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2017
C O, J W, J O, M.F O. "Corporate Governance Practices and Financial Performance of Deposit Taking Saccos in Western Kenya." Scholars Journal of Economics, Business and Management . 2017;4(3):195-212.corporate_governance_practices.pdf
Marika NM, M MJ, Munjuri MG. "CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND EMPLOYER ATTRACTIVENESS AMONG BUSINESS STUDENTS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI, KENYA." International Journal of Arts and Commerce . 2017;6(2):71-88. Abstract7._71-88.pdf

In this era of globalization, winning the war for top talent to gain a competitive advantage is critical for the
survival of organizations. In Kenya today, attracting and retaining talent is a major challenge to many
organizations. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been identified as influencing employee attraction
and retention. A pay cheque alone is no longer sufficient; people want to work in organizations whose
values match their own and that impact and contribute to society. The aim of this study was to determine if
CSR affects organizational attractiveness. Final year business students from the University of Nairobi were
surveyed to see the extent to which CSR issues will influence their decision to work in a given organization.
The findings indicated that how an organization handles its economic responsibility, legal responsibility,
ethical responsibility, philanthropic responsibility and environmental responsibility of CSR affects
prospective employees' decision to seek employment with an organization.

K.Muriithi M, G.Mutegi R, Mwabu G. "Counting unpaid work in Kenya: Gender and age profiles of hours worked and imputed wage incomes." The journal of the Economics Aging. 2017.
Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Cow Dung to Kilo Watt using Double Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell." IJSRSET. 2017;3(5):70-79. Abstract

In the current study, voltage is generated from cow waste at varying time duration of 6 to 11 days. PVC pipe was used to make a salt bridge using agarose and potassium chloride and Sodium chloride. The performance of microbial fuel cells was evaluated by characterizing the generated voltage, current, power and surface power density. It was observed that despite the high impedance of the substrate, all the generated parameters have shown maximum values at day 6 and then a decline in trend was observed on 7 days onwards. The highest values of voltage, current, power, current density and power density obtained were 0.5090V, 0.28μA, 0.0093μW, 0.05181mA/m2 and 0.0000006 W/m2 respectively. The study concluded that microbial fuel cells technology can be used to generate electricity from cow dung.
Keywords: Microbial Fuel Cells, Voltage, Current, Power Density

Mandala N, Wanga C, Aduda J. "A Cryptography-Based System for Offline Collection and Verification of Tax Revenue by County Governments of Kenya." European Scientific Journal. 2017;13(34):414-433.
Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Kuete V. "Curcuma longa.". In: Medicinal Spices and Vegetables from Africa Therapeutic Potential against Metabolic, Inflammatory, Infectious and Systemic Diseases. Academic Press; 2017:. Abstract

Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae), commonly known as turmeric, is native to Southwest India with its rhizomes being the source of a bright yellow spice with various medicinal applications. It is widely cultivated throughout the tropics and similarly used for it medicinal value, in the cosmetic industry, and as a dye. Herein, the medicinal potentials of this plant as well as that of one of its bioactive constituents, curcumin, has been compiled. Turmeric can be regarded as a drug for the management of many diseases, such as cancer, inflammations, microbial infections, diabetes, arthritic, muscular disorders, biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, diabetic wounds, hepatic disorders, and sinusitis. Curcumin also displayed various pharmacological activities including antioxidant, antineoplastic, antiviral, antiinflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antidiabetic, anticoagulant, antifertility, cardiovascular protective, hepatoprotective, and immunostimulant activities in animals. This chapter provides baseline information to encourage the use of this plant in the management of various human ailments.

and Ogumo E. O., Kunyanga OKCNMW. "Current knowledge and performance of existing charcoal coolers in improving the overall quality and shelf-life of French beans." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;12(49):3399-3409.
Ondeto BM, Nyundo C, Kamau L, Muriu SM, Mwangangi JM, Njagi K, Mathenge EM, Ochanda H. "Current status of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors in Kenya." Parasites & vectors. 2017;10(1):429.
Mwaguni S, Ayiemba E, Onyari J. "DANCING TO THE TUNE OF OPPORTUNITIES –HUMAN SETTLEMENTS ALIGNED TO SHARE THE JACKPOT OF KENYA’S COASTAL TOURISM BENEFITS SPOIL THE BROTH.". 2017. AbstractFull text link

This paper highlights how human settlements aligned themselves to share the benefits to arise from coastal tourism development in
the Kenya coast, but have come to bedevil the industry through poor management of domestic waste. The study area comprised of
Nyali-Bamburi-Shanzu and Diani-Chale, which are two important tourist destinations in the country. It attempted to establish
population numbers in these habitations, the waste loads generated, and how it was managed. The study was accomplished through
field visits, library research and application of the World Health Organization (WHO 1989) rapid assessment methods for land, air
and water pollution. The relevant data for assessment was obtained from records of population census, bed nights, occupancy, and the
waste disposal methods in use. The study revealed that human settlements aligned themselves in clusters inland, reflecting the clusters
of the beach hotels dotting the shore line of the Indian Ocean. Large volumes of domestic waste were being generated in both the
human settlements and in the hotels. Management of the waste in the settlements was largely on-site and mixed, through the use of
both pit latrines and septic-tank/soakage pit systems in the human settlements, and only through septic-tank/soakage pits in the hotel
establishments. None of the settlements had wastewater treatment facilities. Only 5 beach hotels had wastewater treatment plants.
While the settlements positioned themselves to benefit from the tourism industry, tapping in business and employment opportunities,
the arrangement has seemed to spoil the broth as the settlements came to be the main source domestic waste affecting environmental
quality and undermining tourism growth and sustainability. Also, through the large number of visitors, during the peak tourist periods,
the beach hotels themselves have come contribute to large waste generation. On-site sanitation, it is concluded, is not appropriate for
managing domestic waste in coastal areas dependent on good quality environmental to flourish the tourism economic sector. Tourism
thrives in areas where the environment is aesthetically appealing; domestic waste undermine. Consequently, it is recommended that
innovative approaches are pursued for domestic waste management in order to flourish and sustain the industry.

Parkar RB, Wanyoike GJ, Otieno D, J O. "Day Care Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy outcomes at a dedicated unit in Nairobi, Kenya: Is it time to change?" East African Medical Journal . 2017;94:6-12.
"Kanyinga K". "Demystifying politics of land tenure: Okoth-Ogendo and the concept of land in Africa.". In: The Gallant Academic: Essays in Honour of H. W. O. Okoth-Ogendo. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Kihara EN  , P G, Liversidge HM, F B, Gikenye. "Dental age estimation in a group of Kenyan children using Willems' method: a radiographic study." Ann Hum Biol. 2017;44:614-621(7):614-621.
Njogu PM, Okombo J, Chibale K. "Designed Hybrid Compounds for Tropical Parasitic Diseases.". In: Design of Hybrid Molecules for Drug Development (First Edition). London: Elsevier; 2017.
Gichamba A, Wagacha PW, Ochieng DO. "Designing mAgriculture Applications for Rural Smallholder Farmers.". 2017. Abstract

ICT has been widely accepted and adopted as a key driver for various sectors of
the economy for both the developing and developed nations. In developing countries, there
have been multiple interventions to employ the available technology such as mobile,
wireless, radio and TV technologies in key areas that concern human development such as
health, agriculture, education and finance. The design and development practices, are
mostly borrowed from established markets with different user profiles, and do not always

KARURI J, Waiganjo P, Daniel ORWA. "Determinants of Acceptance and Use of DHIS2 in Kenya: UTAUT-Based Model." Journal of Health Informatics in Developing Countries. 2017;11(1). Abstractfull text link

Background: In 2010, Kenya initiated the process of adoption and implementation of a web-based system (DHIS2) as the national HIS to facilitate management of routine health information for evidence-based decision making. To reap maximum benefit from this implementation, DHIS2 needed to gain acceptance from all categories of targeted users. This study, conducted between June and August 2014, sought to develop a new technology acceptance model that can better explain the key determinants of acceptance and use of DHIS2 in Kenya.
Methods: The model was adapted from the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). An exploratory study was conducted primarily through the use of quantitative methods, but qualitative Key Informant Interview (KII) data was also collected in a pre-study to provide the background and contextual information used in refining the model. In the main phase of the study, a questionnaire was administered to health workers through cross-sectional survey both at national and regional levels.
Results: The total number of valid questionnaires returned was 269 against the 300 that were issued. This number represents slightly more than 20% of the approximately 1,100 health workers who have been trained on DHIS2 in Kenya, and these were drawn from at least 10 of Kenya’s 47 counties. Analysis of the survey data was done in two parts: descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS statistical analysis tool for the purpose of obtaining frequencies, means, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis. Subsequently Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and specifically Partial Least Square path modeling (PLS), was used to analyze the conceptual model and test the proposed hypotheses.
Conclusion: The resulting model revealed that social influence was the most pertinent predictor of behavioral intention in the study setting, while facilitating condition and computer anxiety play a significant role in predicting actual use of DHIS2. Findings from this case study can be extended to explain acceptance and use of health IT in other similar settings. Future research can test more variables and moderators to increase the overall predictive levels of the model.

