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2017
Okoth S. "Molecular profile of malaria drug resistance markers of Plasmodium falciparum in Suriname." Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2017:02655-16. Abstractantimicrob._agents_chemother.-2017-chenet-aac.02655-16.pdfWebsite

In Suriname, an artesunate monotherapy therapeutic efficacy trial was recently conducted to evaluate partial artemisinin resistance emerging in Plasmodium falciparum. We genotyped the PfK13 propeller domain of P. falciparum in forty samples as well as other mutations proposed to be associated with artemisinin resistant mutants. We did not find any mutations previously associated with artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia but we found fixed resistance mutations for chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Additionally, the Pfcrt C350R mutation, associated with reversal of CQ resistance and piperaquine selective pressure was present in 62% of the samples. Our results from neutral microsatellite data also confirmed a high parasite gene flow in the Guiana Shield. Although recruiting participants for therapeutic efficacy studies in very low malaria endemic areas is challenging due to the low number of malaria cases reported, conducting these studies along with molecular surveillance remains essential to monitor artemisinin resistant alleles and to characterize the population structure P. falciparum in areas targeting malaria elimination.

Mgalula ME, Richter U, Hensel O, Hülsebusch C, Kaufmann B, Oliver Wasonga. "Monitoring Vegetation Index Dynamics in Semi-Arid Rangelands Using Rainfall, Ground Survey and MODIS Data.". 2017. Abstract

n/a

Ondieki DK, Nyaboga EN, Wagacha JM, Mwaura FB. "Morphological and Genetic Diversity of Rhizobia Nodulating Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) from Agricultural Soils of Lower Eastern Kenya." International journal of microbiology. 2017;2017.
Osano BO, Were F, Mathews S. "Mortality among 5-17 year old children in Kenya ." PanAfrican Medical Journal. 2017. AbstractWebsite

Introduction: global mortality trends have changed over time and are expected to continue changing with a reduction in communicable diseases and an increase of non-communicable disease. Increased survival of children beyond five years may change mortality patterns for these children. There are few studies in Africa that explore the causes of mortality in children over five years. The objective of this study was to determine the mortality rate and clinical profiles of children aged 5-17 years who died in six Kenyan hospitals in 2013.
 
Methods: retrospective review of patients’ medical records to abstract data on diagnosis for those who died in year 2013. Data was analysed to provide descriptive statistics and explored differences in mortality rates between age groups and gender.
 
Results: we retrieved 4,520 patient records. The in-hospital mortality rate was 3.5% (95%CI 3.0-4.1) with variations in deaths between the ages and gender. Among the deaths, 60% suffered from communicable diseases, maternal and nutritional causes; 41.3% suffered from non-communicable diseases. A further 11.9% succumbed to traumatic injuries. The predominant clinical diagnoses among patients who died were HIV/AIDS, respiratory tract infections and malaria.
 
Conclusion: infectious causes had the highest proportion of diagnoses among children aged 5-17 years who died.

Rayya Timammy MAA. "Mshairi Mcheza Kwao Lakini Asiyetuzwa in Lugha na Fasihi katika Karne ya Ishirini Moja.". In: Mshairi Mcheza Kwao Lakini Asiyetuzwa in Lugha na Fasihi katika Karne ya Ishirini Moja. Eldoret : Mosol Kandagor/Nathan Ogechi/ Clarissa Vierke (wh) Moi University Press; 2017.
Stasiewicz MJ, Falade TDO, Mutuma M, Mutiga SK, Harvey JJW, Fox G, Pearson TC, Muthomi JW, Nelson RJ. "Multi-spectral kernel sorting to reduce aflatoxins and fumonisins in Kenyan maize." Food Control. 2017;(78):203-214.
Aghov T, Sumbera R, Pialek Lır, Mikula Orej, McDonough MM, Lavrenchenko LA, Meheretu Y, Mbau JS, Bryja J. "Multilocus phylogeny of East African gerbils (Rodentia, Gerbilliscus) illuminates the history of the Somali-Masai savanna." Journal of Biogeography. 2017:1-13.aghov-_et_al-2017-journal_of_biogeography.pdf
Okoth S. "Mycoflora and mycotoxins in finished fish feed and feed ingredients from smallholder farms in East Africa." Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research. 2017;43:169-176. Abstract1-s2.0-s1687428517300298-main.pdfWebsite

A total of 52 samples of finished fish feeds and ingredients were collected from smallholder farmers in
Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and Uganda, and analyzed. Culture and molecular techniques were used to
identify fungal isolates from the feedstock, and mycotoxin profiles were determined using liquid chromatography–tandem
mass spectrometry. The most prevalent fungal species recovered in the samples
was Asperigillus flavus (54.5%). Other fungal species recovered from the samples were Aspergillus tamarii
(9.1%), Mucor velutinosus (9%), Phoma sp. (6.1%), Aspergillus niger (6%), Eurotium rubrum (3%) and
Penicillium chrysogenum (3%). Fourteen mycotoxins were identified: aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, fumonisin
B1 and B3, deoxynivalenol (DON) and acetyldeoxynivalenol (sum of 3-ADONand 15-ADON), ochratoxin
A, roquefortine C, alternariol, T-2 toxin, and nivalenol. DON (92.9%), aflatoxins (64.3%) and
fumonisins (57.1%) were the most prevalent within locally manufactured feeds, while no contamination
was found in imported feed. Samples from Kenya were the most contaminated with aflatoxin (maximum
806.9 lgkg1
). The high levels of aflatoxin and trichothecene type A and B contamination found in this
study point to potential risks to fish performance and to the health of consumers of the fish and derived
products.

Onyango MO, Mito CO, Baki P, Ouma G. "Near Real-time Tropospheric Water Vapour Profiling using a Ground-based GPS Receiver." International Journal of Remote Sensing. 2017;38(23):6697-6713. Abstractnear_real_time_tropospheric_water_vapour_profiling_using_a_ground_based_gps_receiver.pdfTaylor & Francis

This article presents a remote-sensing tool employing an artificial neural networks algorithm for near real-time determination of the relative humidity (RH) profile above a site using global positioning system (GPS) data recorded by a ground-based GPS receiver. GPS data were processed to obtain Integrated Water Vapour. The integrated water vapour in conjunction with ground level information for temperature, pressure, and RH was fed as inputs to the developed neural network which in turn generated the instantaneous RH profile, at six standard pressure levels of 100, 150, 200, 300, 500, and 700 hPa, as output. GPS and radiosonde data for the years 2009 and 2010 were used to train the system while the same data for 2011 were used to validate the system. The relative humidity profile results for 2011 generated using GPS data and the neural network, upon comparison
with recorded in situ radiosonde RH profile measurements for the same days and times in the year 2011, had root mean square error of less than 4%, which falls within the margin of error of the Vaisala RS92 Radiosonde’s humidity measurement regime.

Onyatta JO, Yusuf AO, Guto PM, Ooko JO. "The need for galvanizing and the corrosion environments in Kenya.". In: International Zinc Association and Afriken International Ltd Workshop. Norfok Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2017.
Muhammad Sabiu Suleiman, Wasonga VO, Mbau JS, Aminu Suleiman, Elhadi YA. "Non-timber forest products and their contribution to households income around Falgore Game Reserve in Kano, Nigeria." Ecological Processes. 2017;6(23).
Mwamuye MM, Kariuki E, D O, Kabii J, Odongo D, Masiga D, Villinger J. "Novel Rickettsia and emergent tick-borne pathogens: A molecular survey of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in Shimba Hills National Reserve, Kenya." Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases. 2017;8(2): 208-218.
Inyega HN, Inyega JO. "The Nuts and Bolts for Effective Literacy and Numeracy Instruction in Early Childhood." University of Dar es salaam School of Education Journal of Education and Development (ISSN 0856-4027). 2017;(35):17-40.
Gitari A, Nguhiu J, Varma V, Mogoa E. "Occurrence, treatment protocols, and outcomes of colic in horses within Nairobi County, Kenya." Veterinary World. 2017;10(10):1255-1263.
Hisco A, Tobias Homan, Smith TA, Masiga D, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Silky M, Collins K Mweresa, Prisca Oria, Jane Alaii, Cees Leeuwis, Teun Bousema, Nicolas Maire, DePasquale A. "ODOR-BAITED TRAPS AS A NOVEL TOOL FOR MALARIA CONTROL-THE SOLARMAL TRIAL." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE. 2017;95(5):26.
Awori M, Mehta N, Mitema F, Kebba N. "Optimal Z-Score Use in Surgical Decision-Making in Pulmonary Atresia With Intact Ventricular Septum." World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery. 2017;8(3):385-388.pa-ivs_optimal_z_score_use_in_decision_making_awori_2017.pdf
Abubakar Ali, V. K. Oduol PA. "Optimization of Handover in Mobile System by Using Dynamic Guard Channel Method ." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2017;5(9):32-53.
Hayashi Y, Fukuda H, Matsuura T, Toda K. "Oral hygiene status among the Elderly in an area with limited access to dental services in a rural Kenyan community." Journal of Dentistry and Oral Health 2017. 2017;4(402).
gathece. "Oral Hygiene Status and gingival inflammation of Persons Living with HIV Attending Comprehensive Care Centre in Nairobi." International journal of innovative research and advanced studies. 2017.
Jawuoro SO, Koech OK, Karuku GN, Mbau JS. "Organization and Performance of Water Resource Users’ associations in the Southern Rangelands of Kenya." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2017;20 (3):401-4011.
Aucha JK, Wandiga SO, bong’o DA, Madadi VO, Osoro EM. "Organochlorine pesticides in air and soil from nairobi and mount kenya region, kenya." IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR-JAC). 2017;10((7)2):5-11.
JK A, O WANDIGAS, A A’oD, O MV, EM O. "Organochlorine Pesticides Residue Levels in Air and Soil from Nairobi and Mount Kenya regions, Kenya." Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2017;10(7):5-11.
UD A, K K, Gachago MM, A M. Outcome Of Age-Related Cataract Surgery At Specialist Hospital Sokoto, Nigeria In Year 2015. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Dominic O'iO, Jemimah OA. "Overview of governmental support across Africa towards the development and growth of herbal medicine .". In: Medicinal Spices and Vegetables from Africa: Therapeutic Potential against Metabolic, Inflammatory and Infectious Diseases. London: Elsevier; 2017.
Ngumbo L, Ndati N, Muchemi L. "Participatory Communication in Poverty Reduction in Kenya: A study of Murang’a County." International Journal of Development Research. 2017;7(1):1139-1140.
Mukaria SM, Raphael G. Wahome, Michael Gatari, Thenya T, Karatu K. "Particulate Matter from Motor Vehicles in Nairobi Road Junctions Kenya." Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2017;5( 2):62-68.
Kibui AW. "Pedagogical implication of schemata on reading comprehension in the English language." International Journal of Research In Humanities, Arts and Literature. 2017;5 (4):89-94.
Omondi CJ, Onguru D, Kamau L, Nanyingi M, Ong’amo G, Estambale B. "Perennial transmission of malaria in the low altitude areas of Baringo County, Kenya." Malaria journal. 2017;16(1):257.
Manani RO, Abuga KO, Chepkwony HK. "Pharmaceutical Equivalence of Clarithromycin Oral Dosage Forms Marketed in Nairobi County, Kenya." Scientia Pharmaceutica. 2017;85(2):20. Abstract

