Rose Adhiambo Nyikal is an Associate Professor of Agricultural Economics, University of Nairobi. She obtained her PhD in Agricultural Economics from the University of Nairobi in 2000, MSc in Agricultural Economics from the same University in 1990 and BSc in Agriculture in 1980. Her interest is in the area of Agricultural Production Economics, focusing on issues of Rural Finance and Smallholder Resource Use. Rose teaches Operations Research and Farm Management, among others. She has several publications and has supervised many PhD and MSc theses.



Ipara, BO, Nyikal R, Otieno DJ, Makokha NS.  2021.  The contribution of extensive chicken production systems and practices to Newcastle disease outbreaks in Kenya. AbstractWebsite

Newcastle disease (ND) poses a challenge especially for farmers rearing indigenous chicken under the extensive system. This is due to the lack of uniformity in practices, favoring the introduction and spread of the disease. This is worsened by the lack of information on how management practices contribute to the spread of ND. The current study assessed the role of extensive chicken production systems and management practices on the frequency of ND outbreaks in Kenya using a Poisson regression model (PRM) on primary survey data from 332 farmers in Kakamega and Machakos counties. Descriptive results showed a low access to institutional support services like extension, training, credit, and vaccination services for both male and female farmers. Results from the PRM analysis show that flock size, isolated and confined housing, multi-aged flock mixture, screening of birds, access to ND vaccination, ND awareness, distance to agro-veterinary service providers, and access to animal health training and extension services had significant effects on the frequency of ND outbreaks. The findings underscore the need for innovative extension approaches that facilitate the use of information communication technologies to create more awareness on disease detection and mitigation measures. Use of farmer groups as innovation platforms for enhanced skill sharing and as key peer monitoring channels would also improve compliance with prescribed disease control methods. Further, there is a need for partnerships between local-level county governments, vaccine producers, and agro-veterinary service providers to ensure the development of low-cost vaccines and requisite storage facilities, and their timely delivery to the male and female resource-poor smallholder extensive chicken farmers.

Missiame, A, Nyikal RA, Irungu P.  2021.  What is the impact of rural bank credit access on the technical efficiency of smallholder cassava farmers in Ghana? An endogenous switching regression analysis Heliyon . 7(5) AbstractWebsite

This paper assesses the impact of access to credit from rural and community banks (RCBs) on the technical efficiency of smallholder cassava farmers in Ghana. The study employed the stochastic frontier, and endogenous switching regression models to estimate the technical efficiency, and the impact of RCB credit access, respectively, on a randomly selected sample of 300 smallholder cassava farmers in the Fanteakwa District of Ghana. Results suggest that cassava farmers in the District are 70.5 percent technically efficient implying that cassava yield levels could be increased further by 29.5 percent without changing the current levels of inputs. The results further reveal that the gender of the household head, access to extension services, membership in farmer organizations, and proximity to the bank are the major factors that positively influence farmers to access credit from RCBs. On average, farmers who accessed credit from RCBs have significantly higher technical efficiencies than farmers who did not access, suggesting that access to credit from RCBs positively impacts the technical efficiency of smallholder cassava farmers.

Keywords: Credit access; Endogenous switching regression; Rural and community banks; Stochastic frontier model; Technical efficiency.

Missiame, A, Irungu P, Nyikal RA, Appiah-Kubi GD.  2021.  "Adoption of rural bank credit programs among smallholder farmers in Ghana: an average treatment effect estimation of rates of exposure and adoption and their determinants". gricultural Finance Review. AbstractWebsite

The study aims to estimate the rates of exposure to, and adoption of, rural bank credit programs by smallholder farmers in rural Ghana and the factors responsible for those rates.

The study used a random sample of 300 smallholder farmers in the Fanteakwa District of Ghana, obtained through the multistage sampling technique. The study also employed the average treatment effects approach to estimate the average treatment effect of farmers’ exposure to rural bank credit programs, on their adoption of such programs.

The actual adoption rate is approximately 41%, and the potential, conditional on the whole population being aware of rural bank credit programs, is approximately 61%. Accordingly, there is a gap of about 20% in the adoption of rural bank credit programs, and is due to the incomplete exposure of smallholder farmers to the rural bank credit programs. Age of the household head, access to extension services, membership in farmer-based organizations and active savings accounts with a rural bank are the major contributors to smallholder farmer exposure to and the adoption of rural bank credit programs.

