phytochem. 40, 1327-1329. East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531.. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

1994

M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1994.  Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Lippia species in Kenya", Discovery and Innovation, 6, 58-60. East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531.. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

1993

M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1993.  Cold Solvent Extraction and Phyico-Chemical Study of Avocado Oil", Internat. J. Biochemi Physics, 2, 81-84. East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531.. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
   
M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1993.  The Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids of Senecio Syringifolius and S. hadiensis from Kenya":, Phytochemistry, 32, 1595-1602. East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531.. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
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1992

M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1992.  J.W. Mwangi, I. Addae-Mensah, G. Muriuki, R.M Munavu and W. Lwande. Essential oils of Kenyan Lippia species. Part IV: Maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) and larvicidal activity. International. Journal of Pharmacognosy 30 (1): 9-16. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
   
M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1992.  Pyrolizidine Alkaloids from Senecio hadiensis", J. Nat. Prod., 54, 491-9. East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531.. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
   

1990

M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1990.  Effect of Nitrogen and Phosphorous on the Essential Oil Yield and Quality of Chamomile (Matricaria Chamomilla L.) Flowers; E. Afr. Agric. For. J., 55 (4)., 261-264. Journal of Pharmacognosy 30 (1): 9-16. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
   
M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1990.  Changes in Fatty Acid Levels of Young Shoots of Tea (Camellia Sinensis L.) due to Nitrogenous Fertilizers", Food Chemistry, 38, 211-219. Journal of Pharmacognosy 30 (1): 9-16. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
   
M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1990.  The Effects of Pruning and Altitude on the Fatty Acids Composition of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) shoots. Tropical Science, 30, 299-306. Journal of Pharmacognosy 30 (1): 9-16. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
   
M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1990.  Plucking Standard Effects and the Distribution of Fatty Acids in the Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Leaves". Food Chemistry, 37, 27-35. Journal of Pharmacognosy 30 (1): 9-16. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
   
M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1990.  Flavonoids from Tephrosia interrupta and tephrosia linearis". Fitoterapia, LXI,372. Journal of Pharmacognosy 30 (1): 9-16. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
   
M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1990.  The Conversion of 2-Furaldehyde into some potentially useful Bifunctional Derivatives", BIOMASS, 23, 275-287. Journal of Pharmacognosy 30 (1): 9-16. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
   

1989

M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1989.  Essential Oil of Lippia wilmsii H.H.W. Pearson". Rev.Latinoamer. Quim., 20 (3), 143-14. Journal of Pharmacognosy 30 (1): 9-16. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
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M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1989.  Owuor, P.O., J.O. Wanyiera, E.K. Njeru, R.M. Munavu and N.M. Bhatt, "Comparison of Chemical Composition and Quality Changes due to Different Withering Methods in Black Tea Manufacture". Trop. Sci., 29, 207-213 (1989).. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
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M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1989.  The Principal Alkaloids of Delphinium macrocentrum from Mt. Kenya". Phytochemistry, 28, 919-922. Journal of Pharmacognosy 30 (1): 9-16. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
   

1988

M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1988.  Distribution of Lipids in the Young Shoots of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.), TEA, 9 (2), 7. Trop. Sci., 29, 207-213 (1989).. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
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1987

M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1987.  The Preparation of 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-Furaldehyde (HMF) from D-Fructose in the Presence of DMSO".BIOMASS, 13, 67-74. Trop. Sci., 29, 207-213 (1989).. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
   

1985

M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1985.  Oils of Local Plants that may Substitute Imported Ones".. POST (Kenya), X, 16-22 (1985).. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
   
M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1985.  Simple Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) Methods for the Separation of Catechins from Fresh Tea Leaves", J.Sci.. Technol. (Kenya), 6, series A 119-126 (1985).. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
   
M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1985.  Non-Conventional Vegetable oils for fuel in Kenya", Bio-Energy-84. Proceedings, (H. Egneus and A. Ellegard, Eds) 166-169, Elsevier, London (1985).. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
   
M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1985.  Chemical studies of Kenyan Tea Seeds: Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the kernel Oil", TEA, (1), 23-28. Trop. Sci., 29, 207-213 (1989).. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
   

1984

M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1984.  Myristoyl Esters of Lactose", Carbohydrate Research, 125, 253-263.. J. Sci. Technol. (Kenya), 5, 45- 52 (1984).. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
   
M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL, M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1984.  Munavu, R.M. and D. Odhiambo, "Physicochemical characterization of Nonconventional vegetable oils for fuel in Kenya".. J. Sci. Technol. (Kenya), 5, 45- 52 (1984).. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
   
M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1984.  Isolation and Characterization of the Major Anthraquinone Pigments from Rumex abysinnica". Planta medica, 50, 111. POST (Kenya), X, 16-22 (1985).. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
   

1983

M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1983.  Croton megalocarpus Hutch seed kernel oil: A potentially rich source of Octadeca-9, 12-dienoic acid", J. Sci, Technol. Kenya. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
   
M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1983.  Alumina and Silica gel catalysed rearrangement of 2,2 Diaryl Oxiranes to 2,2 -Diarylacetaldehydes" J.Sci. Technol. Kenya. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
   

1981

M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1981.  The potential for Utilization of some Indigenous Kenyan Seeds".,. Nairobi. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
   

1980

M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1980.  Conversion of Alcohols to Methylene Acetals by Reaction with Dimethyl Sulphoxide-Bromine", J. Org. Chem., 45, 3341-3343. Kenya. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
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M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1980.  The preparation of Trimethylsulphonium Bromide and Its Utility in the Synthesis of Oxiranes. Kenya. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
   
M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1980.  Energy in Africa", Science and Public Policy, 476-479. Nairobi. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
   

1979

M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1979.  Cellulosic Renewable Resources as Sources of Energy and Chemicals", in Energy Resources in East Africa. Kenya. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
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1976

M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1976.  Selective Formation of 2-Esters of some methylD-Hexopyranosides via Dibutylstannylene Derivatives. Kenya. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
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1975

M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1975.  Conversion of Polyfunctional Alcohols to Acetals under non-acidic conditions. Kenya. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
", Tetrahedron Lett., 4543-4546 ()
M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1975.  Thiazolines in Organic Synthesis.Formation of gamma-Hydroxy Aldehydes with Protected Hydroxy Groups. Kenya. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
", Tetrahedron Lett., 4543-4546 ()
M., PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL.  1975.  Selective Reactivities of some mono and disaccharides. Kenya. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education Abstract
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