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MAINA DRGITHIGIASAMUEL. "). Prevalence of porcine Cysticercosis and risk factors for Taenia solium taeniosis in Funyula Division of Busia District Kenya. Githigia,S.M., Murekefu,K. and Otieno, R.O." The Kenya Veterinarian . 2005;29:37-39. AbstractWebsite

Ivan Gumula; Matthias Heydenreich, Solomon Derese; Isaiah O. Ndiege and Abiy Yenesew. Phytochemistry Letter, 2012, 150-154

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SOLOMON DRDERESE. "7a-O-Methyldeguelol, a modified rotenoid with an open ring-C, from the roots of Derris trifoliata." Phytochemistry. 2005;66:653-657. AbstractWebsite

Phytochemistry. 2005 Mar;66(6):653-7.

7a-O-methyldeguelol, a modified rotenoid with an open ring-C, from the roots of Derris trifoliata.

Yenesew A, Mushibe EK, Induli M, Derese S, Midiwo JO, Kabaru JM, Heydenreich M, Koch A, Peter MG.

From the acetone extract of the roots of Derris trifoliata an isoflavonoid derivative, named 7a-O-methyldeguelol, a modified rotenoid with an open ring-C, representing a new sub-class of isoflavonoids (the sub-class is here named as rotenoloid), was isolated and characterised. In addition, the known rotenoids, rotenone, deguelin and alpha-toxicarol, were identified. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Rotenone and deguelin were identified as the larvicidal principles of the acetone extract of the roots of Derris trifoliata.

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MWANGI MUREITHISTEPHEN. "Aboveground net primary productivity in grazed and ungrazed pastures: Grazing optimisation hypothesis or local extinction of vegetation species. Otieno, S.G., T.J. Njoka, T.P. Young, S.M. Mureithi and Ngugi, R.K. .". In: Nature Proceedings. Afr. J. Range For. Sci.; Submitted. Abstract

The controversy that has surrounded herbivory studies in the last few decades prompted our investigation to establish the extent to which herbivore optimisation hypothesis or compensatory growth evidence is real. We used the traditional movable cage method to collect primary productivity data on herbage, functional groups and key individual grass species in various controlled large herbivore treatments in an east African savanna. The herbivore treatments in triplicate blocks included cattle, wild herbivores with and without mega herbivores and combinations of cattle and wild herbivores also with and without mega herbivores. The findings revealed that at herbage level, most grazed treatments (four out of five) had higher productivity than the ungrazed control and three showed grazing optimisation curve at sixth polynomial degree between monthly productivity and grazing intensity (1-g/ng). At functional group level forbs productivity was higher in the ungrazed control than in any of the grazed treatments while at individual grass species level Themeda triandra productivity was higher in all grazed treatments than in ungrazed control. We conclude against presence of herbivore optimisation hypothesis at herbage, functional group and species level because of lack of attributable grazing effect in grazed treatments that matches complex ecological effects in the ungrazed treatment.

UWESO DRABUBAKARLAILA. "Abubakar L. U., Zimba G., Wells C., Mulaa F., Osir E. O. .". In: International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. Abubakar L.U; 2003. Abstract
Background: Marine invertebrates rely solely on innate immune mechanisms, the cellular component of which is characterized by hemocytes that phagocytize microbes and secrete soluble antimicrobial and cytotoxic substances. In this regard, marine invertebrates are a potential source of promising antimicrobial compounds with novel mechanisms of action. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate extracts of the gut, gonad, spines and mouth parts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla for antimicrobial and haemolytic activities in vitro. Methods: Potentially bioactive metabolites were extracted using methanol and chloroform and tested for activity against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium spp. using the agar disc diffusion method. Toxicity was determined by assaying for hemolysis against human red blood cells. Results: Bioactivity against the tested bacteria was observed mainly with the methanol and chloroform extracts of the gonads and gut. Higher antibacterial activity was present in the methanol extracts compared to chloroform extracts. Activity against the Penicillium spp was detected only in the methanol extracts, while the chloroform extracts showed no activity. The various extracts of the sea urchin lacked any detectable hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. Discussion: These research findings suggest that marine echinoderms are a potential source of novel antimicrobial compounds. Key words: Tripneustes gratilla, antimicrobial activity, marine invertebrates
MAINA DRGITHIGIASAMUEL. "Accuracy of an anaemia-scoring chart applied on goats in sub-humid Kenya and its potential for control of Haemonchus contortus infections. Ejlertsen, M.; Githigia, S.M.; Otieno, R.O. Thamsborg, S.M." Veterinary Parasitology . 2006;141(3 -4):291-301. AbstractWebsite

Abstract:
We tested the practical application of an anaemia scoring chart (the FAMACHA© chart) as a method for controlling Haemonchus contortus in goats kept under smallholder conditions in a sub-humid area of Central Kenya. The objectives were: (1) to test the accuracy of the FAMACHA© chart in identifying anaemic goats (PCV ≤ 18); (2) to quantify the proportion of goats left untreated at farm level when using the chart. On each of two farms, Small East African goats of various ages were allocated to two treatment groups; a FAMACHA© group (F1 (n = 34) and F2 (n = 31) on farms 1 and 2, respectively) and a control group (C1 (n = 34) and C2 (n = 30)). In F1 and F2 goats with a FAMACHA© score of 3, 4 or 5 were treated with anthelmintic after scoring. In C1 and C2 goats were treated every 4 weeks from 15 February to 20 July. Every 2 weeks all goats were scored with the FAMACHA© chart and weighed. Furthermore, faecal samples were collected for faecal egg counts (FEC) and blood samples were collected for packed cell volume (PCV) determination. H. contortus was found to be the predominant nematode on both farms. The mean FECs were higher on farm 1 compared to farm 2, while in contrast the mean PCV levels were lowest on farm 2. The latter was most likely due to the presence of Fasciola spp., flea and tick infections on farm 2. The accuracy of the chart was evaluated by using PCV as the gold standard for anaemia (PCV ≤ 18%). The mean percentage of false-negative scorings per sampling was 0.7% on farm 1 and 1.6% on farm 2, while the mean percentage of false-positive scorings was 9.7% and 21.4%, respectively. It is most likely that the accuracy of the chart was negatively affected by the concurrent parasite infections on farm 2. The mean proportion of untreated goats per sampling was 89% and 77% on farm 1 and farm 2. It was concluded that the FAMACHA© chart can be a valuable tool for decision-making in control of H. contortus in goats kept under smallholder conditions, without morbidity or mortality unacceptable to the farmer. The application may further reduce the risk of development of anthelmintic resistance by increasing refugia. However, caution should be taken under conditions where other anaemia-causing parasites are present (e.g. Fasciola spp. and ecto-parasites), since this possibly decreases the accuracy of the FAMACHA© chart.

NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Agnes N Wausi & Timothy M. Waema (2010) Implementing IS in Developing Country HE Context: Towards Creating A Favourable Implementation Context.". In: International Journal of Computing and ICT Research. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2010. Abstract
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SIFUNJO MRKISAKAERASTUS. "An Analysis of the Efficiency of the Foreign Exchange Market in Kenya.". In: Economic Bulletin, Vol. 14, No.2, pp. 1 . BEP Electronic Press; 2008. Abstract
This study examined the RWH using the run tests, Ljung-Box statistics, and the unit root tests. The data covered the period starting January 1994 to June 2007 for the daily closing prices of the Ksh/UD dollar spot rate. The main finding of this study is that the RWH is strongly rejected at the 5% significance level. The results indicate that the rejections are due to autocorrelation in currency returns. The exchange rate tends to appreciate most of the time over the sample period. Therefore failure of the EMH could be due to exchange rate undershooting and overshooting phenomena. The unit root tests showed that the exchange rate data is non-stationary while returns are stationary. Therefore the evidence strongly suggested that the foreign exchange market is not efficient.
SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Anti-plasmodial activities and X-ray crystal structures of rotenoids from Millettia usaramensis subspecies usaramensis .". In: Chemical Sciences Journal Vol. 2012: CSJ-56. Elsevier; 2003. Abstract

The dichloromethane extract of the stem bark of Millettia usaramensis subspecies usaramensis showed anti-plasmodial activity against the chloroquine sensitive (D6) and chloroquine resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Chromatographic separation of the extract led to the identification of a new rotenoid, (6aR,12aS)-2,3-methylenedioxy-9-methoxy-8-(3,3-dimethylallyl)-12a-hydroxyrotenoid (trivial name, usararotenoid C) along with known flavonoids (usararotenoid A, 12a-epimillettosin, 6a,12a-dehydromillettone, barbigerone and 4′-O-geranylisoliquiritigenin) as the anti-plasmodial principles. The structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses. CD and X-ray analyses established absolute configurations.

SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Anti-plasmodial flavonoids from the stem bark of Erythrina abyssinica." Phytochemistry. 2004;65(22):3029-32. AbstractWebsite

Phytochemistry. 2004 Nov;65(22):3029-32.

Anti-plasmodial flavonoids from the stem bark of Erythrina abyssinica.

Yenesew A, Induli M, Derese S, Midiwo JO, Heydenreich M, Peter MG, Akala H, Wangui J, Liyala P, Waters NC.

The ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of Erythrina abyssinica showed anti-plasmodial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC(50) values of 7.9+/-1.1 and 5.3+/-0.7 microg/ml, respectively. From this extract, a new chalcone, 2',3,4,4'-tetrahydroxy-5-prenylchalcone (trivial name 5-prenylbutein) and a new flavanone, 4',7-dihydroxy-3'-methoxy-5'-prenylflavanone (trivial name, 5-deoxyabyssinin II) along with known flavonoids have been isolated as the anti-plasmodial principles. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.

Abubakar LU, Mwangi CN, Uku J, Ndirangu S. "Antimicrobial activity of various extracts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla (Echinoidea)." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics . 2012;1(1): 19-23. Abstractabstract-ajpt.pdfWebsite

Background:
Marine invertebrates rely solely on innate immune mechanisms, the cellular component of which is characterized by hemocytes that phagocytize microbes and secrete soluble antimicrobial and cytotoxic substances. In this regard, marine invertebrates are a potential source of promising antimicrobial compounds with novel mechanisms of action.
Objective:
The objective of this study was to evaluate extracts of the gut, gonad, spines and mouth parts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla for antimicrobial and haemolytic activities in vitro.
Methods:
Potentially bioactive metabolites were extracted using methanol and chloroform and tested for activity against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium spp. using the agar disc diffusion method. Toxicity was determined by assaying for hemolysis against human red blood cells.
Results:
Bioactivity against the tested bacteria was observed mainly with the methanol and chloroform extracts of the gonads and gut. Higher antibacterial activity was present in the methanol extracts compared to chloroform extracts. Activity against the Penicillium spp was detected only in the methanol extracts, while the chloroform extracts showed no activity. The various extracts of the sea urchin lacked any detectable hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes.
Discussion:
These research findings suggest that marine echinoderms are a potential source of novel antimicrobial compounds.
Key words:
Tripneustes gratilla, antimicrobial activity, marine invertebrates

SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Antimicrobial and antiparasitic abietane diterpenoids from the roots of Clerodendrum eriophyllum." Natural Products Communication. 2010;5(6):853-858. AbstractWebsite

Machumi F, Samoylenko V, Yenesew A, Derese S, Midiwo JO, Wiggers FT, Jacob MR, Tekwani BL, Khan SI, Walker LA, Muhammad I.; Nat Prod Commun. 2010 5(6), pp. 853-8.

Chromatographic separation of the roots of a Kenyan medicinal plant, Clerodendrum eriophyllum, led to the isolation of ten abietane diterpenoids (1-10), one of which (1) was isolated for the first time from a natural source. Using spectroscopic data, the structure of 1 was determined to be 12-hydroxy-8,12-abietadiene-3,11,14-trione. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra showed that the stereochemistry of compounds 1, 3, and 6-8 belongs to the normal series of abietane diterpenes, which confirmed the absolute stereochemistry of the isolated compounds. Compounds 1-10 were evaluated for their in vitro antiplasmodial, antileishmanial, antifungal and antibacterial activities. Compounds 3 and 7 exhibited potent antifungal activity (IC50/MIC 0.58/1.25 and 0.96/2.5 microg/mL, respectively) against C. neoformans, whereas 3, 6 and 7 showed strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus with IC50/MIC values between 1.33-1.75/2.5-5 and 0.96-1.56/2.5 microg/mL, respectively. In addition, compounds 3 and 9 exhibited potent antileishmanial activity (IC50 0.08 and 0.20 microg/mL, respectively) against L. donovani, while 3 and 7 displayed weak antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum, but 9 was inactive.

SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Antimicrobial flavonoids from the stem bark of Erythrina burttii." Fitoterapia. 2005;76(5):469-72. AbstractWebsite

Antimicrobial flavonoids from the stem bark of Erythrina burttii.

Yenesew A, Derese S, Midiwo JO, Bii CC, Heydenreich M, Peter MG.

Abstract

The chloroform extract of the stem bark of Erythrina burttii showed antifungal and antibacterial activities using the disk diffusion method. Flavonoids were identified as the active principles. Activities were observed against fungi and Gram(+) bacteria, but the Gram(-) bacteria Escherichia coli was resistant.

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Antimicrobial susceptibility of non-sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli isolated from cattle feaces and milk samples.". In: Journal. African Journal of Microbiology Research; Submitted.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Antimicrobial susceptibility of non-sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli isolated from cattle feaces and milk samples.". In: Journal. African Journal of Microbiology Research; Submitted.
SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Antiplasmodial activities of flavonoids from Erythrina sacleuxii." Planta Medica. 2006;72(2):187-9. AbstractWebsite

Andrew .W. Andayi, A. Yenesew, Solomon Derese, Jacob O. Midiwo, Peter M. Gitu, Ogoche I. Jondiko, Norman Waters, Pamela Liyala, Hosea Akala, Matthias Heydenreich, Martin G Peter. (2006): Planta medica, 72 (2), pp. 187-189.

The acetone extracts of the root bark and stem bark of Erythrina sacleuxii showed antiplasmodial activities against the chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Chromatographic separation of the acetone extract of the root bark afforded a new isoflavone, 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxy-3'-prenylisoflavone (trivial name 5-deoxy-3'-prenylbiochanin A) along with known isoflavonoids as the antiplasmodial principles. Flavonoids and isoflavonoids isolated from the stem bark of E. sacleuxii were also tested and showed antiplasmodial activities. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.

SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Antiplasmodial Quinones from Pentas longiflora and Pentas lanceolata." Planta Medica. 2012; 78:31-35. AbstractWebsite

Milkyas Endale, John Patrick Alao, Hoseah M. Akala, Nelson K. Rono, Fredrick L. Eyase, Solomon Derese,
Albert Ndakala, Martin Mbugua, Douglas S.Walsh, Per Sunnerhagen, Mate Erdelyi, Abiy Yenesew

Planta Med 2012; 78: 31–35

The dichloromethane/methanol (1 :1) extracts of the roots of Pentas longiflora and Pentas lanceolata showed low micromolar (IC50 = 0.9–3 μg/mL) in vitro antiplasmodial activity against chloroquineresistant (W2) and chloroquine-sensitive (D6) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Chromatographic separation of the extract of Pentas longiflora led to the isolation of the pyranonaphthoquinones pentalongin (1) and psychorubrin (2) with IC50 values below 1 μg/mL and the naphthalene derivative mollugin (3), which showed marginal activity. Similar treatment of Pentas lanceolata led to the isolation of eight anthraquinones (4–11, IC50 = 5–31 μg/mL) of which one is new (5,6-dihydroxydamnacanthol, 11), while three – nordamnacanthal (7), lucidin-ω-methyl ether (9), and damnacanthol (10) – are reported here for the first time from the genus Pentas. The compounds were identified by NMR and mass spectroscopic techniques.

SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Antiplasmodial β-hydroxydihydrochalcone from seedpods of Tephrosiaelata." Phytochemistry Letters. 2009;2(3):99-102. AbstractWebsite

Muiva, L.M. Yenesew, A., Solomon Derese, Heydenreich, M., Peter, M.G., Akala, H.M., F. Eyase, Waters, N.C., Mutai, C., Keriko, J.M., Walsh, D. Phytochemistry Letters, 2009, pp. 99-102.

From the seedpods of Tephrosia elata, a new β-hydroxydihydrochalcone named (S)-elatadihydrochalcone was isolated. In addition, the known flavonoids obovatachalcone, obovatin, obovatin methyl ether and deguelin were identified. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The crude extract and the flavonoids obtained from the seedpods of this plant showed antiplasmodial activities. The literature NMR data on β-hydroxydihydrochalcones is reviewed and the identity of some of the compounds assigned β-hydroxydihydrochalcone skeleton is questioned.

E.N. PN. "Antiretroviral therapy in a core transmission group of Kenyan female sex workers is not associated with increased sexual risk taking.". In: Future Medicinal Chemistry. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2010. Abstract

Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) prolongs life and reduces infectiousness, in some contexts it has been associated with increased sexual risk taking. We compared self-reported condom use, client numbers, and STI incidence in HIV-infected Kenyan female sex workers (FSW) before and after starting ART (n=62), as well in control FSWs not starting ART (n=40). Sexual behaviour with casual clients did not change after ART initiation; condom use increased and STI incidence decreased in both cases and controls, likely due to successful cohort-wide HIV prevention efforts. ART provision was not associated with increases in unsafe sex in this core transmission group.

WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Application of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Technology in the Tropics: Effects of Air Mass on Device Performance." International Journal of Renewable Energy Research (IJRER). 2012;2(3):369-375. AbstractWebsite

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WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Application of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Technology in the Tropics: Effects of Radiation Intensity and Temperature on DSSC Performance." International Journal of Advanced Renewable Energy Research (IJARER). 2012;1(2):17-25. AbstractWebsite

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O. DRDULOSIMEON. "Assessment of Urban Water Supply: Case Study of Athi Town.". In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Re-orienting Civil Engineering Education and Training, September 2008, pp, 113-118. Lulu Publishers. ISBN- 978-1-105-09985-4; 2011.
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Baeten JM, Hassan WM, Chohan V, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Jaoko W & McClelland RS (2009) Prospective study of correlates of vaginal Lactobacillus colonization among high-risk HIV-1 seronegative women. Sexually Transmitted Infections 85.". In: UoN research meeting. Sexually Transmitted Infections 85(5): 348-53; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Baltzer H, Chege D, Rebbapragada A, Wachihi C, Shin LYY, Kimani J, Ball TB, Jaoko W, Plummer FA & Kaul R (2009) Relative HIV resistance Kenyan sex workers is not due to an altered prevalence or mucosal immune impact of herpes simplex virus type 2 infectio.". In: UoN research meeting. Current HIV Research 7(5):504-7; 2009. Abstract
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SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Bioactive Compounds from Some Kenyan Ethno-medicinal Plants: Myrsinaceae, Polygonaceae and Psiadia punctulata.". In: Chemical Sciences Journal Vol. 2012: CSJ-56. Elsevier; 2002. Abstract

There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2′-glucosyl-6′-hydroxy-4′-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found.

W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Bosch KA, Rainwater S, Jaoko W & Overbaugh J (2009) Temporal analysis of HIV envelope sequence evolution and antibody escape in a subtype A-infected individual with a broad neutralizing antibody response. Virology 398(1):115-24.". In: UoN research meeting. Virology 398(1):115-24; 2009. Abstract
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UWESO DRABUBAKARLAILA. "Burugu, M. W., Mbatia, B. N., Osir, E. O., Kenya, E. U., Abubakar, L. U. .". In: International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science; 2008. Abstract
Rural aquaculture in Lake Victoria basin is a fast increasing nontraditional farming activity which if not appropriately practised will lead to degradation of the wetlands. As part of a study to develop appropriate guidelines and model systems for wetlands-based rural aquaculture in the basin a survey was conducted to assess the status and the ecological and socioeconomic impact of rural aquaculture on wetlands and wetlands communities. Aquaculture practice was found to be common but not as a major activity. Aquaculture in the wetlands can be described as a low input-low output production activity and subsistence based on ponds under 400 m2 using free seed from public agencies with hardly any supplementary feeding. Men owned most of the ponds and women only contributed to the management of the fishponds by feeding the fish. Poorly constructed ponds and loss during harvesting have led to the escape of cultured species into the wild. Introduction of nonnative species in the basin has already led to wide ranging ecological, environmental and socioeconomic changes whose impact and usefulness are still very much contentious. Repeat of such scenarios can be avoided if appropriate and science-based models for rural aquaculture farming are developed, tested and disseminated to the communities
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KISAKA ES, MWASARU A. "The Causal Relationship between Exchange Rates and Stock Prices in Kenya." Research of Finance and Accounting, Vol 3, N0. 7, 2012. 2012;3(7):121-130. AbstractWebsite

This study examined the causal relationship between foreign exchange rates and stock prices in Kenya from November 1993 to May 1999. The data set consisted of monthly observations of the NSE stock price index and the nominal Kenya shillings per US dollar exchange rates. The objective was to establish the causal linkages between leading prices in the foreign exchange market and the Nairobi Securities Exchange (NSE). The empirical results show that foreign exchange rates and stock prices are non-stationary both in first differences and level forms, and the two variables are integrated of order one, in Kenya. Secondly, we tested for co-integration between exchange rates and stock prices. The results show that the two variables are co-integrated. Thirdly, we used error-correction models instead of the classical Granger-causality tests since the two variables are co-integrated. The empirical results indicate that exchange rates Granger-causes stock prices in Kenya.

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Challenges of camel production in Samburu District, Kenya.". In: Journal. Journal of Camelid Science 3 (2010) 01-05; Submitted.
NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Change Management a natural Partner of Information Technology in Power Up with Information Technology, Catherine Getao and Marcel Werner (Eds).". In: Information Technology for Development, Vol 15, 3, pp224-232. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2004. Abstract
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MAINA DRGITHIGIASAMUEL. "Characteristics of the smallholder free-range pig production system in western Kenya John M. Kagira & Paul W. N. Kanyari & Ndicho Maingi & Samuel M. Githigia & J. C. Ng." Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:865. 2010;42:865-873. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Free-range pig farming is common amongst the small-scale farmers in western Kenya. In order to determine the characteristics of this type of production system, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey on farm characteristics and management was collected from 182 farmers in Busia District. The mean farm size was one acre, while the mean number of pigs per farm was 3.6. Pigs were mainly kept as a source of income (98%) and majority were of cross breed variety (64%). The production systems included farrow to weaner (12%), porker to finisher (36%), and mixed (46%). Sixty five percent (65%) of the pigs were tethered and housing was not provided in 61% of the farms. Most of the feeds were sourced locally. Lack of castration and delayed weaning of pigs was observed on 49% and 30% of the farms, respectively. The main production constraints included pig diseases (81%) and high cost or lack of feed (81%). Haematopinus suis infestations and worm infections were considered to be the most important diseases by 71% and 55% of the farmers, respectively. Farmers had moderate knowledge on parasitic disease diagnosis with 31% and 62% not having a history of either deworming or spraying pigs with acaricides, respectively. Marketing constraints were common amongst the farmers and included poor prices and inadequate market information. In conclusion, the production system was characterized as low-input with an income objective. Future research and development approaches should focus on the integration of free-range farmers into the country's market chains through access to extension services.

MAINA MRMUIRUWILLIAM. "Characterization of antibiotic metabolites from actinomycete isolates.". In: UoN research meeting. Botswana Journal of Agriculture and Applied Sciences; 2007. Abstract
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WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Charge transport in bare and MgO-coated TiO2 thin films and in dye-sensitized solar cells: effect of film thickness.". In: ICE2007, International conference on Electroceramics, Arusha, Tanzania. Arusha, Tanzania: Elsevier; 2007. Abstract

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M. DRGUANTAIERIC. "Chloroquine Resistance: Proposed Mechanisms and Countermeasures.". In: Current Drug Delivery. DMW; 2010. Abstract
Malaria has been, and remains, one of the biggest global health concerns as far as infectious diseases are concerned, with yearly incidence and mortality figures running into millions. One of the major drawbacks to the control of this disease has been the emergence of drug resistant strains of the causative agent, which limits the successful use of many clinically available antimalarial drugs. This review discusses chloroquine resistance; it highlights some of the proposed molecular mechanisms of chloroquine resistance, but dwells more on efforts at reversing chloroquine resistance and the concept of chloroquine resistance-reversal agents.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Chohan VH, Baeten J, Benki S, Graham SM, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Jaoko WG, Overbaugh J & McClelland RS (2009) A prospective study of risk factors for Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 acquisition among high-risk HIV-1 seronegative Kenyan women.". In: UoN research meeting. Sexually Transmitted Infections 85(7):489-92; 2009. Abstract
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MWANGI MRMUREITHISTEPHEN. "Chronosequence analysis of two enclosure management strategies in degraded rangeland of semi-arid Kenya. Verdoodt A, Mureithi SM, Ye L and Van Ranst E. 2009. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 129 (1-3): 332.". In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 129 (1-3): 332. Elsevier J. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 129 (1-3): 332; 2009. Abstract
Cities around the world are currently facing considerable pressure to cope with infrastructure provision amidst rapid urban development and economic growth. Kenya is also facing an increasing growth of informal settlements in her urban centres. As rapid urbanization takes its toll, so has the development and growth of slums. More than 34% of Kenya‟s total population lives in urban areas and of this, more than 71% is confined in informal settlements (UN-Habitat, 2009). This paper presents the result of study to assess the effects of the change in land use in two sub-catchments, in an urban area close to the Nairobi Central Business District (NCBD). The paper compares the change in land use of two regions in Nairobi, Kenya that are slowly changing due to the fast growing population and economy, on urban runoff.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "CLIMATE CHANGE AND TH EMERGENCE OF HELTER-SKELTER LIVELIHOODS AMONG THE PASTORALISTS OF SAMBURU EAST DISTRICT, KENYA.". In: Journal. Ecological Society for Eastern Africa; Submitted.
Ngugi RK, Mureithi SM, Kamande PN. "Climate forecast information: the status, needs and expectations among smallholder agro-pastoralists in Machakos District, Kenya." Intern. J. Current Res. . 2011;6(11):006-012. Abstract2011_ngugi_et_al_ijcr-3-11_climate_forecast_information.pdfWebsite

The potential use of seasonal climate forecasts in farm and resource management has been studied
in a number of cultural contexts around the world. Many of these studies reveal difficulties that
smallholders encounter in accessing, interpreting and applying forecasts for their own benefit. This
study looked at the awareness of and usage of climate forecast information in central Kenya in the
aftermath of the 1997/98 El Niño event. Household surveys were conducted in Machakos District,
Kenya, in January 2001. Retrospective and concurrent awareness and application of seasonal
forecast information was assessed for 240 households across a range of agro ecological zones. The
results show high degree of awareness and use of forecasts. Farmers discussed both actual and
potential application of forecasts for both above-normal and below-normal rainfall. The influence of
the El Niño tendency to increase the rainfall as in the case of 1997/98 El Niño was clear from their
emphasis on strategies to mitigate the impacts of above-or below-normal rainfall. Applications of
information in both crop and livestock management are documented. Constraints still exist, such as
interpretation of information, relevance of the variables forecast to the management decisions of
concern, confidence in the forecasts, and timely and affordable access to resources such as seeds.
We suggest that collaborative efforts between the forecast providers and the users of information
may be directed towards addressing these constraints. For instance in case of abnormal
phenomenon such as droughts or floods, forecasts can be closely followed by early warning
campaigns with clear guidelines of how to prepare, distributed through the FM radio in local
languages order to abate human suffering

Keywords: Climate forecast, Smallholders, Agro-pastoralists, El Niño, Kenya.

WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Columnar and passivated nanoporous TiO2 based excitonic solar cell.". In: US/Africa workshop on frontiers in Material Science, Abuja, Nigeria. Abuja, Nigeria: Elsevier; 2007. Abstract

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KAVITI DRLILIANKATUNGE. "A Communications Strategy and Marketing Handbook for the International Peace Support Training Centre: Kenya,.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Noel Design and Publishing, Nairobi.; 2011.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Community- And Road-Kill Rabies Surveillance In Kibwezi, Kenya.". In: Conference. Journal of Commonwealth Veterinary Association (JCVA); Submitted. Abstract
JG Kamau1, WO Ogara1, JJ McDermott2, PM Kitala*   1 Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, PO Box 29053 00625, Nairobi, Kenya 2 International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), PO Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya * Corresponding Author   Summary   We investigate the possibility of cross-infection by rabies between domestic animals and wild mammalian carnivores at a wild-domestic animal interface. The area was known to have a domestic-dog rabies but the involvement of wildlife was unknown. Four sublocations within a transect of approximately 20 km along the Nairobi-Mombasa highway were selected as the study area. A total of 202 households within the area were randomly selected and visited to collect information on wildlife abundance and habits, and for wild-life-domestic dog interactions. Forty of the 202 households were randomly selected for wildlife trapping. An eight-month long community-and road-kill-based rabies surveillance was implemented in the 4 sublocations. The white-tailed mongoose (Ischeumia albicauda), the genet cat (Genetta genetta), the common mongoose (Herpestes spp), the civet cat (Viverra civetta) and the bush squirrel (Paraxerus spp), were identified as the most prevalent species of wildlife in the area. Seventy-one percent (143/202) of the households reported having heard or witnessed their dogs fighting with unspecified wild animal species. White-tailed mongooses (11) and genet cats (11) were the species of wild carnivores trapped within the precincts of the households. The domestic dog accounted for 91% (20/22) of the rabies positive animal brain specimens collected in the community-based rabies surveillance. Only 6.2% (5/81) of the specimens from road-kills were positive for rabies including a domestic cat, a goat, a common mongoose (Herpestes spp), a genet cat, and an unidentified wildlife species.   This study has revealed that small wild carnivores are frequent in Kibwezi and interact with dogs. Dogs are currently the main species for transmission of rabies but there is some rabies in wildlife. The potential for wildlife to act as a reservoir for rabies as in other areas where dog rabies has been controlled needs further investigation.   Keywords: Rabies; Surveillance; Community-based; road-kills; Kenya  
RONO MREDWINCHERUIYOT. "Concentration - dependent parsimonious releaser roles of gregarious male pheromone of desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria.". In: Journal of insect physiology. Edwin Rono; 2008. Abstract
The responses of (i) groups of crowd-reared mature males of desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria to a choice of two columns of air, one permeated with different concentrations of phenylacetonitrile (PAN), the major component of gregarious-phase male-produced pheromone, and the other untreated, and (ii) individual crowd-reared mature males of the insect to varying concentration gradients of PAN, were studied in two different types of arena. In the choice assay, locusts preferred to be within PAN-permeated air column at low relative doses of the pheromone, but away from PAN at high relative doses. In the second assay, individual locusts were arrested close to PAN source at low PAN concentration gradients, but away from the source at high concentration gradients. The results are consistent with two reported releaser functions of the adult male-released pheromone that are dependent on different sensory thresholds: arrestment and cohesion at lower relative concentrations and male-male homosexual avoidance at higher relative concentrations.
NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Cultural dynamics and communication technology adaptation in developing country.". In: UK Development studies Association conference, Open University, Milton Keynes, 7-9 September 2006. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2006. Abstract
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D
WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Dark J-V Characterization of a Dye-Sensitized Module." International Journal of Professional Practice (IJPP),. 2012;3(1&2):165-168. AbstractWebsite

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O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Design and development of an electronic identification and traceability system for cattle under pastoral production systems: A case for Kenya.". In: Journal. Livestock Research for Rural Development; Submitted. Abstract
G O Matete, N Maingi*, G Muchemi, W Ogara and J M Gathuma Department of Veterinary Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi P.O Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com* Department of Veterinary Pathology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract Traceability systems offer strong incentives to livestock and meat exporting countries by altering their productive and industrial processes in order to access premium meat markets globally.  Kenya, whilst acknowledged as one of the countries within the horn of Africa with a reasonably credible veterinary service, has very limited access to beef and livestock markets in importing countries due to perceived risk or suspicions of presence of trans-boundary animal diseases (TADs) such as Rift Valley Fever (RVF) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), lack of capacity to prove the absence of TADs and absence of an effective traceability system that acts as proxy for quality assurance.  The objective of this study was to report on the processes through which a model traceability system was designed for pastoral production systems of Northeastern Kenya.   The study reports that industry-wide consultation is a critical ingredient in the design process that encompassed simple drop down menus, low price and phased process of implementation. The use of a single central database reduced considerably the cost of implementation and minimized response time for impact analysis. Key words: Design, electronic traceability systems
M. DRGUANTAIERIC. "Design, synthesis and in vitro antimalarial evaluation of triazole-linked chalcone and dienone hybrid compounds.". In: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. DMW; 2010. Abstract
A targeted series of chalcone and dienone hybrid compounds containing aminoquinoline and nucleoside templates was synthesized and evaluated for in vitro antimalarial activity. The Cu(I)-catalyzed cycloaddition of azides and terminal alkynes was applied as the hybridization strategy. Several chalcone-chloroquinoline hybrid compounds were found to be notably active, with compound 8b the most active, exhibiting submicromolar IC50 values against the D10, Dd2 and W2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum.
Kenya EU, Okun DO, Gachuche DN, Abdulahi A, U. AL, Manohar R. "Detection and presumptive identification of Clostridium perfrigens in drinking water." Aquaculture. 2006;7(1): 27-36. Abstractabstract.pdfWebsite

Rural aquaculture in Lake Victoria basin is a fast increasing nontraditional farming activity which if not appropriately practised will lead to degradation of the wetlands. As part of a study to develop appropriate guidelines and model systems for wetlands-based rural aquaculture in the basin a survey was conducted to assess the status and the ecological and socioeconomic impact of rural aquaculture on wetlands and wetlands communities. Aquaculture practice was found to be common but not as a major activity. Aquaculture in the wetlands can be described as a low input-low output production activity and subsistence based on ponds under 400 m2 using free seed from public agencies with hardly any supplementary feeding. Men owned most of the ponds and women only contributed to the management of the fishponds by feeding the fish. Poorly constructed ponds and loss during harvesting have led to the escape of cultured species into the wild. Introduction of nonnative species in the basin has already led to wide ranging ecological, environmental and socioeconomic changes whose impact and usefulness are still very much contentious. Repeat of such scenarios can be avoided if appropriate and science-based models for rural aquaculture farming are developed, tested and disseminated to the communities

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Determination of carnivores prey base by scat analysis in Samburu community group ranches in Kenya.". In: Journal. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology; Submitted. Abstract

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William O. Ogara1, Nduhiu J. Gitahi1, Samuel A. Andanje2 , Nicholas Oguge3, Dorcas W. Nduati1 and Alfred O. Mainga1

1Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya

2Kenya Wildlife services, Nairobi, Kenya

3Earthwatch Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

This study determined the prey base for four main carnivores found in Samburu Community group ranches and grazing area, Lion (Panthera leo), Leopard (Panthera pardus), Wild dog (Lycaon pictus) and Hyaena (Crocuta crocuta, and Hyaena hyaena). A total of 96 scat samples including, 8 from Lion, 16 Leopards', 2 Wild dogs', and 70 Hyaenas' were collected, identified and microscopically analyzed for prey hair characterisation. At least 50 different hairs from every scat sample were mounted on slides and microscopically characterized using details from reference hairs. Hairs from 18 depredated species both domestic and wild ungulates were recovered from the scat samples. Predated species were identified, as either domestic (Cow, Sheep, Goat, Donkey, and Camel) or wild ungulate prey (Grant's gazelle, plain zebra, Grevy's Zebra, Impala, Waterbuck, Dikdik, Eland, lesser Kudu, greater Kudu, Baboon, rock Hyraxes, Elephant and Oryx). The carnivores showed a relatively high kill of wild ungulate prey compared to domestic prey. Camel was the most preferred cow and donkey respectively. Grevy's zebra contributed highest to the lion's diet while the Plain zebra was most preferred by the leopard. Both the hyaena and Wild dog had a preference for the waterbuck. The Hyaena had the highest domestic depredation, while all the other big cats depredated more on wild ungulates.

Key words: Scat, group ranch, domestic, wild ungulate, prey, depredation.

NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Developing Intranet for linkage to the Internet.". In: VLIRIUC-UoN International Conference, 2002. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2002. Abstract
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MAINA MRMUIRUWILLIAM. "Distribution of Turcicum leaf blight of maize in Kenya and cultural variability of its causal agent, Exserohilum turcicum.". In: UoN research meeting. J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol; 2008. Abstract
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O. DRDULOSIMEON. "Draft Specifications for the Production of Rice Husk Ash as a Pozzolana in Kenya. A report presented to the Kenya Bureau of Standards.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT Vol. 8, March 2003, pg 13-26. HABRI,UoN; 1999.
PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW. "Dry season ecology of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes at larval habitats in two traditionally semi-arid villages in Baringo, Kenya.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Albert O Mala 1,2*; 2011. Abstract
{ Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Background: Pre-adult stages of malaria vectors in semi-arid areas are confronted with highly variable and challenging climatic conditions. The objective of this study was to determine which larval habitat types are most productive in terms of larval densities in the dry and wet seasons within semi-arid environments, and how vector species productivity is partitioned over time.   Methods: Larval habitats were mapped and larvae sampled longitudinally using standard dipping techniques. Larvae were identified to species level morphologically using taxonomic keys and to sub-species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Physical characteristics of larval habitats, including water depth, turbidity, and presence of floating and emergent vegetation were recorded. Water depth was measured using a metal ruler. Turbidity, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperatures salinity and total dissolved solids (TDS) were measured in the field using the hand-held water chemistry meters.   Results: Mean larval densities were higher in the dry season than during the wet season but the differences in density were not statistically significant (F = 0.04
O. DRDULOSIMEON. "Dulo S. O and Njunguna W. S. Modelling Chenge in Development on Urban Runoff.". In: National Hydrological Society Conference. UNESCO - HSK; 2012. Abstract
Cities around the world are currently facing considerable pressure to cope with infrastructure provision amidst rapid urban development and economic growth. Kenya is also facing an increasing growth of informal settlements in her urban centres. As rapid urbanization takes its toll, so has the development and growth of slums. More than 34% of Kenya‟s total population lives in urban areas and of this, more than 71% is confined in informal settlements (UN-Habitat, 2009). This paper presents the result of study to assess the effects of the change in land use in two sub-catchments, in an urban area close to the Nairobi Central Business District (NCBD). The paper compares the change in land use of two regions in Nairobi, Kenya that are slowly changing due to the fast growing population and economy, on urban runoff.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Dumonceaux TJ, Schellenberg J, Goleski V, Hill JE, Jaoko W, Kimani J, Money D, Ball TB, Plummer FA & Severini A (2009) Multiplex detection of bacteria associated with normal microbiota and with bacterial vaginosis in vaginal swabs using oligonucleotide-co.". In: UoN research meeting. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 47(12):4067-7; 2009. Abstract
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E
WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Effect of nitration on pressed TiO2 photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells." African Journal of Science and Technology,Vol. 8 No. 2, pp 63-71. 2007. AbstractWebsite

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SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Effect of Rotenoids from the seeds of Millettia dura on Larvae of Aedes aegypti.". In: Chemical Sciences Journal Vol. 2012: CSJ-56. Elsevier; 2003. Abstract

A crude chloroform extract of seeds of Millettia dura Dunn (Leguminosae) showed high activity (LC50 = 3.5 microg ml(-1) at 24 h) against second-instar larvae of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti L (Diptera: Culicidae). The rotenoids, deguelin and tephrosin, isolated from the seeds of this plant also showed potent activities, with LC50 values of 1.6 and 1.4 microg ml(-1) at 24 h, respectively. The related rotenoids millettone and millettosin were inactive at 20 microg ml(-1). Saturation at the B/C ring junction and the presence of methoxy groups at C-2 and/or C-3 in deguelin and tephrosin appear to be important for the observed larvicidal activity.

MWANGI MRMUREITHISTEPHEN. "The effects of enclosures for rehabilitating degraded semi-arid land in Lake Baringo Basin, Kenya. Mureithi, S.M., Verdoodt, A. and Van Ranst, E. In: Zdruli, P. and Constantini, E. (Eds). 2008. .". In: 5th International Conference on Land Degradation. Valenzano, Bari, Italy 18-22 September 2008. Pp 135-141 ISBN 2-85352-399-3. 5ILCD Proceedings; 2008. Abstract
Cities around the world are currently facing considerable pressure to cope with infrastructure provision amidst rapid urban development and economic growth. Kenya is also facing an increasing growth of informal settlements in her urban centres. As rapid urbanization takes its toll, so has the development and growth of slums. More than 34% of Kenya‟s total population lives in urban areas and of this, more than 71% is confined in informal settlements (UN-Habitat, 2009). This paper presents the result of study to assess the effects of the change in land use in two sub-catchments, in an urban area close to the Nairobi Central Business District (NCBD). The paper compares the change in land use of two regions in Nairobi, Kenya that are slowly changing due to the fast growing population and economy, on urban runoff.
MWANGI MRMUREITHISTEPHEN. "The effects of Prosopis juliflora Hyne (DC) and Acacia tortilis (Forssk) trees on herbaceous plants species and soil physical and chemical properties, on Njemps flats Baringo District, Kenya. Kahi, C.H., Ngugi, R.K., Mureithi, S.M. and J.C. Ng.". In: Tropical and Sub-tropical Ecosystems 10 (3) (441-449). Tropical and Sub-tropical Ecosystems 10 (3) (441-449).; 2009. Abstract
Cities around the world are currently facing considerable pressure to cope with infrastructure provision amidst rapid urban development and economic growth. Kenya is also facing an increasing growth of informal settlements in her urban centres. As rapid urbanization takes its toll, so has the development and growth of slums. More than 34% of Kenya‟s total population lives in urban areas and of this, more than 71% is confined in informal settlements (UN-Habitat, 2009). This paper presents the result of study to assess the effects of the change in land use in two sub-catchments, in an urban area close to the Nairobi Central Business District (NCBD). The paper compares the change in land use of two regions in Nairobi, Kenya that are slowly changing due to the fast growing population and economy, on urban runoff.
MAINA MRMUIRUWILLIAM. "Efficacy of Glyphosate 360SL on weed species common in vegetable gardens with different types of weed species.". In: UoN research meeting. Botswana Journal of Agriculture and Applied Sciences; 2007. Abstract
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WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Electrochemical characterization of TiO2 blocking layers prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering." Journal of the Electroanalytical Chemistry 637, 79-83.. 2009;637. AbstractWebsite

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WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Electrochemical Characterization of TiO2 Blocking Layers Prepared by Reactive DC Magteron Sputtering.". In: African School on Nanoscience for solar Energy Conversion, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. AKAKI CAMPUS, ADDIS ABABA: Elsevier; 2010. Abstract

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WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Electron Ttransport and Recomination in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Fabricated from Obliquely Sputtered and Thermally Annealed TiO2 films." Journal of the Electroanalytical Chemistry 605(2), 151-156.. 2007. AbstractWebsite

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E.N. PN. "ENTERING SEX WORK IN THE INFORMAL URBAN SETTLEMENT OF KIBERA, NAIROBI, KENYA.". In: Future Medicinal Chemistry. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2010. Abstract

Female sex work has long been recognized as an important factor in the urban sub-Saharan Africa HIV/AIDS pandemic, and in some cities remains a driving force for HIV transmission. However, despite a long history of epidemiological studies, there are still gaps in our knowledge of the social epidemiology of African female sex work. For example, the basic question of why some women enter into sex work, while others in the same socio-economic environment never do, remains under researched. We investigated this question for two samples of same-aged women, one of whom is currently practicing commercial sex, and another who has never done so. Both come from the informal urban settlement of Kibera, located in Nairobi, Kenya. Inclusion of another sample of women who can serve as comparisons to female sex workers is a notable feature of our research design, and one missing from many ecological and intervention studies. Using respondent driven sampling, we collected socio-economic and sexual behavioural data for a total for 320 women, evenly divided between female sex workers and Kibera women working in other occupations (e.g. hair-dressing, tailoring, hotel workers and food servers) from all ten Kibera communities to test the hypothesis that past and present family ties and structure are important predictors of entry into sex work. Results of univariate and multivariate analyses testing this hypothesis are discussed with respect to the African cultural practice of child fostering and future interventions.