Clarithromycin is a broad-spectrum semi-synthetic macrolide indicated for treatment of pneumonias, Helicobacter pylori, and chlamydial and skin infections. The object of this study was to evaluate the pharmaceutical equivalence of 14 generic clarithromycin products marketed in Nairobi County, Kenya, to the innovator products, using in vitro dissolution profiles and similarity factors (f2). Further, dissolution profiles of four innovator formulations manufactured in different sites were compared. Fourteen clarithromycin tablets/capsules and four suspensions were subjected to assay and comparative dissolution runs at pH 1.2, 4.5 and 6.8, for 60 and 90 min, respectively. All products complied with pharmacopoeial assay specifications. However, significant differences were observed in their dissolution profiles. The non-compliance rates for tablets/capsules were 50% at pH 1.2, 33% at pH 4.5 and 50% at pH 6.8, while none of the four suspensions were compliant. Overall, only four (25%) products complied with the specifications for similarity factor. The results obtained indicate that a significant percentage of generic clarithromycin products are pharmaceutically non-equivalent to the innovator products, and that assay and single-point dissolution tests are insufficient demonstration of equivalence between the generic and innovator products.

Wang’ondu VW, Muthumbi A, Ann Vanruesel, Koedam N. "Phenology of mangroves and its implication on forest management: a case study of Mida Creek, Kenya." Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. 2017;16(2):41-51.
LeRu BP, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Musyoka BK, Pallangyo B, Njaku M, Mubenga O, Chipabika G, Ndemah R, Bani G, Molo R, Ong’amo GO, Kergoat GJ. "Phylogenetic analysis and systematics of the Acrapex unicolora Hampson species complex (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Apameini), with the description of five new species from the Afrotropics ." EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF TAXONOMY . 2017;270:1-36.
Ru BL, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Musyoka BK, Pallangyo B, Njaku M, Goftishu M, Assefa Y, Sezonlin M, Ong’amo G, Kergoat GJ. "Phylogeny and systematics of the Acrapex apicestriata (Bethune-Baker, 1911) species complex (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Apameini, Sesamiina) with the description of eight new species from the Afrotropics." Annales de la Société entomologique de France (NS). 2017;53(2):106-130.
Musila, F.M., Lukhoba, C.W., Nguta, CM, S.F. D. "Phylogeny of Ten Kenyan Plectranthus Species in the Coleus Clade Inferred from Leaf Micromorphology, Rbcl and MatK Genes ." Journal of Botany. 2017;((https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4369029).).
and  Wanjala AMGO. "Physical Infrastructural Determinants of Disaster Awareness and Preparedness in Secondary Schools in Homa-Bay County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge . 2017;2(9):120-131.
Were FH, Wafula GA, Wairungu S. "Phytoremediation Using Bamboo to Reduce the Risk of Chromium Exposure from a Contaminated Tannery Site in Kenya." Journal of Health and Pollution. 2017;Vol. 7(16):12-25.
Karuri HW, Olago D, Neilson R, Njeri E, Opere A, Ndegwa P. "Plant parasitic nematode assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables." Tropical Plant Pathology. 2017;DOI 10.1007/s40858-016-0114-4.
Karuri HW, Olago D, Neilson R, Njeri E, Opere A, Ndegwa P. "Plant parasitic nematode assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables." Tropical Plant Pathology. 2017;42(1):1-12. AbstractSpringerLink

Sweet potato is one of the most important staple food crops consumed in Kenya and throughout Africa but yields are greatly reduced by plant parasitic nematodes (PPN). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PPN in Kenyan sweet potato fields and their relationship with soil and climatic variables. Soil samples were collected from sweet potato fields in Busia, Teso, Kisii, Embu and Makueni counties. Thirteen nematode genera were identified across the five counties with Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus and Rotylenchus being the most prevalent. There was a significant (P <0.05) relationship between PPN abundance and sodium, calcium and iron. Canonical correspondence analysis of climatic variables revealed that the relationship between rainfall and nematode genera was significant (P <0.05) while maximum and minimum temperatures were not significant. This description of PPN assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables provides a starting point from which appropriate nematode management strategies can be implemented.

Olago D, Karuri HW, Neilson R, Njeri E, Opere A, Ndegwa P. "Plant parasitic nematode assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables." Tropical Plant Pathology. 2017;42(1):1-12. AbstractFull Text

Sweet potato is one of the most important staple food crops consumed in Kenya and throughout Africa but yields are greatly reduced by plant parasitic nematodes (PPN). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PPN in Kenyan sweet potato fields and their relationship with soil and climatic variables. Soil samples were collected from sweet potato fields in Busia, Teso, Kisii, Embu and Makueni counties. Thirteen nematode genera were identified across the five counties with Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus and Rotylenchus being the most prevalent. There was a significant (P <0.05) relationship between PPN abundance and sodium, calcium and iron. Canonical correspondence analysis of climatic variables revealed that the relationship between rainfall and nematode genera was significant (P <0.05) while maximum and minimum temperatures were not significant. This description of PPN assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables provides a starting point from which appropriate nematode management strategies can be implemented.

Karuri HW, Olago D, Neilson R, Njeri E, Opere A, Ndegwa P. "Plant parasitic nematode assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables." Tropical Plant Pathology. 2017;42(1):1-12.
Jawuoro SO, Koech OK, Karuku GN, S MJ. "Plant species composition and diversity depending on piospheres and seasonality in the southern rangelands of Kenya." Ecological Processes, 6(1), 16.. 2017;6(1):16.
Nancy-Mills A, J O, Nguhiu J, R O, A M. "Plasma cortisol levels as a measure of stress in rumen impaction in sheep." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research. 2017;4(2):1075.
Mutala TM, Lazaro E, Odhiambo AO, Kimani NM. "Positive predictive value of prostatic multiparametric MRI in patients with high PSA levels: Nairobi experience." Cancer Imaging. 2017;17(Supp 1):29.
Ndlela S, Ekesi S, Ndegwa PN, Ong'amo GO, Mohamed SA. "Post‐harvest disinfestation of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango using hot‐water treatments." Journal of Applied Entomology. 2017;141(10):848-859.
Ndlela S, Ekesi S, Ndegwa PN, Ong'amo GO, Mohamed SA. "Post‐harvest disinfestation of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango using hot‐water treatments." Journal of Applied Entomology. 2017;141(10):848-859.
Situma J, Ndohvu JB. "Poverty and Human Rights: Dimensions of Morals and Ideas.". In: Poverty and Human Rights: East African Experiences. Nairobi: Focus Publishers ltd; 2017.
Andreassen BA, Ndohvu JB,(Eds) TB. Poverty and Human Rights: East African Experiences. Nairobi: Focus Publishers ltd; 2017.
Abdel-Rahman EM, Landmann T, Richard Kyalo, Ong’amo G, Mwalusepo S, Sulieman S, Ru BL. "Predicting stem borer density in maize using RapidEye data and generalized linear models." International journal of applied earth observation and geoinformation. 2017;57:61-74.
Nyamu DG, Guantai AN, Osanjo GO, Mwatha E, Gitonga I, Kanyiri ML. "Predictors of Adequate Ambulatory Anticoagulation Services among Adult Patients in a Tertiary Teaching and Referral Hospital in Kenya." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(1):20-26. Abstract2017_-_predictors_of_adequate_ambulatory_anticoagulation_services.pdf