Maalim H, Omuga B, Ongeso A, Okube T. "Determinants of Mode of Delivery Among Postnatal Mothers Admitted in Wajir County Referral Hospital, Kenya." EC Gynaecology. 2017;6(4):128-138. Abstract

Background: Globally, giving birth through the natural process, ‘Vaginally’ has been widely accepted as unquestioned mode of birth. On the other hand, use of caesarean Section (CS), which involves a surgical incision, has also been utilized as a mode of delivery especially among women with medical or obstetric indications. Delivery through CS is a life saving measure which plays a crucial role in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality from direct causes such as hemorrhage, infection, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and obstructed labor [1]. In Kenya, the National maternal mortality rate was 362/100,000. However, in the study area, Wajir county, it was 1683/100,000 [2]. Advances in technology and its adoption in reproductive health have resulted in an increase in the number of Caesarean delivery in the recent years. This has increased options for preferred mode of delivery for mothers and plays a significant role in reduction of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity rates. However, in most African countries, mainly in rural and marginalized areas, use of caesarian section remains low even when there is clear indication. Despite this, limited studies to establish determinants of modes of delivery have been done especially in remote rural areas such as Wajir County.
Objective: The main objective of this study was to establish determinants of mode of delivery among postnatal mothers admitted in Wajir County referral Hospital.
Materials and Methods: A hospital based descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. Mixed method of quantitative and qualitative data was employed among 178 postnatal mothers who were systematically sampled from Wajir county Referral hospital.
Quantitative data was collected using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire and qualitative data was collected using Focus group discussion from the postnatal mothers. Descriptive analysis using means, frequency and proportions was computed. Chi-square test
(p < 0.05) with corresponding 95% confidence interval was used to determine the association between the various variables.
Results: The prevalence of Caesarian Section delivery among the respondents was 32%. Analyses with Chi-Square test of independence revealed that maternal age (p = 0.001), marital status (p = 0.016), level of education (p = 0.007), parity (p = 0.03), FGM practice
(p = 0.001) and belonging to the social health groups (p = 0.001) were the variables significantly associated with mode of delivery. A substantial number of women did not have sufficient knowledge on delivery options, benefits and risks to inform their decisions on delivery modes.
Conclusion: Vaginal Delivery is the most preferred mode of delivery even when CS is medically indicated. Caesarian section acceptance remains low due to lack of correct knowledge, poor attitude towards CS and lack of proper women counseling during ANC visits. Therefore, there is need for educational and economic empowerment of women and girls complemented with effective community sensitization and awareness campaigns on delivery-related complications, risks and alternative delivery options for emergency cases.
Keywords: Mode of Delivery; Postnatal Mothers; Wajir County Referral Hospital; Vaginal Delivery

and Joseph G. Kabiru PMEMN. "Determinants of workers’ welfare in cut flower industry in Kenya." International Jounal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2017;4(2313-3759):1-17.
Okoth S. "Determining resistance to Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin accumulation in African maize inbred lines resistant to Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxins." Euphytica. 2017;213(4):93. Abstract10.10072fs10681-017-1883-7.pdfWebsite

Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus
flavus cause Fusarium ear rot (FER) and Aspergillus
ear rot (AER) of maize, respectively. Both pathogens
are of concern to producers as they reduce grain yield
and affect quality. F. verticillioides and A. flavus also
contaminate maize grain with the mycotoxins fumonisins
and aflatoxins, respectively, which has been
associated with mycotoxicosis in humans and animals.
The occurrence of common resistance mechanisms to
FER and AER has been reported. Hence, ten Kenyan
inbred lines resistant to AER and aflatoxin accumulation
were evaluated for resistance to FER, F.
verticillioides colonisation and fumonisin accumulation;
and compared to nine South African lines
resistant to FER and fumonisin accumulation. Field
trials were conducted at three localities in South Africa
and two localities in Kenya. FER severity was
determined by visual assessment, while F. verticillioides
colonisation and fumonisin content were
quantified by real-time PCR and liquid chromatography
tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Significant
genotype x environment interactions was
determined at each location (P B 0.05). Kenyan
inbred CML495 was most resistant to FER and F.
verticillioides colonisation, and accumulated the lowest
concentration of fumonisins across localities. It
was, however, not significantly more resistant than
Kenyan lines CML264 and CKL05015, and the South
African line RO549 W, which also exhibited low FER
severity (B5%), fungal target DNA (B0.025 ng lL-1
)
and fumonisin levels (B2.5 mg kg-1
). Inbred lines
resistant to AER and aflatoxin accumulation appear to
be promising sources of resistance to F. verticillioides
and fumonisin contamination.
Keywords Fusarium ear rot Aspergillus ear rot
Resistance Mycotoxins Maize inbred lines
In

English MM, Irimu GG, Nyamai RR, Were FF, Garner PP, Opiyo NN, F W. "Developing guidelines in low-income and middle-income countries: lessons from Kenya." Arch Dis Child. 2017;1(6). AbstractWebsite

There are few examples of sustained nationally organised, evidence-informed clinical guidelines development processes in Sub-Saharan Africa. We describe the evolution of efforts from 2005 to 2015 to support evidence-informed decision making to guide admission hospital care practices in Kenya. The approach to conduct reviews, present evidence, and structure and promote transparency of consensus-based procedures for making recommendations improved over four distinct rounds of policy making. Efforts to engage important voices extended from government and academia initially to include multiple professional associations, regulators and practitioners. More than 100 people have been engaged in the decision-making process; an increasing number outside the research team has contributed to the conduct of systematic reviews, and 31 clinical policy recommendations has been developed. Recommendations were incorporated into clinical guideline booklets that have been widely disseminated with a popular knowledge and skills training course. Both helped translate evidence into practice. We contend that these efforts have helped improve the use of evidence to inform policy. The systematic reviews, Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approaches and evidence to decision-making process are well understood by clinicians, and the process has helped create a broad community engaged in evidence translation together with a social or professional norm to use evidence in paediatric care in Kenya. Specific sustained efforts should be made to support capacity and evidence-based decision making in other African settings and clinical disciplines.

Wambua L, Bernd Schneider, Allan Okwaro, Joseph Odhiambo Wanga, Olive Imali, Peninah Nduku Wambua, Lavender Agutu, Cassandra Olds, Chris Stephen Jones. "Development of field-applicable tests for rapid and sensitive detection of Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae." Molecular and cellular probes. 2017;35:44-56.
King-Okumu C, Wasonga OV, Jarso I, Salah YMS. "Direct use values of climate-dependent ecosystem services in Isiolo County, Kenya.". 2017. Abstract

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Okumu PO, Karanja DN, Gathumbi PK. Diseases of domestic rabbits and associated risk factors in Kenya. Germany : LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing ; 2017.
Nguhiu J, P M F M, JK W, Mbuthia P G. "Disorders of the claw and their association with laminitis in smallholder zero-grazed dairy cows." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2017;6(2):64-69.
Bernard K, Wandiga SO, Madadi VO, Mukabi M. "Dissipation studies of Amitraz in cattle dips in Bureti, Kericho county- Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;3(5):248-253.
Kamau BN, Wandiga SO, Madadi VO. "Dissipation Studies of Ridomil Gold Pesticide on Potatoes in Nyandarua County, Kenya." IJSRSET. 2017;3(5):221-229.
Nyaga LW, Gach. "Distance Learning Approach to Train Health Sciences Students at the University of Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(February 2017):101-105.
Aldhaher A, Langat M, Ndunda B, Chirchir D, Midiwo JO, Njue A, Schwikkard S, Carew M, Mulholland D. "Diterpenoids from the roots of Croton dichogamus Pax." Phytochemistry. 2017;144:1-8. AbstractFull text

Four previously undescribed diterpenoids including two crotofolanes, crotodichogamoin A and B, and two halimanes, crothalimene A and B, a new sesquiterpenoid, and fifteen previously reported compounds, including the crotofolane, crotohaumanoxide, the casbane, depressin, a further seven furanohalimane diterpenoids, three patchoulane and two further cadinane sesquiterpenoids and aleuritolic acid were isolated from the root of Croton dichogamus. Crotodichogamoin B is an important biosynthetic intermediate of the crotofolane class and this is the first report of patchoulene sesquiterpenoids from the genus. Compounds were tested at one concentration, 1 × 10−5 M, in the NCI59 cell one-dose screen but did not show significant activity snd were also evaluated for their cytotoxicity against Caco-2 cell lines using the neutral red assay. 10-epi-Maninsigin D reduced Caco-2 cell viability at 10, 30 and 100 μM, with values of decreased viability of 28%, 48% and 43% respectively. None of the other tested compounds showed significant activity.
Keywords
Croton dichogamusEuphorbiaceaeCrotofolaneCrotodichogamoin BCrothalimene ACrothalimene BPatchoulaneCaco-2 cell viability