CAROLINE MSCHEPKOECH. "erer.". In: fdf. uon press; 2005. Abstract
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SAMSON DROTIENOEDWIN. "ES. Otieno, JN. Micheni , SK. Kimende and KK. Mutai. Delayed presentation of breast cancer patients. East African Medical Journal Vol. 87 No. 4 April 2010.". In: Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1991;99(4):811-4. Kisipan, M.L.; 2010. Abstract
Objective: To determine the extent and nature of delayed presentation of patients treated for breast cancer at  Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). Design : Prospective cross sectional study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) which is a Tertiary, Teaching and Referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya Patients and methods: All patients attending the KNH breast clinic or admitted to the 3 surgical wards for the first time with a cytologically or histologically proven diagnosis of late stage breast cancer (Manchester Classification  1940 stage III and IV) were entered into the study. The study covered a two and a half year period starting the 1st of October 2003. Results:  A total of 166 patients were recruited into the study.  The mean age was 47 years with a range between 17 and 88 years. Females constituted 98.8%. The female study population had an average of 4.5 children per subject with a median of 4 and a range of 0-11. A lump as the first noticed symptom was seen in 87.3% and 52.1% were pre-menopausal.  Only 11 (6.62%) patients presented within 30 days of discovering their breast symptom, 34 (20.4%) presented between thirty and ninety days and the remaining 115 (73.1%) presented three months after noticing their symptom. Three reasons accounted for 67.5% of the delay. 33 (19.9%) kept away fearing that they would be told they had cancer while 39 (23.5%) presented late because their breast symptom was painless.  Another 40 (24.1%) said they had earlier visited medical personnel who had reassured them that their symptoms were benign. Conclusion:  Majority of patients treated for advanced breast disease presented to the health care providers at KNH more than three months after noticing their breast symptom and a sizeable number of patients are being reassured falsely that they have benign disease without the benefit of biopsy.   East African  Medical Journal Vol. 87 No. 4 April 2010
MAINA MRMUIRUWILLIAM. "Evaluation of antibiotic metabolites from actinomycete isolates for the control of late blight of tomatoes under greenhouse conditions.". In: UoN research meeting. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences; 2008. Abstract
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MWANGI MRMUREITHISTEPHEN. "Evaluation of Forest Community Associations as Avenues for Participatory Forest Management in Kenya. Alice W. Mwangi and Stephen M. Mureithi. In: Ongugo P.O., Kagombe J.K., Wandago B.O., Gachanja M and Mbuvi M.T., 2008 (eds.) Better Managed Forests and Im.". In: 1st National Participatory Forest Management Conference. June 6 - 8, 2007. KEFRI, Muguga, Kenya. KEFRI; 2007. Abstract
Cities around the world are currently facing considerable pressure to cope with infrastructure provision amidst rapid urban development and economic growth. Kenya is also facing an increasing growth of informal settlements in her urban centres. As rapid urbanization takes its toll, so has the development and growth of slums. More than 34% of Kenya‟s total population lives in urban areas and of this, more than 71% is confined in informal settlements (UN-Habitat, 2009). This paper presents the result of study to assess the effects of the change in land use in two sub-catchments, in an urban area close to the Nairobi Central Business District (NCBD). The paper compares the change in land use of two regions in Nairobi, Kenya that are slowly changing due to the fast growing population and economy, on urban runoff.
WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Extraction of Resistances in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Fabricated from Obliquely Sputtered TiO2 Films,.". In: Opto-Electronics Devices: Their potential for Sustainable Development, conference held at the Department of Physics, University of Nairobi. DEPT OF PHYSICS, UON: Elsevier; 2010. Abstract

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F
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Factors Influencing Adoption of Dairy Goats in Meru County, Kenya: Prospects And Constraints.". In: Journal. Journal of Commonwealth Veterinary Association; Submitted.
PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW. "Factors influencing differential larval habitat productivity of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes in a western Kenyan village.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Albert O. Mala & Lucy W. Irungu; 2011. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Background & objectives: The study was undertaken to characterize factors influencing differential productivity of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes at larval habitats in a rural village in western Kenya . Methods: Longitudinal larval sampling was done using an area sampler for 3 months. Emerged adults were identified to species level morphologically using taxonomic keys and to sub-species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Nutrient content was analyzed using persulphate oxidation method. Water pH was measured using an Orion pH/conductivity meter. Turbidity was measured using a Hach 2100A turbidity meter. Algal count density was estimated using a sedge-wick rafter cell.   Results: A total 3367 larvae were harvested. Out of 500 adults subjected to PCR analysis 358 (71.6%) were Anopheles gambiae s.s., 127 (25.4%) An. arabiensis while PCR amplification failed for 15 (3%) specimens.  Rainwater pools were the most productive habitat type. There was a positive association between algal density and larval density (p<0). Total nitrogen, water pH and turbidity were positively correlated with larval density (p<0.01) and pH was negatively associated with larval density.   Conclusion: Results indicate water nutrient and algal content in larval habitats of An. gambiae play crucial, dual roles in the resource ecology of these mosquitoes. Overall, the findings of this study support the notion that anti-larval source reduction measures aimed at manipulating physicochemical variables in larval habitats to eliminate larval production have a chance of succeeding in an integrated vector control program.   Key words Anopheles gambiae; larval productivity, nutrients; rainwater pools
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Farmer Perceptions on Indigenous Pig Farming in Kakamega District, Western Kenya.". In: Journal. Nordic Journal of African Studies; 2010. Abstract
Florence MUTUA International Livestock Institute (ILRI), University of Nairobi, Kenya, Samuel ARIMI and William OGARA University of Nairobi, Kenya, Cate DEWEY University of Guelph, Canada & Esther SCHELLING International Livestock Institute (ILRI), Swiss Tropical Institute, Switzerland   Objectives for this paper were to study farmer beliefs and perceptions on local pig farming practices; and to explore opportunities for improved located production in selected villages of Western Kenya. The paper seeks to understand why the local pig breed still remains the predominant breed in these areas despite numerous calls to introduce better exotic breeds. Most pigs in Kenya are of exotic breeds, intensively managed on commercial farms. Focus group discussions were used to gather data. Discussions were taped, transcribed and translated from Swahili to English. Farmers use pigs to guard homes at night, pigs also act as a charm to protect families against evil spirits. Women farmers manage the family pigs, men sell the pigs. Farmers identified feeding, marketing, and breeding as the main challenges affecting the sector. The discussions identified a number of opportunities for improved production, and likely strengthened the bond between the farmers, researchers and staff. This created an outlook that can now be used in further public engagement as ongoing research studies on appropriate feed, health and improvement of market access are being analysed. Keywords: Western Kenya, pig farming, focus group discussions, farmer perceptions.
MAINA MRMUIRUWILLIAM. "Field management of late light of tomatoes caused by Phytopthora infestans using antibiotics from Streptomyces spp.". In: UoN research meeting. Botswana Journal of Agriculture and Applied Sciences; 2003. Abstract
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SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Flavonoids and isoflavonoids with anti-plasmodial activities from the roots of Erythrina abyssinica.". In: Chemical Sciences Journal Vol. 2012: CSJ-56. Elsevier; 2003. Abstract

From the root bark of Erythrina abyssinica a new pterocarpene [3-hydroxy-9-methoxy-10-(3,3-dimethylallyl)pterocarpene] and a new isoflav-3-ene [7,4'-dihydroxy-2',5'-dimethoxyisoflav-3-ene] were isolated. In addition, the known compounds erycristagallin, licoagrochalcone A, octacosyl ferulate and triacontyl 4-hydroxycinnamate were identified. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The crude extract and the flavonoids and isoflavonoids obtained from the roots of this plant showed antiplasmodial activities.

O. DRDULOSIMEON. "Flood and Drought Forecasting and Early Warning Program (For the Nile Basin).". In: A Research report for the Nile Basin Capacity Building Network for River Engineering. HABRI,UoN; 2005.
SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Four isoflavanones from the stem bark of Platycelphium voense." Phytochemistry Letters. 2012; 5(1):150-154. AbstractScienceDirect

From the stem bark of Platycelphium voënse (Leguminosae) four new isoflavanones were isolated and characterized as (S)-5,7-dihydroxy-2′,4′-dimethoxy-3′-(3″-methylbut-2″-enyl)-isoflavanone (trivial name platyisoflavanone A), (±)-5,7,2′-trihydroxy-4′-methoxy-3′-(3″-methylbut-2″-enyl)-isoflavanone (platyisoflavanone B), 5,7-dihydroxy-4′-methoxy-2″-(2‴-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano-[4″,5″:3′,2′]-isoflavanone (platyisoflavanone C) and 5,7,2′,3″-tetrahydroxy-2″,2″-dimethyldihydropyrano-[5″,6″:3′,4′]-isoflavanone (platyisoflavanone D). In addition, the known isoflavanones, sophoraisoflavanone A and glyasperin F; the isoflavone, formononetin; two flavones, kumatakenin and isokaempferide; as well as two triterpenes, betulin and β-amyrin were identified. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Platyisoflavanone A showed antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) with MIC = 23.7 μM, but also showed cytotoxicity (IC50 = 21.1 μM) in the vero cell test.

G
M. DRMWAENGODUFTON. "Gallardo C, Mwaengo DM, Macharia JM, Arias M, Taracha EA, Soler A, Okoth E, Mart.". In: JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTR. VIRUS GENES; 2009. Abstract
This is a generalization after my work on the projective space of dimension 4 to n.
NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Getao,K. W. and Wausi, A. N. (2009), .". In: Information Technology for Development, Vol 15, 3, pp224-232. Wiley; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Graham SM, Masese L, Gitau R, Mwakangalu D, Jaoko W, Ndinya-Achola J, Mandaliya K, Peshu N, Baeten JM & McClelland RS (2009) Increased risk of genital ulcer disease in women during the first month after initiating antiretroviral therapy. Journal of Acquir.". In: UoN research meeting. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 52(5):600-3; 2009. Abstract
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Maingi D. "Groebner Basis over finite fields and over finite extensions of Q.". In: Internation Journal of Contemporary Mathematics. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 2005. Abstract

The computation of Groebner Basis can be tedious and mid boggling. In this research we simplify the computation from any Field to Q-arithmetic which simplifies the algorithm even for computers.

