Bio

DR. WAHOME RAPHAEL GITHAIGA

I am a veterinarian specialized in animal science. I am both a container of immense knowledge and skills in animal science. I specialize in analysis of food production systems in general and specifically in livestock production systems. I am thoroughly capable of generating information through participatory field and on station laboratory research. I do this directly and through coordinated supervision of students and field assistants/enumerators.

Publications


2011

Kipchirchir, Koech, O, Ngugi K.  2011.  Use of Dry Land Tree Species (Prosopis juliflora) Seed Pods as Supplement Feed for Goats in the Arid and Semi Arid Lands of Kenya. Abstract

Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the potential of incorporating Prosopis juliflora seed pods into typical dry land livestock production systems to minimize feed scarcity during the dry seasons and avoiding weight losses and poor performance. The study evaluated supplementation of weaner Galla goats with increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora seedpods that is widely distributed in arid and semi arid areas of Kenya. This species is drought tolerant and with high productivity of seed pods whole year round. The overall aim of this study was therefore, to assess the feasibility of incorporating P. juliflora seedpods into a typical dry land livestock production system. The study further sought to find out the optimum supplementation level for improved performance. The experiment involved 20 weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) which were randomly assigned to four treatments of 5 weaners each. The treatments were No P. juliflora (PJP0), 100 g/goat/day P. juliflora (PJP100), 200 g/goat/day P. juliflora (PJP200), 400 g/goat/day P. juliflora (PJP400). Supplementation involved providing the goats with their respective diets in the morning before mixed species range grass hay was offered as basal diet. The animals were weighed on weekly basis and weight gains calculated as difference in previous week’s weight and current week’s weight. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than the control group throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, this was not statistically significant (p<0.05). From the 5th week up to the 10th week, there was significant difference (p<0.05) in the growth rates for the treatments except for the control group. Overall, treatment PJP200 exhibited highest total weight gain (3.960c) followed by PJP400 (2.700 kg). Group PJP0 had the lowest weight gain by the end of the experiment. The supplemented groups showed good weight gains, body condition and retained nitrogen levels compared to the un-supplemented groups

Syomiti, M, Wanyoike M, Wahome RG, Kuria JKN.  2011.  The status of maize stover utilization as feed for livestock in Kiambu and Thika districts of Kenya: constraints and opportuniti. Abstract

Maize stover is an important feed resource in smallholder crop/livestock production systems. A situation analysis survey was undertaken in four administrative divisions, namely Kiambaa and Githuguri in the Kiambu district and Gatanga and Kamwangi in the Thika district as representatives of this system. The objective of the study was to establish baseline information on maize stover utilization as livestock feed and possible constraints and strategies to deal with these constraints. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Simple random sampling was used to select 15 respondents per district, giving a sample size of 30 households. Sampling criteria was based on dairy enterprise priority and a zero-grazing production system. Termite attacks during storage and low quality of stover were the major constraints in utilization of maize stover. Among the major strategies for dealing with the low quality of stover, was supplementation with spent brewers' grains, which was most important in Thika district, while in Kiambu district, supplementation with fodder grasses emerged highest. Treatment of dry maize stover with urea was among the least adopted technologies in the two districts. It was concluded from the study that the efficiency with which the available stover are utilized is compromised by poor handling before feeding. Some of the strategies adopted to overcome the identified constraint of low quality were also inappropriate. This may reflect the lack of technical know-how on how best to use the stover and/or inappropriateness of available technologies. There is a need to address this situation by adapting known and workable technologies under the local conditions.

