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2016
Large Scale Land Acquisitions for Investments in Kenya: Is the Participation, and benefits for affected local communities meaningful, and equitable? A case study of the situation in Lamu, Isiolo and Siaya Counties , Kibugi, Robert, Makathimo Mwenda, and Mwathane Ibrahim , Nairobi, (2016) Abstractlarge_scale_land_acquisitions_for_investment_in_kenya.pdfWebsite

Land acquisitions, either driven by foreign investments or domestic investment needs have continued to polarize opinions. When this research was proposed, it was premised on arguments by scholars Ruth Meinzen-Dick and Helen Markelova, who had analysed agricultural land deals, and argued that there were potentially two schools of thought about foreign acquisitions over agricultural land. Their school of thought regards them as “beneficial investments” whereby investors are viewed as bringing needed investment, possibly improved technology or farming knowledge, thereby generating employment and increasing food production. Meinzen-Dick and Markelova further argued that because these land acquisitions, foreign and domestic, are ongoing at a very fast rate, it is necessary for host countries to focus on what they can do to seize the opportunities and mitigate the risks associated with the deals.
During implementation of the research project in Kenya, it became clear that although prior illustrations of land deals included foreign acquisitions (e.g. Dominion farms), a government economic policy focusing on mega- infrastructure projects was driving (or expected to drive) a much higher pace of land acquisitions either for primary infrastructure, or for the economic activities that flowed from the primary infrastructure. This is in the context of the Lamu South Sudan Ethiopia Transportation Corridor (LAPSSET) project, which is a flagship means for realization of Vision 2030; Kenya’s current national development plan. Thus, a national conversation is necessary to debate the crucial question of how to provide safeguards to protect the interests of local communities directly affected by these investments, including compensation of land that is taken, and their place in the socio-economic and environmental continuum of investment projects from design to implementation.
The following findings and recommendations have resulted from this research, and it is anticipated they will be valuable in setting the agenda and tone of such a useful national conversation, as well as tangible actions:

A. Lessons, Conclusions and findings requiring policy level interventions

1. Regularization of landholding and tenure systems.
The absence or weakness of formal landholding, and land registration systems was evident in most of the research sites, in Isiolo and Lamu. This is despite Kenya having put in place new land laws in 2012 to give effect to constitutional provisions to protect land rights. This has resulted either in emergence of informal land administration and conveyance systems (Lamu), or the emergence of a complex system of formal land allocation that brings about multi-allocation of land through repeated issuance of allotment letters, (Isiolo), or non-adjudication and registration of community lands (Isiolo, Lamu). In either instance this results in undermining security of tenure, and enhances the vulnerability of concerned communities who will face difficulties securing their interests in the land ahead of any large scale land acquisitions, due to the entry of speculators, and persons interested in grabbing the land by being first to obtain formal registration. The Kenyan national government should consider partnering with the County government in Isiolo in order to identify the nature and extent of, and take steps to resolve the problem of multi-allocations of land there. In addition, putting in place a programme for regularization of tenure rights by addressing the challenges of those without title is important as it will enhance the security of tenure of people affected by compulsory acquisition.

2. Enhancing tenure of certain communities through implementation of the provisions of Community Land Act.
This conclusion is drawn from findings in research amongst the Aweer (Bargoni), and Turkana communities (Ngare Mara) where residents expressed apprehension over their tenure security in the face of land acquisition for LAPSSET infrastructure. This is because the land has not been (fully) adjudicated or registered in favour of the community notwithstanding existence of the Land (Group Representatives) Act that preceded the 2016 community land law. It is recommended that the government expedites the application of the provisions of the Community Land Act for the Lamu and Isiolo communities faced by these land acquisition projects as a first step to guaranteeing the beneficial interests of the community members, first by protecting tenure rights, and subsequently providing for equitable community land governance mechanisms.

3. Clarification on the practice and methodology of valuation of land and non-land assets for compensation.
The repeal of the Land Acquisition Act, and with that the Schedule that defined the methodology of valuation of land requires to be resolved. In any event, based on the analysis in the research, and findings, there is need to formally resolve the entitlement to compensation for persons without legal title. In addition, it is imperative for Kenya to state in law or regulations the methodology to be applied in valuation of non-land assets, including the loss of livelihoods. Application of the full replacement cost methodology, as discussed, provides a viable option because, in addition to anchoring on the market value of the land, the replacement cost approach extends compensation to non-land assets, using the real cost of full replacement, and not factoring in any depreciation of the non-land assets being replaced, and takes into account all the transaction costs of purchasing (conveyancing fees, etc), or logistical costs of replacement of non-land assets.