WAFULA DRCHARLESMISIKO. "Growth of website at UON.". In: none. uon; 2009. Abstract
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KIPKOSGEI MRTENAIELIJAH. "Growth of website at UON.". In: none. uon; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Horton RE, Ball TB, Wachichi C, Jaoko W, Rutherford WJ, McKinnon L, Kaul R, Rebbapragada A, Kimani J & Plummer FA (2009) Cervical HIV-Specific IgA in a population of commercial sex workers correlates with repeated exposure but not resistance to HIV. AIDS .". In: UoN research meeting. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 25(1): 83-92; 2009. Abstract
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I
CAROLINE MSCHEPKOECH. "ICT for Health records.". In: fdf. uon press; 2012. Abstract
coming soon
CAROLINE MSCHEPKOECH. "ICT in fishing industry.". In: ict open day. uon press; 2009. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
BUURI MRKABURIAMARTIN, BUURI MRKABURIAMARTIN. "Identification of determinants of infant mortality in Rwanda using a shared frailty model.". In: European Journal of Scientific Research. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2010. Abstract
n/a
MAINA MRMUIRUWILLIAM. "Identification of selected actinomycete isolates and characterization of their antibiotic metabolites.". In: UoN research meeting. Journal of Biological Sciences; 2008. Abstract
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MWANGI MRMUREITHISTEPHEN. "The impact of rangeland livestock manure on nutrient depleted soils in highland small-holder croplands in Central Kenya. Kirigia, AK, Njoka, JT, Kinyua PID Young, TP and Mureithi, SM.". In: Tropical and Sub-tropical Agroecosystems. Tropical and Sub-tropical Agroecosystems; Submitted. Abstract
Cities around the world are currently facing considerable pressure to cope with infrastructure provision amidst rapid urban development and economic growth. Kenya is also facing an increasing growth of informal settlements in her urban centres. As rapid urbanization takes its toll, so has the development and growth of slums. More than 34% of Kenya‟s total population lives in urban areas and of this, more than 71% is confined in informal settlements (UN-Habitat, 2009). This paper presents the result of study to assess the effects of the change in land use in two sub-catchments, in an urban area close to the Nairobi Central Business District (NCBD). The paper compares the change in land use of two regions in Nairobi, Kenya that are slowly changing due to the fast growing population and economy, on urban runoff.
Mureithi SM, Njoka JT, Gachene CKK, Verdoodt A, Warinwa F, Ranst VE. "Impact of rehabilitated sites on herbivore dynamics in a livestock-wildlife interface in Laikipia, Kenya. CBD Technical Series. 62. p.78-80.". In: CBD SBSTTA 15 - Fifteenth meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice. Montreal, Canada: Rangeland Ecology & Management; 2011. Abstract

Refer Website

MWANGI MRMUREITHISTEPHEN. "Impacts of management and enclosure age on recovery of the herbaceous rangeland vegetation in semi-arid Kenya. Verdoodt, A., Mureithi S.M. and Van Ranst E. 2010. Journal of Arid Environments 74: 1066-1073.". In: Journal of Arid Environments. Tropical and Sub-tropical Ecosystems 10 (3) (441-449).; 2010. Abstract
Cities around the world are currently facing considerable pressure to cope with infrastructure provision amidst rapid urban development and economic growth. Kenya is also facing an increasing growth of informal settlements in her urban centres. As rapid urbanization takes its toll, so has the development and growth of slums. More than 34% of Kenya‟s total population lives in urban areas and of this, more than 71% is confined in informal settlements (UN-Habitat, 2009). This paper presents the result of study to assess the effects of the change in land use in two sub-catchments, in an urban area close to the Nairobi Central Business District (NCBD). The paper compares the change in land use of two regions in Nairobi, Kenya that are slowly changing due to the fast growing population and economy, on urban runoff.
PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW. "IN VITRO EFFECTS OF WARBURGIA UGANDENSIS, PSIADIA PUNCTULATA AND CHASMANTHERA DEPENDENS ON LEISHMANIA MAJOR PROMASTIGOTES.". In: Afr. J. Trad. CAM 7 (3): 264-275. Edward K. Githinji, Lucy W. Irungu, Willy K. Tonui, Geoffrey M. Rukunga, Charles Mutai, Charles N. M; 2010. Abstract

Plant extracts from Warburgia ugandensis Sprague (Family: Canellaceae), Psiadia punctulata Vatke (Family: Compositae) and Chasmanthera dependens Hoschst (Family: Menispermaceae) were tested for activity on Leishmania major promastigotes (Strain IDU/KE/83 = NLB-144) and infected macrophages in vitro. Plants were collected from Baringo district, dried, extracted, weighed and tested for antileishmanial activity. Serial dilutions of the crude extracts were assayed for their activity against Leishmania major in cell free cultures and in infected macrophages in vitro. Inhibitory concentrations and levels of cytotoxicity were determined. Warburgia ugandensis, Psiadia punctulata and Chasmanthera dependens had an IC(50) of 1.114 mg/ml, 2.216 mg/ml and 4.648 mg/ml, respectively. The cytotoxicity of the drugs on BALB/c peritoneal macrophage cells was insignificant as compared to the highly toxic drug of choice Pentostam(®). The supernatants from control and Leishmania infected macrophages were analyzed for their nitrite contents by Griess reaction and nitrite absorbance measured at 540 nm. Warburgia ugandensis (stem bark water extract), Chasmanthera dependens (stem bark water extract) and Psiadia punctulata (stem bark methanol extract) produced 112.3%, 94% and 88.5% more nitric oxide than the untreated infected macrophages respectively. Plant crude extracts had significant (p<0.05) anti-leishmanial and immunomodulative effects but insignificant cytotoxic effects at 1mg/ml concentration. All experiments were performed in triplicate. Statistical analysis of the differences between mean values obtained from the experimental group compared to the controls was done by students't test. ANOVA was used to determine the differences between the various treatment groups. The analysis program Probit was used to determine IC(50)s.

MAINA MRMUIRUWILLIAM. "Infectious structures and response of maize plants to invasion by Exserohilum turcicum in compatible and incompatible host pathogen systems.". In: UoN research meeting. Journal of Applied Biosciences; 2008. Abstract
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and Opiyo FEO MSMNRK. "The influence of water availability on pastoralist’s resource use in Mwingi and Kitui Districts in eastern Kenya." Journal of Human Ecology. 2011;35(1):43-52. AbstractWebsite

Cities around the world are currently facing considerable pressure to cope with infrastructure provision amidst rapid urban development and economic growth. Kenya is also facing an
increasing growth of informal settlements in her urban centres. As rapid urbanization takes its toll, so has the development and growth of slums. More than 34% of Kenya‟s total population lives in urban areas and of this, more than 71% is confined in informal settlements (UN-Habitat, 2009).
This paper presents the result of study to assess the effects of the change in land use in two sub-catchments, in an urban area close to the Nairobi Central Business District (NCBD). The paper compares the change in land use of two regions in Nairobi, Kenya that are slowly changing due to the fast growing population and economy, on urban runoff.

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Institutional and organisational requirements for implementing the Livestock Identification and Traceability System in Kenya.". In: Journal. Livestock Research for Rural Development; Submitted. Abstract
G O Matete, J M Gathuma, G Muchemi, W Ogara, N Maingi, W Maritim* and B Moenga* Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi P.O Box 29053, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com* Ministry of Livestock Development P.O Kabete 00625 Kangemi, Nairobi, Kenya   Abstract Livestock Identification and Traceability Systems (LITS) contribute to reduction, control or eliminated safety scares that result from transbounadry diseases outbreaks.  Recent studies on LITS in Kenya have been focused on testing  innovative technology, information and traceability system management, and examining the determinants for effective implementation. This paper analyzes the strengths and limitations of the operating a LITS institutional and organisational mechanisms in Kenya.   The result revealed that a disarticulated intitutional and organisational environment was the main constraint to effective implementation of LITS.  It proposes that for successful implemenation, a regional approach covering multiple countries, substantial private sector involvement and intensive stakeholder education are essential. Keywords: Institutional and organisational mechanisms, livestock identification, traceability  
O. DRDULOSIMEON. "Integrated Flood and Drought Management for Sustainable Development in the Nile Basin the Case of Nzoia River Basins.". In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Re-orienting Civil Engineering Education and Training, September 2008, pp, 113-118.; Submitted.
SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Investigation of some medicinal plants traditionally used for treatment of malaria in Kenya as potential sources of antimalarial drugs." Experimental Parasitology. 2011;127(2):609-626. AbstractScienceDirect

Malaria is a major public health problem in many tropical and subtropical countries and the burden of this disease is getting worse, mainly due to the increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum against the widely available antimalarial drugs. There is an urgent need for discovery of new antimalarial agents. Herbal medicines for the treatment of various diseases including malaria are an important part of the cultural diversity and traditions of which Kenya′s biodiversity has been an integral part. Two major antimalarial drugs widely used today came originally from indigenous medical systems, that is quinine and artemisinin, from Peruvian and Chinese ancestral treatments, respectively. Thus ethnopharmacology is a very important resource in which new therapies may be discovered. The present review is an analysis of ethnopharmacological publications on antimalarial therapies from some Kenyan medicinal plants.

W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Iqbal SM, Ball TB, Levinson P, Maranan L, Jaoko WG, Wachihi C, Pak BJ, Podust VN, Broliden K, Hibrod T, Kaul R & Plummer FA (2009) Elevated elafin/trappin-1 in the female genital tract is associated with protection against HIV acquisition. AIDS 23(13):166.". In: UoN research meeting. AIDS 23(13):1669-77; 2009. Abstract
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MAINA MRMUIRUWILLIAM. "Isolation and screening of actinomycete isolates for antagonistic activity against plant pathogens.". In: UoN research meeting. Botswana Journal of Agriculture and Applied Sciences; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Jaoko WG, Ogutu H, Wakasiaka H, Malogo R, Ndambuki R, Nyange J, Omosa-Manyonyi G, Fast P, Schmidt C, Verlinde C, Smith C, Bhatt K, Ndinya-Achola J and Anzala O (2009) Pregnancy rates among female participants in Phase I and Phase IIA AIDS vaccine clinical.". In: UoN research meeting. East African Medical Journal 86(9):430-4; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Karita E, Ketter N, price MA, Kayitenkore K, Kaleebu P, Nanvubya A, Anzala O, Jaoko W, Mutua G, Ruzagira E, Mulenga J, Sanders EJ, Mwangome A, Allen S, Bwanika A, Bahemuka U, Awuondo K, Omosa G, Farah B, Amornkul P, Birungi J, Yates S, Stoll-Johnson L, Gi.". In: UoN research meeting. PLoS ONE 4(2): e4401; 2009. Abstract
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W. MSKIVUTI-BITOKLUCY. "Kivuti, L. and Chepchirchir, A. (February 2011). Computerization readiness. Online Journal of Nursing Informatics(OJNI), 15,Available at http://ojni.org/issues/?p=178.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol 38 No.1 June,. UoN; 2011. Abstract
This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among middle and functional level nurse managers at a National Referral Hospital with the aim of establishing their preparedness for computerization of nursing services, their attitudes towards computerization, their training needs, and their preferred mode of study. A purposive sample of all 112 nurse managers was obtained for this study. The response rate was 95.5 % (n=107). Data was collected using structured, selfadministered questionnaires. The study revealed that nurse managers had positive attitudes toward use of computers. Their attitudes toward use of computers were not significantly influenced by accessibility to computers or competence in computer use, but nursing experience and the age of the respondents had a negative influence on attitudes toward computerization of nursing services (p=0.05). Eighty-five percent of the respondents (n=91) did not have computer studies during their training in basic nursing; 51% (n=55) had sought training in computers after their basic training; 98% (n=105) desired to be trained in computer applications; and 69.1% (n
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Knowledge Management & Institutional Framework: Kenyan Veterinary Services.". In: Journal. Journal of Knowledge Management Practice; Submitted.
Dulo SO. "Knowledge Management and Capacity Building in IWRM in Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Re-orienting Civil Engineering Education and Training, September 2008, pp, 113-118. HABRI,UoN; 2008.
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Lester RT, Jaoko W, Plummer FA & Kaul R (2009) Sex, microbial translocation and the African HIV epidemic. Proceedings of National Academy of Science of the United States of America 106 (34) e89.". In: UoN research meeting. Proceedings of National Academy of Science of the United States of America 106 (34) e89; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Lester RT, Yao XD, Ball TB, McKinnon LR, Omange WR, Kaul R, Wachihi C, Jaoko WG, Rosenthal KL & Plummer FA (2009). HIV-1 RNA dysregulates the natural TLR response to subclinical endotoxemia in Kenyan female sex-workers. PLoS ONE 4(5), e5644.". In: UoN research meeting. PLoS ONE 4(5), e5644; 2009. Abstract
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MWANGI MRMUREITHISTEPHEN. "Logistic models with rainfall generated carrying capacities for wild herbivores. Kinyua, P.I.D. and Mureithi, S.M. Paper Presented at: The 19th East African Environmental Network Conference 22nd -23rd May 2009, AMREF International Training Centre, Nairobi.". In: The 19th East African Environmental Network Conference 22nd -23rd May 2009, AMREF International Training Centre, Nairobi Kenya. Conference theme: Energy, Gender and the Environment. EAEN; 2009. Abstract
Cities around the world are currently facing considerable pressure to cope with infrastructure provision amidst rapid urban development and economic growth. Kenya is also facing an increasing growth of informal settlements in her urban centres. As rapid urbanization takes its toll, so has the development and growth of slums. More than 34% of Kenya‟s total population lives in urban areas and of this, more than 71% is confined in informal settlements (UN-Habitat, 2009). This paper presents the result of study to assess the effects of the change in land use in two sub-catchments, in an urban area close to the Nairobi Central Business District (NCBD). The paper compares the change in land use of two regions in Nairobi, Kenya that are slowly changing due to the fast growing population and economy, on urban runoff.
BUURI MRKABURIAMARTIN, BUURI MRKABURIAMARTIN. "Logistic regression modeling of poverty using Demographic and Health Survey data.". In: European Journal of Social Science. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2010. Abstract
n/a
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Long-term performance of electronic identification devices and model traceability system for cattle under pastoral production systems of Kenya.". In: Journal. Livestock Research for Rural Development; Submitted. Abstract
G O Matete*, W Maritim**, G Muchemi**, N Maingi***, J M Gathuma* and W Ogara* * Department of Veterinary Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi P.O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com** Ministry of Livestock Development P.O Kabete 00625 Kangemi, Nairobi, Kenya*** Department of Veterinary Pathology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract The readability of two different types of electronic identifiers (EID) were evaluated under pastoral production system in North-Eastern Kenya.  Physical verification and reading was done at day 0, and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 months respectively on a total of 1943 beef cattle of which 934 were tagged using ear button tags and 1009 with rumen boluses.  The retention rates were recorded and readability determined using a hand-held reader and subsequently compared using a non parametric survival analysis.   The results showed that, rumen boluses were more effective with retention and readability of 100% after the one-year period.  The retention rate for ear button tags deteriorated after day 120 to 94.6%.  This implied that rumen boluses are safe and tamper-proof and are thus recommended for use in pastoral production systems. When tested within the model Livestock Identification and Traceability System (LITS), the use of RFID identifiers were able to substantially contribute to better record keeping, and proof of credible livestock certification. However, due to cost considerations, undertaking a benefit-cost analysis and provisional analysis of the institutional and organisational infrastructure may be critical for successful implementation. Keywords: livestock identification, radio frequency identification devices, traceability system
MBURU MRSTEPHENNGANGA. "Longhorn Gateway Computer Studies Series Revision Guide.". In: European Journal of Pharmaceutical sciences. Longhorn; 2008.
MBURU STEPHENNGANGA. "Longhorn ICT for Teacher Training Colleges (manuscript).". In: European Journal of Pharmaceutical sciences. Longhorn; 2010.
MBURU STEPHEN. "Longhorn Secondary Computer Studies Series (Form 1 to Form 4 books.". In: European Journal of Pharmaceutical sciences. Longhorn; 2004.
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Matee MI, Manyando C, Ndumbe PM, Corrah T, Jaoko WG, Kitua AY, Ambene HPA, Ndounga M, Zijenah L, Ofori-Adjei D, Agwale S, Shongwe S, Nyirenda T & Makanga M (2009) European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP): the path towards a tr.". In: UoN research meeting. Biomedical Central Public Health 9(1):249; 2009. Abstract
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"Maximal rank for the Cotangent bundle over a general projective space.". In: International Mathematical Forum journal. Hikari Ltd; 2011. Abstract

This is a generalization after my work on the projective space of dimension 4 to n.