2010

Koech, OK;, Kinuthia RN;, Wahome RG;, Choge SK;, Ekaya NW.  2010.  The importance of trees and shrubs as livestock feed in the arid and semi arid rangelands of Kenya: Case of Prosopis juliflora in Baringo district. Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the potential of integrating Prosopis juliflora in drylands livestock production where the tree is abundant and has been reported by the community to be a menace to their livelihoods. Despite these allegations, the tree has great potential as a source of livestock feed among other many uses that has not been fully exploited. The overall aim of this study was therefore, to assess the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis juliflora seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production system. The study further sought to evaluate the economic viability of supplementing the goats with Prosopis juliflora through cost benefit analysis and find out the optimum supplementation level for improved performance. The experiment involved 20 weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) which were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were; No P. juliflora (0PJP), 100 g/goat/day P. juliflora (100PJP), 200 g/goat/day P. juliflora (200PJP), 400g/goat/day P. juliflora (400PJP). Supplementation involved providing the goats with their respective diets in the morning before mixed species range grass hay was offered as basal diet. The animals were weighed on weekly basis and weight gains calculated as previous week’s weight and current week’s weight. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than the control group throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, this was not statistically significant (P<0.05). From the fifth week up to the tenth week, there was significant difference (P<0.05) in the growth rates for the treatments except for the control group. Overall, treatment 200Pjp exhibited highest total weight gain (3.96kg), followed by 400Pjp (2.70kg). Group 0Pjp lost weight by the end of the experiment (-0.009kgs). The cost benefit analysis indicated that it is profitable to supplement the goats with 200g/ goat/day, which was the most cost effective with a benefit cost ratio (BCR) of 1.50. The 100PJP was also cost effective but at a lower level BCR 0f 1.47. Treatment 400Pjp was not cost effective with BCR of 0.57, which is less than 1. It is therefore recommended that supplementation at optimum improves productivity.

Koech, OK;, Kinuthia RN;, Wahome RG;, Ekaya W.  2010.  Effects of supplementing mesquit (Prosopis juliflora) seedpod meal on the performance of weaner Galla goats in the drylands of Kenya. Abstract

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora seedpod meal on the growth rate of weaner Galla goats. The overall aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production system. Twenty weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were T1 No Prosopis (control treatment), T2 (100 g /goat /day Prosopis), T3 (200 g /goat /day Prosopis), and T4 (400g /goat /day Prosopis). Prosopis contained 88.4% dry matter (DM), 18.5% crude protein (CP), 83.2% organic matter (OM), 51.8% neutral detergent fibre (NDF), 29.8% acid detergent fibre and 5.2% Ash. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than T1 (control) throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, these differences were not statistically significant (P<0.05). From the fifth week on wards, however, the differences in growth rates were statistically significant (P<0.05). Treatment T3 exhibited highest total weight gain (3.96 kg), followed by T4 (2.70kg). Group T1 lost weight by the end of the experiment. This study demonstrated that Prosopis could be used as goats feed up to 200g/goat/day giving good weight gains and no negative effects on feed intakes and digestibility.

Gitao, C G; Kihu, BNWKSWMSM; LC;.  2010.  Developing capacity for implementing innovative PPR control strategies based on the epidemiology and socio-economic aspects of the disease in the East African region. Abstract

Major losses in sheep and goats have been incurred from Peste des petit ruminants (PPR), a relatively new disease in East Africa. It first appeared in Eastern Uganda but has since spread to most of Kenya and Northern Tanzania. Small ruminants are the source of income for most pastoralists in East Africa. In this study the epidemiology of PPR including risk factors, prevalence, and socio-economic effects will be analyzed using participatory tools in Turkana, Kenya and Longido in Tanzania.

H, DG, Nyanamba T, Wahome R.  2010.  Quality protein maize for the feed industry in Kenya. Abstract

Quality protein maize (QPM) has increased levels of lysine and tryptophan, limiting amino acids for monogastric animals, so its use in animal feed reduces the need for more expensive high-protein sources. The authors, through the application of a linear programming optimization model with the composition and prices of feed components used at the coast, show that the cost reduction from substituting QPM for regular maize in poultry feed for Kenya is 5% (mainly as a result of a reduction in fishmeal). The optimal ratios based on QPM and regular maize were calculated and formulated, and trials showed that broilers raised with either mixture had the same food intake, mortality and growth. Moreover, when the chickens were fried in the style popular at the coast, there was no difference in the taste of the meat between the two batches. If QPM were to replace regular maize in broiler feed in Kenya, a 5% cost reduction would translate into a gain of US$300,000. If the cost reduction were passed on to the broiler producers as a reduction in feed price, producers would be expected to gain on average US$32 per year. If the cost reduction were not passed on to the broiler producers, it would result in an extra profit for the feed industry.

