Dr.Rose Nyikal

Dr.Rose Nyikal is a Senior Lecturer and coordinator of the Collaborative Masters program in Agricultural and Applied Economics (CMAAE), in the Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nairobi.  Rose was also the Department chairman from February 2004 to February 2010. She earned her PhD in Agricultural Economics from the University of Nairobi, with specialization in Production Economics and Rural Finance.

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Kirui, OK;, Okello JJ;, Nyikal RA.  2012.  Impact of Mobile Phone-based Money Transfer Services in Agriculture: Evidence from Kenya. Abstract

The recent introduction of mobile phone-based money transfer (MMT) services in developing countries has generated a lot of interest among development partners. It facilitates transfer of money in a quick and cost effective way. It also offers an easy and secure platform for small savings to majority of rural populations with no access to formal financial services. However, the impact of MMT services on smallholder agriculture has not been documented. This study therefore contributes to pioneering literature on the impact of MMT, especially in agriculture. It provides information regarding financial intermediation to the excluded through the use of new generation Information Communication Technology (ICT) tools especially the mobile phone. The study employs propensity score matching technique to examine the impact of MMT services on household agricultural input use, agricultural commercialization and farm incomes among farm households in Kenya. It uses cross-sectional data collected from 379 multi-stage randomly selected households in Central, Western and Nyanza provinces of Kenya. The study found that use of MMT services significantly increased level of annual household input use by $42, household agricultural commercialization by 37% and household annual income by $224. We conclude that MMT services in rural areas help to resolve an idiosyncratic market failure that farmers face; access to financial services. We therefore recommend that other developing countries should follow the Kenyan model and provide an enabling environment that would facilitate entry and survival of MMT initiatives.

Adekunle, AA;, Ellis-Jones J;, Ajibefun I;, Nyikal RA;, Bangali S;, Fatunbi O;, Ange A.  2012.  Agricultural innovation in sub-Saharan Africa: experiences from multiple-stakeholder approaches.



Kirui, OK;, Okello, J. J; Nyikal RA, Okello, J. J; Nyikal RA.  2010.  Awareness, use and effect of mobile phone-based money transfer in Kenyan agriculture.
Kirui, OK;, Okello JJ;, Nyikal RA.  2010.  Awareness and use of m-banking services in agriculture: The case of smallholder farmers in Kenya. Abstract

Smallholder farmer access to agricultural finance has been a major constraint to agricultural commercialization in developing countries. The ICT revolution in Africa has however brought an opportunity to ease this constraint. The mobile phone-based banking services that started in Kenya urban centers have spread to rural areas and even other countries. Using these services farmers could receive funds invest in agriculture finance transactions. This study examines the awareness and use of m-banking services among rural farmers in Kenya. It also assesses the factors conditioning the use of such services. The study finds high awareness of m-banking services among the smallholder farmers. It also finds that education, distance to a commercial bank, membership to farmer organizations, distance to the m-banking agents, and endowment with physical and financial assets affect the use of m-banking services. It discusses the implications of these findings for policy and practice.

Otieno, PS, Nyikal RA, Mugivane FI.  2010.  Non-credit services of group-based financial institutions: Implications for smallholder women's honey income in arid and semi arid lands of Kenya. Abstract

This paper analyses the effect of non-credit services of joint liability credit institutions on smallholder women beekeepers’ honey income. The non-credit services offered to the beekeepers were mainly enterprise development services (including trainings on marketing, business, production and subsector analysis). The study uses cross-sectional data from a survey of women beekeepers participating in group-based credit programmes. The survey was conducted in September 2005 in Makueni district of Kenya. The findings indicated that the number of enterprise development related trainings attended by women beekeepers that are offered by the group-based financial institutions positively and significantly influence honey income. The results confirmed that non-credit services contribute positively to the enhancement of honey income. These results imply that extension and strengthening of group-based financial institutions’ non-credit services in the marginal areas will enhance development of smallholder agriculture for improved income generation.


  2008.  Classification and influence of agricultural information on striga and stemborer control in Suba and Vihiga Districts, Kenya, August 20-22, 20. African Association of Agricultural Economists. , Accra, Ghana


ADHIAMBO, DRNYIKALROSE.  2007.  P. M. Guthiga, J. T. Karugia, and R. A. Nyikal . East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 .. : Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics Abstract
No abstract available.
ADHIAMBO, DRNYIKALROSE.  2007.  Cattle and Small Ruminant Breeds Utilization and Assessment of the Impact of Breeding schemes on livestock productivity in East and Central Africa (2005 -2007) CURRENT RESEARCH sponsored by ASARECA AARNET. East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 .. : Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics Abstract
No abstract available.