W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "McClelland RM, Graham SM, Richardson BA, Peshu N, Masese LN, Wanje GH, Mandaliya KN, Kurth AE, Jaoko W & Ndinya-Achola JO (2009) Treatment with antiretroviral therapy is not associated with increased sexual risk behaviour in Kenyan female sex workers. AID.". In: UoN research meeting. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "McClelland RS, Richardson BA, Hassan WM, Graham SM, Kiarie J, Baeten JM, Mandaliya K, Jaoko WG, Ndinya-Achola JO & Holmes KK (2009) Prospective study of vaginal bacterial flora and other risk factors for vulvovaginal candidiasis. Journal of Infectious Dis.". In: UoN research meeting. Journal of Infectious Diseases 199(12):1883-1890; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "McKinnon LR, Capina R, Peters H, Mendoza M, Kimani J, Wachihi C, Kariri A, Kimani M, Richmond M, Kizyk SK, Jaoko W, Luo M, Ball TB & Plummer FA (2009) Clade-specific evolution mediated by HLA-B*57/5801 in Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clade A1p24. J.". In: UoN research meeting. Journal of Virology 83(23):12636-42; 2009. Abstract
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UWESO DRABUBAKARLAILA, Abubakar LU, Kenya EU, Muhoho A. Microalgae species biodiversity and abundance and their potential for biofuel in Kenya. Nairobi, KENYA; 2011. Abstractabstract-ncst.pdf

Background:
Marine invertebrates rely solely on innate immune mechanisms, the cellular component of which is characterized by hemocytes that phagocytize microbes and secrete soluble antimicrobial and cytotoxic substances. In this regard, marine invertebrates are a potential source of promising antimicrobial compounds with novel mechanisms of action.
Objective:
The objective of this study was to evaluate extracts of the gut, gonad, spines and mouth parts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla for antimicrobial and haemolytic activities in vitro.
Methods:
Potentially bioactive metabolites were extracted using methanol and chloroform and tested for activity against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium spp. using the agar disc diffusion method. Toxicity was determined by assaying for hemolysis against human red blood cells.
Results:
Bioactivity against the tested bacteria was observed mainly with the methanol and chloroform extracts of the gonads and gut. Higher antibacterial activity was present in the methanol extracts compared to chloroform extracts.
Activity against the Penicillium spp was detected only in the methanol extracts, while the chloroform extracts showed no activity. The various extracts of the sea urchin lacked any detectable hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes.

Discussion:
These research findings suggest that marine echinoderms are a potential source of novel antimicrobial compounds.
Key words:
Tripneustes gratilla, antimicrobial activity, marine invertebrates

Damian. "The Minimal Resolution Conjecture for an ideal of general points in a projective space." International Journal of Algebra. 2011;4(9-12):477-500. AbstractLink

The Minimal Resolution Conjecture (MRC) of Lorenzini predicts that the minimal free resolution of the homogeneous ideal I of S general points in a projective space of dimension n, contains no ghost terms, i.e. as predicted by Anna Lorenzini. I used the "la method d'Horace" to prove that a given evaluation map is of bijective and deduced maximal rank.

Buregeya A, Ochoki B. "Misuse of prepositions in Kenyan English: Further evidence of the difficulty in choosing the "right" preposition." The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics. 2010;2(1):71-85. Abstract

n/a

SIFUNJO MRKISAKAERASTUS. "Monetary Theory and Practice, Open and Distance Learning Module.". In: Economic Bulletin, Vol. 14, No.2, pp. 1 . University of Nairobi Press; 2009. Abstract
This study examined the RWH using the run tests, Ljung-Box statistics, and the unit root tests. The data covered the period starting January 1994 to June 2007 for the daily closing prices of the Ksh/UD dollar spot rate. The main finding of this study is that the RWH is strongly rejected at the 5% significance level. The results indicate that the rejections are due to autocorrelation in currency returns. The exchange rate tends to appreciate most of the time over the sample period. Therefore failure of the EMH could be due to exchange rate undershooting and overshooting phenomena. The unit root tests showed that the exchange rate data is non-stationary while returns are stationary. Therefore the evidence strongly suggested that the foreign exchange market is not efficient.
O. DRDULOSIMEON. "Munyaneza, O., Ndayisaba, C., Wali, U.G., Mulungu, M.M. D., and Dulo, O. S., 2011. Integrated Flood and Drought Management for Sustainable Development in the Kagera River Basin.". In: Nile Water Science and Engineering Journal, 4(1): 60-70. Nile Water Science and Engineering Journal; 2011.
MWANGI MRMUREITHISTEPHEN. "Mureithi, S. M., Verdoodt, A. and Van Ranst E. 2010. Effects and implications of enclosures for rehabilitating degraded semi-arid rangelands: Critical lessons from Lake Baringo Basin, Kenya. In: Land Degradation and Desertification: Assessment, Mitigation.". In: Journal Arid Land. Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg London New York. DOI 10.1007/978-90-481-8657-0.; 2010. Abstract
Cities around the world are currently facing considerable pressure to cope with infrastructure provision amidst rapid urban development and economic growth. Kenya is also facing an increasing growth of informal settlements in her urban centres. As rapid urbanization takes its toll, so has the development and growth of slums. More than 34% of Kenya‟s total population lives in urban areas and of this, more than 71% is confined in informal settlements (UN-Habitat, 2009). This paper presents the result of study to assess the effects of the change in land use in two sub-catchments, in an urban area close to the Nairobi Central Business District (NCBD). The paper compares the change in land use of two regions in Nairobi, Kenya that are slowly changing due to the fast growing population and economy, on urban runoff.
"Mureithi, SM, Njoka, JT, Gachene CKK, Verdoodt, A., Wasonga, VO, de Naave, S. and Van Ranst E. Impact of enclosure management on soil properties and microbial biomass in a restored semi-arid rangeland, Kenya." Journal Arid Land. 2014;6(5):561-570. AbstractWebsite

Rangeland degradation is a serious problem throughout sub Saharan Africa and its restoration is a challenge for the management of arid and semi-arid areas. In Lake Baringo Basin in Kenya, communities and individual farmers are restoring indigenous vegetation inside enclosures in an effort to combat severe land degradation and address their livelihood problems. This study evaluated the impact of enclosures’ management on soil properties and microbial biomass, being key indicators of soil ecosystem health. Six reseeded communal enclosures using soil embankments as water-harvesting structures and strictly regulated access were selected, varying in age from 13 to 23 years. In 6 private enclosures, ranging from 3 to 17 years in age, individual farmers emulated the communal enclosure strategy and restored areas for their exclusive use. Significant decreases in bulk density, and increases in the organic carbon, total nitrogen and microbial biomass contents and stocks were found in the enclosures as compared with the degraded open rangeland. In the private enclosures, the impact of rehabilitation on the soil quality was variable, and soil quality was in general lower than that obtained under communal management. The significant increase of absolute content stocks of carbon, nitrogen and microbial biomass compared to the degraded open rangeland indicates the potential for the restoration of soil quality through range rehabilitation. Over-sowing with indigenous legume fodder species could improve total nitrogen content in the soil and nutritional value of the pastures as well.

N
WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Nanostructured TiO2 for dye sensitized photoelectrochemical solar cells.". In: ICTP-NCNNC . Beijing, China: Elsevier; 2006. Abstract

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SOLOMON DRDERESE. "neo-Clerodane diterpenoids from the leaf exudate of Dodonaea angustifolia." Phytochemistry Letters. 2010;3(4):217-220. AbstractWebsite

Leonidah K. Omosa, Jacob O. Midiwo, Solomon Derese, Abiy Yenesew, Martin G. Peter, Matthias Heydenreich.

Phytochemical investigation of the leaf surface exudate of Dodonaea angustifolia L.f. yielded two new neo-clerodane diterpenes, neo-clerodan-3,13-dien-16,15:18,19-diolide (mkapwanin) and 15-methoxy-neo-clerodan-3,13-dien-16,15:18,19-diolide (15-methoxymkapwanin). In addition, ten known compounds were identified. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. This additional chemical information could contribute towards solving the taxonomical controversy that exists between Dodonaea angustifolia and Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., which are morphologically similar.

SOLOMON DRDERESE. "A new isoflavones from the stem bark of Millettia dura." Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop.. 2003;17(1):113-115. AbstractWebsite

Solomon Derese, Abiy Yenesew, J.O. Midiwo, Matthias Heydenreich and Martin G. Peter. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop., 2003, 17(1), pp. 113-115.

A new isoflavone (7,3’-dimethoxy-4’,5’-methylenedioxyisoflavone) and three known isoflavones [isoerythrinin A 4’-(3-methylbut-2-enyl) ether, isojamaicin and nordurlettone] were isolated from the stem bark of Millettia dura (Leguminosae). The structures were determined by spectroscopic methods.

KEY WORDS: Millettia dura, Leguminosae, Isoflavone, 7,3’-Dimethoxy-4’,5’-

methylenedioxyisoflavone, Isoerythrinin A 4’-(3-methylbut-2-enyl) ether, Isojamaicin,

Nordurlettone_

"Ngugi RK, Kilonzo JM, Kimeu JM, Mureithi SM. 2014. Seasonal botanical characteristics of the diets of Grant’s (Gazella granti Brooke) and Thompson’s (Gazella thompsoni Guenther) in the dryland habitats." International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation. 2014;6(5):581-588. Abstract2014_ngugi_et_al_ijbc-6-8_seasonal_botanical_characteristics_of_gazelles_diets.pdfWebsite

Cities around the world are currently facing considerable pressure to cope with infrastructure provision amidst rapid urban development and economic growth. Kenya is also facing an
increasing growth of informal settlements in her urban centres. As rapid urbanization takes its toll, so has the development and growth of slums. More than 34% of Kenya‟s total population lives in urban areas and of this, more than 71% is confined in informal settlements (UN-Habitat, 2009).
This paper presents the result of study to assess the effects of the change in land use in two sub-catchments, in an urban area close to the Nairobi Central Business District (NCBD). The paper compares the change in land use of two regions in Nairobi, Kenya that are slowly changing due to the fast growing population and economy, on urban runoff.

PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW. "Nocturnal activities of Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psydhodidae) in Baringo District, Kenya. Submitted to TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Ngumbi PM, Robert LL, Irungu LW, Kaburi JC, Githure JI; 2010.
O
"On the minimal number of generators of an Ideal of general points in a projective space, P4.". In: ICM2010 Conference Proceedings. 2010; 2010. Abstract

A short Communication presented at the ICM2010 in Hyderabad - India, on the 21st  of August 2010 .
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D M. "On the Minimal Resolution Conjecture for P3.". In: Internation Journal of Contemporary Mathematics. Hikari Limited; 2008. Abstract

The Minimal Resolution Conjecture is known to be true for projective spaces of dimension 2 and 3. In this article I used a variant method to prove it for P3.

WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Optical characterization of sputtered TiO2 compact under layers for dye-sensitized solar cell applications.". In: 1st International conference on Solar Energy Materials Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. Dar es Salaam: Elsevier; 2009. Abstract

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NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Organisational learning in the IS implementation process.". In: VLIR-IUC-UON International Conference, 2-4 February 2009. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2009. Abstract
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UWESO DRABUBAKARLAILA. "Osir E. O., Abubakar L.U., Abakar, M. .". In: 25th Meeting of the International Scientific Council for Trypanosomiasis Research & Control (ISCTRC) Mombasa, KENYA. ISCTRC; 1999. Abstract
Background: Marine invertebrates rely solely on innate immune mechanisms, the cellular component of which is characterized by hemocytes that phagocytize microbes and secrete soluble antimicrobial and cytotoxic substances. In this regard, marine invertebrates are a potential source of promising antimicrobial compounds with novel mechanisms of action. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate extracts of the gut, gonad, spines and mouth parts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla for antimicrobial and haemolytic activities in vitro. Methods: Potentially bioactive metabolites were extracted using methanol and chloroform and tested for activity against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium spp. using the agar disc diffusion method. Toxicity was determined by assaying for hemolysis against human red blood cells. Results: Bioactivity against the tested bacteria was observed mainly with the methanol and chloroform extracts of the gonads and gut. Higher antibacterial activity was present in the methanol extracts compared to chloroform extracts. Activity against the Penicillium spp was detected only in the methanol extracts, while the chloroform extracts showed no activity. The various extracts of the sea urchin lacked any detectable hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. Discussion: These research findings suggest that marine echinoderms are a potential source of novel antimicrobial compounds. Key words: Tripneustes gratilla, antimicrobial activity, marine invertebrates
SAMSON DROTIENOEDWIN. "Otieno ES, Kimende, SK, Micheni JN. The pattern of breast diseases at Kenyatta National Hospital. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.". In: Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1991;99(4):811-4. Kisipan, M.L.; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
N. DRIRAKIW. "Outsourcing & Vision 2030: An Analysis into Kenya.". In: UoN research meeting. Botswana Journal of Agriculture and Applied Sciences; 2009.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Oyugi JO, Oyugi FJO, Otieno CA, Jaoko W, Bwayo JJ & Anzala O (2009) Serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion in estimating incidence of HIV-1 among adults visiting a VCT centre at a Kenyan tertiary health institution. East African Medical.". In: UoN research meeting. East African Medical Journal 86(5): 212-8; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Oyugi JO, Vouriot FCM, Alimonti J, Wayne S, Luo M, Land AM, Zhujun AO, Yao X, Sekaly RP, Elliott LJ, Simonsen JN, Ball TB, Jaoko W, Kimani J, Plummer FA & Fowke KR (2009) A common CD4 gene variant is associated with increased risk of HIV-1 infection in Ke.". In: UoN research meeting. Journal of Infectious Diseases 199 (9):1327-1334; 2009. Abstract
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P
O. DRDULOSIMEON. "P.M Syagga, B Waswa-Sabuni, G.N Kamau and S.O Dulo (2003). Rice Husk Ash Cement - An Alternative Pozzolana Cement for Kenyan Building Industry.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT Vol. 8, March 2003, pg 13-26. UNDPCap-Net, March 2009.; 2003.
O. DRDULOSIMEON. "P.M Syagga, B Waswa-Sabuni, G.N Kamau and S.O Dulo (2003). Utilisation of Agro Based Pozzolanas in the Building Industry in Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the International Civil Engineering Conference on Sustainable Development in the 21st Century, 12th . HABRI,UoN; 2003.
O. DRDULOSIMEON. "P.M Syagga, B. Waswa-Sabuni, G.N Kamau and S.O Dulo (2001). Potential for the Use of Rice Husk Ash as a Pozzolana in the Building Industry in Kenya.". In: 4. Discovery and Innovations Vol. 13 No 3/4.Dec 2001, ISSN: 1015-079X. HABRI,UoN; 2001.
MAINA DRGITHIGIASAMUEL. "Palpable lingual cysts, a possible indicator of porcine cysticercosis in Teso District Western Kenya Mutua, F.K., Randoph, T.E., Arimi, S.M., Kitala, P.M., Githigia, S.M. Willingham, A.L. and Njeru, F.M." Journal of swine health and production July and August 2007, pp 206 . 2007;15(4):206-212. AbstractWebsite