4. Internalization of resettlement safeguards principles and practice into Kenyan law of compulsory acquisition of land
A review of the current legal situation in Kenya concerning compulsory acquisition of land discloses the absence of safeguards governing interaction with host community, as well as involuntary resettlement safeguards in the event of displacement by land acquisition. This includes exploring the possible application of an FPIC process that emphasizes the quality and meaningfulness of affected community participation, including the impact that views obtained during consultations have on the final decision. Equally critical is the decision to vertically integrate the process by requiring the consultation of the affected public during project planning. In the sense of feasibility studies, and project designs, this suggests that community participation may add value to the process by being conducted much earlier on in the process, and contribute to analysis of project sites, and alternatives.

For practical purposes, Kenya could consider a legal requirement for a national Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF) that would govern internalization of resettlement safeguards, including participation of communities. Key to this is that if a Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) is required, in terms of EMCA, both the RAP and RPF would have undergo a Strategic Environmental Assessment thereby providing a means for risk assessment in advance of major implementation steps being underway.

5. Policy linkage of investment promotion rules with investments flowing from land acquisitions to secure community benefit through contracts and business models
At a policy level, it is important for Kenya to revisit, in a framework sense, how to use investment promotion rules and binding contracts to safeguard socio-economic, environmental benefits and livelihoods of local communities. This is mainly in context of the continuum of an investment, from land acquisition, and during its implementation. The Investment Promotion Act, while addressing the benefit to Kenya threshold, is not aggressively applied, and as evidenced by the Dominion contracts, critical socio-economic safeguards were not included. A clear policy evaluation of business models application, either contracts in the context of farming investments, or other types, should be undertaken and public disclosure of the proposed business model(s) should be undertaken early enough, to ensure affected project communities do not experience anxiety over their future.

This could be done in context of section 12 of the Land Act, which requires the National Land Commission to make regulations to govern how investments on public land will safeguard community benefits and livelihoods. The details of these considerations have been discussed at length earlier in this report.

6. Regulations to regulate methodology for assessment of just compensation
Kenya is currently engaged in a number of infrastructural projects that call for the compulsory acquisition and compensation of land. As noted in the study, Section 111 of the Land Act requires the National Land Commission to develop rules to regulate the assessment of just compensation where land is compulsorily acquired. As at the time of this report, these rules had not yet been developed. The rules will help to standardize the methodology for the anticipated assessment and make the process more predictable and, in an environment where the government is involved in the development of infrastructure calling for massive compensation of compulsorily acquired land, the development of these rules should have been accorded priority.

It is however noted that regulations to operate the entire Land Act have not yet been developed. Perhaps the development of these regulations, and the rules to govern assessment for just compensation, may have been delayed by the amendments recently effected to the Land Act. Now that the amendments were concluded, it is recommended that the development of the rules to govern the assessment of just compensation payable to landowners affected by large scale investments on land be expedited.

B. Lessons, conclusions and findings requiring direct actions at community level
In this category, the conclusions and findings are drawn to highlight matters that directly affect the voice and equitable benefit or participation of affected local communities, either in land acquisition process, or in the continuum of investments introduced in their midst.

1. A community dissemination manual for transfer of knowledge about land laws, policies and land administration processes
In focus group discussions held in the course of field work, the research team got similar feedback multiple times that the (potentially) affected “had heard” on radio, or through other fora that Kenya had new land laws in place, they did not really know the content of these laws. A similar sentiment was expressed with regard to knowledge of details about the components of the various LAPSSET projects. Communities indicated that they would want to have some form of civic education on this, especially regarding tenure rights, the land administration system (surveying, adjudication and registration), the implications and contents of the new community land law, and legal protection of community rights during land acquisition. One key finding was a preference by community members to have some of their own members trained in order to pass the knowledge to the communities, a sentiment that arose from a desire to receive information from a trustworthy source who was part of the community. Another finding was that community members did not have clear details on available grievance mechanisms on the land administration system, and while some had managed to access the National Land Commission, they lamented that it was based in Nairobi.

This finding suggests there is a need to develop a basic community dissemination manual, that includes a provision for empowerment of community based trainers (through a Training of Trainers concept). In such an approach, the dissemination manual can be published in simple language, including translation to Kiswahili or local languages where preferable.