Background: Local anticoagulation services are inadequate and substantially underutilized despite compelling evidence showing that their appropriate use significantly reduces the risk of thromboembolic complications.
Objectives: To determine the predictors of adequate ambulatory anticoagulation services in Kenyatta National Hospital.
Methodology: A cross sectional study between December 2014 and April 2015 among 102 adult outpatients on anticoagulation using consecutive sampling was done. Information abstracted into a predesigned data collection tool included participants’ sociodemographic characteristics, regular sources of supply of anticoagulant, clinic pre-appointment reminders, indications of treatment and international normalized ratio tests. Data were analyzed using IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21.0 and logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of adequate anticoagulation, which was defined as international normalized ratio ranging 2 - 3.
Results: Females were majority (76.5 %) and only 27.5 % of patients had adequate anticoagulation control. The indication of warfarin for heart valve surgery (p=0.014) and deep venous thrombosis (p=0.021) were associated with adequate anticoagulation. Age above 60 years was associated with poor anticoagulation (p=0.006). Logistic regression revealed that the independent predictor of adequate anticoagulation was warfarin use due to heart valve surgery (OR=3.1; 95% CI: 1.2 – 7.9, p=0.017).
Conclusions: Ambulatory anticoagulation control in the hospital is poor. Further investigation is required to find out the reasons behind adequate anticoagulation in heart valve surgery patients.
Key Words: Ambulatory anticoagulation, anticoagulant, outpatient, international normalized ratio tests.

Mageto IG, Omoni GM, Cabelus NB, Inyega JO. "Preparedness and practice of forensic nursing in Kenya." International Journal of Nursing Education. 2017.
Mageto IG, Omoni GM, Cabelus NB, Inyega JO. "Preparedness and practice of forensic nursing in Kenya." International Journal of Nursing Education. 2017.
Mageto IG, Omoni GM, Cabelus NB, Inyega JO. "Preparedness and practice of forensic nursing in Kenya." . International Journal of nursing Education: . 2017.
Mbui JM, Oluka MN, Guantai EM, Sinei KA, Achieng L, Baker A, Jande M, Massele A, Godman B. "Prescription patterns and adequacy of blood pressure control among adult hypertensive patients in Kenya; findings and implications." Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology . 2017;10:1263-1271.
Hashim A. "Presumption of Marriage between Muslim Legal Theory and the Practice in Courts." The Law Society of Kenya Journal . 2017;13(1).
A O-R, GO O, E K, E G, F O, E O. "Prevalence of abnormal liver function tests in rheumatoid arthritis." Afr J Rheumatol . 2017;5(1):70-75. Abstractprevalence_of_abnormal_liver2.pdf

Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence
of Abnormal Liver Function Tests (LFTs)
in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
at the rheumatology out-patient clinic,
Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
Design: Cross-sectional descriptive
study.
Setting: Rheumatology out-patient clinic
at KNH.
Participants: One hundred and seven
RA patients.
Results: The overall prevalence of
abnormal LFTs in the study population
was 57%. The most common abnormal
LFTs were direct bilirubin and alkaline
phosphatase (ALP), which were elevated
in 34.6% and 15% of the study population,
respectively. Abnormal direct bilirubin
was associated with longer duration of
disease; adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) 0.54
(0.34, 0.86) p-value 0.009 and higher
disease activity, adjusted OR 2.79 (1.23,
6.25) p-value 0.014. Abnormal ALP
was significantly associated with BMI,
adjusted OR 0.205 (0.074, 0.57), p-value
0.002 as well as duration of disease,
adjusted OR 1.14 (1.013, 1.29), p-value
0.031.
Conclusion: This study found the
prevalence of liver dysfunction in
patients with rheumatoid arthritis to be
high, at 57%, and recommends regular
monitoring of liver function tests in
patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Introduction
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a systemic,
chronic, progressive inflammatory
disease characterized by symmetric joint
polyarthritis that progresses to severe joint
destruction1
. As a systemic illness, RA
has many extra-articular manifestations
and co-morbidities, many of which have
been studied in our local setting, and
have been found to correlate with disease
activity2-5. The liver has however been
overlooked as a target organ in patients
with RA. Rheumatoid arthritis can affect
the liver in many ways6,7; dysfunction
is thought to arise from the disease
itself, independent autoimmune disease,
infections such as viral hepatitis or as a
consequence of anti-inflammatory drugs
such as Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory
Drugs (NSAIDs) or Disease Modifying
Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (DMARDs)6
.
The most common DMARDs used
in treatment of RA in our setting are
methotrexate and leflunomide, which can
be hepatotoxic. The risk of hepatotoxicity
while on treatment with DMARDs may
be increased in the presence of hepatitis
or alcohol intake.
LFTs may be abnormal in up to
50% of patients with RA and this has
been shown to correlate with disease
activity7,8. The ‘rheumatoid liver’ has
long been a topic of interest and previous
studies noted histological changes in
the liver of RA patients who were not
on treatment with DMARDs such as
fatty change, cellular necrosis, chronic
passive congestion and gross atrophy9-12.
Studies have also investigated use of
multiple DMARDs, which were thought
to predispose patients with RA to a higher
risk of developing hepatotoxicity13,14.
With increasing awareness and
knowledge of the RA, more patients
are being diagnosed early and started
on treatment, which may be life-long.
Effective treatment modalities may have
hepatotoxic effects. Abnormal LFTs are
in themselves an independent predictor
of mortality15. Due to high mortality
from both RA as well as abnormal LFTs,
such a subset of patients could therefore
be at a higher risk. This is especially so
because we currently have limited ways
of managing liver injury in our setting.
It is therefore important for us to monitor
liver dysfunction in patients with RA.

Ojuka D, Dindi K, Awori M. "Prevalence of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma." Annals of African Surgery. 2017;14(2):82-85.prevalence_of_esophageal_adenocarcinoma_2017.pdf
JIN U, GO O, CF O, M M, N N. "Prevalence of fibromyalgia syndrome in diabetics with chronic pain at the Kenyatta National Hospital." Afr J Rheumatol . 2017; Vol. 5(1): 54-57. Abstractprevalence_of_fibromyalgia4.pdf

Abstract
Background: Fibromyalgia Syndrome
(FMS), an increasingly recognized
disorder with heightened response to
pressure, characterized by Chronic
Widespread Pain (CWP), for which no
other cause can be identified. Diabetes
Mellitus (DM) is the most common
metabolic endocrinopathy. It is estimated
that more than 50% of diabetic patients
will suffer from chronic disability.
Musculoskeletal complications of
diabetes may be as a consequence of DM
complications or direct associations e.g.
FMS.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence
of FMS in diabetics with chronic pain
and to determine the severity of FMS
related symptoms using the revised FMS
questionnaire (FIQR) tool.
Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study.
Setting: The Diabetic Out-patient Clinic
(DOPC), Kenyatta National Hospital
(KNH).
Subjects: Two hundred and nineteen
patients with chronic musculoskeletal
pain.
Results: The prevalence of fibromyalgia
in this group of patients was 61 (27.9%)
(95% CI 21.9-34.2). Mean age for patients
with FMS was 59.9 years, significantly
older than patients without FMS (55.6%)
(P=0.034). There was a higher female
preponderance at 49 (80%). Majority of
our study population were on followup
for Type 2 DM (94.1%). The mean
tender-point count for patients with FMS
was estimated at 13.7 (SD 2.1). The mean
FIQR score was 51.9 (SD 18.4) (moderate
disease). Patients with FMS had a higher
HBA1c value compared to those without
(9.6% vs. 9.3%) (P=0.565). Other
factors such as marital status, nature of
employment, activities of daily living and
type of medications used were not found
to be statistically significant. (P˃0.05).
Conclusion: FMS is a prevalent disease in
the diabetic population. There is increased
need of awareness by the clinicians of
this disease entity and a multidisciplinary
approach required to manage patients
presenting with CWP in DM.
Introduction
FMS is a common disorder with cardinal
symptoms of diffuse chronic pain associated
with muscle stifness and tenderness of
specific points on examination. This
disease has strong biologic underpinnings
and the aetiopathogenesis is variable.
Trigger factors may be environmental
or psychosocial. This condition affects
mainly women, and its estimated
prevalence in various populations varies
between 0.2% and 4.4%. The American
College of Rheumatology Criteria (ACR)
1990 requires CWP for at least 3 months
and presence of ˃11/18 pre-specified
Tender Points (TP) on examination1
.   
  A newer diagnostic criteria published
in 2010-2011, no longer requires
performing a tender point count to make
the diagnoses and instead entails asking
about the constellation of non-pain
somatic symptoms that are typically
present in addition to the widespread
pain2
. DM affects connective tissue in
multiple ways and this may be as a result
of micro or macrovascular complications,
a consequence of metabolic derangements
inherent to DM, and notable associations,
FMS being a key presentation3
. Over
the past few years, the most important
predictor that predisposed to development
of musculoskeletal complications is
blood glucose control. The HUNT
study4
outlined the association between
DM and chronic musculoskeletal
complaints in 64,785 patients and noted
a high prevalence of FMS and a positive
correlation with HbA1c levels. Attar5
,
revealed that up to 17.9% of diabetics
suffer from chronic musculoskeletal
manifestations, fibromyalgia being one
of them. Yunus6
, in his review article, in
2011, noted that Central Sensitization
Syndromes (CSS) have an increased
prevalence in patients with diabetes
mellitus. Of particular interest, a study