Summary
Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of palpable lingual cysts in pigs in Western Kenya, a possible indicator of porcine cysticercosis, and to study the potential risk factors associated with this clinical finding.
Methods: During a cross-sectional survey, 316 randomly selected small-scale farms were visited, from which a case-control study of 31 case farms and 93 randomly selected control farms was constructed. Information on potential risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis-taeniosis was obtained using questionnaires administered via personal interviews.
Results: Farm prevalence of palpable lingual cysts was estimated at 9.8% (31 of 316) (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.5%-13.1%). Total number of pigs testing positive was 33, resulting in a pig prevalence of 6.5% (95% CI, 4%-9%). Pigs were kept as a source of income (98%) and for home consumption (2%). Sources of pigs included local purchases (94%; 117 of 124), and purchases from Uganda (6%; seven of 124). Most farmers (95%; 118 of 124) kept their pigs on free range. Pork was sourced from local butcheries (85%) and home slaughtering (15%). Most households slaughtering pigs at home had their pork “inspected” by household friends (five of nine). Absence of latrines was more common in case households (42%; 13 of 31) than in controls (18%; 17 of 93) (P = .01; OR = 3.2; 95% CI, 1.2%-8.55).
Implications: Palpable lingual cysts are prevalent in the locally raised pigs of Western Kenya. Further studies using more sensitive diagnostic tests are required to confirm the risk of porcine cysticercosis.

PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW. "Pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch) Sorok and Beauveria bassiana (Bals) Vuill to adult Phlebotomus duboscqi (Neveu-Lemaire) in the laboratory.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Philip M. Ngumbi 1,2, Lucy W. Irungu2, Paul N. Ndegwa2 & Nguya K. Maniania3 1Kenya Medical Research; 2011.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "PEOPLE, LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE: EXISTING NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN NAIBUNG.". In: Journal. EcologicalSociety for Eastern Africa; Submitted.
WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Performance of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Fabricated From Obliquely DC Sputtered TiO2 Films." African Journal of Science and Technology Vol. 7, No. 2, 125-138. 2006. AbstractWebsite

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KAVITI DRLILIANKATUNGE. "Perspectives in Bantu Grammar-The Case of Kikamba. VDM-Verlag Dr. Muller, Gmblt & Co, Saabrucken, Germany.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. VDM-Verlag Dr. Muller, Gmblt & Co, Saabrucken, Germany.; 2011.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Pesticide Residues in Beef and Camel Meat from slaughterhouses in 13 Districts in Kenya.". In: Journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2009.
NDUTA DRWACHIRA-MBUIDAMARIS. "Physico-Electrochemical Assessment of Pollutants in Nairobi River.". In: JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTR. MBUI DAMARIS; 2007. Abstract
This is a generalization after my work on the projective space of dimension 4 to n.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Piantadosi A, Panteleeff D, Blish CA, Baeten JM, Jaoko W, McClelland RS, Overbaugh J (2009) HIV-1 neutralizing antibody breadth is affected by factors early in infection, but does not influence disease progression. Journal of Virology 83(10):10269-74.". In: UoN research meeting. Journal of Virology 83(10):10269-74; 2009. Abstract
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IRUNGU LUCYW. "Plasmodium falciparum transmission and aridity: a Kenyan experience from the dry lands of Baringo and its implications for Anopheles arabiensis control. Malaria Journal. 2011;10(1):121.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Mala AO, Irungu LW, Shililu JI, Muturi EJ, Mbogo CC, Kiambo JK, Mukabana WR, Githure JI; 2011.
N. DRIRAKIW. "The Politics and Economies of City Spaces, Parks, Trading Zones and Slums, A paper presented at the Goethe Institute , Nairobi.". In: UoN research meeting. Botswana Journal of Agriculture and Applied Sciences; 2009. Abstract
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MAINA DRGITHIGIASAMUEL. "Prevalence of gastrointestinal protozoa and association with risk factors in free range pigs in Kenya Kagira, J.M.; Githigia,S.M.; Nganga, J.C.; Kanyari, P.W.N.; Maingi,N.; Gachohi, J.M." Journal of Protozoology Research 20, 1-9.. 2010;20:1-9. AbstractWebsite

The current study investigated the occurrence of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) protozoa and associated risk factors in free range pigs in Busia District, Kenya. A total of 306 pigs from 135 farms in 6 Divisions were sampled for feces, which were analysed for parasites using direct smear and McMaster floatation methods. Associations between the occurrence of the parasites and explanatory variables (sex, age, division of origin and rainfall) were undertaken using ANOVA, chi-square and Pearson’s correlation statistics. The following gastrointestinal protozoan parasites were identified: Entamoeba spp. (87%), Balantidium coli (64%), Tritrichomonas suis (42%) and Coccidia spp (33%). The mean coccidial oocysts per gram (OPG) of all the sampled pigs was 1,276 (range = 0-28,000 OPG) and the proportions of the species included: Eimeria debliecki (40%), E. suis (26%), E. porci (16%), E. scabra (13%) and E. polita (5%). There was negative correlation between the amount of rainfall in the division of pig origin and prevalence of Eimeria spp, Tt. suis, and Entamoeba spp, but a positive correlation with prevalence of B. coli. The prevalences of Eimeria spp., Entamoeba spp. and Tt. suis were higher in males than females; but it was only the sex-differences for Tt. suis which were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The prevalences of Tt. suis in sows were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than that of growers and piglets. It was concluded that GIT protozoan parasites of economic and zoonotic significance occur in pigs in the study area and effective control strategies should be implemented.

MAINA DRGITHIGIASAMUEL. "Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis/ taeniosis in three Divisions of Busia District, Kenya Githigia, S.M., Murekefu, K., Willingham, A.L. and Otieno, R." . Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 54: pp 224 . 2006;54:224-229. AbstractWebsite

abstract:
The prevalence of T. solium in pigs was studied by antemortem lingual examination of pigs, while the prevalence of risk factors for cysticercosis and taeniasis was determined by administration of a standard questionnaire to households in three divisions of Busia District. Antemortem lingual examination and palpation of 93 pigs in Township division, 138 pigs in Funyula division and 62 pigs in Bundalangi division (n=293 of various ages) showed that 8 (9%) in Township division, 21 (15%) in Funyula division and 2 (3%) in Bundalangi division (mean 10.5%) had cysts. Those practising home slaughter with no official meat inspection were 27, 44 and 33% households in the divisions, respectively. Previous tapeworm experience was found in 64, 96 and 36 of the households in the divisions, respectively. Those with active tapeworm infections composed 13.6, 11 and 9% of the households in the divisions, respectively. In conclusion, porcine cysticercosis is prevalent in free range pigs in the three divisions of Busia District.

MAINA DRGITHIGIASAMUEL. "Prevalence, intensity and spectrum of helminths of free range pigs in Homabay District, Kenya F O Obonyo, N Maingi, S M Githigia and C J Ng." Livestock Research for Rural Development 24 (3) 2012. 2012;24(2). AbstractWebsite

Abstract
A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence, intensity and spectrum of helminths of free range pigs in Homabay District, Kenya. Faecal samples from 372 pigs were examined using the modified McMaster technique and post-mortem examination of 30 pigs carried out.

Out of the 372 pigs examined, 308 (83%) were excreting nematode eggs. The nematode eggs encountered were those of Strongyles (75%), Strongyloides spp (26.6%), Trichuris spp (7.8%), Ascaris spp (5.4%) and Metastrongylus spp (0.3%). Coproculture of Strongyle-type nematode egg positive faecal samples revealed the presence of Oesophagostomum spp (74%), Hyostrongylus rubidus (22%) and Trichostrongylus spp (4%). The post-mortem examination revealed presence of Hyostrongylus rubidus, Physocephalus sexalatus, Trichostrongylus axei, Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomun dentatum, Trichuris suis and Metastrongylus pudendodectus. The highest prevalence of helminth infections was recorded in finishers (88%) and the lowest in adults (79%). The highest mean helminth egg per gram of faeces (epg) was recorded in adults (1,175) and the lowest was in piglets (526). Pigs from Riana division had the highest prevalence (91%) of infection and mean epg (1,109), while those from Asego Division had the lowest prevalence (50%) and mean epg (100). Female pigs recorded a higher mean epg (567) compared to males (416). Age had significant influence on infection with Strongyles (p = 0.04) with growers and finishers recording higher levels of infection than adults. Sex had significant effect on the prevalence of infections with Strongyles (p = 0.028) and Ascaris suum (p = 0.012) with females recording higher levels of infection than males. Division of origin of pigs had significant influence on the prevalence of infection with Ascaris suum (p = 0.000) and Strongyles (p = 0.000) with the mean epgs for Riana and Ndhiwa divisions being significantly higher than those of Pala Division. This study indicates that helminths are highly prevalent in the study area with low to moderate levels of infections and may be one of the contributing factors to low productivity. Therefore, there is need to formulate appropriate control measures for the parasites in order to increase livestock productivity.

SIFUNJO DRKISAKAERASTUS. Public Finance, Open and Distance Learning Module,. University of Nairobi Press; 2009. AbstractWebsite

This study examined the RWH using the run tests, Ljung-Box statistics, and the unit root tests. The data covered the period starting January 1994 to June 2007 for the daily closing prices of the Ksh/UD dollar spot rate. The main finding of this study is that the RWH is strongly rejected at the 5% significance level. The results indicate that the rejections are due to autocorrelation in currency returns. The exchange rate tends to appreciate most of the time over the sample period. Therefore failure of the EMH could be due to exchange rate undershooting and overshooting phenomena. The unit root tests showed that the exchange rate data is non-stationary while returns are stationary. Therefore the evidence strongly suggested that the foreign exchange market is not efficient.

WAMBUGU DRSTANLEYNDIRITU, MBAABU DRMATHIUPETER, WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL, IKUSYA PROFKANUITITUS, GITAHI DRKIAMASTEPHEN. "PUBLICATIONS 1. SN Wambugu, PM. Mathiu, DW. Gakuya, TI. Kanui, JD. Kabasa, SG. Kiama. Medicinal plants used in the management of chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology; 137, (2011) 945.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
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MAINA MRMUIRUWILLIAM. "Reaction of maize genotypes to northern leaf blight under controlled and field conditions.". In: UoN research meeting. Botswana Journal of Agriculture and Applied Sciences; 2006. Abstract
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MAINA MRMUIRUWILLIAM. "Reaction of some Kenyan maize genotypes to Turcicum leaf blight under greenhouse and field conditions.". In: UoN research meeting. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences; 2007. Abstract
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N. PROFNGUGIELIZABETH. "Reproductive Health of Female Sex Workers in the Urban Informal Settlement of Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Future Medicinal Chemistry. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2010. Abstract
Female sex workers (FSWs) have long been recognized as important factors in the sub-Saharan HIV/AIDS epidemic. Because of their large number of sexual partners and high rate of partner change they may act as core groups that keep incidence rates high and as bridge populations, linking high-risk with low-risk sub-populations. What is far less recognized and researched are the roles that African FSWs fulfill as lovers and mothers. In these roles they are epidemiologically important due to mother-child HIV transmission while socially FSWs must provide childcare when they work outside the home. Building upon recently analyzed data for FSWs in the urban informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya, this proposal outlines a pilot study employing a social epidemiological perspective to: 1) delineate and analyze FSWs reproductive histories, future fertility plans, and knowledge, access and usage of contraception methods and, 2) explore possible family-based intervention programs to provide child care for FSWs.
KIPKOSGEI MRTENAIELIJAH. "research theories for high school students.". In: coming. KIE; 2009. Abstract
coming soon
CAROLINE MSCHEPKOECH, KIPKOSGEI MRTENAIELIJAH, NDUNGU MRKARIUKIPAUL, LABAN MRKAMAUNDEGWA. "research theories for high school students.". In: sfdsadfsa. KIE; 2009. Abstract
research theories for high school students
MAINA MRMUIRUWILLIAM. "Response of free living nematodes to treatments targeting plant parasitic nematodes in carnation.". In: UoN research meeting. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences; 2008. Abstract
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CAROLINE MSCHEPKOECH. "Review of multi-agents theories.". In: sfdsadfsa. oxford; 2009. Abstract
coming soon
MAINA MRMUIRUWILLIAM. "A review of the Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) technique in genotyping and DNA fingerprinting studies.". In: UoN research meeting. Journal of Applied; 2008. Abstract
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MAINA DRGITHIGIASAMUEL. "Risk factors associated with occurrence of nematodes in free range pigs in Busia District, Kenya. 1. Kagira, J.M.; Kanyari, P.W.N.; Githigia,S.M.; Maingi,N.: Nganga, J.C.; Gachohi, J.M." Trop Anim Health Prod (August 2011). 2011. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Nematode infections are a serious constraint to pig production, especially where free range pig keeping is practiced. This study investigated the epidemiology of nematodes in free range pigs in Busia District, Kenya. Three hundred and six pigs from 135 farms were sampled for faeces that were analysed for nematode eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces using the McMaster technique. The nematode eggs were also identified to genus and species based on morphology. A questionnaire on risk factors was also administered to the pig owners. The overall prevalence and mean nematode EPG were 84.2% and 2,355, respectively. The nematode eggs were identified as those belonging to Oesophagostomum spp. (75%), Strongyloides ransomi (37%), Ascaris suum (18%), Metastrongylus spp. (11%), Trichuris suis (7%) and Physocephalus sexalatus (3%). The prevalence of nematodes was positively correlated (p < 0.05) with the amount of rainfall in the division of the pigs' origin (all nematodes except S. ransomi). The prevalence of nematodes was also associated with the age of the pigs. A lower burden of nematodes was associated (p < 0.05) with a history of deworming (A. suum) and the provision of night housing (S. ransomi and Metastrongylus spp.). In conclusion, this study has provided information on nematode infections and the associated risk factors for free range pigs in Busia District, which can be used when