2. Enhancement of meaningful public participation in the entire continuum through effective consultations and disclosure of relevant information

In order to enhance the voice of the community ahead of any process of land acquisition, it will be helpful to integrate a constructive and meaningful process of consultation with potentially affected communities, from early on during project planning, feasibility studies to onboarding of investments. This would particularly aid in providing value on local circumstances and risks that may not be obvious to technical teams. Occurrences such as in the Isiolo Kiwanjani settlement (displaced for the airport) where residents of Kiwanjani Zone G Squatter complained that maps generated during the acquisition process continued to record their land as being part of the airport complex despite there being a 75 feet road between the airport boundary, and the plots in question, would be avoided.

Enhanced community participation would further provide a valuable avenue through which the [potentially] affected local community can enhance its voice by having an opinion (which is taken into account) early on in the stages of the project design. However, this approach would also require protection from speculative behavior, that could result in an artificial increase in market value of land, due to market behavior triggered by anticipation of a project, and land acquisition. Access to information requires that this type of information is made available to the public, but in order to control speculative behaviour that drives up the cost of land compensation, government can apply the new 2016 Access to Information Act to sieve out aspects that are either confidential or considered deliberative and therefore not to be publicly disclosed. Another helpful approach would be to undertake the feasibility studies focusing on multiple alternative sites, without showing preference for any particular site.

Meaningful community participation requires a legal or policy definition of how to ensure consultations are effective. This could include possibility of requiring consulting (public) agencies to return to the host community and disclose how they considered the various opinions, and provide feedback. The community dissemination manual proposed above would provide a valuable tool through which to structure techniques that affected local communities can apply in order to have meaningful consultations. The manual could also include implications of the procedures set out in the new 2016 Access to Information Act.

3. Promotion of Networking by Project Affected communities in various parts of Kenya to build knowledge and exchange thoughts
There are multiple instances of compulsory acquisition of land in Kenya (e.g. For LAPSSET projects), or the allocation of land by government for private investments (Siaya – Dominion). The processes are at various stages, either at conceptual point, or having gone through various steps of acquisition and onboarding of investments. Equally, others are complete and the investment has been operational for a number of years. In all these cases, there multiple lessons to be learnt between the various affected local communities. In both Lamu and Isiolo for instance, the research engaged with multiple focus groups drawn from within the same project locality but in different geographical sections – and there was evidence that there was no integrated system to promote consultations and learning from each other. Further, even where acquisition and investments have been undertaken in separate parts of the country, people from Isiolo or Lamu could learn coping techniques from those in Siaya, or by learning the adverse impacts in Siaya, become more interested in enhancing their voices in the local context to avoid a similar outcome. Therefore, the idea of a network that brings together representatives of the various communities is useful to consider. Such a network would also include policy makers drawn from the national and county governments. Already in most of these local communities, the research observed that chiefs (who are national government administration officers) are an integral part of the community process. Learning forums could be organized, and a feedback process put in place such that when representatives return to their local communities, they can provide details to their neighbours. Such a network would however require that policy makers also commit to provide valuable information and feedback to any questions and problems raised by participating communities.

An alternative to utilization of physical meetings for such a network is application of internet-based technology. In this case, a network can be developed through low cost options, such as through the WhatsApp Platform. Although this requires internet access through a smartphone, the Land Development and Governance Institute has been piloting a WhatsApp based platform that creates a Network aptly named Community Land Matters. The experience with this platform is discussed at length in section 9.

4. Involvement of Women in Community Interventions
The study exposes some good lessons in the involvement of women in community interventions and leadership on communal land rights. It was instructive that for instance in the discussion with the Aweer group in Bargoni, Lamu, some women participants in the focus group discussions were very active and made crucial contributions. In addition, the women also made distinguished contributions too during discussions with the Turkana community at Ngare Mara, Isiolo County, where critical leadership positions in the community are held by women.

Yet, the two communities, like many others in Kenya, are largely patriarchal. This experience provides a good benchmarking lesson that, despite the cultural practices that have informed many communities in the past, given opportunity, women may play critical roles in helping communities protect and mitigate their communal land rights where circumstances so demand.

5. Compensation to “occupants in good faith” without title to land
As noted in the study, Article 40(4) of the Constitution of Kenya states that ‘provision may be made for compensation to be paid to occupants in good faith of land acquired under clause (3) who may not hold title to the land”. While the rules to govern how the discretion implied by this Article are yet to be developed, the study reveals that the State has exercised this discretion positively in the studied Port site in Lamu and the Airport site in Isiolo. Despite land owners not holding title to their land in the two places, cash-for-land and land-for-land compensation was made to the claimants in Lamu and Isiolo respectively.

These are good precedents for other parts of the country where formal processes to register communal land have not been applied or completed. Lessons learnt from these two Counties may be borrowed to inform and improve similar compensation exercises elsewhere.