The current study is the first of its kind to be conducted in Ghana on rural bank credit programs. It takes into account the extent to which smallholder farmers are exposed to such credit programs and how it influences their decisions to access or adopt.


Muthini, D, Nzuma J, Nyikal R.  2020.  Farm production diversity and its association with dietary diversity in Kenya. Food Security volume . 12:1107–1120. AbstractWebsite

Agriculture has the potential to improve dietary diversity through farm production diversity if farming households consume what they produce. However, the linkages between a household’s own agricultural production and dietary diversity are not well understood. This study uses a count of crop species, animal species, production diversity score, and the Simpson’s index as measures of farm production diversity to assess the effect of production diversity on the dietary diversity of households, women and children. A Poison model was employed on a sample of 779 farming households selected using a multistage sampling technique in a household survey representative at the County level in Kisii and Nyamira Counties, Kenya. The findings of the study indicate that farm production diversity is significantly associated with the dietary diversity of women and that of the entire household, but is not associated with the dietary diversity of children. The count of the animal species has the highest magnitude of association with dietery diversity in this study. Every additional animal species kept leads to a 0.33 and 0.13 increase in household dietery diversity and the dietery diversity of women respectively. Children’s dietary diversity is significantly associated with the education of the mother, household size and age of the child. The study highlights the need to consider individual dietary requirements when developing nutrition interventions and policy, as opposed to general dietary interventions targeting the entire household.

Okello, JJ, Shiundu FM, Mwende J, Lagerkvist CJ, Nyikal RA, Muoki P, Mburu J, Low JW.  2020.  Quality and psychosocial factors influencing purchase of orange‐fleshed sweet potato bread. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. AbstractWebsite

This 2018 study, conducted in six Tusky's supermarkets in Nairobi, Kenya, combined the Just-About-Right, Penalty and Mean-End-Chain analyses to examine the quality and psychosocial factors influencing the purchase of a novel bread made from orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP), a biofortified crop, focusing on sixty-one male and eighty female urban OFSP bread buyers recruited at point of purchase. It finds that sensory and psychosocial factors drive purchasing decisions and that some of the bread's sensory characteristics are misaligned with consumers' expectations. It also finds that women and men's evaluations of the bread's characteristics are different, as are their motivations for purchase. However, good sensory attributes and the knowledge of the bread's nutritional value were key drivers. Some misaligned characteristics reveal levers for the reformulation of the bread and present opportunities for segmenting the market. Several other implications of the findings for policy and future improvement of the bread are discussed.

JessicaOsanya, I.Adam R, Otieno DJ, Nyikal R, Jaleta M.  2020.  An analysis of the respective contributions of husband and wife in farming households in Kenya to decisions regarding the use of income: A multinomial logit approach. Women's Studies International Forum. 83 AbstractWebsite

This paper analyzes the socio-economic characteristics of households that affect husbands and wives' contributions to decisions regarding the use of income from crop and livestock sales in Kenya. Using a sample of 276 households, we apply a multinomial logit model to assess factors affecting decision-making. Results show that husbands make most decisions concerning agriculture, while wives mainly decide on daily household expenditure. Higher education levels were found to increase women's involvement in decision-making on income use. Group membership had a positive effect on joint decision-making on income use. The study recommends improving women's access to education, which will improve their access to productive resources, hence their decision-making power. Providing incentives for members of agricultural groups can provide avenues for learning. Gender-transformative approaches that empower women and sensitize men to allow space for women to engage in decision-making, can have an impact in improving the decision-making capacity of women in households.


Muthini, DN, Nzuma JM, Nyikal RA.  2019.  Variety awareness, nutrition knowledge and adoption of nutritionally enhanced crop varieties: Evidence from Kenya. African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics . 14(4):225-237. AbstractWebsite

This paper evaluates the impact of variety awareness and nutrition knowledge on the adoption of biofortified crop varieties using a sample of 661 households from Kisii and Nyamira counties in Kenya. The study employs the average treatment effect (ATE) framework to control for information on the KK15 bean variety and knowledge of its nutritional attributes among small-scale farmers. The results show that farmers who had knowledge of the nutritional attributes of KK15 beans were more likely to adopt relative to those who were only aware of the variety. A nutrition attribute knowledge gap of 8% was estimated, which represents the potential adoption loss due to a lack of knowledge of the nutritional benefits. Adoption of biofortified crops can therefore be improved by disseminating information on the varieties and their nutritional attributes. This can be achieved by entrenching nutrition information in extension packages disseminated to farmers.