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O. DRDULOSIMEON. "S.O Dulo (1990). "Sanitation a Priority".". In: Proceedings of the annual seminar of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers. University of Nairobi. HABRI,UoN; 1990.
O. DRDULOSIMEON. "S.O Dulo (1992). Use of Cement Stabilised Soil blocks.". In: Proceedings of the Annual Seminar for the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers, held at the Jomo Kenyatta University College of Agriculture and Technology, Juja, Kiambu. HABRI,UoN; 1992.
O. DRDULOSIMEON. "S.O Dulo (1999). Solid Waste Management Privatisation in Nairobi City.". In: Proceedings of the 25th WEDC Conference on Integrated Development for Water Supply and Sanitation. HABRI,UoN; 1999.
O. DRDULOSIMEON. "S.O Dulo (2003). Potential for the Privatisation of Solid Waste Management in Kisumu City.". In: Proceedings of the International Civil Engineering Conference on Sustainable Development in the 21st Century, 12th . HABRI,UoN; 2003.
O. DRDULOSIMEON. "S.O Dulo and J. Malombe (1991). Infrastructure of Housing Schemes in Nyeri Municipality.". In: Proceedings of the United Nations Training Program in Housing at the University of Nairobi. Pg 325-335. HABRI,UoN; 1991.
Opiyo FEO, Ekaya WN, Nyariki DM, Mureithi SM. "Seedbed preparation influence on morphometric characteristics of perennial grasses of a semi-arid rangeland in Kenya. Afr. J. Plant Sci. 5(8): 460." African Journal of Plant Sciences. 2011;5(8):460-468. Abstract2011_opiyo_et_al_ajps-5-8_seedbed_influence_on...pdfWebsite

Semi-arid rangelands in Kenya are an important source of forage for both domestic and wild animals.
However, indigenous perennial grasses notably Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail grass), Eragrostis
superba (Maasai love grass) and Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye grass) are disappearing at an
alarming rate. Efforts to re-introduce them through restoration programs have often yielded little
success. This can partly be attributed to failure of topsoil to capture and store scarce water to meet
germination and plant growth requirements. A study was undertaken in the semi-arid environment of
eastern Kenya to determine the effects of land treatment on morphometric characteristics of E. superba, C. ciliaris and E. macrostachyus. Seed viability of the grasses was estimated by germination tests. Land treatments involved soil ripping using a tractor and hand-clearing. Thirty-five plants were randomly selected per sub-plot and tagged for sampling. Morphometric characteristics of the grass species were measured weekly. Aboveground biomass was estimated by harvesting standing biomass three months after establishment. Seed viability tests showed significant differences (p<0.05) among the three grass species. This was attributed to intrinsic properties of the grass seeds such as dormancy and tegumental hardness. Seedling survival, foliage cover, plant height, leaf and tiller numbers, and aboveground biomass were significantly higher in ripped plots than hand-cleared plots. It was concluded that soil disturbance influences plant morphometric characteristics and plays an important role in the success rate of restoration attempts in semi-arid rangelands.

Key words: Perennial grasses, morphometric characteristics, hand-clearing, reseeding, ripping, semi-arid
rangelands.

MAINA DRGITHIGIASAMUEL. "Seroprevalence of cysticercus cellulosae and associated risk factors in free range pigs in Kenya Kagira, J.M.; Maingi,N.; Kanyari, P.W.N.; Githigia,S.M.; Nganga, J.C.; Gachohi, J.M." Journal of Helminthology. 2010;84:398-403. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Porcine cysticercosis is an emerging zoonosis with public health and economic importance. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate the disease in free-range pigs on 182 smallholder farms in Busia District, Kenya. The survey households were selected using a snowballing technique. Serum samples were obtained from 284 pigs of all ages at farm level and 37 pigs from slaughter slabs in the study area. The samples were analysed for the presence of cysticercus antigen using an antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A structured questionnaire was administered to determine the risk factors for porcine cysticercosis on the study farms. At pig level, the total number of pigs testing positive were 11, resulting in a seroprevalence of 4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9-6.2%), while the farms with a positive pig were 9% (95% CI: 3.9-14.1%). All pigs examined in the slaughter slab survey were seronegative. The distribution of possible risk factors for porcine cysticercosis that were observed at farm level was as follows: free-range pig keeping (100%), history of human taeniosis infection in a family (51%), slaughtering of pigs at home (20%), lack of meat inspection (15%) and absence of latrines (15%). The only significant (χ2 = 4.4, P = 0.034, odds ratio (OR) = 3.8) risk factor associated with the occurrence of cysticercosis was lack of latrines at household level. The study shows that porcine cysticercosis is prevalent in free-range pigs in Busia District, Kenya and thus control measures need to be instituted.

W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Simek MD, Rida WM, Priddy FH, Pung P, Carrow E, Laufer DS, Lehrman JK, Boaz M, Tarragona-Fiol T, Miiro G, Birungi J, Pozniak A, McPhee D, Manigart O, Karita E, Inwoley A, Jaoko W, DeHovitz J, Bekker LG, Pitisuttithum P, Paris R, Walker LM, Poignard P, Wri.". In: UoN research meeting. Journal of Virology 83(14):7337-48; 2009. Abstract
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MUHIA DRLILLIANWANGECHIWAIBOCI. "SOCS-1 mimetics protect mice against lethal poxvirus infection: identification of a novel endogenous antiviral system.". In: Journal of Virology. Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2009. Abstract
The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.
O. DRDULOSIMEON. "Solid Waste Management ISBN No #39649 978-3-639-30918-8.". In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Re-orienting Civil Engineering Education and Training, September 2008, pp, 113-118. HABRI,UoN; 2010.
NDUTA DRWACHIRA-MBUIDAMARIS. "Sorption and Detection of Phenolic Compounds by Rice Husk Ash from Mwea, Kenya.". In: JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTR. MBUI DAMARIS; 2001. Abstract
This is a generalization after my work on the projective space of dimension 4 to n.
BUURI MRKABURIAMARTIN, BUURI MRKABURIAMARTIN. "Spatial Durbin model for poverty mapping and analysis.". In: European Journal of Social Science. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2008. Abstract
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MWANGI MRMUREITHISTEPHEN. "Spatial structure of the population of Fat Sand Rat Psammomys obesus in the vicinity of Sede Boqer. Marina Butylkina, Lilit Mirzoyan and Stephen M. Mureithi. Project Research Paper in Sixth International Course on Conservation of Biodiversity in Desert Ec.". In: MASHAV Special Project Research Paper. MASHAV; 2003. Abstract
Cities around the world are currently facing considerable pressure to cope with infrastructure provision amidst rapid urban development and economic growth. Kenya is also facing an increasing growth of informal settlements in her urban centres. As rapid urbanization takes its toll, so has the development and growth of slums. More than 34% of Kenya‟s total population lives in urban areas and of this, more than 71% is confined in informal settlements (UN-Habitat, 2009). This paper presents the result of study to assess the effects of the change in land use in two sub-catchments, in an urban area close to the Nairobi Central Business District (NCBD). The paper compares the change in land use of two regions in Nairobi, Kenya that are slowly changing due to the fast growing population and economy, on urban runoff.
UWESO DRABUBAKARLAILA, Mwanja WW, Akol MA, Bugenyi FW, Mwanja MT, Banga JM, Msuku BS. "Status of rural aquaculture in the Lake Victoria Basin.". In: African Journal of Ecology 45: 165-174. African Journal of Ecology; 2007. Abstract

Rural aquaculture in Lake Victoria basin is a fast increasing nontraditional farming activity which if not appropriately practised will lead to degradation of the wetlands. As part of a study to develop appropriate guidelines and model systems for wetlands-based rural aquaculture in the basin a survey was conducted to assess the status and the ecological and socioeconomic impact of rural aquaculture on wetlands and wetlands communities. Aquaculture practice was found to be common but not as a major activity. Aquaculture in the wetlands can be described as a low input-low output production activity and subsistence based on ponds under 400 m2 using free seed from public agencies with hardly any supplementary feeding. Men owned most of the ponds and women only contributed to the management of the fishponds by feeding the fish. Poorly constructed ponds and loss during harvesting have led to the escape of cultured species into the wild. Introduction of nonnative species in the basin has already led to wide ranging ecological, environmental and socioeconomic changes whose impact and usefulness are still very much contentious. Repeat of such scenarios can be avoided if appropriate and science-based models for rural aquaculture farming are developed, tested and disseminated to the communities

W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Steegen K, Lutchters S, Dauwe K, Reynaerts J, Mandaliya K, Jaoko WG, Plum J, Temmerman M & Verhofstede C (2009) Effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy and development of drug resistance in HIV-1 infected patients in Mombasa, Kenya. AIDS Research and Ther.". In: UoN research meeting. AIDS Research and Therapy 6(1):12; 2009. Abstract
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MWANGI MRMUREITHISTEPHEN. "Stephen M. Mureithi and Francis Omondi Opiyo. 2010. Resource Use Planning: Experience from Turkana and Pokot Pastoralists of North-western Kenya. In Proceedings, 2nd International Conference on Climate Change, Development and Sustainability in Semi Arid R.". In: ICID+18. Conference Proceedings; 2010. Abstract
Cities around the world are currently facing considerable pressure to cope with infrastructure provision amidst rapid urban development and economic growth. Kenya is also facing an increasing growth of informal settlements in her urban centres. As rapid urbanization takes its toll, so has the development and growth of slums. More than 34% of Kenya‟s total population lives in urban areas and of this, more than 71% is confined in informal settlements (UN-Habitat, 2009). This paper presents the result of study to assess the effects of the change in land use in two sub-catchments, in an urban area close to the Nairobi Central Business District (NCBD). The paper compares the change in land use of two regions in Nairobi, Kenya that are slowly changing due to the fast growing population and economy, on urban runoff.
MWANGI MRMUREITHISTEPHEN. "Strategies for Mitigating Drought-induced Resource Use Conflicts among Pastoralists of Northwestern Kenya. Climate change and conflict: Where to for conflict sensitive climate adaptation in Africa? EXPERT SEMINAR: 15 & 16.". In: ACCORD. Johannesburg, South Africa: Rangeland Ecology & Management; 2011. Abstract

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WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Structural and Optical Characterization of Nitrogen Doped TiO2 Thin Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis on Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide (FTO) Coated Glass Slides." International Journal of Energy Engineering. 2012;2(3):67-72. AbstractWebsite

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NZUVE SNM, Omolo E. "A Study Of The Practice Of The Learning Organization And Its Relationship To Performance Among Kenyan Commercial Banks.". In: Problems of Management in the 21st Century. Scientific Methodical Center (SMC), Scientia Educologica, Lithuania, 2012; 2012.
N. DRIRAKIW. "Supply Chain Management Practices at the University of Nairobi, .". In: UoN research meeting. Botswana Journal of Agriculture and Applied Sciences; 2009. Abstract
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Charles Walter (Eds.). Sur la conjecture de la minimale résolution de l’ideal d’un arrangement general d’un grand nombre de points dans un espace projectif. Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis; 2010. Abstract

The Minimal Resolution Conjecture is known and has been verified for Projective Spaces of dimension 2 and 3. Also there many counter examples for example for 11 points in a Projective Space of dimension 6, 12 points in a Projective Spaces of dimension 7. However, for Projective Spaces of dimension 4, it is believed to be true but the complete proof has not been written up so far. F Lauze tackled part of the resolution in his thesis.

NZUVE SNM, MBUGUA SM. "A Survey of Competitiveness in the Passenger Road Transport Sector in Nairobi-Kenya." Problems of Management in the 21st Century. 2012. Abstracta_survey_of_competitiveness_in_the__passanger_road_transport_sector_in_nairobi_kenya.pdfWebsite

The purpose of the study was to identify the key competitive dimensions employed by players in the low cost, mass market commuter road transport sector in Nairobi, Kenya. The theoretical framework for this study was Michael Porter’s Industry Analysis model. This model assumes five competitive forces, which determine the attractiveness of a given industry. These forces are: the barriers of entry into the industry, threat of substitute products,
bargaining power of buyers, bargaining power of suppliers and industry rivalry. The Porter’s Five Forces Industry Analysis model is a strategy tool that is used to make an analysis of the ttractiveness (value) of an industry structure.
The study used a survey design. The population of the study consisted of all public service vehicle owners operating in Nairobi and registered under the Public Service Vehicle Owners Welfare Association of Kenya; the City buses namely, Citi Hoppa, Express Connections, KBS, and other formal and informal public commuter transport providers. The sample of the study was restricted only to the motorized providers of low unit cost mass-market public passenger road transportation. These include public service vehicle owners registered under the Public Service Vehicle Owners Welfare Association of Kenya and city buses. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics.
The key finding of the study was that there was a lot of activity in the PSV sector that has influenced the industry’s competitiveness. The threat from other competing means of transportation had the lowest levels of activity and it was determined from the low mean
values on all the parameters used as proxies to the threat. The sector was also seen to be very active in employing marketing strategies to enhance competitiveness. The study recommended that the passenger transport sector increase innovative use of alternative means of transport.
Key words: Matatu, the term Matatu is derived from a local Kikuyu vernacular word mang’otore Matatu, which literally means “thirty cents’ that was the standard charge for every trip made in the 1970’s.