6. Protection of interests of legitimate beneficiaries during compensation

Incidents were recounted of husbands and fathers pocketing the proceeds of compensation and departing home with the entire compensation sum. This leaves the wives and children vulnerably exposed and without alternative livelihoods. Such people become a problem for the community and State. To avoid such negligence, the government should consider regulating the release of compensation funds. The practice under the Land Control Act Chapter 302 of the Laws of Kenya which regulates transactions of agricultural land could be borrowed. Though not written into the law, Land Control Boards always require the proprietor’s spouse to be in attendance before approval to any application for approval of a transaction such as subdivision or sale of family property. And where they are in doubt about the facts to any application, they will usually refer to an area elder or the Assistant Chief for pertinent information in an effort to ensure that spouse and children are in agreement. Such a procedure could be enforced in the case of compensation following acquisition.

It is recommended that the Government, in liaison with the National Land Commission, puts in place modalities to explore how a similar social safeguard procedure could be instituted in the proceedings for compensation under the Land Act to protect legitimate beneficiaries in instances where acquisition of land for projects has to be done with requisite compensation to landowners.

7. Preservation of indigenous and local knowledge:
Project activities involving large scale land acquisition have the inevitable consequence, in some cases, of interfering or totally defacing available traditional/indigenous knowledge from the affected site. This is the case in some parts of Lamu and Isiolo where invaluable oral and cultural knowledge, including some cultural sites, have been preserved over the years. In any event, if enhanced community participation is adopted, and a threshold placed to examine if the participation is meaningful, the indigenous and local knowledge of the communities will also benefit the project at the point of local risk assessment. In this case, recording of such knowledge can be undertaken for posterity use.
It is therefore recommended that the implementation of such projects be preceded by a quick knowledge mapping to determine and document such knowledge before destruction or adulteration, together with enhanced community participation. Where possible, such knowledge can be proactively preserved in collaboration with the relevant state organs. Such a mapping can still be done for the LAPSSET Corridor and Isiolo Resort City before implementation takes off.