Ipara, BO, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA, Makokha SN.  2019.  The role of chicken production systems and management practices on Newcastle Disease outbreaks in Kenya , 18 September. Tropentag Conference at Universities of Kassel & Goettingen. , Germany
Mbembe, EA, Otieno DJ, Nyikal R, Odendo M.  2019.  Determinants of market participation by smallholder soybean farmers in Kakamega County, Kenya”, 23 September. 6th African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE) . , Abuja, Nigeria
Ipara, BO, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA, Makokha SN.  2019.  The role of unregulated chicken marketing practices on the frequency of Newcastle Disease outbreaks in Kenya, 23 September. African Journal of Agricultural Research . 12(24):2093-2100., Abuja, Nigeria AbstractWebsite

In developing countries, chicken trade is characterized by complex chains comprising of many actors with limited biosecurity. This increases the spread of chicken diseases like Newcastle disease (ND). In Kenya, there is lack of uniformity in practices used in live bird markets, leading to increased disease outbreaks. This study aimed at assessing the effects of the chicken marketing practices on the frequency of ND outbreaks. A Poisson regression (PRM) was used on data collected from 336 traders selected using multi-stage sampling in Kakamega, Machakos, and Nairobi. Results highlight the low access of trainings and credit by traders. From the PRM results, breed composition, market channel, transportation, origin of birds, mixing of birds, slaughter of birds, disposal of waste, and housing as well as trader attributes like ND awareness, licensing, gender, and age had significant effects on the frequency of ND outbreaks. The study recommends that County governments collaborate with development partners to develop innovative ways of disseminating information on ND. The County governments should invest in market infrastructure such as slaughter facilities, special shelters and waste disposal equipment. There is also need for enforcement of biosecurity and hygiene measures through regular market inspections.

Keywords: biosecurity; live bird market; marketing channel; unregulated practice.

Ojwang, SO, Otieno DJ, Okello JJ, Muoki P, Nyikal RA.  2019.  Does nutrition education influence retention of vitamin A biofortified orange-fleshed sweet potato in farms? Evidence from Kenya, 23 September 6th African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE) . , Abuja, Nigeria


Otieno, PS, Ogutu CA, Mburu J, Nyikal RA.  2017.  Effect of Global-GAP policy on smallholder French beans farmers’ climate change adaptation strategies in Kenya. African Journal of Agricultural Research . 12(8):577-587.
Roberts, LC, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA.  2017.  An analysis of determinants of access to and use of credit by smallholder farmers in Suakoko District, Liberia. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 12(24):2093-2100. AbstractWebsite

Agricultural credit has been argued to be very important for sustainable agricultural development and poverty reduction in rural areas. This study seeks to identify and to analyze the determinants of smallholder farmers’ access to and use of credit in Suakoko district, Bong County, Liberia. This research is quantitative using a survey questionnaire distributed to 105 smallholder farmers. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and causal analysis was performed using a binary Logit regression model. Results from regression indicate that 39% of the farmers were credit users. The marginal effects of bank account and other sources of income show significant and positive effects on access to credit. However, education, occupation and group membership are significant but have negative effects on access to credit by smallholder farmers. The results also show that 38% of credit users applied credit received for agricultural activities, while the rest utilized it for non-agricultural activities. It is recommended that a policy should be established to ensure older farmers gets adult literacy while younger farmers get formal education. Moreover, the government should issue a policy aimed at increasing opportunities for off-farm activities through creation of jobs and motivating self-employment. Finally, the government should promote the creation of development groups geared towards providing collateral support for members and also serve as guarantors for farmers to receive banks credit/loans in order to increase agricultural productivity in the study area.

Key words: Credit access, rural, farmers, smallholder, Suakoko district, Liberia.