Mutinda JKKPM &. "Principles’ Influence on Participatory Discipline Management in Secondary schools, Kenya. ." The cradle of knowledge African Journal of Educational & Social Sciences Research. 2017;5(2):168-175.
Mutuma KW. "The problem of civilian contractors that directly participate in hostilities ." Africa Yearbook on IHL. 2017;Volume 2016 Number 1, August 2016(Issue Number 1):pp 8-45 (2016).
Alsanius BW, A.H. K, CM O, L. M. "Produce quality and safety.". In: Rooftop Urban Agriculture. New York: Springer; 2017.
Phiri IA, et al. "Profile of African Christianity at Home and in the West.". In: Anthology of African Christianity. Oxford: Regnum; 2017.
Inyega HN, Inyega JO. "Psychotherapy, (il)literacy and information communication and technologies: building bridges to literacy excellence." Journal of Education and Human Development. 2017;6(2):128-138.
Derese S. "Pterocarpans and isoflavones from the root bark of Millettia micans and of Millettia dura." Phytochemistry Letters . 2017;21:216-220. Abstract

From the CH2Cl2/CH3OH (1:1) extract of the root bark of Millettia micans, a new pterocarpan, (6aR,11aR)-3-hydroxy-7,8,9-trimethoxypterocarpan (1), named micanspterocarpan, was isolated. Similar investigation of the CH2Cl2/CH3OH (1:1) extract of the root bark of Millettia dura gave a further new pterocarpan, (6aR,11aR)-8,9-methylenedioxy-3-prenyloxypterocarpan (2), named 3-O-prenylmaackiain, along with six known isoflavones (3-8) and a chalcone (9). All purified compounds were identified by NMR and MS, whereas the absolute configurations of the new pterocarpans were established by chriptical data analyses including quantum chemical ECD calculation. Among the isolated constituents, calopogonium isoflavone B (3) and isoerythrin A-4′-(3-methylbut-2-enyl) ether (4) showed marginal activities against the 3D7 and the Dd2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum (70–90% inhibition at 40 μM). Maximaisoflavone B (5) and 7,2′-dimethoxy-4′,5′-methylenedioxyisoflavone (7) were weakly cytotoxic (IC50 153.5 and 174.1 μM, respectively) against the MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line. None of the tested compounds showed in-vitro translation inhibitory activity or toxicity against the HEK-293 human embryonic kidney cell line at 40 μM.

Otieno VN, Irandu EM, Moronge JM. "Public Involvement in Environmental Decision Making in Nairobi County, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2017;Volume 5(Issue No. 10):pp 185-193.
AI K, Gachago MM, LO N, JM N. The Quality Of Life Of Primary Caregivers Of Children With Retinoblastoma At Kenyatta National Hospital. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Omondi S, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, Ochomo E, Muchoki M, KEMEI BRIGID, Mbogo C, Bayoh N. "Quantifying the intensity of permethrin insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes in western Kenya." Parasites & vectors. 2017;10(1):548.
Gharial J, Laving A, Were F. "Racecadotril for the treatment of severe acute watery diarrhoea in children admitted to a tertiary hospital in Kenya." BMJ Open Gastroenterol. 2017;4(1). AbstractWebsite

Background

Diarrhoea is the second most common cause of death in children under 5 years of age in Kenya. It is usually treated with oral rehydration, zinc and continued feeding. Racecadotril has been in use for over 2 decades; however, there is a paucity of data regarding its efficacy from Africa.
Objectives

The objectives of this study were: to compare the number of stools in the first 48 hours in children with severe gastroenteritis requiring admission and treated with either racecadotril or placebo, to study the impact of racecadotril on duration of inpatient stay as well as duration of diarrhoea and to describe the side effect profile of racecadotril.
Methods

This was a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. It enrolled children between the age of 3 and 60 months who were admitted with severe acute gastroenteritis. They received either racecadotril or placebo in addition to oral rehydration solution (ORS) and zinc and were followed up daily.
Results

120 children were enrolled into the study. There were no differences in the demographics or outcomes between the 2 groups. Stools at 48 hours: median (IQR) of 5 (3–7) and 5 (2.5–7.5), respectively; p=0.63. The duration of inpatient stay: median (IQR): 4 days (1.5–6.5) and 4.5 (1.8–6.3); p=0.71. The duration of illness: 3 days (2–4) and 2 days (1–3); p=0.77. The relative risk of a severe adverse event was 3-fold higher in the drug group but was not statistically significant (95% CI 0.63 to 14.7); p=0.16.
Conclusions

Racecadotril has no impact on the number of stools at 48 hours, the duration of hospital stay or the duration of diarrhoea in children admitted with severe gastroenteritis and managed with ORS and zinc

Mulati DM, Nyang'onda TN, Aduda BO. "Raman Crystallinity and Hall Effect Studies of Microcrystalline Silicon Seed Layers." Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 2017;16(1):106-118. AbstractJournal Website Link

Aluminium induced crystallization (AIC) was used to crystallize sputtered amorphous silicon
thin films on aluminium-coated glass at annealing temperatures ranging from 250-520° C in
vacuum. Crystalline volume fractions were measured by Raman spectrometry as a function
of annealing temperature. It was shown that the crystallized films had large grains as the
Raman peaks were centred at about 520 cm-1 at and over annealing temperatures of 420°
C. The three-layer sample crystallization resulted in crystallization of the films at lower
temperatures compared to the two-layer sample crystallizations which implied a reduction in
the cost of production of the seedlayer and resulting products. Hall mobilities and hole
densities ranging from 17.0-22.8 cm2V-1s-1and (4.7-9.2)× 1018 cm-3 respectively were
measured. Low hole charge densities for films of the same thickness were achieved at high annealing temperatures which was an indication of less aluminium in seed layers prepared at those temperatures. Having seed layers with sufficiently low hole charge densities is desirable for application of the seed layer in photovoltaic applications.
Key words: microcrystalline, silicon, annealed, raman, crystallinity, hall-effect

Kaniu MI, Angeyo HK, Darby IG, Muia LM. "Rapid in-situ radiometric assessment of the Mrima-Kiruku high background radiation anomaly complex of Kenya." Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. 2017. Abstract

This paper presents the radiometric survey results of the Mrima-Kiruku high
background radiation (HBR) anomaly complex of south coastal Kenya. Utilizing a portable γ-
ray spectrometer consisting of a 2.0 l NaI (Tl) backpack detector integrated with GPS to
perform the relevant in-situ radiometric measurements, a novel geospatial gating method
was devised to represent the measurements. The goal of this study was to assess radiation
exposure and associated natural radioactivity levels in the complex and to compare the

Bhatt B, Angeyo KH, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A. "Rapid Nuclear Forensics Analysis via Laser Based Microphotonic Techniques Coupled with Chemometrics." Energy Procedia. 2017;127:76-86.
Reading to learn in the content areas: The case of pre-service teachers. . Saarbrucken: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2017.
Gichuhi JM, Ndegwa PN, Mugo HM, Guandaru EK, Babin R. "Rearing method and developmental biology of the African coffee white stem borer, Monochamus leuconotus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)." Journal of Economic Entomology. 2017;110(3):1120-1126.
Njenga ST, Oboko RO, Muuro EM, Omwenga EI. "Regulating group cognitive conflicts using intelligent agents in collaborative M-learning." AFRICON, 2017 IEEE. 2017;38(43). AbstractFull Text Link

Group cognitive conflicts occur when a learner in a collaborative mobile learning environment becomes aware of a discrepancy between his/her existing cognitive framework and new information or experience. The cognitive conflicts stimulate the learning process by making an individual to move from his/her learning sphere and participate with others in the learning process. However, there is a big challenge on how students handle and resolve conflicts during collaborative learning. Intelligent agents have been used in this paper to provide support for group interactions by regulating the group conflicts. An experimental design with one control group and two experimental groups (role playing and guided negotiation) is used to compare levels of group knowledge construction. The findings showed improved levels of knowledge construction where regulated conflicts were used compared to where they were not used.