Mwendia, SW;, Mwangi DM;, Wahome RG;, Wanyoike M.  2010.  Assessment of growth rate and yields of three Napier grass varieties in Central Highlands of Kenya. Abstract

An evaluation of the performance of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) cultivars Kakamega-I (ILRI accession No. 16971), Kakamega-II (ILRI accession No. 16978) and Muguga Bana was carried out in the Lower Highland Zone 3 (LH3) at KARI-Muguga South, Central Kenya. Kakamega-I has been shown to be resistant to Napier grass head smut disease while Muguga Bana is susceptible but popular in Central Kenya. The varieties were planted in a Complete Randomised Design (CRD) without application of manure or fertiliser. Dry matter yields (DM), leaf to stem ratio and tiller numbers were recorded for six consecutive harvests. Growth rates were measured during the fourth, fifth and sixth ratoon (regrowths). The varieties produced similar (P > 0.05) number of tillers but differed in the tiller heights and subsequent growth rates. Kakamega-I produced significantly the tallest tillers and had the highest growth rate followed by Kakamega-II and Muguga Bana respectively. Cumulative DM yields (t/ha) for six harvests was highest for Kakamega-I (68.3 t/ha). Leaf to stem ratio was higher for Muguga Bana (4.98) than both Kakamega-I and Kakamega-II, which were similar in this aspect (2.49 and 3.32). The higher dry matter yields in Kakamega-I was attributed to the faster growth rate than the other varieties.

2009

Shah, K;, Choge S;, Wahome R;, Muchiri MN;, Kamondo B;, Ochieng D;, Wanjiku J.  2009.  Use of prosopis pods in livestock feeds industry: challenges and way forward.. Abstract

Prosopis ('Mathenge') is now a common tree species in northern, northeastern and coastal districts of Kenya. From experience, managing the spread of Prosopis appears to be heavily dependent on the level of human interventions at seed stage. In absence of any intervention, the seed forms the main source of spread of the species. Due to the potential of Prosopis particularly prosopis pods to be utilized as a feed resource for livestock production, ILRI, in consultation with KEFRI, Henry Doubleday Research Association (HDRA) and the Department for International Development (DFID) took the initiative to convene a national workshop in March 2007. The workshop theme was to link industry to the Prosopis resource. Its objectives were to bring together representatives of the Livestock Feeds Industry, researchers, developers, communities, local administration and other stakeholders to share local and international experience in the use of Prosopis as a feed resource and generate novel initiatives to catalyze the interest of feed companies on the use of prosopis pods as cost effective ingredient in the formulation of livestock feeds. This paper provides the results of the experiences of collecting, transporting and processing of prosopis pods in Kenya for the last one year. Recommendations towards community mobilization, pricing and promotion on the use of prosopis pods in Kenya's livestock feeds industry are highlighted.

Wahome, RG;, Choge S;, Wamwere N;, Mnene J;, Wang'ombe; Matere J, Matere J.  2009.  Nutritional evaluation of the suitability of prosopis pods for livestock feed. AbstractWebsite

To study the suitability of prosopis pods flour as a feed ingredient in manufacture of animal feeds, prosopis pods were collected from four districts heavily affected by the invasive species. Pods were collected from trees at three levels; green but mature pods still attached to the twigs, yellow (dry) pods still attached to the tree and yellow (dry) pods that had dropped onto the ground from the tree. Pods picked from the ground were inspected against decay or insect damage. These samples were analyzed at the department of animal production laboratory University of Nairobi for proximate chemical composition, fibre composition, and calcium and phosphorus profiles. In addition cost comparisons between prosopis pod flour and animal feedstuffs with approximate chemical composition were done. Pods collected in Tana River and Garissa Districts were drier than those collected in Baringo indicating potentially better keeping quality. The pods protein content averaged 11.7% but the fibre content was on the higher side at 29.8%. The calcium and phosphorus level, at 0.3% and 0.36% respectively, were considerably higher than those found in cereals although its availability on digestion was likely to be affected by the high fibre level. Pending studies on digestibility, degradability and metabolizable energy and performance evaluation will inform appropriate level of use in animal diets. However, the researchers, from the preliminary analysis, concluded that the flour will form a valuable addition to the feed ingredient base in Kenya.