Muthini, D, Nyikal R, Otieno DJ.  2017.  Determinants of Small-Scale Mango Farmers’ Market Channel Choices in Kenya: An Application of the Two-Step Cragg’s Estimation Procedure. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics (JDAE). 9(5):111-120. AbstractWebsite

The study estimates small-scale mango farmers’ choice of market channels using the Cragg’s two-step procedure where the farmer decides on the channel in the first step and the proportion sold to the selected channel in the second step. Cross section data was collected from a sample of 224 mango farmers selected through multistage sampling just after the mango season. The study was carried out in Makueni County in Eastern Kenya. The county is leading in production of mangoes in Kenya, having produced over 146,000 tonnes valued at over 18 million US dollars, in 2015. The data was analyzed using Cragg’s two step regression model. The first step assessed factors that determine choice of a particular channel, while the second step assessed factors that influence the proportion of produce sold to the channel. Results show that socio-economic factors significant in the first stage are not necessarily significant in the second stage. In some cases, the direction of effect reverses. Factors such as distance to tarmac road, number of mango trees in the farm, membership in producer marketing groups, training in mango agronomy, and access to extension services affect choice of export market channel. Only membership to mango marketing groups significantly influences proportion sold. Household income, distance to tarmac, number of trees, market information, and gender significantly affect choice of the direct market channel. The direct market channel earns farmers the largest margins, followed by the export channel. However, majority of farmers sell to brokers followed by export channel. It was found that despite being aware that they could fetch higher prices through direct selling, they lacked financial capacity, transport resources, and information on market locations and requirements. Policies need to enhance financial capacity of farmers, as well as expand efforts to disseminate timely and accurate market information.

Key words: Small-scale farmers, mango market channels, Kenya. Collapse

Otieno, PS, Ogutu CA, Mburu J, Nyikal RA.  2017.  Effect of Global-GAP Policy on Climate Change Perceptions of Smallholder French Beans Farmers in Central and Eastern Regions, Kenya. Climate . 5(2) AbstractWebsite

The risks posed by climate change to Sub Saharan Africa’s (SSA) smallholder fresh export fruit and vegetables production are amplifying the significance of farmers’ climate change perceptions in enhancing adoption of suitable adaptation strategies. Production of fresh export fruit and vegetables in Kenya has increasingly been done under the Global-GAP standard scheme by smallholder farmers to improve both environmental conservation and market access. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Global-GAP policy on climate change perceptions of smallholder French beans farmers. The analysis was based on data collected from a random sample of 616 households interviewed in the Central and Eastern regions of Kenya. The study used principal component analysis (PCA) to extract farmers’ key prevailing climate change perceptions and logit regression model to examine the effect of Global-GAP policy on climate change perceptions among other socio-economic factors. The PCA analysis extracted three components proxying for ‘droughts’, ‘delay in rainy seasons’, ‘diseases and pests’ and three proxying for ‘hot days’, ‘floods’, and ‘diseases and pests’ as summarizing maximum variance in the perceptions in the Central and Eastern region respectively. The common, study area-wide climate change perception was identified as incidence of diseases and pest. Logit regression analysis found that Global-GAP policy significantly influenced and improved farmers’ probability of perceiving climate change. Other factors found to influence farmers’ probability of having the identified climate change perceptions included regional specificity, access to agricultural extension service, access to credit, plot size, and soil fertility. The policy implication of this study is that the government and service providers should mainstream factors like Global-GAP compliance and regional considerations found to improve probability of perceiving climate change in awareness creation extension strategies, towards enhancing adoption of adaptation measures in the smallholder fruits and vegetables farming sector. View Full-Text
Keywords: Global-GAP certification; climate change perception; principal component analysis; logit regression model; smallholder; French beans farming; Kenya

Tesesia, MI, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA.  2017.  Determinants of smallholder farmers’ awareness of agricultural extension devolution in Kenya. African Journal of Agricultural Research (AJAR) . 12(51):3549-3555.


V.N, W, J. M, R O, R N.  2016.  Assessing Profitability Of Selected Agro-Ecological Intensification Techniques In Sorghum And Cassava Based Cropping Systems In Yatta Sub County, Kenya. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH . 5(6) AbstractWebsite

As the world population increases there is pressure on agriculture to supply more food, fiber and fuel. This has led to the continual
expansion of agricultural land in to arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) resulting in land degradation. In particular, in sub-Sahara Africa, low soil fertility is
one of the most constraining factors to agriculture productivity. Initiatives to address soil fertility through use of inorganic fertilizers have yielded below
average results in increasing productivity. Agro-ecological intensification (AEI) technique uses alternative knowledge and local materials to improve soils
and increase productivity. This study assesses the economic returns of using AEI techniques compared to simplified conventional agricultural systems.
Data was collected from on farm experiment that involved mono cropping, crop rotation and intercropping and application of organic inputs. Survey was
used to collect data on farmers‘ costs of production, yields and commodity prices from a sample of 140 households in Yatta, Kenya. Both plot and survey
data showed that significantly greater revenues were attained with the application of the AEI practices. Using legumes in intercrop system with
application of farmyard manure had the highest profit while crop rotation without application of organic input had the least. At least 28 percent of farmers
that adopt all components of the AEI technique attained significantly higher profits than farmers without any organic inputs. The study concludes AEI is a
profitable soil fertility management technique. Thus policy should recognize and promote its uptake.
Key words: Agro-ecological Intensification, Profitability, Soil Management, Cassava, Sorghum, Yatta, Kenya.