2015
Adaptation to Climate Change: ASEAN and Comparative Experiences, Koh, Kheng-Lian, Kelman Ilan, Kibugi Robert, and Osorio Rose-Liza Eisma , (2015) Abstract
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Adaptation to Climate Change: ASEAN and Comparative Experiences, Koh, Kheng-Lian, Kelman Ilan, Kibugi Robert, and Osorio Rose-Liza Eisma , (2015) Abstract
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Adaptation to Climate Change: ASEAN and Comparative Experiences, Koh, Kheng-Lian, Kelman Ilan, Kibugi Robert, and Osorio Rose-Liza Eisma , (2015) Abstract
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Building enabling legal frameworks for sustainable land-use investments in Zambia, Tanzania and Mozambique: A synthesis, Dalupan, Cecilia M. G., Haywood Caroline, Wardell Andrew D., Cordonnier-Segger M. - C., and Kibugi R. , (2015) Abstract
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Building enabling legal frameworks for sustainable land-use investments in Zambia, Tanzania and Mozambique: A synthesis, Dalupan, Cecilia M. G., Haywood Caroline, Wardell Andrew D., Cordonnier-Segger M. - C., and Kibugi R. , (2015) Abstract
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Building enabling legal frameworks for sustainable land-use investments in Zambia, Tanzania and Mozambique: A synthesis, Dalupan, Cecilia M. G., Haywood Caroline, Wardell Andrew D., Cordonnier-Segger M. - C., and Kibugi R. , (2015) Abstract
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Enabling legal frameworks for sustainable land-use investments in Tanzania: Legal assessment report, Kibugi, Robert, Wardell Andrew D., Cordonnier-Segger M. - C., Haywood Caroline, and Gift R. , (2015) Abstract
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Enabling legal frameworks for sustainable land-use investments in Tanzania: Legal assessment report, Kibugi, Robert, Wardell Andrew D., Cordonnier-Segger M. - C., Haywood Caroline, and Gift R. , (2015) Abstract
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Enabling legal frameworks for sustainable land-use investments in Tanzania: Legal assessment report, Kibugi, Robert, Wardell Andrew D., Cordonnier-Segger M. - C., Haywood Caroline, and Gift R. , (2015) Abstract
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Legal frameworks enabling sustainable land-use investment in Mozambique: Current strengths and opportunities for improvement, Chiziane, E., Gift R., Kibugi R., Wardell DA, Cordonnier-Segger M. - C., and Haywood C. , (2015) Abstract
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Legal frameworks enabling sustainable land-use investment in Mozambique: Current strengths and opportunities for improvement, Chiziane, E., Gift R., Kibugi R., Wardell DA, Cordonnier-Segger M. - C., and Haywood C. , (2015) Abstract
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Legal frameworks enabling sustainable land-use investment in Mozambique: Current strengths and opportunities for improvement, Chiziane, E., Gift R., Kibugi R., Wardell DA, Cordonnier-Segger M. - C., and Haywood C. , (2015) Abstract
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Legal Options for Mainstreaming Climate Change Disaster Risk Reduction in Governance for Kenya, Kibugi, Robert , Adaptation to Climate Change: ASEAN and Comparative Experiences, p.409, (2015) Abstract
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Legal Options for Mainstreaming Climate Change Disaster Risk Reduction in Governance for Kenya, Kibugi, Robert , Adaptation to Climate Change: ASEAN and Comparative Experiences, p.409, (2015) Abstract
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Legal Options for Mainstreaming Climate Change Disaster Risk Reduction in Governance for Kenya, Kibugi, Robert , Adaptation to Climate Change: ASEAN and Comparative Experiences, p.409, (2015) Abstract
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2013
Land, Environment & Natural Resources-Presentation, Kamau, Winifred, Kameri-Mbote Patricia, Ichang’i Daniel, Mwangi Winnie, and Kibugi Robert , (2013) Abstract
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Land, Environment & Natural Resources-Presentation, Kamau, Winifred, Kameri-Mbote Patricia, Ichang’i Daniel, Mwangi Winnie, and Kibugi Robert , (2013) Abstract
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Land, Environment & Natural Resources-Presentation, Kamau, Winifred, Kameri-Mbote Patricia, Ichang’i Daniel, Mwangi Winnie, and Kibugi Robert , (2013) Abstract
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2012
Development and Balancing of Interests in Kenya, Kibugi, Robert , Balancing of Interests in Environmental Law in Africa , Pretoria, (2012)
Implementing Stewardship in Kenyan Land Use Law: The Case for a Sustainability Extension, Kibugi, Robert , Environmental Governance and Sustainability , Cheltenham, (2012)
14. Implementing stewardship in Kenyan land use law: the case for a sustainability extension, Kibugi, Robert , Environmental Governance and Sustainability, p.288, (2012) Abstract
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2011
2010
2009
A Failed Land Use Legal and Policy Framework for the African Commons? Reviewing Rangeland Governance in Kenya, Kibugi, Robert , Journal of Land Use and Environmental Law, Volume 24, Issue 2, p.310 -336, (2009)
A Failed Land Use Legal and Policy Framework for the African Commons?: Reviewing Rangeland Governance in Kenya, Kibugi, Robert M. , Journal of Land Use & Environmental Law, p.309–336, (2009) Abstract
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Training lawyers for the sub-Saharan African market: what role for academics? Perspectives from Kenya, Kibugi, Robert Machatha , The Law Teacher, Volume 43, Number 1, p.37–48, (2009) Abstract
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2008
Mineral Resources and the Mining Industry in Kenya, Kibugi, Robert , Environmental Governance in Kenya: Implementing the Framework Law, Nairobi, (2008)
1977
Polymyxin B and rifampin: new regimen for multiresistant Serratia marcescens infections., Ostenson, R. C., Fields B. T., and Nolan C. M. , Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 1977 Dec, Volume 12, Issue 6, p.655-9, (1977) Abstract

Polymyxin B and rifampin were given to 12 patients with multi-drug-resistant nosocomial Serratia marcescens infections. Eight cures were achieved; drug hepatotoxicity occurred once; one fatal suprainfection was encountered; and two patients died during therapy of causes related to severe underlying illnesses. Polymyxin B and rifampin were uniformly synergistic in vitro against the infecting strains and against 40 additional clinical isolates of S. marcescens.

1976
Development of a special electrode for continuous subcutaneous pH measurement in the infant scalp., Stamm, O., Latscha U., Janecek P., and Campana A. , American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 1976 Jan 15, Volume 124, Issue 2, p.193-5, (1976) Abstract

Using a combined special glass electrode it is possible to monitor pH ratios and pH variation in the subcutaneous tissue of the infant scalp continuously. Tests on a normal sample of newborn babies immediately after birth showed a significant correlation between tissue pH and capillary blood pH, with the trend of pH variation being broadly similar in both measurement media.