Odhiambo, G. WOOJJ & M. "Dividend Announcements and Market Value of Shares in the Agricultural Companies Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange. ." Scholars Journal of Economics, Business and Management. 2017.
Mulanda ES, Awori RM, Chuhila Y, Adero MO, Amugune NO, Akunda E, Kinyamario JI. "A DNA-barcode for Melia volkensii Grke (Meliaceae) and its phylogenetic relationship with some economically important relatives." African Journal of Plant Science. 2017;10(3):58-67.
Kariuki Samwel Muiruri, Britt A, Amugune NO, Nguu E, Chan S, Tripathi L. "Dominant Allele Phylogeny and Constitutive Subgenome Haplotype Inference in Bananas Using Mitochondrial and Nuclear Markers." Genome biology and evolution. 2017;9(10):2510-2521.
Madadi VO, Ngotho MW, Masese FA. "Drinking Water Quality Challenges in Nakuru County, Kenya." IJSRSET. 2017;3(6):5-11.
Dr. Juliet Gathoni Muiga PRWR. "Drivers of Gated Community Developments in Urban Areas (Case Study: Nairobi, Kenya)." International Journal of Architecture and Urban Development -IJAUD. 2017;Volume 7(Issue 4):Pages 5-18.
Egeru A, Wasonga O, Majaliwa Mwanjalolo GJ, MacOpiyo L, Mburu J. "Dynamics of land use and land cover change in semi-arid Karamoja sub-region, Uganda.". 2017. Abstract

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Soki KB, Were AJ, OGOLA EN, Nyale GM, Murage MM. "An echocardiographic evaluation of pulmonary pressures in hemodialysis patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(6). AbstractWebsite

Abstract

Background: A high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has been noted. In these patients, PH increases morbidity and mortality and worsens prognosis post-renal transplant. Its aetiopathogenesis may be multifactorial, involving the process of haemodialysis itself.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of PH among patients with ESRD undergoing haemodialysis at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), using Doppler echocardiography

Design: 117 patients were consecutively recruited into this cross-sectional study.
Medical history was used to exclude patients with possible PH of known aetiology. Patients were examined for features of fluid overload. Each patient then underwent haemodialysis followed by echocardiography within two hours. Haemoglobin was measured.

Setting: The Renal Unit, KNH, a tertiary hospital in Nairobi

Subjects: Patients undergoing regular haemodialysis within the renal unit, thirteen years and above, who gave written informed consent or assent.

Results: 63.2% of the participants were male. Mean age was 44 years. Prevalence of PH among ESRD patients was 32.5%, with a median PASP of 47.3mmHg and a range of 36.1–79 mmHg. A strong association between PH and EF of less than 50%, as a marker of LV dysfunction, was demonstrated.

Conclusion: The prevalence of PH among end-stage renal disease patients was high. This suggests an indication for routinely screening haemodialysis patients for PH.

Keywords: ESRD: End stage renal disease, LV: Left ventricle, KNH: Kenyatta National Hospital, PASP: Pulmonary arterial systolic pressure, PH: Pulmonary Hypertension

Mutegi R.G., Muriithi. M.K., G. W. "Education Policies in Kenya : Does Free Secondary Education Promote Equity in Public Secondary Schools?" In International Journal of Development Research. 2017;7(11):16696-16699 .abstract2.pdf
Mutegi RG, Muriithi MK, Wanjala G. "EDUCATION POLICIES IN KENYA: DOES FREE SECONDARY EDUCATION PROMOTE EQUITY IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS?" International Journal of Development Research. 2017;07(11):16696-16699.policies_in_education.pdf
Richard K, Faith O, Margaret O, Anne N, Wallace B. "Effect of ABCB1 C3435T Polymorphism on Clinical Outcomes in Kenyan HIV Patients on Lopinavir-Based Regimens." Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2017;7:478-488. Abstract13-jpp2017041704.pdf

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Mungai LM, Elly D. "The Effect of Alternative Investments on the Financial Performance of Pension Funds in Kenya." African development finance journal. 2017;1(2):160-181. Abstract

Purpose - This research focused on the effects of alternative investments on the
financial performance of pension schemes in Kenya.
Methodology - This research was descriptive and Secondary data covering a period
of 5 years, 2012-2016, and comprised a population of 442 segregated pension
schemes and from which a sample of 90 schemes was selected using stratified
sampling technique. Only data from 385 schemes was available. The remaining 57
schemes did not qualify for sampling due to incomplete data, data received did not
pass sense checks and also responses to queries were not received on time. The data
was obtained from the Retirement Benefit Authority and the Actuaries Survey from
Alexander Forbes Consulting. Diagnostic tests carried out were tests for normality,
multicollinearity and autocorrelation. They were used to test for data fitness before
any further analysis. The study also employed the use of a linear multiple regression
model to analyze the effect of alternative investments on the financial performance of
pension funds in Kenya. The tests of significance used in the study were the t-test, F

Ogilo F. "EFFECT OF BANKING REGULATIONS ON FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN KENYA." International Journal of Science Arts and Commerce. 2017;Vol. 2 No. 9, November-2017(2(9)):72-78.
Mwangi JT, Kibui AW. "Effect of Chemistry Practicals on Students’ Performance in Chemistry in Public Secondary Schools of Machakos and Nairobi Counties in Kenya." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2017;Volume 6(Issue 8):586-588.
and Digolo, P.O.O. KNMWGBNS. "Effect of Computer Based Instruction on Learner Performance in art and Design in Public secondary Schools in Kenya." The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies, . 2017;5(6):99-103.
Wanjiru KG, Digolo Patrick Ochieng Obonyo, Boniface N, Owino MS. "Effect of Computer Based Instruction on Learners’ Performance in Art and Design in public secondary schools in Kenya. ." The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies.. 2017;5(6).
Shakur H, Roberts I, Fawole B, Chaudhri R, El-Sheikh M, desina Akintan, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Kidanto H, Vwalika B, Abdulkadir A, Etuk S, Noor S, Asonganyi E, Alfirevic Z, Beaumont D, Ronsmans C, Arulkumaran S. "Effect of early tranexamic acid administration on mortality, hysterectomy, and other morbidities in women with post-partum haemorrhage (WOMAN): an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial." Lancet. 2017. AbstractWebsite

Summary
Background
Post-partum haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide. Early administration of
tranexamic acid reduces deaths due to bleeding in trauma patients. We aimed to assess the effects of early administration
of tranexamic acid on death, hysterectomy, and other relevant outcomes in women with post-partum haemorrhage.
Methods
In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited women aged 16 years and older with a
clinical diagnosis of post-partum haemorrhage after a vaginal birth or caesarean section from 193 hospitals in 21 countries.
We randomly assigned women to receive either 1 g intravenous tranexamic acid or matching placebo in addition to usual
care. If bleeding continued after 30 min, or stopped and restarted within 24 h of the first dose, a second dose of 1 g of
tranexamic acid or placebo could be given. Patients were assigned by selection of a numbered treatment pack from a box
containing eight numbered packs that were identical apart from the pack number. Participants, care givers, and those
assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. We originally planned to enrol 15
000 women with a composite primary
endpoint of death from all-causes or hysterectomy within 42 days of giving birth. However, during the trial it became
apparent that the decision to conduct a hysterectomy was often made at the same time as randomisation. Although
tranexamic acid could influence the risk of death in these cases, it could not affect the risk of hysterectomy. We therefore
increased the sample size from 15
000 to 20
000 women in order to estimate the effect of tranexamic acid on the risk of
death from post-partum haemorrhage. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with
ISRCTN76912190 (Dec 8, 2008); ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00872469; and PACTR201007000192283.
Findings
Between March, 2010, and April, 2016, 20
060
women were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive
tranexamic acid (n=10
051) or placebo (n=10
009), of whom 10
036 and 9985, respectively, were included in the analysis.
Death due to bleeding was significantly reduced in women given tranexamic acid (155 [1·5%] of 10
036 patients
vs
191
[1·9%] of 9985 in the placebo group, risk ratio [RR] 0·81, 95% CI 0·65–1·00; p=0·045), especially in women given
treatment within 3 h of giving birth (89 [1·2%] in the tranexamic acid group
vs
127 [1·7%] in the placebo group,
RR 0·69, 95% CI 0·52–0·91; p=0·008). All other causes of death did not differ significantly by group. Hysterectomy
was not reduced with tranexamic acid (358 [3·6%] patients in the tranexamic acid group
vs
351 [3·5%] in the placebo
group, RR 1·02, 95% CI 0·88–1·07; p=0·84). The composite primary endpoint of death from all causes or hysterectomy
was not reduced with tranexamic acid (534 [5·3%] deaths or hysterectomies in the tranexamic acid group
vs
546 [5·5%]
in the placebo group, RR 0·97, 95% CI 0·87-1·09; p=0·65). Adverse events (including thromboembolic events) did
not differ significantly in the tranexamic acid versus placebo group.
Interpretation
Tranexamic acid reduces death due to bleeding in women with post-partum haemorrhage with no
adverse effects. When used as a treatment for postpartum haemorrhage, tranexamic acid should be given as soon as
possible after bleeding onset.
Funding
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Pfizer, UK Department of Health, Wellcome Trust, and
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Mbogo NW, Kinama JM, Onyango CM, JN K. "Effect of inorganic fertilizer and cattle manure on growth and yield of two Kenyan potato varieties." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR). 2017;10(1):65-72.
Njiru FAK, Elly D. "Effect of Monetary Policy on Credit Supply in Kenya ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):28-43. Abstract