Otieno, D, Nyikal R.  2016.  Analysis of Consumer Preferences for Quality and Safety Attributes in Artisanal Fruit Juices in Kenya. Journal of Food Products Marketing. AbstractWebsite

This study used choice experiment survey data from a random sample of 374 respondents to analyze consumer preferences for quality and safety attributes of artisanal fruit juices in Kenya. Results show that consumers had a positive and significant preference for single fruit juices compared to fruit mixtures, private rather than public inspection of the juices, traceability of fruit origin, and vendor’s health. Additives such as colorants, flavors, and preservatives were not preferred. Consumers were willing to pay premiums of up to 200% for artisanal juices that contain single fruits, lack additives, and are inspected by private agencies. These insights should be incorporated in ensuring that artisanal fruit juice designs comply with food quality and safety requirements. Further, there is a need to license and regulate the artisanal juice preparation and handling and to provide training to the handlers on safety and quality requirements.

Mumbua, MJ, Irungu P, Nyikal RA, Kirimi L.  2016.  An assessment of the effect of a national fertiliser subsidy programme on farmer participation in private fertiliser markets in the North Rift region of Kenya. African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics (AfJARE). 11(4):292-304.
Ndiritu, M, Nyikal R, Boa E.  2016.  Plant health rallies as an extension tool in small-scale farming in Kenya. CABI Study Brief . 12 AbstractWebsite

Kenya has consistently reported new and serious disease and pest problems on key crops over the
years, often associated with substantial crop yield losses. In just the last six years, for example, maize
lethal necrosis – a disease responsible for crop losses valued at about US$ 4.1 million in 2014 alone –
and tomato leaf miner entered and got established in the country. For small-scale farmers, who make
up 80% of the farming community and contribute 25% of the GDP, an attack by such diseases could
spell doom for their income and food supply. Decisive action is needed to prevent new pests and
diseases from spreading and becoming established. Also, other well-established crop pests and
diseases regularly cause major crop losses. Farmers need help to take preventative measures and
avoid costly and often less effective treatments after the problem has entered the crop. Extension
campaigns can play a critical role in controlling crops pests and diseases by acting as a source of
timely information. One such approach, plant health rallies, has been embraced in Kenya, though so
far on a limited scale. In 2015 the University of Nairobi and Plantwise undertook a study in parts of
Kenya among 150 farmers and 27 extension staff in five counties to get a picture of extension
campaigns in crop health and to understand how the role of plant health rallies could be enhanced in
delivering a comprehensive service to farmers. The study focused on maize lethal necrosis, mango
fruit fly, Napier grass stunt, tomato leaf miner and wheat stem rust, all which have the potential for high
economic impact.


Chege, JW, Nyikal RA, Mburu J, Muriithi BW.  2015.  Impact of Export Horticulture Farming on Per Capita Calorie Intake of Smallholder Farmers in Eastern and Central Provinces of Kenya. International Journal of Food and Agricultural Economics .


Nthambi, M, Nyikal R, Mburu J.  2013.  DETERMINANTS OF HOUSEHOLDS' CHOICE OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OPTIONS IN KIBERA SLUM, KENYA. Journal of International Real Estate and Construction Studies; Hauppauge . 3(2):143-162. AbstractWebsite