2006

Ongadi, PM;, Wahome RG;, Wakhungu JW;, Okitoi LO.  2006.  Influence Of Existing Feeding Strategies On Performance Of Grade Dairy Cattle In Vihiga..
Wahome, RG.  2006.  Pig Production Trends in Kenya..
GITHAIGA, DRWAHOMERAPHAEL.  2006.  Wahome, R.G., 2006. A presentation of the draft national livestock policy.. Paper presented at the Central Branch of the KVA annual scientific conference held at the Sportsman. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education
GITHAIGA, DRWAHOMERAPHAEL.  2006.  Wanyoike, MM, Wahome, R.G. 2006. Issues Constraining Production, Processing and Marketing of Livestock Products in the ASAL.. Paper presented at the Central Branch of the KVA annual scientific conference held at the Sportsmans Arms Hotel, Nanyuki, Kenya, February 15-17, 2006.. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education
GITHAIGA, DRWAHOMERAPHAEL.  2006.  Wahome, R.G., 2006. Participation in, and processing of a national livestock policy.. Paper presented at the Central Branch of the KVA annual scientific conference held at the Sportsman. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education
GITHAIGA, DRWAHOMERAPHAEL.  2006.  Njenga M.J., Thaiya A., Gathura, P., Kuria J. and R.G. Wahome, 2006.. Report of the faculty of veterinary medicine on anthrax outbreak in Maragua district, Kenya. FVM Reports, CAVS, UON, January 2006.. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education
GITHAIGA, DRWAHOMERAPHAEL.  2006.  Wahome, R.G., 2006. Beef cattle, meat Sheep and Goat, and hide and skin production and marketing in the ASAL.. Paper presented at the ASPS Workshop on Livestock production, held at Agricultural information centre Nairobi On Tuesday 20th June 2006. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education
GITHAIGA, DRWAHOMERAPHAEL.  2006.  Wahome, R.G., 2006. Pig Production Trends in Kenya.. Paper presented at the . : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education
GITHAIGA, DRWAHOMERAPHAEL.  2006.  Wahome, R.G., 2006 Businesses in livestock production: What areas do we target? Paper presented at the ABD-DASS Workshop on Development of Livestock oriented Business, held at Tsavo National Park Lodge, Voi, on 8th August 2006. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education
GITHAIGA, DRWAHOMERAPHAEL.  2006.  Wahome R.G. and Kuria, J.K.N., 2006. Re-evaluation of the use of over the counter (OTC) feed supplements and additives. Zambian Veterinary Journal (Special Edition).. Proceedings of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine 5th Biennual scientific conference and exhibition 6-8th September, 2006. Department of Public Health. Pharmacology and Toxicology Auditorium, University of Nairobi, Upper Kabete Campus.. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education
GITHAIGA, DRWAHOMERAPHAEL.  2006.  Science 2002, Heredity 2003, Animal Genetics 2003, 2000, Molecular Ecology 2000, JCPR 2004, Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution 2006,. Plant & Animal Genome 2006, proceedings & book chapters.. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education
GITHAIGA, DRWAHOMERAPHAEL.  2006.  P M Ongadi, R G Wahome, J W Wakhungu, L O Okitoi and K Otieno, 2006. Bio-economic analysis of expenditure on inputs and output value from crops and grade dairy cattle sub systems in Vihiga, Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Development Journal 18(12):. Proceedings of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine 5th Biennual scientific conference and exhibition 6-8th September, 2006. Department of Public Health. Pharmacology and Toxicology Auditorium, University of Nairobi, Upper Kabete Campus.. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education
GITHAIGA, DRWAHOMERAPHAEL.  2006.  Kuria, S.G., C.K. Gachuiri, M.M. Wanyoike and R.G. Wahome. 2006. Use of linear body measurements in estimating live weight of camel calves in Kenya. Accepted for publication. Journal of Camel Practice.. Proceedings of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine 5th Biennual scientific conference and exhibition 6-8th September, 2006. Department of Public Health. Pharmacology and Toxicology Auditorium, University of Nairobi, Upper Kabete Campus.. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education
W., DRWAKHUNGUJACOB, GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL.  2006.  Ongadi, P. M., Wahome R.G., Wakhungu J. W. and Okitoi L. O. Influence of existing feeding strategies on performance of grade Dairy cattle in Vihiga.. Proceedings of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine 5th Biennual scientific conference and exhibition 6-8th September, 2006. Department of Public Health. Pharmacology and Toxicology Auditorium, University of Nairobi, Upper Kabete Campus.. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education
GITHAIGA, DRWAHOMERAPHAEL.  2006.  Kuria, S.G., M.M. Wanyoike, C.K. Gachuiri and R.G. Wahome. 2006. Effect of mineral supplement on plasma minerals concentration of camels (Camelis dromedalis) in Kenya. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 8:168-171.. Proceedings of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine 5th Biennual scientific conference and exhibition 6-8th September, 2006. Department of Public Health. Pharmacology and Toxicology Auditorium, University of Nairobi, Upper Kabete Campus.. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education

