Dr Bett Rawlynce

Dr. Rawlynce Bett is a lecturer  at the at the Department of Animal Production, University of  Nairobi. He holds a PhD in Agricultural Research, Department of Animal Breeding in the Tropics and Sub-Tropics, Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany.




Malenje, EM, Ayao Missohou SFT, König EZ, Jung’a JO, Bett RC, Marshall K.  2022.  Economic Analysis of Smallholder Dairy Cattle Enterprises In Senegal.


Ngetich, D, Bett R, Charles Gachuiri, Kibegwa F.  2021.  Factors influencing Euryarchaeal gut methanogens distribution in dairy cattle in smallholding farms. East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2(4)


Kibegwa, FM, Bett RC, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Francesca Stomeo, Mujibi FD.  2020.  A Comparison of Two DNA Metagenomic Bioinformatic Pipelines while evaluating the Microbial Diversity in feces of Tanzanian small holder dairy cattle. BioMed research international. 2020


Cheruiyot, EK, Bett RC, Amimo JO, Mujibi FDN.  2018.  Milk composition for admixed dairy cattle in Tanzania. Frontiers in genetics. 9:142.
Habimana, V, Bett RC, Amimo JO, Kibegwa FM, Githae D, Jung’a JO.  2018.  Metagenomic analysis of enteric bacterial pathogens affecting the performance of dairy cows in smallholder productions systems. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 12(17):387-398.
Cheruiyot, EK, Bett RC, Amimo JO, Zhang Y, Mrode R, Mujibi FDN.  2018.  Signatures of selection in admixed dairy cattle in Tanzania. Frontiers in genetics. 9:607.


Verbeek, E, Kanis E, Bett RC, Kosgey IS.  2011.  Optimisation of breeding schemes for litter size, lambing interval, body weight and parasite resistance for sheep in Kenya. Abstract

The current study optimised breeding schemes for litter size (LS), lambing interval (LI), body weight (BW) and gastrointestinal parasite resistance for sheep in Kenya. Selection for the breeding goal traits was performed in a conventional way using information on phenotypes only. For gastrointestinal parasite resistance, information on genetic makers was used, with faecal egg count (FEC) as an indicator trait. Selection for parasite resistance was partly based on field measurements and the possibilities for marker-assisted selection (MAS) were explored. Several selection schemes were defined based on whether a classical selection only was used (Latin number 1), a quantitative trait loci (QTL) for FEC was assumed to be available (2), that the correlation between FEC and BW was assumed to be positive (unfavourable-Roman I) or negative (favourable- II) and finally how FEC was included in the index (i.e., no inclusion (A), with FEC (B) or with FEC QTL (C-F)). The schemes with overlapping generations were evaluated using the computer program SelAction. Rams, ewes and total selection responses in US dollars ($) per animal, and rams’ and ewes’ accuracies for each scheme with a favourable or unfavourable correlation were estimated. The differences in total selection responses between schemes that did not include FEC in the selection index resulted in a response of $0.16 in scheme 1AI and $0.20 in scheme 1AII. In schemes 1BI and 1BII, FEC was included in the index. The responses in scheme 1BI and 1BII were $0.165 and $0.217, respectively. The increase in response in schemes II compared with schemes I was due to a favourable correlation between BW and FEC. The different FEC index traits had a different effect on economic response. It should be noted that increased emphasis on selection for FEC will reduce the relative responses to the breeding goal traits BW, LS and LI. Consequently, the goal of selection for FEC should be to maintain acceptable levels of gastro-intestinal parasite resistance as well as sufficient improvement of LS and BW.


Nwankwo, UM;, Bett RC;, Peters KJ;, Bokemann W.  2009.  Need-based innovation motivates attitude change in farmers: evaluation of PROSAB approach.. Abstract