Each of the about 44 million citizens of Kenya has a duty to cooperate with the State and other persons to protect and conserve the environment for sustainable development. Responsibilities to the environment are particularly critical with respect to waste management. At the southwest of Nairobi city is the largest slum in sub-Saharan Africa, Kibera slum. Waste build up in the slum is a common phenomena with visible waste mountains along the roads and public places. The main objective of this study is to assess the determinants of households' choice of solid waste management options. Using the quantitative research methodology, a survey of 250 households was carried out in the slum and a multi-stage random sampling procedure was used to select the sample. Waste management options hyphothesized in the study included solid waste reuse, burning, recycling and disposal. Data collected was analyzed by Stata software using a multinomial logit regression model (MNL). MNL was used to assess the effect of household socioeconomic and institutional attributes on the choice of household solid waste management options. Findings revealed that institutional factors such as contractual arrangements, waste management regulations of 2006, disposal returns, distance to the main road, years of schooling, family size,ownership of a slum/sack garden,community based recycling practise, disposal returns and waste segregation explain the households' choice of solid waste management options. As a result, the study recommends strong pro-poor waste management policies, community-based waste management approaches, support for informal waste recyclers, privatisation of waste management services and development of compost manure market among urban and peri-urban areas farmers.

Keywords: waste management options, household solid waste, multinomial logit model, determinants

Kirui, OK, Okello JJ, Nyikal R, Mbogoh SG.  2013.  Impact of Mobile Money Transfer Services in Kenyan Agriculture. : LAP LAMBERT


Kirui, OK, Okello JJ, Nyikal RA.  2012.  Awareness of Mobile Phone-Based Money Transfer Services in Agriculture by Smallholder Farmers in Kenya. International Journal of ICT Research and Development in Africa. 3(1):1-13. AbstractWebsite

Smallholder farmer access to agricultural finance has been a major constraint to agricultural commercialization in developing countries. The ICT revolution in Africa has however brought an opportunity to ease this constraint. The mobile phone-based money transfer services that started in Kenya urban centres have spread to rural areas and even other countries. Using these services farmers could receive funds to invest in agricultural financial transactions. This study examines the awareness of mobile phone-based money transfer services (MMT) among rural farmers in Kenya and examines the various uses of money transferred through such services. The study employs descriptive analysis and found a very high awareness of mobile phone-based money transfer services among the smallholder farmers and found predominant use of remitted funds for agricultural related purposes (purchase of seed, fertilizer for planting and topdressing, farm equipment/implements, leasing of land for farming, wages for labour). The study concludes that there is need to expand the coverage of MMT services in rural areas since it resolves an idiosyncratic market failure that farmers face namely access to financial services. It discusses the implications of these findings for policy and practice.

Kirui, OK;, Okello JJ;, Nyikal RA.  2012.  Impact of Mobile Phone-based Money Transfer Services in Agriculture: Evidence from Kenya. Abstract

The recent introduction of mobile phone-based money transfer (MMT) services in developing countries has generated a lot of interest among development partners. It facilitates transfer of money in a quick and cost effective way. It also offers an easy and secure platform for small savings to majority of rural populations with no access to formal financial services. However, the impact of MMT services on smallholder agriculture has not been documented. This study therefore contributes to pioneering literature on the impact of MMT, especially in agriculture. It provides information regarding financial intermediation to the excluded through the use of new generation Information Communication Technology (ICT) tools especially the mobile phone. The study employs propensity score matching technique to examine the impact of MMT services on household agricultural input use, agricultural commercialization and farm incomes among farm households in Kenya. It uses cross-sectional data collected from 379 multi-stage randomly selected households in Central, Western and Nyanza provinces of Kenya. The study found that use of MMT services significantly increased level of annual household input use by $42, household agricultural commercialization by 37% and household annual income by $224. We conclude that MMT services in rural areas help to resolve an idiosyncratic market failure that farmers face; access to financial services. We therefore recommend that other developing countries should follow the Kenyan model and provide an enabling environment that would facilitate entry and survival of MMT initiatives.

Adekunle, AA;, Ellis-Jones J;, Ajibefun I;, Nyikal RA;, Bangali S;, Fatunbi O;, Ange A.  2012.  Agricultural innovation in sub-Saharan Africa: experiences from multiple-stakeholder approaches.


Zipora, O, Okello J, Nyikal R, Mwang’ombe A, Clavel D.  2011.  The role of varietal traits in the adoption of improved dryland crop varieties: The case of pigeon pea in Kenya. AfJARE. 6(2):176-193. AbstractWebsite

This study uses a multivariate probit model and the Poisson regression to examine the role of varietal attributes in farmers’ adoption of improved pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) varieties in Taita District, Kenya. It is based on data collected from 200 households stratified by adoption of improved pigeon pea varieties between April and May 2009. The study finds correlation in the decisions made by farmers to adopt different varieties, implying that using simple probit analysis could yield biased and inefficient results. The results further indicate that the major pigeon pea varietal traits driving rapid adoption are drought tolerance, pest tolerance, yield, ease of cooking, taste and price. Early maturity, a major focus of recent research, has no effect on farmers’ adoption decisions. These findings imply that developers of improved crop varieties should pay attention to consumption and market characteristics in addition to production traits to increase technology uptake and satisfy farmers’ multiple needs.