Biochemical and electrophoretic studies of erythrocyte pyridoxine kinase in white and black Americans., Chern, C. J., and Beutler E. , American journal of human genetics, 1976 Jan, Volume 28, Issue 1, p.9-17, (1976) Abstract

The mean PNK activity in red blood cells from black subjects was only about 40% of that in whites. Among 51 whites examined, one was found to have enzyme deficiency. The estimated gene frequencies for PNKH (the common allele in whites which codes for higher enzyme activity) and PNKL (the common allele in blacks which codes for lower enzyme activity) were .35 and .65, respectively, for black donors, and .81 and .19, respectively, for white donors, The variant enzyme in persons with enzyme deficiency was associated with an increased rate of degradation in red cells during aging. No other biochemical or electrophoretic differences were detected.

Excreta analysis on additional cockroach species and the house cricket., Cochran, D. G. , Comparative biochemistry and physiology. A, Comparative physiology, 1976 Jan, Volume 53, Issue 1, p.79-81, (1976)
Review of drug treatment for Down's syndrome persons., Share, J. B. , American journal of mental deficiency, 1976 Jan, Volume 80, Issue 4, p.388-93, (1976) Abstract

A review of drug treatment for Down's syndrome individuals was presented. Drugs used to modify behavior, as well as drugs used with the goal of affecting cognitive processes, were discussed. Some observations were offered as to the effectiveness of past and current drugs on Down's syndrome and some methodological problems relating to drug studies presented. There have not been any drugs that have demonstrated remarkable improvement in the status of Down's syndrome individuals that have been widely accepted as effective.

Rapid infusion of sodium bicarbonate and albumin into high-risk premature infants soon after birth: a controlled, prospective trial., Bland, R. D., Clarke T. L., and Harden L. B. , American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 1976 Feb 1, Volume 124, Issue 3, p.263-7, (1976) Abstract

We conducted a controlled, prospective trial to evaluate the effectiveness of rapidly infusing sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and salt-poor albumin into high-risk, premature infants in the first 2 hours of life. Fifty-three infants, randomized into one of four treatment groups, received 8 ml. per kilogram of a solution containing either (A) glucose in water, (B) salt-poor albumin, (C) NaHCO3, or (D) a combination of albumin and NaHCO3. After the initial infusion, the babies received no colloid or alkali solutions until 4 hours of age. We managed them supportively with warmth, appropriate oxygen administration, isotonic fluid infusion, and close monitoring. Among the infants who received alkali, 14 of 26 acquired the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), 11 died, and four had intracranial hemorrhage. Among babies who received no alkali, RDS occurred in 11 of 27, 5 died, and none had intracranial hemorrhage. These results do not support the common practice of rapidly infusing NaHCO3 into high-risk, premature infants, and they suggest that the early management of such infants needs renewed critical evaluation.

1975
Malathion A and B esterases of mouse liver-I., Bhagwat, V. M., and Ramachandran B. V. , Biochemical pharmacology, 1975 Sep 15, Volume 24, Issue 18, p.1713-7, (1975)
Acid-base balance in amphibian gastric mucosa., Silen, W., Machen T. E., and Forte J. G. , The American journal of physiology, 1975 Sep, Volume 229, Issue 3, p.721-30, (1975) Abstract

It has been established that H+ secretion can be maintained in frog stomach in the absence of exogenous CO2 by using a nutrient bathing fluid containing 25 mM H2PO4 (pH approximately equal to 4.5) or by lowering the pH of a nonbuffered nutrient solution to about 3.0-3.6. Exogenous CO2 in the presence of these nutrient solutions uniformly caused a marked decrease in H+ secretion, PD, adn short-circuit current (Isc) and an increase in transmucosal resistance (R). Elevation of nutrient [k+] to 83 mM reduced R significantly but transiently without change in H+ when nutrient pH less than 5.0, whereas R returned to base line and H+ increased when nutrient pH greater than 5.0. Acidification of the nutrient medium in the presence of exogenous CO2 results in inhibition of the secretory pump, probably by decreasing intracellular pH, and also interferes with conductance at the nutrient membrane. Removal of exogenous CO2 from standard bicarbonate nutrient solution reduced by 50% the H+, PD, and Isc without change in R; K+-free nutrient solutions reverse these changes in Isc and PD but not in H+. The dropping PD and rising R induced by K+-free nutrient solutions in 5% CO2 - 95% O2 are returned toward normal by 100% O2. Our findings support an important role for exogenous CO2 in maintaining normal acid-base balance in frog mucosa by acting as an acidifying agent.