2005

GITHAIGA, DRWAHOMERAPHAEL.  2005.  Kuria, S.G., Gachuiri, C.K., Wanyoike, M.M. and Wahome R.G., 2005. Nutritive value of important range species for camels in Marsabit District, Kenya. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 5:14-24. Paper presented at the Central Branch of the KVA annual scientific conference held at the Sportsmans Arms Hotel, Nanyuki, Kenya, February 15-17, 2006.. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education
M., PROFWANYOIKEMARGARETM, GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL.  2005.  M.M. Wanyoike, R.G. Wahome and S.G. Mbogoh, (2005). Issues constraining Production, processing and marketing of dairy and other livestock products.. Paper presented at the . : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education
GITHAIGA, DRWAHOMERAPHAEL.  2005.  Wanyoike, MM, Wahome, R.G. and Mbogoh, S.G. 2005. Issues Constraining Production, Processing and Marketing of Dairy and Other Livestock Products.. Paper presented at the National Conference for revitalizing Agricultural Sector for Economic Growth, Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi Kenya between 21st and 24th February 2005.. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education
GITHAIGA, DRWAHOMERAPHAEL.  2005.  Kuria, S.G., M.M. Wanyoike, C.K. Gachuiri and R.G. Wahome. 2005. Nutritive value of important range forages species for camels in Western Marsabit, Kenya. Tropical and subtropical ecosystems. 5:14-24.. Paper presented at the Central Branch of the KVA annual scientific conference held at the Sportsmans Arms Hotel, Nanyuki, Kenya, February 15-17, 2006.. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education
GITHAIGA, DRWAHOMERAPHAEL.  2005.  Kuria, S.G., M.M. Wanyoike, C.K. Gachuiri and R.G. Wahome. 2006. Effect of mineral supplement on plasma minerals concentration of camels (Camelis dromedalis) in Kenya. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 8:168-171.. Paper presented at the Central Branch of the KVA annual scientific conference held at the Sportsmans Arms Hotel, Nanyuki, Kenya, February 15-17, 2006.. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education
GITHAIGA, DRWAHOMERAPHAEL.  2005.  Kuria, S.G., M.M. Wanyoike, C.K. Gachuiri and R.G. Wahome. 2005. Nutritive value of important range forages species for camels in Western Marsabit, Kenya. Tropical and subtropical ecosystems. 5:14-24.. Paper presented at the Central Branch of the KVA annual scientific conference held at the Sportsmans Arms Hotel, Nanyuki, Kenya, February 15-17, 2006.. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education

2004

Wanyoike, MM;, Wahome RG.  2004.  Small-scale farming systems.
Woyengo, TA;, Gachuiri CK;, Wahome RG;, Mbugua PN.  2004.  Economic evaluation of increasing the energy value of Zea mays stover by urea treatment..
M., PROFWANYOIKEMARGARETM, GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL.  2004.  Wanyoike, M.M. and Wahome, R.G., 2004. Cattle Production systems in Kenya: Research and development. In: Cattle Production in Kenya-Strategies for planning and implementation, K.A.R.I., Nairobi. ISBN: 9966-879-57-9, pp85-133. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education
GITHAIGA, DRWAHOMERAPHAEL.  2004.  Books or Chapters in a book 31) Wanyoike, M.M. and Wahome, R.G., 2004. Cattle Production systems in Kenya: Research and development. In: Cattle Production in Kenya-Strategies for planning and implementation, K.A.R.I., Nairobi. ISBN: 9966-879-57-9, pp85- 1. In: Cattle Production in Kenya-Strategies for planning and implementation, K.A.R.I., Nairobi. ISBN: 9966-879-57-9, pp85-133. : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education
GITHAIGA, DRWAHOMERAPHAEL.  2004.  Kuria S G, R.G. Wahome, Gachuiri C. K. and Wanyoike M M, 2004. Evaluation of forages as mineral sources for camels in western Marsabit, Kenya. South African Journal of Animal Science, 34:180-188.. Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education
GITHAIGA, DRWAHOMERAPHAEL.  2004.  Woyengo T.A., Gachuiri, C.K. Wahome R.G. and Mbugua P.N. 2004. Effect of protein supplementation and urea treatment on utilization of maize stover by Red Maasai sheep. South African Journal of Animal Science, 34:23. Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). : Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education

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