Jane, M, Mburu J, Nyikal R, and Kironchi G.  2011.  Determinants of adoption of conservation tillage practices in maize-cowpea cropping systems: the case of Makueni District, Kenya. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management . 2(11):354-361. AbstractWebsite

The low soil moisture cannot support productive agriculture to meet the increasing population in the low rainfall tropical areas. Ripping and tied-ridging are some of the recent technologies introduced by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, and is used to conserve moisture in the semi-arid areas. Although farmers are aware of the technical gains of these technologies, the adoptionrates have remained below the expectations of researchers and policy makers. The objective of this study was to analyze household and technology characteristics that influence the adoption of ripping and tied-ridging techniques of conservation tillage. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to interview a random sample of 177 farmers. Using a logit model, different factors that influenced farmers’ use of ripping and tied-ridging were identified. The significant variables include availability of off-farm employment, closeness to local markets, group membership, availability of family labour, contact with extension services and conservation tillage promoters, and farmers’ farming experience. The paper recommends that future demonstrations of ripping and tied-ridging should target farmers who cannot easily access markets for farm inputs and outputs. Moreover, non-adopters should be encouraged to join or form new groups to establish contacts with extension services, and organizations promoting the tillage practices if adoption rates of these technologies are to be improved in the study area. Key words: Adoption, adoption rate, conservation tillage, ripping, tied-ridging, semiarid areas, Kenya.


Wambugu, S, Okello JJ, Nyikal R.  2010.  Effect of Social Capital on Performance of Smallholder Farmer Organizations in Western Kenya. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 4(6):10-19. AbstractWebsite

Development literature has recently promoted the use of producer organizations in linking farmers to better-paying
commodity markets. However, empirical studies find mixed performance of such organizations. This study examines the producer
organizations’ internal factors that may explain the differences in the performance of producer organizations. The study specifically
analyzes the role of social capital, within a producer organization, on the performance of such organization using quantitative
techniques. The level of commercialization is used as proxy of organization’s performance. The study finds that social capital
positively affects the performance of producer organizations. These findings imply that development strategies that target the
promotion commercialization of smallholder agriculture through producer organizations should pay attention to the internal factors
within such organizations.
Key words: Smallholder farmers, agricultural commercialization, social capital, performance of farmer organizations, Kenya.

Kirui, OK;, Okello, J. J; Nyikal RA, Okello, J. J; Nyikal RA.  2010.  Awareness, use and effect of mobile phone-based money transfer in Kenyan agriculture.
Kirui, OK;, Okello JJ;, Nyikal RA.  2010.  Awareness and use of m-banking services in agriculture: The case of smallholder farmers in Kenya. Abstract

Smallholder farmer access to agricultural finance has been a major constraint to agricultural commercialization in developing countries. The ICT revolution in Africa has however brought an opportunity to ease this constraint. The mobile phone-based banking services that started in Kenya urban centers have spread to rural areas and even other countries. Using these services farmers could receive funds invest in agriculture finance transactions. This study examines the awareness and use of m-banking services among rural farmers in Kenya. It also assesses the factors conditioning the use of such services. The study finds high awareness of m-banking services among the smallholder farmers. It also finds that education, distance to a commercial bank, membership to farmer organizations, distance to the m-banking agents, and endowment with physical and financial assets affect the use of m-banking services. It discusses the implications of these findings for policy and practice.

Otieno, PS, Nyikal RA, Mugivane FI.  2010.  Non-credit services of group-based financial institutions: Implications for smallholder women's honey income in arid and semi arid lands of Kenya. Abstract

This paper analyses the effect of non-credit services of joint liability credit institutions on smallholder women beekeepers’ honey income. The non-credit services offered to the beekeepers were mainly enterprise development services (including trainings on marketing, business, production and subsector analysis). The study uses cross-sectional data from a survey of women beekeepers participating in group-based credit programmes. The survey was conducted in September 2005 in Makueni district of Kenya. The findings indicated that the number of enterprise development related trainings attended by women beekeepers that are offered by the group-based financial institutions positively and significantly influence honey income. The results confirmed that non-credit services contribute positively to the enhancement of honey income. These results imply that extension and strengthening of group-based financial institutions’ non-credit services in the marginal areas will enhance development of smallholder agriculture for improved income generation.