Purpose- This paper sought to establish the effect of monetary policy on credit supply in Kenya.
Methodology- This study adopted a descriptive research design. Descriptive statistics such as mean, median, minimum, maximum and standard deviation were used to describe the trend of the variables. Breusch Godfrey serial correlation LM test was used to test correlation of the study variables. Stationarity tests on time series data was conducted using augmented dickey fuller test statistic. Regression analysis was used to establish the influence of monetary policy on credit supply.
Findings- The study concluded that CRR, OMO and Inflation are significant and have a negative effect on credit supply. The model was also fit to explain the relationship as 76% (R2= 0.761160) variation of the dependent variable (Credit supply) was explained by the independent variables (OMO, CRR, CBR and Inflation) in the long run. Adjusted R- square which provides adjustment to the R Square was73% (Adjusted R2= 0.736664) indicating 73% variation in credit supply was explained by independent variables (OMO, CRR, CBR and Inflation). F- Statistic 31.07233 was significant at 1% level P=0.0000.
Implications – The study recommends that the Central Bank of Kenya should come up with monitoring and evaluation programmes of monitoring how credit supply is influenced by various monetary policy instruments and should streamline the economic environment in which banks operate by ensuring CRR, OMO and Inflation are maintained at a constant.
Value –The study narrowed in scope to commercial banks and excluded the non-banking organizations. Additionally a study should be done on the impact of monetary policy on money supply to capture both banking and non-banking institutions. The research had a presumption that the relationship of the variables was linear therefore more studies should be carried out explore nonlinear relationship on the variables of study,
Key Words: Credit Supply, Monetary policy

Jawuoro SO, Koech OK, Karuku GN, Mbau JS. "Effect of piospheres on physio-chemical soil properties in the Southern Rangelands of Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017;6:14.
Mbogo PK, Aduda J, Mwangi M. "The Effect of Portfolio Size on the Financial Performance of Portfolios of Investment Firms in Kenya." American Journal of Finance. 2017;1(2):1-15.
Ombega NJ, Mureithi SM, Koech OK, Karuma AN, Gachene CKK. "Effect of rangeland rehabilitation on the herbaceous species composition and diversity in Suswa catchment, Narok County, Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017;6(1):41.
Kinyanjui E, Ochieng DE. "Effect of Remittances from Diaspora on Financial Sector Deepening in the East African Community ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):82-10. Abstract

Abstract
Purpose – This paper investigated the effect of diaspora remittances on financial sector deepening in the East African Community. Personal diaspora remittances were used as a measure of remittances from diaspora. The three proxies for financial deepening that were employed in the study were domestic credit as a ratio of GDP, total credit provided by the financial sector as a percentage of GDP and degree of monetization, M2 as a percentage of GDP.
Methodology – The study adopted an explanatory research design. It employed panel data analysis - fixed effects method, to model the linear regression equation. The population of the study was the five East African Community member countries and covered a 20-year period (1997 to 2016). The data for this study was obtained from the World Bank statistics website.
Findings – This study established that there exists a positive relationship between remittances from diaspora and financial sector deepening in the EAC but this relationship is not significant. The three models analyzed in this study, show that a 0.31, 0.08 and 0.28 change respectively, in remittances in the respective models, leads to a unit change in the level of financial sector deepening in the EAC.
Implications – The results of this study show that an increase in the level of remittances leads to increased financial deepening in the EAC economies. There is therefore need for the government in liaison with the private sector, to provide a conducive environment for development of financially innovative products that ease and reduce the cost of sending remittances as this will foster further financial deepening, which has the positive effect of financial inclusion, access to credit and economic growth.
Value – This study recommended the fostering of activities that are geared towards the ease of sending remittances and cost reduction of sending the remittances through employment of new financial technologies. Further studies have also been recommended to increase the frontiers of the study especially on developed countries in order to gain more conclusive understanding and generalizability of the remittances-financial sector deepening nexus.

Key Words; Diaspora remittances, Financial sector deepening, East Africa Community

Otsyina H, Nguhiu J, E M, Mbuthia P G, W O. "Effect of ruminal plastic bags on wellbeing of goats." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production Africa. 2017;65:435-443.
Mumia BI, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Nyongesa M, Olubayo FM. "Effect of Seed Potato Tuber Storage Methods on Occurrence of Potato Diseases." International Journal of Research in Agricultural Sciences . 2017;4(4):23-48.
Mwangi PM, Ochieng DE. "The Effect of Selected Macro-economic Variables on Exchange Rates in Kenya." African development finance journal. 2017;1(2):162-177. Abstractthe_effect_of_selected_macro_economic_variables_on_exchange_rates_in_kenya.pdf

Purpose – This paper sought to establish the effect of selected macro-economic variables
on exchange rates in Kenya. The selected macro-economic variables for this study were
interest rates, inflation rates and trade flows.
Methodology – The study was modeled as a descriptive survey. A data collection sheet
was used to collect secondary data from the published bulletin and other publications by
Central Bank of Kenya and Kenya National Bureau of Statistics for a period of ten years
between 2006 and 2015. The data was examined using descriptive, correlation and
regression analyses.
Findings - Results of the study showed that interest rate had a positive correlation
coefficient of 0.446 with exchange rate, Inflation rate and exchange rate had a correlation
coefficient of negative 0.395 while the Level of aggregation of trade flows had a
correlation coefficient of positive 0.829 to the exchange rate. The value of R square was
0.745, a discovery that 74.5 percent of the deviations in exchange rates in Kenya
occurred due to changes in interest rate, inflation rate and trade flows at 95 percent
confidence level. The significance value obtained was less than p=0.05 implying that the
model was statistically significant in predicting how the macro economic variables of
interest rate, inflation rate and trade flows affect exchange rates in Kenya.
Implications - The Kenyan shilling has been depreciating in value over the years
implying a weakening of its purchasing power in the international markets. Policy makers
should come up with policies that will contribute to reversing this trend. Managing the
prevailing levels of inflation, interest rates and trade flows will be key as they have been
found to significantly affect exchange rates.
Value - The study will act as a guide to variou

Abong'o DA, Onyatta JO, Mbugua H. "The Effect of Septic Tanks Sewage Disposal System Distances on Borehole Water Quality in Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, Kenya." European International Journal of Science and Technology. 2017;6(3):1-10.
A A’oD, J.O O, M H. "The Effect of Septic Tanks Sewage Disposal System Distances On Borehole Water Quality in Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, Kenya:." The Effect of Septic Tanks Sewage Disposal System Distances On Borehole Water Quality in Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, Kenya. 2017;6(3):1-10.
Munyao SM, ODOCK SO, Rucha K. "Effect of service quality management practices on operational performance of petroleum distributing firms in Kenya." International Journal of Science Arts and Commerce. 2017;2(2):49-71. Abstract

The desire of any service organization is to deliver quality service that meets their customer expectations so as to remain profitable and in business. The service market has now become more competitive than ever before and meeting customer needs is a necessity. Petroleum distributing firms in Kenya are at a great task of perfecting their service delivery systems to ensure that their customers get quality product at the right time, right quantity and above all safely. Well managed service quality practices have the potential of transforming the operational performance of an organization. The objectives of the study were to determine the extent of adoption of service quality management practices by petroleum distributing firms in Kenya, the challenges they face in the implementation of these practices and the effect of these practices on the firms’ operational performance. The study was carried out through a descriptive survey of 32 petroleum distributing firms in Kenya. Drop and pick later questionnaires were used to collect primary data. The collected data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and descriptive statistics like mean and standard deviation used to summarize the findings. The regression analysis technique was used to establish the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. The research findings were presented in tables. The findings indicated that petroleum distributing firms adopted various service quality management practices to a large extent. The findings also indicated that the firms were faced by various challenges in their endeavour to implement the service quality management practices. Further, the findings indicated that there existed generally a positive relationship between service quality management practices and operational performance. The main conclusion was that the adoption of service quality management practices by petroleum distributing firms was inevitable since it improved the operational performance of these firms. The researcher recommends that policy makers should ensure organizations embrace service quality management practices for improved productivity and better returns from their investments. The researcher concludes by suggesting that similar research to be carried out in other sectors of the economy other than petroleum industry.