Nzioka S, Elly D. "The Relationship between Diversification Strategies and Capital Structure of Non-Financial Firms Listed At the NSE." African development finance journal. 2017;1(2):32-61. Abstract

Purpose-This study was carried out with an aim to analyze the effect of
diversification strategies on capital structure of non-financial firms listed at NSE. The
study focused specifically on analyzing the effect of product (related and unrelated)
and geographical diversification on capital structure.
Methodology-An exploratory study design was used to collect data, with the
population of the study being 64 firms listed in NSE. Out of the 64 firms, 41 non-
financial firms were selected as the sample of the study. Data was collected from
secondary sources, NSE and capital market authority. Data collected was analyzed
through STATA by the use of panel data regression analysis.
Findings- Related product diversification had a coefficient of 21.5(p-value=0.007)
indicating that it has a significant relationship with capital structure. The study results
show that debt is the most preferred form of financing in related product
diversification strategies. Unrelated product diversification had a coefficient of 22.7(p
value =0.006) indicating that it has a significant relationship with capital structure.The
findings of this study show that debt is the most preferred form of financing in
unrelated product diversification strategies. Geographical diversification had a
coefficient of 0.178 (p-value=0.799) indicating that it doesn’t have a significant
relationship with capital structure.Geographical diversification boosts the worth of
shareholders by taking advantage of specific assets and by accelerating functioning

Munyasia EO, Ouma DO, Ochieng DE. "The Relationship between Lunar Cycle and Stock Returns in Companies Listed at Nairobi Securities Exchange." Research Journal of Finance and Accounting. 2017;8(20):95-103. Abstract

The belief that Lunar Cycle (LC) affects people’s mood and behavior stems from ancient lore. Various
psychological studies and behavioral business literature provide proof about effect of mood on the benefit prices.
Despite the effects of LC on people’s moods by international researchers, there has been no known study that
focuses on the impact of LC on stock returns at Nairobi Securities Exchange (NSE). The purpose of this research
is to examine the association between LC and stock return among companies listed at NSE. This study adopts
descriptive research design and a sample of NSE 20-Share Index to meet the objective of the study. Secondary
data collected from NSE reports between 2010 and 2014 is analyzed using event study model and numerical
Package for the societal discipline evocative data and statistical association, and the significance of the findings
tested using t-statistic at 95% significance level. This study finds that stock returns increases throughout New
Moon (NM) and Full Moon (FM) phases compared to the normal trading days of the LC. Further analysis finds
that cumulative stock returns are higher during the NM dates. The p–value of -2.72 and -2.404 recorded during
NM and FM phases respectively deviates significantly from the t-significant rate of 1.943 under the degree of
freedom of 6, subjected to testing at 95% significance level. The results show that there exists significant
difference among mean value of stock returns during NM/FM phases compared to the mean return during
normal trading days. This study recommends that capital markets authority (CMA) and NSE comes up with
regulation which will edge lowest and highest price levels through FM and NM phases so that it can secure price
against manipulations and to protect investors against manipulations.
Keywords: Lunar Cycle, Stock Returns, Nairobi Security Exchange

Nyanaro E, Elly D. "The Relationship between Stock Market Performance and Economic Growth In the East African Community." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):110-132. Abstractthe_relationship_between_stock_market_performance_and_economic_growth_in_the_eac.pdf

Purpose – This paper investigated the relationship between the stock market performance and the
economic growth in the East African Community. The stock market variables considered in the
study were stock market capitalization, market liquidity and share price volatility. The GDP
growth was a used a measure for economic growth.
Methodology – The quantitative research methods were employed to define the nature of
relationship between the variables. The population of the study was the All-Share index in the 4
stock markets in the member countries. To fulfill the purposes under the research, the stock market
performance of the EAC member countries was collected from the Capital markets, EASRA and
the respective Stock Exchanges. Data for GDP growth was collected from the World Bank website.
The study employed the Vector Autoregressive (VAR) model as well as the Granger test for
causality to estimate as well as provide evidence regarding the nature and direction of relationship
of the variables.
Findings - The study established an existence of long term relationship between the stock market
performance variables (market capitalization and liquidity) and economic growth in the East
African community. The study established that there was no relationship between the share price
volatility of the stock market and economic growth

Kipkorir A, Onyatta JO, Yusuf AO. "Removal of Fluoride Ions from Aqueous Solution Using Water Hyacinth Biomass as a Low-Cost Adsorbent." Elixir International Journal. 2017;110:48158-48161.
Sitta J, Nzuve F, Olubayo FM, Mutinda C, Muiru WM, Miano DW, Muthomi JW, Leley PK. "Response of Assorted Maize Germplasm to the Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease in Kenya." Journal of Plant Studies. 2017;6(2):65-76.
Keter L, Too R, Mwikwabe N, Mutai C, Orwa J, Mwamburi L, Ndwigah S, Bii C, Korir R. "Risk of Fungi Associated with Aflatoxin and Fumonisin in Medicinal Herbal Products in the Kenyan Market. ." The Scientific World Journal . 2017;2017:1-6.
Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kamau FN, Ndwigah SN, Lachenmeier DW. "A Robust Liquid Chromatographic Method for Confirmation of Drug Stability of Azithromycin in Bulk Samples, Tablets and Suspensions." Pharmaceutics. 2017;9(1):11. Abstract

A simple, isocratic and robust RP-HPLC method for the analysis of azithromycin was
developed, validated and applied for the analysis of bulk samples, tablets and suspensions. The
optimum chromatographic conditions for separation were established as a mobile phase comprised
of acetonitrile-0.1 M KH2PO4 pH 6.5-0.1 M tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide pH 6.5-water (25:15:1:59
v/v/v/v) delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The stationary phase consisted of reverse-phase
XTerra® (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm particle size) maintained at a temperature of 43 °C with a UV detection at 215 nm. The method was found to be linear in the range 50%–150% (r2 = 0.997). The limits of detection and quantification were found to be 0.02% (20 μg) and 0.078% (78 μg), respectively, with a 100.7% recovery of azithromycin. Degradation products of azithromycin in acidic and oxidative environments at 37 °C were resolved from the active pharmaceutical ingredient and thus the method is fit for the purpose of drug stability confirmation.

Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kamau FN, Ndwigah SN, Lachenmeier DW. "A Robust Liquid Chromatographic Method for Confirmation of Drug Stability of Azithromycin in Bulk Samples, Tablets and Suspensions." Pharmaceutics. 2017;9(1):11.
Karema FM, Irandu EM, Moronge JM. "The role of commercial motorcycles in alleviating poverty in rural areas: a case study of Laikipia East Sub-County." World Review of Intermodal Transport Research. 2017;Volume 6(Issue No. 2):pp 155-175.
Muthami JMN, S.G S, J W. "The role of women in Socio-Economic Development: A Case Study of Women involved in small-scale business in Nairobi County." International Journal of Science Arts and Commerce. 2017;2(9):90-103.2.9.09_0.pdf
Onkoba N, Mumo RM, Ochanda H, Omwandho C, Ozwara HS, Egwang TG. "Safety, immunogenicity, and cross-species protection of a plasmid DNA encoding Plasmodium falciparum SERA5 polypeptide, microbial epitopes and chemokine genes in mice and olive baboons." Journal of biomedical research. 2017. AbstractWebsite

Incorporation of biomolecular epitopes to malarial antigens should be explored in the development of straintranscending
malarial vaccines. The present study sought to determine safety, immunogenicity and cross-species
ef cacy of Plasmodium falciparumserine repeat antigen 5 polypeptide co-expressed with epitopes of BacilleCalmette
Guerin (BCG), tetanus toxoid (TT) and a chemokine gene. Olive baboons and BALB/c mice were randomly
assigned into vaccine and control groups. The vaccine group animals were primed and boosted twice with pIRES
plasmids encoding the SERA5+ BCG+ TT alone, or with either CCL5 or CCL20 and the control group with pIRES
plasmid vector backbone. Mice and baboons were challenged with P. bergheiANKA and P. knowlesiH strain
parasites, respectively. Safety was determined by observing for injection sites reactogenicities, hematology and
clinical chemistry. Parasitaemia and survivorship pro les were used to determine cross-species ef cacy, and T cell
phenotypes, Th1-, Th2-type, T-regulatory immune responses and antibody responses were assessed to determine
vaccine immunogenicity. The pSeBCGTT plasmid DNA vaccines were safe and induced Th1-, Th2-type, and Tregulatory
responses vaccinated animals showed enhanced CD4 + (P< 0.01), CD 8+ T cells (P< 0.001) activation and
IgG anti-SE36 antibodies responses ( P< 0.001) at week 4 and 8 post vaccination compared to the control group.
Vaccinated mice had a 31.45-68.69 % cumulative parasite load reduction and 60 % suppression in baboons ( P< 0.05)
and enhanced survivorship ( P< 0.001) with no clinical signs of malaria compared to the control group. The results
showed that the vaccines were safe, immunogenic and conferred partial cross-species protection.
Keywords: malaria, DNA vaccines, serine repeat antigen, chemokines, cross-species, protection, immunogenicity,
safety

Khatete I. W., Mogute P.K., Kebenei P. J. "School Management Committees’ Influence on Provision of Teaching/Learning Resources in Public Primary Schools in Kenya; A Case of Kisii South Sub-County." The Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of Educational and Social Science Research. 2017;5(2).abstract_4.doc
Cham DT, Fombong AT, Fombong AT, Ndegwa PN, IRUNGU LUCYW, Raina SK. "Scientific note on the first report of Varroa destructor in Cameroon." Journal of Apicultural Research. 2017;56(4):397-399.
Cham DT, Fombong AT, Ndegwa PN, IRUNGU LUCYW, Raina SK. "Scientific note on the first report of Varroa destructor in Cameroon." Journal of Apicultural Research. 2017;56(4):397-399.
Ndiwa TC, Nyingi D, Wemali E, Yusuf HA. "Seafood value chains and mangrove restoration in Mida Creek.". In: In Leew J, Koech G, Yaye A, Nyongesa J. 2017. A review of best practice in the Horn of Africa with biodiversity based value chain development for pro-poor biodiversity conservation. Nairobi: ICRAF; 2017.biodiversity-based_value_chains-_14122017.pdf
Nyangacha RM, Odongo D, Oyieke F, Ochwoto M, Korir R, Ngetich RK, Nginya G. "Secondary bacterial infections and antibiotic resistance among tungiasis patients in Western, Kenya." PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 2017;11(9):e0005901.
Bayissa W, Ekesi S, Mohamed SA, KAAYA GP, Wagacha JM, R Hanna, Maniania NK. "Selection of fungal isolates for virulence against three aphid pest species of crucifers and okra." Journal of pest science. 2017;90(1):355-368.
Wachira S, Mageto IG, Mapesa J. "The self-assessed clinical judgment competencies of newly graduated nurses post internship in Kenya." International Journal of Nursing Education. 2017.
Wachira S, Mageto IG, Mapesa J. "The self-assessed clinical judgment competencies of newly graduated nurses post internship in Kenya." International Journal of Nursing Education. 2017.
Nanyingi Mark O., Muchemi GM, Samuel M. Thumbi, Ade F, Clayton O. Onyango, G.Kiama S, Bett B. "Seroepidemiological Survey of Rift Valley Fever Virus in Ruminants in Garissa, Kenya Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Volume 17, Number 2, 2017.". 2017.
Okoth S. "Sex-Related Differences in Hematological Parameters and Organosomatic Indices of Oreochromis niloticus Exposed to Aflatoxin B1 Diet." Scientifica. 2017:1-7. Abstract4268926.pdfWebsite