  2008.  Classification and influence of agricultural information on striga and stemborer control in Suba and Vihiga Districts, Kenya, August 20-22, 20. African Association of Agricultural Economists. , Accra, Ghana


Guthiga, P, Karugia J, Nyikal R.  2007.  Does use of draft animal power increase economic efficiency of smallholder farms in Kenya?” Renewable Agriculture and Food systems. 22:1-7. AbstractWebsite

Draft animal power (DAP) has been identified as an environmentally friendly technology that is based on renewable energy and encompasses integration of livestock and crop production systems. Draft animal technology provides farmers with a possibility to cheaply access and use manure from the draft animals and farm power needed to apply renewable practices for land intensification. Compared to motorized mechanization, DAP is viewed as an appropriate and affordable technology especially for small-scale farmers in developing countries who cannot afford the expensive fuel-powered tractor mechanization. However, it is apparent that there is no consensus among researchers on how it affects crop yields, profit and production efficiency when applied in farm operations. This study addressed the question of whether using DAP increases economic efficiency of smallholder maize producers in central Kenya. Results of the study are derived from a sample of 80 farmers, 57% of whom used draft animals while 43% used hand hoes in carrying farm operations. In the study area, draft animals are almost exclusively used for land preparation and planting, with very few farmers applying them in the consecutive operations such as weeding. A profit function was estimated to test the hypothesis of equal economic efficiency between ‘DAP’ and ‘hoe’ farms. The results showed that farmers who used DAP obtained higher yields and operated at a higher economic efficiency compared to those who used hand hoes. The analysis underscores the viability of DAP in increasing profitability of small-scale farms; however, other aspects of the technology, such as affordability of the whole DAP package, availability of appropriate implements and skills of using the technology, must be taken into account when promoting adoption of DAP technology.

ADHIAMBO, DRNYIKALROSE.  2007.  P. M. Guthiga, J. T. Karugia, and R. A. Nyikal . East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 .. : Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics Abstract
No abstract available.
ADHIAMBO, DRNYIKALROSE.  2007.  Cattle and Small Ruminant Breeds Utilization and Assessment of the Impact of Breeding schemes on livestock productivity in East and Central Africa (2005 -2007) CURRENT RESEARCH sponsored by ASARECA AARNET. East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 .. : Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics Abstract
No abstract available.


Ramisch, J;, Nyikal RA;, Kimenye LN;, Kimani SK;, Macharia JM.  2006.  Economic Evaluation of Organic and Inorganic Resources for Recapitalizing Soil Fertility in Smallholder Maize-based Cropping Systems of Central Kenya. Abstract

Structural adjustments programs (SAPs) in the last two decades have eliminated all farm-support programs leading to low usage of fertilizers by Kenyan smallholders. One way of addressing this problem is use of organic nutrient resources. This paper examines their cost-effectiveness as capital investments in replenishment of Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K) and soil organic matter (SOM) in smallholder, Maize-based cropping systems. On-farm trials were established in Maragwa and Kirinyaga Districts in 2003/04. Maize was planted in 3 replicates in randomised complete block design (RCBD) using different levels of organic and inorganic fertilizer resources. A blanket rate of 40kg P/ha was applied in all treatment except the control to increase organic N-utilization efficiency. The test crop was harvested, oven-dried and weighed. Net Present Values (NPV) were computed using Partial Budgeting Analysis Model. Increasing levels of inorganic N increased maize yields significantly (P<0.05). However, higher yields were necessary but not sufficient criteria to determine profitability of different treatments. Manure + 60 kg N/ha gave highest NPV (USD 564), Manure + 40kg N/ha gave second highest NPV (USD 511) in Maragwa District while Manure + 60kg N/ha gave highest NPV (USD 633) and Manure + 40kg N/ha second highest NPV (USD 618) in Kirinyaga District. These results suggested that higher N-levels were not necessarily the most economical. Use of organic resources with modest amounts of mineral fertilizers seemed more profitable and held the key to enhancement of nutrient budgets, food security and rural livelihoods.

UoN Websites Search