Modification of arginine and lysine in proteins with 2,4-pentanedione., Gilbert, H. F., and O'Leary M. H. , Biochemistry, 1975 Nov 18, Volume 14, Issue 23, p.5194-9, (1975) Abstract

Primary amines react with 2,4-pentanedione at pH 6-9 to form enamines, N-alkyl-4-amino-3-penten-2-ones. The latter compounds readily regenerate the primary amine at low pH or on treatment with hydroxylamine. Guanidine and substituted guanidines react with 2,4-pentanedione to form N-substituted 2-amino-4,6-dimethylpyrimidines at a rate which is lower by at least a factor of 20 than the rate of reaction of 2,4-pentanedione with primary amines. Selective modification of lysine and arginine side chains in proteins can readily be achieved with 2,4-pentanedione. Modification of lysine is favored by reaction at pH 7 or for short reaction times at pH 9. Selective modification of arginine is achieved by reaction with 2,4-pentanedione for long times at pH 9, followed by treatment of the protein with hydroxylamine. The extent of modification of lysine and arginine side chains can readily be measured spectrophotometrically. Modification of lysozyme with 2,4-pentanedione at pH 7 results in modification of 3.8 lysine residues and less than 0.4 arginine residue in 24 hr. Modification of lysozyme with 2,4-pentanedione at pH 9 results in modification of 4 lysine residues and 4.5 arginine residues in 100 hr. Treatment of this modified protein with hydroxylamine regenerated the modified lysine residues but caused no change in the modified arginine residues. One arginine residue seems to be essential for the catalytic activity of the enzyme.

Poly(8-aminoguanylic acid): formation of ordered self-structures and interaction with poly(cytidylic acid)., Hattori, M., Frazier J., and Miles H. T. , Biochemistry, 1975 Nov 18, Volume 14, Issue 23, p.5033-45, (1975) Abstract

Poly(8-aminoguanylic acid) has in neutral solution a novel ordered structure of high stability. The 8-amino group permits formation of three hydrogen bonds between two residues along the "top", or long axis, of the purines. The usual hydrogen bonding protons and Watson-Crick pairing sites are not involved in the association. The bonding scheme has a twofold rotation axis and is hemiprotonated at N(7). Poly(8NH2G) is converted by alkaline titration (pK = 9.7) to a quite different ordered structure, which is the favored form over the range approximately pH 10-11. The bonding scheme appears to be composed of a planar, tetrameric array of guanine residues, in which the 8-amino group does not participate in interbase hydrogen bonding. Poly (8NH2G) does not interact with poly(C) in neutral solution because of the high stability of the hemiprotonated G-G self-structure. Titration to the alkaline plateau, however, permits ready formation of a two-stranded Watson-Crick helix. In contrast to the monomer 8NH2GMP, poly(8NH2G) does not form a triple helix with poly(C) under any conditions. The properties of the ordered structures are interpreted in terms of a strong tendency of the 8-amino group to form a third interbase hydrogen bond, when this possibility is not prevented by high pH.

Responses to drug therapy in ulcerative colitis. Evaluation by rectal biopsy and histopathological changes., Korelitz, B. I., and Sommers S. C. , The American journal of gastroenterology, 1975 Nov, Volume 64, Issue 5, p.365-70, (1975) Abstract

To evaluate responses to medical therapy in ulcerative colitis, rectal biopsies of patients with active untreated disease, individuals with positive and negative sigmoidoscopic findings treated with salicylazosulfapyridine, prednisone and 6-mercaptopurine, alone and in combinations and noncolitis controls were compared histologically. Predominant histological observations were analyzed statistically. There were fewer crypt abscesses but more mucosal edema after all forms of therapy. Quantitative histopathological analysis failed to demonstrate that the response to one drug was significantly different from another.

Time, money and the housestaff officer., Hughey, M. , IMJ. Illinois medical journal, 1975 Nov, Volume 148, Issue 5, p.534, 557, (1975)
Monoanion inhibition and 35Cl nuclear magnetic resonance studies of renal dipeptidase., Ferren, L. G., Ward R. L., and Campbell B. J. , Biochemistry, 1975 Dec 2, Volume 14, Issue 24, p.5280-5, (1975) Abstract