A 24-week feeding experiment was conducted to assess whether males and females of Oreochromis niloticus exhibit differences in
their hematological responses and organosomatic indices to dietary AFB1 contamination. Triplicate groups of O. niloticus (initial
body weight: 24.1 ± 0.6 g) were fed with four diets (Diets 1 to 4) containing 0, 20, 200, and 2,000

Omwoyo AM, Muthama NJ, Opere A, Onwonga R. "Simulating Streamflow in Response to Climate Change in The Upper Ewaso Ngiro Catchment, Kenya." Journal of Climate Change and Sustainability. 2017;1(2):12-29. Abstract

The study simulated streamflow response under changing climate for Ewaso Ngiro river in Upper Ewaso
Ngiro Catchment (UENC), using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Data from National Centre
for Meteorological research (CNRM) model of Co-Ordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment
(CORDEX) was used to generate climate change scenarios (temperature and rainfall) for representative
concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 from 2021-2080 relative to the baseline 1976-2005. SWAT
model was set up using historical daily rainfall and temperature data, soils, Digital Elevation Model and
land cover map, and calibrated against observed streamflow. Decreasing trend in historical rainfall and
streamflow was observed while increasing trend was observed for temperature. Projections indicated
increasing trend in temperature in both RCPs, with RCP 8.5 having higher increase (1.1-2.60 C) than
RCP 4.5 (1.0-1.70 C). Rainfall was found to increase from March-November, and decreased in
December-February in all scenarios. Change in total annual rainfall ranged from 0.1-18.5% in 20212050
and 1.2-18.7% in 2051-2080, which corresponded to increase in streamflow of 20.9-23.6% and
21.2-28.2% respectively. Streamflow in March-May decreased (-26 to -10%) in all scenarios and
increased in June-February (9-114%). This was found contrary to streamflow patterns simulated in
neighboring catchments where studies indicate increasing streamflow trend in March-May. Streamflow
response was found to be sensitive to changes in rainfall, thus emphasis should be put on water
conservation and catchment management including protection of headwater forests through agroforestry,
afforestation and reforestation.
Key words: Climate change, Streamflow, Simulation, Upper Ewaso Ngiro Catchment

Mutai BK, Muthama NJ, Ng'ang'a JK, Mwanthi MA, Manene MM. "Socioeconomic and Environmental Risk Factors for Respiratory Infections Prevalence in Kenya: An Observational Study (In Press)." Journal of Environmental and Public Health. 2017.
Muhammad Sabiu Suleiman, Wasonga OV, Mbau JS, Elhadi YA. "Spatial and temporal analysis of forest cover change in Falgore Game Reserve in Kano, Nigeria." Ecological Processes. 2017;6(11).
Kimuyu DM, Sensenig RL, Chira RM, GITHAIGA JOHNM, Young TP. "Spatial scales influence long-term response of herbivores to prescribed burning in a savanna ecosystem." International Journal of Wildland Fire. 2017;26(4):287-295.
Garba DGW, Oyieke FAO, EA M, LC, GS, Houmsou, RS, Darda, F, Chintem. "Species Diversity and Relative Abundance of Anopheline Vectors of Malaria on the Highlands of Mambilla Plateau Northeast, Nigeria." Journal of Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 2017;1(1):PP 37-42.
D. Mang’oka, Mathenge IM, Onyambu C. "The spectrum of radiographic and sonographic findings in patients with shoulder pain at the department of diagnostic imaging and radiation medicine, University of Nairobi." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2017;11(1). AbstractWebsite

Background: Shoulder pain is a common complaint. Prevalence estimates vary from 6.9% to 26% in the general population. The most frequent cause of shoulder pain is rotator cuff disease. Shoulder radiography is the primary imaging modality in shoulder pain but is limited in the evaluation of the soft tissues. MRI is the chief modality used in the evaluation of shoulder soft tissues both locally and elsewhere but is limited by cost and availability. Shoulder ultrasonography is a cost effective modality for evaluating the soft tissues but is underutilized locally. No data is available in our local population regarding spectrum of findings in shoulder radiographs and ultrasound.
Objective: This study was designed to determine the spectrum of shoulder radiographic and sonographic findings in patients with shoulder pain.
Setting: Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Medicine, University of Nairobi. It is located within the old wing of Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: This was a cross sectional descriptive study.
Subjects: A total of 72 patients with shoulder pain who were referred for shoulder radiographs.
Method: The study was conducted over a period of four months between the months of January 2016 to April 2016. Seventy two consecutive patients with shoulder pain referred for shoulder radiographs had a complementary shoulder ultrasound scan done and findings of both examinations recorded in the data collection form. Statistical analysis of the findings was then done using SPSS version 20 IBM. No surgery findings were available to correlate with the imaging findings.
Results:. Radiographs identified abnormalities in 36 (50%) patients’ majority of which were degenerative changes. Ultrasound identified abnormalities in 57 (79%) patients with the bulk of lesions seen within the rotator cuff. There was statistically significant association between presence of greater tuberosity degenerative changes and rotator cuff tears (p<0.001).
Conclusion: The combination of shoulder radiography and ultrasound significantly increased the diagnostic yield by evaluating both osseous and soft tissue components. These findings aim to increase the awareness and utility of shoulder ultrasound locally.

D M, I.M. M, C. O. "The Spectrum of Radiographic and Sonographic Findings in Patients with Shoulder Pain at the Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Medicine, University of Nairobi." EAOJ. 2017;11(1):12-21. AbstractAJOL

Background: Shoulder pain is a common complaint. Prevalence estimates vary from 6.9% to 26% in the general population. The most frequent cause of shoulder pain is rotator cuff disease. Shoulder radiography is the primary imaging modality in shoulder pain but is limited in the evaluation of the soft tissues. MRI is the chief modality used in the evaluation of shoulder soft tissues both locally and elsewhere but is limited by cost and availability. Shoulder ultrasonography is a cost effective modality for evaluating the soft tissues but is underutilized locally. No data is available in our local population regarding spectrum of findings in shoulder radiographs and ultrasound.
Objective: This study was designed to determine the spectrum of shoulder radiographic and sonographic findings in patients with shoulder pain.
Setting: Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Medicine, University of Nairobi. It is located within the old wing of Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: This was a cross sectional descriptive study.
Subjects: A total of 72 patients with shoulder pain who were referred for shoulder radiographs.
Method: The study was conducted over a period of four months between the months of January 2016 to April 2016. Seventy two consecutive patients with shoulder pain referred for shoulder radiographs had a complementary shoulder ultrasound scan done and findings of both examinations recorded in the data collection form. Statistical analysis of the findings was then done using SPSS version 20 IBM. No surgery findings were available to correlate with the imaging findings.
Results:. Radiographs identified abnormalities in 36 (50%) patients’ majority of which were degenerative changes. Ultrasound identified abnormalities in 57 (79%) patients with the bulk of lesions seen within the rotator cuff. There was statistically significant association between presence of greater tuberosity degenerative changes and rotator cuff tears (p<0.001).
Conclusion: The combination of shoulder radiography and ultrasound significantly increased the diagnostic yield by evaluating both osseous and soft tissue components. These findings aim to increase the awareness and utility of shoulder ultrasound locally.

Kibui AW. "Stakeholders' perspective on disciplinary problems in Kenya's secondary schools." International Journal of Research In Humanities, Arts and Literature. 2017;5(5):95-102.
Gichure, J. N. KMICNPM. "Standardization of cut size and pre-drying time of beef to mainstream pastoral processing in Kenya’s meat industry." Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2017;7:1-7.
Nyarige JS, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Simiyu J, Mureramanzi S, Aduda B. "Structural and Optical Properties of Phosphorous and Antimony doped ZnO thin films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis: A Comparative Study." International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology . 2017;4(11):149-154.
Nyarige JS, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Simiyu J, Mureramanzi S, Aduda B. "Structural and Optical Properties of Phosphorous and Antimony doped ZnO thin films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis: A Comparative Study." International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;4(11). Abstract

A study of structural and properties of pure (undoped) Zinc oxide (ZnO) and phosphorous (P) and Antimony (Sb) doped Zinc Oxide films has been carried out. The films were deposited by an automated spray pyrolysis equipment on both microscope glass at various elevated temperatures (270 oC - 420 oC) and on fluorine doped tin Oxide (FTO) substrates at 420 oC. Structural characterization using Raman spectroscopy showed the presence of the main peak for ZnO at 437 cm-1for all the films. Antimony doped films showed other peaks associated with the doping but phosphorous doping did not show extra peaks. Optical characterization using a UV-VIS-NIR Shimadzu (Model DUV 3700) double beam spectrophotometer provided both reflectance and transmittance data and Scout software was used to compute the band gap. At a wavelength of 600 nm, the average transmittance of the pure ZnO films was ~62 % while it was transmittance was ~85 % and ~80 % for Sb and P doped films respectively, an increase of ~23 % and ~18 % respectively. For the undoped ZnO films, high deposition temperatures led to band gap narrowing from 3.25eV to 3.10eVwhile doping resulted in band gap widening from 3.10 eV to 3.30 eV (for P-doped) and 3.10 eV to 3.33 eV (for Sb-doped),an observation confirmed by the increased transmittance on doping. The band gap narrowing for ZnO films makes the film become a better materials for visible light absorption which is good for photovoltaic applications. The wide gap broadening on doping makes the film more transparent to solar radiation making it suitable for transparent conducting oxide applications.