Morris MM, Muthomi JW, Wagacha JM. "Effect of Soil Fertility and Intercropping on the Incidence and Severity of Root Rot Diseases of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). ." World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;5(4):189-199.
Otieno AO, Karuku GN, Raude JM, Koech OK. "Effectiveness of the Horizontal, Vertical and Hybrid Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland Systems in Polishing Municipal Wastewater." Environmental Management and Sustainable Development. 2017;6(2):158-173.
Waweru G, Ochieng’ DDE. "EFFECTS OF CAPITAL FLOWS ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN KENYA ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):1-17. Abstracteffects_of_capital_flows_on_economic_growth_in_kenya.pdf

Purpose -This study investigated the immediate and lagged effects of the various forms of capital flows - FDI flows, portfolio flows and “Other investments capital flows” (which mainly represents corporate, financial institutions and general government borrowings as well as remittances from the diaspora) - on economic growth in Kenya over a 30 year period from 1984 to 2014.
Methodology – The study adopted a quantitative research design in the form of an econometric model known as Auto Regressive Distributed Lag Model (ARDLM). Findings -FDI and portfolio investments flows have a negative impact on the GDP growth rate and that their impact is not statistically significant.However, other investments flows, which mainly represent corporate, financial institutions, general government borrowings and remittances from the diaspora, have a positive impact on GDP growth rate and the impact is statistically significant.Based on the study findings, it can be inferred that a significant slowdown or a reversal in capital flows in form of “Other investments capital flows” into Kenya result into significant slowdown in economic growth in the country. Implications -Policy makers may lay much emphasis on attracting portfolio investment flows and “Other investments capital flows”, while investors and firms should consider the upside opportunities that may be created by increase in other investments capital flows and the downside risks that could results from a significant slowdown or a reversal in these forms of capital flows into the country.

Keywords: Capital flows, Economic growth, FDI flows, portfolio investment flows, Private equity, Diaspora remittances, Auto Regressive Distributed Lag Model.

Mwangi TJ, Kibui AW. "Effects of Chemistry practicals on students' performance in secondary school chemistry." International Journal of Science and Research. 2017;(ISSN (Online)).
Elly D, Kaijage ES. "Effects of Demand Side Factors on Access to External Finance by Small and Medium Manufacturing Enterprises in Nairobi, Kenya ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):44-6. Abstract

Abstract Purpose - This paper investigates how demand-side factors affect access to external finance by small and medium manufacturing enterprises (SMMEs) in Nairobi, Kenya. The demand-side factors considered in the study are firm characteristics, financial management practices and entrepreneur characteristics. Methodology - The study employs an exploratory survey design utilizing quantitative methods in data collection and analysis. Data is analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Logistic regression is used to test the relationship between demand-side factors and access to external finance because of the dichotomous nature of the dependent variable. Findings – The study establishes that some of the demand-side factors significantly influence access to external finance. These factors include variations in entrepreneur’s networks, firm growth and earnings volatility which explain variations in odds of access to external finance by 39.9 percent for networks and 45.8 percent for earnings volatility and firm growth. Implications – To minimize SMMEs financial constraints, social networking amongst entrepreneurs, firm growth and stabilized earning should be prioritized by management and policy makers. Though ethnic orientation influences the odds of access to external finance, policy efforts should be put in place to ensure efficiency in external financing markets so that entrepreneurs are not disenfranchised on this basis. Value - The study recommends establishment and support of sustainable social networks that guarantee enterprise growth given that firm growth also influence odds of access to external finance. Further studies should probe the significance of good financial management practices on odds of access to external finance in diverse settings and industries.

E K, J M. "Effects of East African Community integration on trade volume in the region." International Journal of Science, Arts and Commerce. 2017;2(9):23-37.
HM M, Kipyegon AN TVT. "Effects of Exposure to Effluent Contaminated River Water on Boar Reproduction." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2017;6(1):49-52.mutembei_and_kipyegon_2017.pdf
AN K, Mutembei HM, Tsuma VT, Oduma JA. "Effects of exposure to effluent contaminated river water on boar reproduction." Inter J Vet Sci. 2017;6(1):49-52.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "The effects of Intermolecular Interaction in Line Broadening Phenomena.". In: J. Molecular Physics. University of Nairobi Press; 2017. Abstract

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GITHINJI EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, MACHANI MAXWEL. "Effects of kdr gene frequencies on major malaria vectors’ resting behaviour in Teso sub-counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
GITHINJI EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, MACHANI MAXWEL. "Effects of kdr gene frequencies on major malaria vectors’ resting behaviour in Teso sub-counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
Okoth S. "Effects of Medicinal Plant Extracts and Photosensitization on Aflatoxin Producing Aspergillus flavus (Raper and Fennell)." International journal of microbiology. 2017:1-9. Abstract5273893.pdfWebsite

This study was undertaken with an aim of exploring the effectiveness of medicinal plant extracts in the control of aflatoxin
production. Antifungal properties, photosensitization, and phytochemical composition of aqueous and organic extracts of fruits
fromSolanumaculeastrum, bark fromSyzygium cordatum, and leaves from Prunus africana, Ocimum lamiifolium, Lippia kituiensis,
and Spinacia oleracea were tested. Spores from four-day-old cultures of previously identified toxigenic fungi, UONV017 and
UONV003, were used. Disc diffusion and broth dilution methods were used to test the antifungal activity. The spores were
suspended in 2ml of each extract separately and treated with visible light (420 nm) for varying periods. Organic extracts displayed
species and concentration dependent antifungal activity. Solanum aculeastrum had the highest zones of inhibition diameters in
both strains: UONV017 (mean = 18.50 ± 0.71 mm) and UONV003 (mean = 11.92 ± 0.94 mm) at 600mg/ml. Aqueous extracts
had no antifungal activity because all diameters were below 8 mm. Solanum aculeastrum had the lowest minimum inhibitory
concentration at 25mg/ml against A. flavusUONV017.All the plant extracts in combinationwith light reduced the viability of fungal
conidia compared with the controls without light, without extracts, and without both extracts and light. Six bioactive compounds
were analyzed in the plant extracts. Medicinal plant extracts in this study can control conidia viability and hence with further
development can control toxigenic fungal spread.

Njoki LM, Okoth SA, Wachira PM. "Effects of Medicinal Plant Extracts and Photosensitization on Aflatoxin Producing Aspergillus flavus (Raper and Fennell)." International Journal of Microbiology. 2017:Pages 9 doi:10.1155/2017/5273893.
Wachege PN, Rugendo FG. "Effects of Modernization on Youths' Morality: A Case of Karuri Catholic Parish, Kenya." International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences. 2017;7(12):691-711.wachege_rugendo_article_1.pdf
Mwangi S, Elly DD. "Effects of Operating Environment Factors on Infrastructure Finance Flows in the Capital Markets in Kenya ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):132-159 . Abstract

Purpose – This study sought to establish the whether the operating environment factors affect efficient infrastructure finance flows in the capital markets in Kenya. Policy framework, legal environment, regulations and institutions are the operating environment factors which influence the infrastructure finance flows through the capital markets.

Methodology – The study was undertaken using descriptive research design where a questionnaire was used targeting a population of 100 infrastructure related institutions. The questionnaire used to collect quantitative data was on the Likert scale with numerical scores 1 to 5. Descriptive and regression analysis were conducted on the data to show how each independent variable of the operating environment factors influences the infrastructure finance flows.

Findings – Majority of respondents think that there are inadequate policies, laws and regulations while half of these respondents believe that the institutions lack the necessary capacity to operate efficiently and effectively. From the results, majority of these respondents agreed that there is need for an urgent review of the existing financial sector policies and institutions. Half of the respondents want the regulations revised but majority of these respondents believe that the existing laws do not require review. The results indicated that the policy framework, legal environment, regulations and institutions significantly affect the infrastructure finance flows through the capital markets in Kenya. From the results, it can be concluded that there are no adequate policy, legal, regulatory and institutional arrangements to facilitate the uptake of infrastructure finance in the capital markets. Further, it can be deduced that the policy, legal, regulatory and institutional regimes are poorly configured to deliver financing of infrastructure projects in the capital markets of Kenya. Finally, it can be inferred that the financial sector policies, regulations and institutions are not strong enough to provide a supportive environment in delivery of infrastructure finance.

Implications – The financial sector policies, laws, regulations and institutions need to be reviewed in order to create a conducive operating environment for financing of infrastructure investments. Benchmarking studies are critical for enhancement of policies, laws, regulations and institutions based on the international best practices for efficient and effective delivery of infrastructure finance through the capital markets in Kenya. Further research is recommended on effects of operating environment factors on infrastructure finance flows in the capital markets in Kenya.