The assumption that indigenous farmers resist change is shallow, explained only by a lack of thorough investigation of what the change agents intend to communicate, how they intend to communicate it and the intended beneficiaries. Adoption-decision is complex; it is affected by innovation’s attributes, information-communication perception, socioeconomic, institutional, policy environments and other factors. Besides the riskiness of being the first to try new innovation, problem of resource allocation for maximum utility also affects individual decisions. Innovation availability, affordability and workability are sine qua non to agricultural development therefore they ought to work both technically and commercially. Both a semi-structured questionnaire and personal interviews were administered on a total of 560 farmers from 4 Local Government Areas in Borno State, Nigeria. Farmers faced numerous constraints, fertiliser availability and affordability being the highest, (18% total share) followed by weed problems (17%). Only 18% had information access for problem solution, information received is relevant to farming needs (36%). Within 3 years of PROSAB’s (Promoting Sustainable Agriculture in Borno State) activities in the state, the majority of the respondents have adopted their new crop varieties. Soybean (Glycine max) was not cultivated in the region before. The effect of participation on adoption decision was statistically significant at p<0.0001. 77% of respondents are core farmers while 73% make their living through it with a mean of 23.8 years experience. Soybean planting-harvesting ratio was 1:53 kg and maize (Zea mays) 0.14:23 kg. Innovation attributes were ranked in order of priority; economic needs rank higher than religious or cultural priorities. The claims that indigenous farmers resist change are not always the case due to approach like soliciting for their opinion. This paper has underscored this observation and diffused the misconception. It is clear that farmers can change when presented with sustainable alternatives through consultation.


Bett, R;, Kurt-Johannes P;, Kahi AK.  2008.  Production Objectives, Breeding Practises and Management Strategies of Dairy Goat Farmers in Kenya: Implications for a Breeding Programme. Abstract

Production objectives, breeding practises and management strategies of smallholder households participating in dairy goat breeding projects were analysed in relation to their ability to bring about sustainable genetic improvement in the dairy goat flocks in Kenya. A stratified survey involving 311 goat keepers in 4 project sites was used. Milk production and sales of breeding stock were high priority functions for the objective to create a financial buffer. The breeding objective traits that farmers perceived as being of primary importance were milk yield, growth rate, body size, fertility and disease tolerance. There were logical trade-offs in the choice of these traits by farmers. Female dairy goats were mainly culled due to old age, poor fertility, small body size and poor health. Farmers did not place a large significance on unsatisfactory milk performance when culling female goats, mainly due to the very small production size and the high demand existing for breeding animals. Factors affecting milk yield and flock size presented satisfied a P<0.1 significance level. Positive and significant relations were found for administrative province of residence, supplementation feeding and type of births while gender of the farmer and kid rearing system were negative and significantly related to milk yield. Strong positive relations were found for administrative province of residence, education level, land ownership and grazing/ fodder land size, while age of the farmer was negative and significantly related to flock size. Multiple birth affected flock size positively while mortality and age at first mating of females showed a negative effect. The performance levels of dairy goats were mainly influenced by breeding and management strategies and the resource availability at the farm level. The optimisation of genotype × environment interactions remains the biggest challenge given the objectives set by.


Verbeek, E, Kanis E, Bett RC, Kosgey IS.  2007.  Socio-economic factors influencing small ruminant breeding in Kenya.. Abstract

In order to design an effective small ruminant (i.e., goats and sheep) breeding program in Kenya and other areas with similar production circumstances, it is important to understand the socio-economic factors applying to the relevant production system. Information on these was obtained from a questionnaire carried out on both smallholders and pastoral/ extensive farmers in seven selected districts. From the 458 responding households, 18% kept only goats, 34% kept only sheep, and 48% kept both species. Goats were generally ranked lower in popularity. The most represented breeds in the households were the indigenous East African goat and the Red Maasai sheep, and crossbred genotypes of goats and sheep. However, according to the farmers, the pure breeds were more popular than the crossbreeds. The households owned the majority of the used land for small ruminant production. In many cases, male household members were in control of the land. Animals were in most cases owned by the household head only or by both the household head and the spouse. The most important water source for animals was the river with the frequency of watering in the dry season in some cases being as low as once a day. Both males and females made most decisions in smallholder households. Women in the pastoral/ extensive systems participated less significantly in decision making than those in smallholder households, although they were responsible to many animal production related activities. In general, it is important to take into consideration socio-economic factors that influence small ruminant breeding programs to enhance their success.


Verbeek, E;, Kanis E;, Bett RC;, Kosgey IS.  2006.  Breeding for litter size, lambing interval and disease resistance in sheep in Kenya.


Bett, C;, De Groote H;, Diallo A;, Muasya W;, Njoroge K.  2000.  Participatory plant breeding for drought resistant maize varieties in eastern Kenya.

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