Ramisch, J;, Nyikal RA;, Kimenye LN;, Kimani SK;, Macharia JM.  2006.  Economic Evaluation of Organic and Inorganic Resources for Recapitalizing Soil Fertility in Smallholder Maize-based Cropping Systems of Central Kenya. Abstract

Structural adjustments programs (SAPs) in the last two decades have eliminated all farm-support programs leading to low usage of fertilizers by Kenyan smallholders. One way of addressing this problem is use of organic nutrient resources. This paper examines their cost-effectiveness as capital investments in replenishment of Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K) and soil organic matter (SOM) in smallholder, Maize-based cropping systems. On-farm trials were established in Maragwa and Kirinyaga Districts in 2003/04. Maize was planted in 3 replicates in randomised complete block design (RCBD) using different levels of organic and inorganic fertilizer resources. A blanket rate of 40kg P/ha was applied in all treatment except the control to increase organic N-utilization efficiency. The test crop was harvested, oven-dried and weighed. Net Present Values (NPV) were computed using Partial Budgeting Analysis Model. Increasing levels of inorganic N increased maize yields significantly (P<0.05). However, higher yields were necessary but not sufficient criteria to determine profitability of different treatments. Manure + 60 kg N/ha gave highest NPV (USD 564), Manure + 40kg N/ha gave second highest NPV (USD 511) in Maragwa District while Manure + 60kg N/ha gave highest NPV (USD 633) and Manure + 40kg N/ha second highest NPV (USD 618) in Kirinyaga District. These results suggested that higher N-levels were not necessarily the most economical. Use of organic resources with modest amounts of mineral fertilizers seemed more profitable and held the key to enhancement of nutrient budgets, food security and rural livelihoods.

Karugia, JT;, Oluoch-Kosura W;, Nyikal R;, Odumbe M;, Marenya PP.  2006.  Access to Land, Income Diversification and Poverty Reduction in Rural Kenya.
ADHIAMBO, DRNYIKALROSE.  2006.  A gender differentiated analysis of the profitability and constraints in use of Improved Fallow in Western Kenya. CURRENT RESEARCH sponsored by ECAPAPA (just concluded). East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 .. : Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics Abstract
No abstract available.


ADHIAMBO, DRNYIKALROSE.  2005.  Globalization of the Food and Agricultural Economy: Kenya. East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 .. : Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics Abstract
No abstract available.
ADHIAMBO, DRNYIKALROSE.  2005.  Risk Preference and Optimal Crop Combinations in Kahuro Division of Murang. East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 .. : Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics Abstract
No abstract available.


ADHIAMBO, DRNYIKALROSE.  2004.  The Role of Rural Factor Markets in Reducing Poverty, Risks and Vulnerability in Rural Kenya: the case for Kakamega and Vihiga districts. Under the broader . East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 .. : Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics Abstract
No abstract available.


ADHIAMBO, DRNYIKALROSE.  2003.  Business in the Small Farms: the Challenge for Kenyan Smallholders. (Contributed paper, African Crop Science Society Conference, Nairobi, November 2003). East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 .. : Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics Abstract
No abstract available.



Nyikal, RA.  1984.  Financing Smallholder Agricultural Production in Kenya: An Analysis of Effective Demand for Credit. Abstract

Financing smallholder farming has been one of the major concerns of Kenya’s development efforts. Many credit programs have evolved over the years but with dismal performance. In a study that sought to find the best way to fund smallholder agriculture, it became necessary to analyze and document smallholders’ effective demand for credit. Of particular interest was the comparison of the existing production plans and production plans under strictly profit maximization. Linear programming model was used to formalize observed plans and determine those under profit maximization. Both the activities and the values of outputs under different objectives were compared. Farm Investment Analysis was undertaken to determine the suitability of funding farm activities through credit. The study was undertaken in selected zones of Murang’a and Kisumu districts, being typical smallholder areas. Sample farmers were visited and structured questionnaires administered to cover farm events and physical resources of short rains 1995 and long rains 1996. This formed a basis of formulating the farm plans. Ten years down the road, objectives of smallholders have not changed as have been observed during outreach programs. The results showed that: (i) farmers’ activities in the observed plans were different from those under strictly profit maximization; (ii) the observed plans had significantly lower profit than those under profit maximization; and (iii) meeting constraints through credit was only feasible when the objective was profit maximization. Smallholder agriculture, characterized by subsistence production, does not exhibit effective demand for credit, and funding it therefore requires means other than the competitive market.

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