Keywords: Infrastructure investments, policy framework, legal environment, regulations, institutions

"EFFECTS OF SELECTED FIRMS CHARACTERISTICS ON CAPITAL STRUCTURE DECISIONS OF FIRMS LISTED AT THE NAIROBI SECURITIES EXCHANGE ." African development finance journal . 2017;1(2):102-116 . Abstracteffects_of_selected_firms_characteristics_on_capital_structure_decisions_of_firms_listed_at_the_nairobi_securities_exchange.pdf

Purpose - Capital structure choice remains a crucial decision alongside the vital choices intended by a corporate since they have a high consequence on the value and the cost of the company. Therefore this study main focus was to examine the effects of selected firms characteristics on the capital structure decisions of companies registered at the Nairobi Stock exchange.
Methodology - The study adopted a descriptive research design and used secondary data. The collected data was analyzed with the help of the SPSS software version 23 and presented with the help of frequency distributions, computation of mean and standard deviation. The association between the research variables was presented in a correlation matrix and a regression model.
Findings - Firm size showed greatest influence on the company choice of capital structure among the firms followed by asset structure, profitability and liquidity. Further, the regression model also generated adjusted R squared value of 0.692 that is to mean 69.2% of the variations in financing options can be well illustrated by variations in the firm size, asset structure, profitability and liquidity. The findings from the study indicated an affirmative correlation among firm’s size and the financing options. The findings also revealed an affirmative association among assets structure against the source of financing. The findings from the research also showed that there is undesirable association among the firm’s profitability and source of financing of the firms listed at the NSE while a negative relationship among liquidity and the principal investment was exhibited in the research findings. This leads to a conclusion that rise in company size resulted to a rise in the investment structure of a firm therefore increase in demand to increase the capital base by seeking more financing. The study also found out that an increase in asset structure resulted in an increase in capital structure while an increase in profitability levels resulted in decrease in capital structure; increase in in liquidity levels led to a decrease in capital structure of the firms listed at the NSE.
Implications –The study findings emphasize that firms should understand the specific characteristics that influence choice of their respective capital structure in order to opt for the best financing option. The study also further suggested that similar studies should be carried out every three to five years to find out the significance of firm characteristics on choice of capital structure of firms listed at the NSE
Value -The findings of the study would be significant to public institutions and other non-listed firms in the choice of financing options and design of capital structure. Policy makers would infer the findings in formulation of relevant capital structure policies.
Key words: Capital structure decisions, size of the firm, asset structure, profitability, liquidity

GITHINJI EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, KEMEI BRIGID, AMITO RICHARD, OMBOK MAURICE, WANJOYA ANTONY, M CHARLES. "Effects of target-site insecticide resistance on major malaria vectors’ biting patterns and entomological inoculation rates in Teso sub counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
GITHINJ EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, KEMEI BRIGID, AMITO RICHARD, OMBOK MAURICE, WANJOYA ANTONY, Mbogo CM, MATHENGE EVAN. "Effects of target-site insecticide resistance on major malaria vectors’ biting patterns and entomological inoculation rates in Teso sub counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
GITHINJI EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, KEMEI BRIGID, AMITO RICHARD, OMBOK MAURICE, WANJOYA ANTONY, Mbogo CM, MATHENGE EVAN. "Effects of target-site insecticide resistance on major malaria vectors’ biting patterns and entomological inoculation rates in Teso sub counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
Masinde SP, Ochieng DDE. "Effects of Working Capital Management on Financial Performance of Energy and Petroleum Companies Listed at Nairobi Securities Exchange ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(2):61-79. Abstract

Purpose – This paper sought to establish the effect of Working Capital Management on the financial performance of Energy and Petroleum Companies listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange. Methodology – The study was modelled as correlation survey. A data collection sheet was used to collect secondary data from the published financial statements of all Energy and Petroleum companies listed at Nairobi Securities Exchange for a period of eight years between 2007 and 2014. Both descriptive and quantitative analyses were adopted. Pearson correlation, regression and ANOVA analysis were also conducted. Findings - The study suggests that Working Capital Management influence the Return on Assets significantly. 17.8% of the variations in profitability were influenced by variations in the Working Capital Management. The study establishes that the influence of Working Capital Management on profitability is statistically significant. The study finds weak negative associations between profitability and inventory conversion period, accounts collection period, accounts payable period and cash conversion cycles. The study establishes that the negative relationships between accounts payable period, cash conversion cycle and profitability are statistically significant. The relationships between accounts collection period, inventory conversion period and performance are not statistically significant. Implications - It is incumbent upon the Finance Managers of Energy and Petroleum companies listed at Nairobi Securities Exchange to understand the Energy and Petroleum business operations, and put in place robust Working Capital Management framework because of significant and positive impact on the financial performance of these companies. Value - A vibrant and profitable Energy and Petroleum sector has been identified as a key pillar to the achievement of Kenya’s Vision 2030. It is critical therefore, to reevaluate existing Working Capital Management framework of these companies for robustness in order to realize the Vision 2030.

Key Words: Working Capital Management, Financial Performance, Nairobi Securities Exchange

Lengai GMW, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Wagacha M. "Efficacy of Plant Extracts and Antagonistic Fungi in Managing Tomato Pests and Diseases under Field Conditions." Journal of Agriculture and Life Sciences. 2017;4(2):20-27.
Wafula1 GO, Muthomi JW, Nderitu JH, Chemining’wa GN. "Efficacy of Potassium Salts of Fatty Acids in the Management of Thrips and Whitefly on Snap Beans." Sustainable Agriculture Research. 2017;6(4):45-54.
Wafula GO, Muthomi JW, Nderitu JH, Chemining’wa GN. "Efficacy of Potassium Salts of Fatty Acids in the Management of Thrips and Whitefly on Snap Beans." Sustainable Agriculture Research. 2017;6:45-54.
"Either Patronage or Partnership: John Gatu’s Proposal for Moratorium.". In: Dictionary of African Christian Biography.; 2017.
Nyongesa F, Aduda BO. "Electrophoretic Deposition of Titanium Dioxide Thin Films for Photocatalytic water purification systems." Advances in Materials. 2017;6(4):31-37. AbstractJournal Article Website

In this study, electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique was used to deposit titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films on
conducting glass substrates for application in water purification from organic contaminants. Phenol was used as a model
pollutant. The EPD suspension related parameters and deposition conditions were first optimized for good quality film
deposits. The suspension stability and deposition conditions that result in good adherence of TiO2 particles to the substrate with
homogeneous film coatings, is ethanol with a pH of 3.0, a TiO2 solid loading of 4.0 wt%, a 0.2 wt% iodine concentration in the
solvent and a deposition voltage of 20.0V in a time of 210.0s. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin films decreases
exponentially with the ultraviolet light (UV) illumination time and it is also dependent on film thickness, sintering temperature
and the intensity of the UV light. Highest rate of photocatalytic activity is observed at an optimal film thickness of 95.0 ±
2.0µm sintered at 300.0°C. The implications of these results are discussed for design of inexpensive waste water purification
systems for light industries before discharge into the ecosystem.
Keywords: Electrophoretic Deposition, Titanium Dioxide, Photocatalysis

WAITA SEBASTIAN, Aduda B. "Emphasis on Photovoltaic (PV) Solar System Installation Training: A Case Study of a PV Solar System Installed in Makueni County, Kenya." International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;3(8):31-37. AbstractJournal Article Website

The installation of Photovoltaic (PV) solar systems in institutions as well as homesteads in the rural areas in
Kenya is increasing at a high rate; and so is the need for the stake holders to make sure the PV solar systems are professionally designed, sized, installed and maintained. In PV solar system installation, the designing, sizing and the installation are very critical steps. A wrongly designed, sized and installed system will not perform optimally and will underperform (for undersized systems) and waste energy and resources (for oversized systems). Furthermore, undersized systems do not perform to the user’s expectation discouraging the user and eventually a negative customer attitude creeps in which may affect the uptake of solar PV systems. On the other hand, an oversized PV system is extra expense on the side of the client, creating an exaggerated high cost of PV solar systems, again discouraging potential clients from the adoption of the technology. Both scenarios mean loss of business, jobs and the economic and social benefits associated with PV technology. We present a case study of poorly installed PV systemsin Makueni County, Kenya. We observed that the solar modules pecifications at the back of the modules were not clearly done, the batteries were poorly matched and the cables used in the installation were undersized. Due to these issues, even a normal television set was not able to work since the system was installed four years ago (in 2012).The above case emphasizes the need for training in PV solar system design, sizing, installation, and maintenance.
Key words: Photovoltaic (PV), modules, solar system, Installation, training, professional

Inyega HN, Inyega JO. "Empowering children and teachers through literacy: the case of children’s book project (CBP) for Tanzania." Education Research Journal.. 2017;7(5):94-102.
HM M, AN K, ER M. "Environmental Estrogen-Like Endocrine Disrupting Compounds and the Dangers they pose on Male Fertility: Review Case of Nairobi River Water." Journal of Physical Science and Environmental Studies . 2017;3(3):25-29.
Wabomba JN, Shiundu PM, Onyari JM, Yanful E. "Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Cu(Ii) Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using a Kenyan Micaceous Mineral.". 2017. AbstractFull text link

Copper (II) sorption on a Kenyan micaceous mineral (Mica-K) was studied in the batch mode. The effects of different experimental parameters such as; initial concentration, contact time, sorbent dose, pH, particle size, agitation speed, competition and temperature on the kinetics of copper removal were studied. The sorption pattern of copper onto Mica-K followed Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters for copper sorption on Mica-K were also determined. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis of metal ion-equilibrated Mica-K, demonstrated that copper, cadmium and Zinc containing nodules existed on the surface of Mica-K.

