The objective of our study is to assess the influence of organizational culture and industry competition on performance of microfinance institutions in Kenya. The population of the study comprise microfinance institutions that are members of the Association of Microfinance Institutions (AMFI) in Kenya. We used descriptive cross-sectional survey design. We collected secondary data from annual industry performance reports by AMFI. Primary data were collected through structured questionnaire. We analyze data through Chi-square tests, factor analysis and regression analysis. Results of Cronbach’s alpha test confirm reliability of our measurement scales. Our results demonstrate that organizational culture has significant positive influence on performance when the latter is measured using subjective performance indicators. However, the relationship between organizational culture and financial performance is not statistically significant. The results also indicate that industry competition has significant but, moderate positive influence on firm performance. Our results do not confirm significant influence of interaction between organizational culture and industry competition on firm performance. Finally, our results show that the joint influence of organizational culture and industry competition on performance is statistically significant. Findings of the study have implications for theory and marketing practice. Our results support resource based view and resource advantage theories of competition. The results imply that possession of strong organizational culture that enhances reconfiguration and deployment of organizational resources is a key success factor in the microfinance industry. Findings of the study also imply that industry competition is beneficial to firms within the industry. The above findings inform our conclusion that organizational culture positively and strongly influence performance outcomes in the microfinance industry. However, the study is limited by the cross-sectional research design used. Based on the limitations of the study, we recommend the use of longitudinal research design to assess changes in organizational culture and performance over time.
Key words: Organizational culture, industry competition, performance, microfinance
This study aim to establish whether there is any significance difference in consumers’ frequency of shoppers’ choice for milk packaging design given their different individual characteristics in terms of gender, age income, education, and family size. Based on Chi-square tests, the study employed a survey design and a primary data set of 1000 consumers of fresh processed milk. The results of this study shows that a significant difference in preference of milk packaging designs do exist among shoppers of different age, gender, income, education and family size. The study provides empirical evidence on the consumers’ preference for milk- packaging designs in Kenya. Further, for the first time, the preference for milk-packaging designs in Kenya has been investigated. The findings will enable marketers and milk processing companies to have a better understanding of Kenyans’ preference of milk-packaging designs. This understanding will guide their marketing strategies. Further, the study addresses methodological short comings of previous studies where statistical tools have not been used when investigating whether there are any differences in frequency of choice for milk packaging designs among consumers with different individual characteristics.
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of demographic factors on the amount of milk bought from supermarkets in Kenya. Based on regression analysis, the study employed a survey design and a primary data set of 1000 consumers of fresh processed milk. Except for shopper’s gender and price, other shoppers’ individual characteristics (education, age, family size) and product knowledge (knowledge level for processed milk) had a significant effect on the outcome of behavior in terms of the amount of milk bought from the supermarket sin Kenya. The study provides empirical evidence on the effect of shoppers’ individual characteristics, price and level of product knowledge on the amount of processed milk bought from supermarkets in Kenya. From the accessible literature, there is no study that has investigated the effect of shoppers’ individual characteristics, price and product Knowledge on the amount of processed milk bought from supermarkets in Kenya. The findings could guide milk processing companies and supermarkets’ management when planning and implementing their marketing strategies in attempt to increase sales.