Kinetic analyses of monoanion inhibition and 15Cl nuclear magnetic resonance at 5.88 MHz were employed to study monoanion interactions with the zinc metalloenzyme, renal dipeptidase. The enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of glycyldehydrophenylalanine exhibited competitive inhibition when the reaction rate was determined in the presence of the monovalent anions fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, azide, nitrate, or thiocyanate or upon the addition of the divalent anion, sulfate. Competitive inhibition was produced by these anions. One anion was bound per enzyme molecule, and except in the case of fluoride all of the anions appeared to bind at the same site. Cyanide ion produced a much more effective inhibition of renal dipeptidase than the other monoanions, and it was shown that two cyanide ions were bound per enzyme molecule. An investigation of the effect of pH upon monoanion inhibition suggested that the anion inhibitors bind to the group with a pK of approximately 7.8. Complete dissociation of this group (approximately pH 8.4) eliminates the inhibitory effect of anions. The 35Cl line broadening produced by renal dipeptidase in 0.5 M NaCl solutions was 100 times more effective than that produced by equivalent concentrations of aquozinc(II). The line broadening was dependent upon the concentration of the metalloenzyme and independent of the frequency of the exciting radiation. When zinc ion was removed from the metalloenzyme by dialysis or when chloride was titrated from the metalloenzyme by cyanide, line broadening was decreased. Treatment of renal dipeptidase with saturating concentrations of the competitive inhibitor, guanosine triphosphate, in the presence of 0.5 M NaCl also produced a significant decrease in the 35Cl line width. The 35Cl line broadening produced by renal dipeptidase was shown to decrease with increasing pH through the range pH 5.8-10.8. This line-width variation with pH appeared to result from the titration of a site on the metalloprotein with an approximate pK of 7.4. Temperature studies of 35Cl line broadening by the metalloenzyme in the presence of chloride and cyanide inhibitors suggest that the fast exchange process pertains and that the dominant relaxation mechanism is quadrupolar in nature.

Comparison of contractile performance of canine atrial and ventricular muscles., Urthaler, F., Walker A. A., Hefner L. L., and James T. N. , Circulation research, 1975 Dec, Volume 37, Issue 6, p.762-71, (1975) Abstract

This study compared the contractile performance of a canine right atrial trabecula with that of a macroscopically indistinguishable trabecula isolated from the right ventricular apex. The heart was removed from nine mongrel puppies weighing 6-8 kg and placed in Krebs-Ringer's bicarbonate solution. The bathing solution contained only 1.25 mmoles of Ca2+ and was bubbled with a 95% O2-5% CO2 gas mixture. Each atrial trabecula was specially selected from the right atrial appendage. Histologically, these trabeculae showed a remarkable longitudinal orientation of the fibers. At Lmax (the length of the muscle at which developed tension was maximum) under identical conditions of temperature, rate of stimulation, ionic milieu, pH, and O2 and CO2 supply, right atrial trabeculae achieved the same developed and total tensions but in a much shorter time than did ventricular trabeculae. In both muscle groups the maximum developed tension averaged about 2.5 g/mm2. Since Lo (expressed as a fraction of Lmax) was less in atrial muscle than it was in ventribular muscle, we concluded that atrial muscle can be stretched considerably more than can ventricular muscle before optimum length is reached. At any given initial muscle length, the maximum of tension rise for atrial trabeculae amounted to at least twice that for ventricular trabeculae. At any given load up to 1.5 g/mm2, the maximum velocity of shortening of an atrial trabecula was about three to four times that of a ventricular trabecula. These results collectively indicate that the contractile performance of the right atrial muscle is in many respects superior to that of the right ventricle, at least under the conditions of these experiments.

Use of the latent image technique to develop and evaluate problem-solving skills., Schwabbauer, M. L. , The American journal of medical technology, 1975 Dec, Volume 41, Issue 12, p.457-62, (1975) Abstract

This project involved designing, developing and evaluating a simulation module, utilizing the latent image technique. The general topic chosen for this simulation was the laboratory characterization of anemias. Target learner populations included medical technology students, physician assistant students, and pathology residents. Members of all three groups participated in the evaluation of the module and responded to its use in varied settings.

Comparison between procaine and isocarboxazid metabolism in vitro by a liver microsomal amidase-esterase., Moroi, K., and Sato T. , Biochemical pharmacology, 1975 Aug 15, Volume 24, Issue 16, p.1517-21, (1975)
Gluconic acid production by Penicillium puberulum., Elnaghy, M. A., and Megalla S. E. , Folia microbiologica, 1975, Volume 20, Issue 6, p.504-8, (1975) Abstract

Twenty-five Penicillium species isolated from Egyptian soil were examined for their ability to produce gluconic acid in surface culture. Of the eight species capable of producing gluconic acid, Penicillium puberulum gave the maximum yield (91% gluconic acid from glucose after 7 days of fermentation with 3% CaCO3). Peptone was the best nitrogen source for acid fermentation and glucose was superior to sucrose. Addition of low concentrations of KH2PO4 and MgSO4 - 7 H2O stimulated acid production. An initial pH of 6.1 was most favourable for acid accumulation and addition of CaCO3 was necessary for maximum acid production.

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