Mutala TM, Maina PN. "Evaluating Factors Affecting Clinicians’ Knowledge on Contrast Media: Kenyan Experience." Journal of Global Radiology. 2017;3(1):Art 1.
Mwathi ZM, Muiru WM, Kimenju JW, Wachira P. "Evaluation of bio-wastes for multiplication of Paecilomyces lilacinus." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2017;10 (6): 1-5.
Achieng BO, Nzuve FM, Muthomi JW, Olubayo FM. "Evaluation of maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes for resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2017;10(6):85-94.
8. Gladys A. Mbaringong, Nyaboga EN, Wang’ondu V, Kanduma E. "Evaluation of Selected Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Cultivars Grown in Kenya for Resistance to Bacterial Blight Disease." World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;5(2):94-101.
Gichuhi S, Gichangi M, Nyamori J, Gachago M, Nyenze EM, Nyaga PT, Karimurio J. "Evaluation of the Kenyatta National Hospital diabetic retinopathy screening program 2015-2016." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr. . 2017;21(2):40-44. Abstract

Objective: This operational evaluation was conducted to determine the effect of having a screening fundus
camera in the diabetes clinic on the demand for eye clinic diabetic retinopathy services at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
Methods: A before-after evaluation design was used. The reference point was installation of a screening retinal fundus camera in the KNH diabetes clinic in May 2016. The ‘before’ period was January to June 2015 and the ‘after’ period was June to November 2016. The one-year gap between the evaluation periods was used for program development and user training. The primary measure of outcome was a comparison of the mean numbers of patients seen and treated before and after starting the screening program. Data was obtained from the medical records on both the diabetes and eye clinics.
Results: The total number of diabetic patients screened in the two periods was 3011 (monthly mean=502,
SD=44) and 2739 (monthly mean=457, SD=38) respectively. The total number referred to the eye clinic increased from 494 (monthly mean=82, SD=16) to 1065 (monthly mean=178, SD=30) while the total number of patients treated with lasers or intravitreal injections increased from 107 (monthly mean=18, SD=5) to 333 (monthly mean=56, SD=39).
Conclusions: Starting a diabetic retinopathy screening program using a fundus camera used based at the
diabetes clinic doubled the number of patients referred for further evaluation at the eye clinic (2.2-fold increase) and tripled the number of diabetics who received treatment for diabetic retinopathy (3.1-fold increase).

Gichuhi S, Gichangi M, Nyamori J, Gachago M, Nyenze M, Nyaga PT, Karimurio J. "Evaluation of the Kenyatta National Hospital diabetic retinopathy screening program 2015-2016 ." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr.. 2017;21(2):40-5.
Gichuhi S, M G, J N, M G, E NYENZE, P N, J K. "Evaluation of the Kenyatta National Hospital diabetic retinopathy screening program 2015-2016." JOECSA. 2017;21(2):40-44.
 Mwinzi JM. "Existentialism School of Philosophy: the Baseline Causality of Lifelong Teaching and Learning." Elixir International Journal,. 2017;113(11):49100-49105.
Elias M, Richter U, Hensel O, Hülsebusch C, Kaufmann B, Oliver Wasonga. "Expansion of Crop Cultivation and its Impacts on Land Cover Changes in the Borana Rangeland Southern Ethiopia.". 2017. Abstract

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Inyega HN, Inyega JO. "Experiences of student teachers’ on placement." International Journal of Educational Policy Research and Review. 2017;4(5):90-102.
"Experiences of student-teachers on placement. ." International Journal of Educational Policy Research and Review. 2017;4(5):90-102.
Gitonga P, Karani A, Kimani S. "Explore Best Practices in Family Nursing in Kenya: Empathy as a Value in Caring." http://www.opastonline.com/journal-of-nursing-healthcare/. 2017;2(2):1/4.
Abinya NA, Mwanda WO, Maina JMD, Odhiambo AO, Oyiro PO, Mwanzi SA, Dindi E, Waweru A. "Exploring Occupational and Familial Risks for Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia." Journal of US-China Medical Science . 2017;1(14):31-35.cml_risk_us-china_publ.pdf
Muiruri KS, Britt A, Amugune NO, Nguu EK, Chan S, Tripathi L. "Expressed Centromere Specific Histone 3 (CENH3) Variants in Cultivated Triploid and Wild Diploid Bananas (Musa spp.)." Frontiers in plant science. 2017;1034:1034.
Maina EM, Oboko RO, Waiganjo PW. "Extending moodle grouping functionality using artificial intelligent techniques." AFRICON, 2017 IEEE. 2017:55-58. AbstractFull website link

Learning Management Systems such as Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning
Environment (Moodle) only supports random group assignment or instructor based
assignment method. However, with the understanding that random assignment method only
increases the likelihood of heterogeneity in the group, while instructor based method
involves the instructors and it is not dynamic, there is need to develop a group formation
mechanism which can guarantee heterogeneity based on learner's collaboration
competence level, has dynamism in grouping students and has less instructor involvement.
In view of this, this paper discusses how to extend Moodle grouping functionality in
discussion forums using an intelligent grouping algorithm which has the capability to mine
discussion forum data in Moodle and cluster students to different clusters based

Muthwii F, M.Chege, M.Muiva. "FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SEVERITY OF NEONATAL SEPSIS DURING ADMISSION IN KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL PAEDIATRIC WARDS, KENYA: A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY ." East African Medical Journal . 2017;Vol. 91 No. 2 January 2017 . Abstract

East African Medical Journal Vol. 91 No. 2 January 2017
FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SEVERITY OF NEONATAL SEPSIS DURING ADMISSION IN KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL PAEDIATRIC WARDS, KENYA: A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY
F. Muthwii, M.Chege, M.Muiva,University of Nairobi, College of Health Sciences, School of Nursing Sciences, P.O. Box 19676-00202 Nairobi, Kenya and M.Habtu, Mount Kenya University, College of Health Sciences, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box P.O.Box 5826 Kigali, Rwanda, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, College of Health Sciences, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box 19676-00202 Kigali, Rwanda Request for reprints to: F. Muthwii , University of Nairobi, College of Health Sciences, School of Nursing Sciences, P.O. Box 19676-00202 Nairobi, Kenya. fkaluu77@gmail.com
FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SEVERITY OF NEONATAL SEPSIS DURING ADMISSION IN KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL PAEDIATRIC WARDS, KENYA: A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY F. MUTHWII, M.CHEGE, M.MUIVA and M.HABTU, ABSTRACT Background: Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of neonatal mortality. In the year of 2012, it accounted for 44% of all deaths of underfive years old children globally. Statistics indicate that 98% of the global, one million deaths as a result of neonatal sepsis occur in Africa. Neonatal sepsis contributes to 69% of neonatal mortality in Nigeria and 28% of neonatal mortality in Kenya. Objective: To establish factors associated with severity of neonatal sepsis among patients admitted in Kenyatta National Hospital Paediatric Wards. Design: The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional design. Setting: The study was carried out in paediatric wards of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Kenya. Subjects: Data was obtained from consenting mothers whose neonates had been admitted with neonatal sepsis and healthcare workers who worked within the paediatric wards. A total of 107 respondents were selected by systematic sampling method in which every alternate participant was selected. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather data on maternal and neonatal characteristics and environmental factors. In addition, three focused group discussions comprising nurses, doctors and clinical officers were conducted. Chi-square test was used to determine the factors associated with severity of neonatal sepsis (NNS) during admission. Results: Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of severe NNS. Of the 107 patients with neonatal sepsis, 37.4% had severe neonatal sepsis during admission.After multiple logistic regression analysis, the following factors were found to be independently associated with severe NNS: Neonates aged 8 to 28 days [AOR=2.89; 95%CI=1.07-7.99; P=0.047]compared to those neonates aged less than 8 days; Mothers with primary level of education [AOR=4.57; 95%CI=1.18-17.67; P=0.028]compared to those with tertiary education; primipara mothers [AOR=4.64; 95%CI=1.74-12.37; P=0.002]than multipara mothers and greenish amniotic fluid during labor [AOR=3.11; 95%CI=1.05-9.24; P=0.041]compared to clear amniotic fluid. Conclusion: The study found that severity of NNS was still high. The factors associated with severe NNS were; primiparity, maternal low economic status and poor antenatal clinic attendance. The study thus recommends that newborns at risk of developing severe neonatal sepsis should get prophylactic treatment and mothers be included in specialized programs geared towards reduction of the severity of NNS.