V D, S B, M L, L M, I S, A. W. "Structural drivers of vulnerability to zoonotic disease in Africa. ." Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B . 2017;372.
Mwangi HN'u, Wagacha P, Mathenge P, Sijenyi F, Mulaa F. "Structure of the 40S ribosomal subunit of Plasmodium falciparum by homology and de novo modeling." 7. 2017;1:97-105. AbstractFull Text

Generation of three dimensional structures of macromolecules using in silico
structural modeling technologies such as homology and de novo modeling has improved
dramatically and increased the speed by which tertiary structures of organisms can be
generated. This is especially the case if a homologous crystal structure is already available.
High-resolution structures can be rapidly created using only their sequence information as
input, a process that has the potential to increase the speed of scientific discovery.

Soares ACF, Cabral MMW, Martins CHG, Ferreira AE, Bergamo PAS, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Parreira RLT, Heleno VCG. "Study of Anti-Tuberculosis Activity Behaviour of Natural Kaurane and Trachylobane Diterpenes Compared with Structural Properties Obtained by Theoretical Calculations." Natural Product Communications. 2017;12(5):763-769. AbstractFull text

A set of seven diterpenes, three kauranes and four trachylobanes, isolated from the African plant Psiadia punctulata were assayed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and reached activity comparable with cycloserine, a second line drug used to treat tuberculosis (TB). Several structural properties of those diterpenes, such as lipophilicity, HOMO and LUMO energies, charge density, and intramolecular hydrogen bond (IHB) formation, were obtained by theoretical calculations and compared with their activities. Peculiar correlations were observed, especially between activity, lipophilicity and IHB formation.

Study of anti-tuberculosis activity behaviour of natural kaurane and trachylobane diterpenes compared with structural properties obtained by theoretical calculations (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317750342_Study_of_anti-tuberculosis_activity_behaviour_of_natural_kaurane_and_trachylobane_diterpenes_compared_with_structural_properties_obtained_by_theoretical_calculations [accessed Sep 25, 2017].

Soares ACF, Cabral MMW, Martins CHG, Ferreira AE, Bergamo PAS, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Parreira RLT, Heleno VCG. "Study of Anti-Tuberculosis Activity Behaviour of Natural Kaurane and Trachylobane Diterpenes Compared with Structural Properties Obtained by Theoretical Calculations." Natural Products Communications . 2017;12(5):763-769.
Mwaniki JM, Ogutu H, Gituauki K. "A study of Elemental composition of Biomass fuel from Kenyan grown Chamomile flowers extract." Kenya Chemical Society. 2017;10(1):14-23.
Olago D, Karuri HW, Neilson R, Mararo E, Villinger J. "A survey of root knot nematodes and resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in sweet potato varieties from Kenyan fields." Crop protection. 2017;92:114-121. AbstractFull Text

The root knot nematode, Meloidogyne is one of the most economically damaging plant parasitic nematode groups, and are widely distributed in Kenyan agro-ecosystems. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity of Meloidogyne species in Kenyan sweet potato fields and identify sweet potato varieties that exhibit resistance to M. incognita. Meloidogyne species were collected from Nyanza, Western, Eastern and Central Provinces of Kenya. Mitochondrial DNA was used to differentiate Meloidogyne species. The most common species in all sampled regions was M. incognita. Meloidogyne hapla was recorded for the first time in Kenyan sweet potato growing areas (Mosocho, Matayos, Teso South, Manyatta, and Nzaui sub-counties), while M. enterolobii was observed in Kiharu, Matayos and Mosocho sub-counties and a novel Meloidogyne sp. was identified in Kiharu sub-county. Seventy-two sweet potato varieties collected from both agricultural fields and research stations in Kenya were evaluated for resistance to M. incognita under greenhouse conditions in two separate trials. Known susceptible (Beauregard) and resistant (Tanzania) sweet potato varieties were included as controls. Responses of sweet potato varieties to M. incognita infection was assessed by the number of eggs present and level of galling on a scale of 1–5, where 0 = 0 galls and 5 ≥ 100 galls. The reproduction index (RI) was used to classify the varieties as resistant or susceptible. There was a significant difference (P < 0.001) in the number of eggs, GI and RI among the varieties tested. Forty nine sweet potato varieties were considered very resistant and may be used in breeding programs to incorporate resistance against M. incognita into commercial cultivars of sweet potato or to use them in crop rotation programmes for management of RKN. The results on Meloidogyne species diversity in Kenyan sweet potato fields will also be useful in nematode management programs

Okoth S. "Susceptibility of locally cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) varieties to aflatoxin accumulation in Homa Bay County, Kenya." African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2017;11(33):1329-1337. Abstract69593d265885.pdf69593d265885.pdfWebsite

Groundnut is one of the staple foods in many parts of the world. Due to its high nutrient content, the nuts are liable to colonization by aflatoxigenic fungi and subsequent aflatoxin accumulation. This study was aimed at determining susceptibility of locally grown groundnut varieties to Aspergillus flavus in Homa Bay County, Western Kenya. A pretested questionnaire was used to survey agronomic practices on groundnut cultivation in 75 randomly selected households in the study site. From each household farm, 100 g soil samples and 500 g of groundnuts were collected at harvest and A. flavus isolated on Modified Rose-Bengal Agar and identified. Aflatoxin was then extracted from each of the groundnut samples and quantified using direct competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Red Valencia was the most cultivated among the 8 varieties identified. Farmers (66%) obtained the planting seeds from the local market and most (92%) did not use fertilizers with majority (94%) having no knowledge of aflatoxins. There was no significant inter-variety difference in aflatoxin accumulation (p=0.744, F=0.581, Df=6, 61). A highly significant association (t = 2.652; P = 0.010) was found between storage state of the groundnuts and aflatoxin levels, with 94% of the samples stored unshelled having aflatoxin levels below 10 ppb. Overall, only 6.7% of kernels sampled from all the divisions did not meet the EC aflatoxin limit of ≤4 ppb while 4% did not meet the KEBS limit of ≤10 ppb. Though the agronomic practices were poor, aflatoxin levels were predominantly low in the region suggesting that the aflatoxin accumulation is likely influenced by agro-ecological zoning as other studies have also been indicated.

Key words: Groundnuts, Aflatoxins, Aspergillus flavus.

Boaz N, Wachira P, Kagot V, Okoth S. "Susceptibility of locally cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) varieties to aflatoxin accumulation in Homa Bay County, Kenya." African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2017;Vol. 11(33 ):1329-1337.
Kahiga, Ruth M; Gatumu JNJC;. "SUSTAINABILITY OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRESCHOOL PHYSICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM IN NAIROBI AND NYERI COUNTIES." International Journal of Education and Research. 2017.
O OD, O WANDIGAS, A A’oD. "Synergistic Effects of Titanium (IV) Oxide Modified Clay for Disinfection and Purification of Water." European International Journal of Science and Technology . 2017;6(5):7-32.
Awori M, Mohamed A, Mohammed N. "Systemic Arterial-to-Pulmonary Artery Shunt Utilization." Annals of African Surgery. 2017;14(2):96-98.shunts-sapas-utilisation_at_knh-awori-2017.pdf
Were FH. "Take the Lead on Lead." UN Environment; OurPlanet (2017):44-45.Website
"Teacher attitudes towards teaching following in-service program in Kenya." International Journal of Innovation Education and Research. 2017;5(4).
Inyega JO, Inyega HN. "Teachers’ attitude towards teaching following in-service teacher education program in Kenya." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2017;5(4):93-102.
Kingi, P. M. AKOGA &. "Teachers’ Level of Participation in Management of Change in Relation to Curriculum and Instruction and its Effects on Teachers Motivation in Selected Counties, Kenya." International Journal of Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Research. 2017;4(12):3316-3322.
Inyega JO, Inyega HN. "Teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge following in -service training in Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies.. 2017;5(5):8-13.
"Teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge following in-service program in Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2017;5(5).
Mbatia J, Okoth UA. "Teachers’ Perceptions on headteachers’ supervisory practices on performance of duty in primary schools in Nakuru North Sub County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Advanced Studies (IJIRAS). 2017;ISSN: 2394-4404.
Milford C, Kriel Y, Njau I, Nkole T, P G, Cordero JP, Smit JA, Steyn PS, Team UPTAKEP. "Teamwork in Qualitative Research: Descriptions of a Multicountry Team Approach." International Journal of Qualitative Methods. 2017;16 :1-10 .teamwork_in_qualitative_research.pdf
Scott AA, Misiani H, Okoth J, Jordan A, Gohlke J, Ouma G, Arrighi J, Zaitchik BF, Jjemba E, Verjee S, Waugh DW. "Temperature and Heat in Informal Settlements in Nairobi." PloS one. 2017;12(11). AbstractPLOS One

Nairobi, Kenya exhibits a wide variety of micro-climates and heterogeneous surfaces. Paved roads and high-rise buildings interspersed with low vegetation typify the central business district, while large neighborhoods of informal settlements or “slums” are characterized by dense, tin housing, little vegetation, and limited access to public utilities and services. To investigate how heat varies within Nairobi, we deployed a high density observation network in 2015/2016 to examine summertime temperature and humidity. We show how temperature, humidity and heat index differ in several informal settlements, including in Kibera, the largest slum neighborhood in Africa, and find that temperature and a thermal comfort index known colloquially as the heat index regularly exceed measurements at the Dagoretti observation station by several degrees Celsius. These temperatures are within the range of temperatures previously associated with mortality increases of several percent in youth and elderly populations in informal settlements. We relate these changes to surface properties
such as satellite-derived albedo, vegetation indices, and elevation.

Ngowi BV, Tonnang HEZ, Johansson T, Ndegwa PN, Subramanian S, Mwangi EM, Ambale J. "Temperature-dependent phenology of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae): Simulation and visualization of current and future distributions along the Eastern Afromontane." PloS one. 2017;12(3):e0173590.
Ngecu WM, Thenya T, Ngatia J. "Title : High community expectation against low societal transformation through community based income generating activities. Analysis of Participatory forest management in Kenya 2005-2013 ." International Journal of Scientific Research and Management. 2017;5(6). AbstractFull Text

The implementation of the participatory forest management (PFM) starting 2005 was meant to help in forest management and also assist the forest adjacent communities to benefit from these forest based resources through agreement with Kenya forest Service (KFS). Analysis of socio-economic reports and associated participatory forest management plan (PFMPs) undertaken between 2005 and 2013, indicate sizeable income generating projects (IGP) as part of social function of forest such as recreation have not been realised by community forest association (CFA). It is notable that several facilitating factors such as proximity to major urban areas and significant tourism circuits, necessary for development of these sites have had no impact. In some sites development of business plan did not manage to take IGP to the desired level. This failure leaves the CFA in the same status prior to the implementation of PFM in spite of huge resources invested in mapping and detailing resources potential. The CFA stakeholder’s composition, a structural weakness that failures to include more able and literate local stakeholders (business and professionals) is a major obstacle to enabling exploitation of forest ecosystems potential, thereby remaining localised and a closed unit. Thus, there is need for paradigm shift in terms CFA empowerment for exploitation of social functions of forest resources

Mwesigwa JB, Ouma GO, Ouma JO, Lutta IM, Mwangi SG, Ogallo LA. "Tools and Procedures for Seasonal Downscaling of Climate Forecasts for Use by Farmers Over the Greater Horn of Africa: A Case Study for Western Kenya.". In: Climate Change Adaptation in Africa. Springer, Cham; 2017. Abstract

Seasonal climate outlooks have become a necessary input to agricultural planning and execution of all farming activities as a form of adaptation to climate change and variability. Extended climate forecasts of 3–4 months pose a challenge to farmers as it is difficult for them to pinpoint exactly what might happen on daily, weekly or decadal time scales. In addition, such forecasts are presented in form of probability maps and in very coarse resolution, making them difficult for farmers to comprehend. Community-specific downscaled forecasts offer an opportunity for farmers to decide on what, where and when to plant, allocation of resources and on other investment options. This study evaluated various downscaling tools and procedures for seasonal forecast interpretation over the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) region. The tools evaluated were: analogue year approach, Fact-Fit tool, Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI) and GeoCLIM tool. Analogue year approach turned out to be good but highly dependent on accuracy of the selected year; Fact-Fit tool was able to convert the seasonal probability forecasts into amounts but unable to disaggregate rainfall amounts at daily, weekly or dekadal time scales; the WRSI tool used was limited to a number of crops, seasons and regions but was necessary for monitoring seasonal progress and predicting crop performance. The current GeoCLIM software used was unable to disaggregate rainfall amounts to daily, weekly or dekadal scales but was good for suitability analysis and producing spatial distribution rainfall maps. An integrated approach is therefore desirable for producing more reliable and dependable location-specific seasonal forecasts for direct application by farmers and other agricultural practitioners. This is so important in the Horn of Africa region, where climate change is already affecting populations, and adaptation is seen as a major approach to cope with the impacts of climate change.

Olago D, Sier MJ, Langereis CG, Dupont-Nivet G, Feibel CS, Joordens JCA, et al. "The top of the Olduvai Subchron in a high-resolution magnetostratigraphy from the West Turkana core WTK13, hominin sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP)." Quaternary Geochronology. 2017;42:117-129. AbstractFull Text

One of the major challenges in understanding the evolution of our own species is identifying the role climate change has played in the evolution of hominin species. To clarify the influence of climate, we need long and continuous high-resolution paleoclimate records, preferably obtained from hominin-bearing sediments, that are well-dated by tephro- and magnetostratigraphy and other methods. This is hindered, however, by the fact that fossil-bearing outcrop sediments are often discontinuous, and subject to weathering, which may lead to oxidation and remagnetization. To obtain fresh, unweathered sediments, the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) collected a ∼216-meter core (WTK13) in 2013 from Early Pleistocene Paleolake Lorenyang deposits in the western Turkana Basin (Kenya). Here, we present the magnetostratigraphy of the WTK13 core, providing a first age model for upcoming HSPDP paleoclimate and paleoenvrionmental studies on the core sediments. Rock magnetic analyses reveal the presence of iron sulfides carrying the remanent magnetizations. To recover polarity orientation from the near-equatorial WTK13 core drilled at 5°N, we developed and successfully applied two independent drill-core reorientation methods taking advantage of (1) the sedimentary fabric as expressed in the Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) and (2) the occurrence of a viscous component oriented in the present day field. The reoriented directions reveal a normal to reversed polarity reversal identified as the top of the Olduvai Subchron. From this excellent record, we find no evidence for the ‘Vrica Subchron’ previously reported in the area. We suggest that outcrop-based interpretations supporting the presence of the Vrica Subchron have been affected by the oxidation of iron sulfides initially present in the sediments -as evident in the core record- and by subsequent remagnetization. We discuss the implications of the observed geomagnetic record for human evolution studies.

Muigua, K. and Kariuki F. "Towards Environmental Justice in Kenya." Journal of Conflict Management and Sustainable Development. 2017;1(1).towards_environmental_justice_in_kenya_kariuki_muigua__francis_kariuki.pdf
Mageto IG, Omoni, G. M., Cabelus NB, Inyega JO. "Training needs assessment for forensic nursing in Kenya." Kenyan Journal of Nursing and Midwifery. 2017;2(1):54-63.
Mageto IG, Omoni GM, Cabelus NB, Inyega JO. "Training needs assessment for forensic nursing practice in Kenya." Kenyan Journal of Nursing and Midwifery . 2017.
Mageto IG, Omoni GM, Cabelus NB, Inyega JO. "Training needs assessment for forensic nursing practice in Kenya. ." Kenyan Journal of Nursing and Midwifery . 2017.
Olago D, Loomis SE, Russell JM, Verschuren D, Morrill C, Cort GD, et al. "The tropical lapse rate steepened during the Last Glacial Maximum." Science advances. 2017;3(1):e1600815. AbstractFull text

The gradient of air temperature with elevation (the temperature lapse rate) in the tropics is predicted to become less steep during the coming century as surface temperature rises, enhancing the threat of warming in high-mountain environments. However, the sensitivity of the lapse rate to climate change is uncertain because of poor constraints on high-elevation temperature during past climate states. We present a 25,000-year temperature reconstruction from Mount Kenya, East Africa, which demonstrates that cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum was amplified with elevation and hence that the lapse rate was significantly steeper than today. Comparison of our data with paleoclimate simulations indicates that state-of-the-art models underestimate this lapse-rate change. Consequently, future high-elevation tropical warming may be even greater than predicted.

Marco M, Deyou T, Heydenreich M, Koch A, Erdélyi M, Yenesew A. Two pterocarpans from Millettia dura and Millettia micans.; 2017.paper_86_marco_et_al-2017.pdf
Timammy GBJR&. "Uchanganuzi linganishi wa Suala la Maadili kwa Vijana wa Kiume katika Tenzi mbili: Siraji na Adili in Mwanga wa Lugha ." Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha nyingine za Kiafrika Chuo Kikuu cha Moi Juzuu. 2017;1(2):133-147 .
Theuri A, Kaindi DWM, Mbugua SK, Karuri EG. "Under-fives rickets in a tropical dairy farming region Kiambu County, Kenya." JIARM. 2017;5(5):10-21.theuri_et_al._2017_abstract.pdf
AN P, PA M, KW O, J K, Omondi O. "Unilateral spontaneous tubal twin ectopic pregnancy: a rare occurrence." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2017;6:819-823.
Wanjala. G, Omufwoko Esther A. "Use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) for Learning among Students at Technical Colleges in Nairobi Province, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge . 2017;2(8):34-43.abstract.pdf

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