Muthwii F, M.Chege, M.Muiva, M.HABTU. "FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SEVERITY OF NEONATAL SEPSIS DURING ADMISSION IN KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL PAEDIATRIC WARDS, KENYA: A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY." East African Medical Journal. 2017. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of neonatal mortality. In the year of 2012,
it accounted for 44% of all deaths of underfive years old children globally. Statistics
indicate that 98% of the global, one million deaths as a result of neonatal sepsis occur
in Africa. Neonatal sepsis contributes to 69% of neonatal mortality in Nigeria and 28%
of neonatal mortality in Kenya.
Objective: To establish factors associated with severity of neonatal sepsis among
patients admitted in Kenyatta National Hospital Paediatric Wards.
Design: The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional design.
Setting: The study was carried out in paediatric wards of Kenyatta National Hospital
(KNH), Kenya.
Subjects: Data was obtained from consenting mothers whose neonates had been admitted
with neonatal sepsis and healthcare workers who worked within the paediatric wards.
A total of 107 respondents were selected by systematic sampling method in which
every alternate participant was selected. A semi-structured questionnaire was used
to gather data on maternal and neonatal characteristics and environmental factors.
In addition, three focused group discussions comprising nurses, doctors and clinical
officers were conducted. Chi-square test was used to determine the factors associated
with severity of neonatal sepsis (NNS) during admission.
Results: Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors
of severe NNS. Of the 107 patients with neonatal sepsis, 37.4% had severe neonatal
sepsis during admission.After multiple logistic regression analysis, the following
factors were found to be independently associated with severe NNS: Neonates aged 8
to 28 days [AOR=2.89; 95%CI=1.07-7.99; P=0.047]compared to those neonates aged less
than 8 days; Mothers with primary level of education [AOR=4.57; 95%CI=1.18-17.67;
P=0.028]compared to those with tertiary education; primipara mothers [AOR=4.64;
95%CI=1.74-12.37; P=0.002]than multipara mothers and greenish amniotic fluid during
labor [AOR=3.11; 95%CI=1.05-9.24; P=0.041]compared to clear amniotic fluid.
Conclusion: The study found that severity of NNS was still high. The factors associated
with severe NNS were; primiparity, maternal low economic status and poor antenatal
clinic attendance. The study thus recommends that newborns at risk of developing
severe neonatal sepsis should get prophylactic treatment and mothers be included in
specialized programs geared towards reduction of the severity of NNS.

Muthwii F, M.Chege, M.Muiva. "FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SEVERITY OF NEONATAL SEPSIS DURING ADMISSION IN KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL PAEDIATRIC WARDS, KENYA: A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY ." East African Medical Journal . 2017;91(2). Abstract

Abstract
Background:Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of neonatal mortality. In the year of 2012, it accounted for 44% of all deaths of underfive years old children globally. Statistics indicate that 98% of the global, one million deaths as a result of neonatal sepsis occur in Africa. Neonatal sepsis contributes to 69% of neonatal mortality in Nigeria and 28% of neonatal mortality in Kenya.
Objective:To establish factors associated with severity of neonatal sepsis among patients admitted in Kenyatta National Hospital Paediatric Wards.
Design:The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional design.
Setting:The study was carried out in paediatric wards of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Kenya.
Subjects:Data was obtained from consenting mothers whose neonates had been admitted with neonatal sepsis and healthcare workers who worked within the paediatric wards. A total of 107 respondents were selected by systematic sampling method in which every alternate participant was selected. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather data on maternal and neonatal characteristics and environmental factors. In addition, three focused group discussions comprising nurses, doctors and clinical officers were conducted. Chi-square test was used to determine the factors associated with severity of neonatal sepsis (NNS) during admission.
Results:Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of severe NNS. Of the 107 patients with neonatal sepsis, 37.4% had severe neonatal sepsis during admission.After multiple logistic regression analysis, the following factors were found to be independently associated with severe NNS: Neonates aged 8 to 28 days [AOR=2.89; 95%CI=1.07-7.99; P=0.047]compared to those neonates aged less than 8 days; Mothers with primary level of education [AOR=4.57; 95%CI=1.18-17.67; P=0.028]compared to those with tertiary education; primipara mothers [AOR=4.64; 95%CI=1.74-12.37; P=0.002]than multipara mothers and greenish amniotic fluid during labor [AOR=3.11; 95%CI=1.05-9.24; P=0.041]compared to clear amniotic fluid.
Conclusion:The study found that severity of NNS was still high. The factors associated with severe NNS were;primiparity, maternal low economic status and poor antenatal clinic attendance. The study thus recommends that newborns at risk of developing severe neonatal sepsis should get prophylactic treatment and mothers be included in specialized programs geared towards reduction of the severity of NNS.

Wanjala. G, Kogei, J.K, A.R. Riechi. "Factors Influencing Enrolment of Learners with Disabilities in Primary Schools with Inclusive Education in Nandi South District, Kenya." International Journal of Novel Research in Education and Learning. 2017;4(2):172-190 .abstract.pdf
Gichure, N.G., Wahome, R.G., Njage, P.K., Karuri, H. W., Nzuma, M.J., Karantininis, K. "Factors influencing extent of traceability along organic fresh produce value chains: case of kale in Nairobi, Kenya." Organic Agriculture. 2017;7(3):293-302.
Kiambi EG, Mugambi MM. "FACTORS INFLUENCING PERFORMANCE OF ORPHANS AND VULNERABLE CHILDREN PROJECTS IN IMENTI NORTH SUB COUNTY, MERU COUNTY, KENYA." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2017; 2(1):179-196.orphans_and_vulnerable_children_projects.pdf
Wachege PN, Rugendo FG. "Factors Leading to Premature Deaths of Male Youths: A Case of Karuri Village, Kiambu County - Kenya." IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2017;22(7):64-74.wachege_rugendo_article1.pdf
Ogada CN, Mutave RJ. "Factors that influence the use of the incisive pappila as refference to maxilary anterior tooth positions." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(8):592-596.
Ogolla KO, Chebet J, Gathumbi PK, Waruiru RM, Okumu PO, W. K Munyua, Kibebe HW. "Farmer practices that influence risk factors, prevalence and control strategies of rabbit coccidiosis in Central Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2017;29(7).www_lrrd_org_lrrd29_7_koko29134_html.pdf
Tum PK, Wanjau RN, Thoruwa CL, Kithure JGN, Murungi JI. "Fate of lambda-cyhalothrin in kales, tomatoes and cabbage from rural setting in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2017;4(2):12-18.kithure.pdf
and Mette Lфrschal; Peder Klith Bфcher; Jeppe Pilgaard, Irene Amoke; Alice Odingo ATJ-CS. "Fencing bodes a rapid collapse of the unique Greater Mara Ecosystem." Nature. 2017;7:41450.
Okoth S. "Field evaluation of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in maize inbred lines in Kenya and South Africa." Journal of Crop Improvement. 2017;31(6):862-878. AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT
Aflatoxin, a carcinogenic toxin, is produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Contamination of maize (Zea mays L.) grain by these fungi occurs before harvest, and the easiest strategy to prevent this is to develop/use maize varieties resistant to Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin accumulation. The objective of this investigation was to identify potential sources of resistance among 23 maize inbred lines (13 obtained from the MAIZE Competitive Grants Initiative, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre and 10 from Agricultural Research Council, South Africa). The inbred lines were planted in a randomized complete-block design at two locations each in Kenya and South Africa. Maize ears were inoculated at silking with three toxigenic strains of A. flavus. The inoculated ears in each plot were harvested at 12–18% moisture, dried, and visually assessed for Aspergillus ear rot (AER). Aflatoxin concentration in the kernels was determined using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Significant variation for both AER and aflatoxin concentration existed among the inbred lines at both locations in Kenya and one location in South Africa. Combined analysis revealed a significant (p < 0.001) lines × locations interaction for both AER and aflatoxin concentration. Higher incidences of AER (0–86.0%) and aflatoxin concentration (0.21–6.51 µg/kg) were recorded at Kiboko in Kenya than at the other three locations. A stronger genetic correlation (rG = 0.936, p < 0.0001) between the AER and aflatoxin concentration was recorded in Potchefstroom than at the other three locations. Repeatability of aflatoxin concentration was high at Kiboko (0.87) and Potchefstroom in South Africa (0.74). Three inbred lines, CML247, CML444, and CML495, emerged as potentially useful sources of resistance to AER and aflatoxin accumulation as they showed low levels of aflatoxin contamination in both localities in Kenya and in South Africa.

Nzioka OM, Kaijage E, Ochieng DE. "Financial Integration, Macroeconomic Volatility And Economic Growth In The East African Community." European Scientific Journal. 2017;13(19):317-331. Abstract

This study aimed at determining the moderating effect of macroeconomic
volatility on the relationship between financial integration and
economic growth in the EAC.
The study adopted a positivistic research philosophy and casual research
design.. Generalized-two stage least squares instrumental variable regression
model (G2SLSIV) was then conducted to test the hypothesis. The findings of
the study showed that, macro-economic volatility does not have a significant
moderating effect on the relationship between financial integration and
economic growth. Therefore, the study recommends that, the governments of
respective member states work on a monetary policy that aims to attain a
single digit level of inflation rate (low inflation targeting), in the spirit of
macro-economic convergence. The study culminates with acknowledging the
limitations encountered and provides suggestions for further research.

Kimunduu GM, MWANGI MIRIE, Kaijage E, Ochieng DE. "Financial Performance and Dividend Policy." European Scientific Journal. 2017;13(28):138-154. Abstractfinancial_performance_and_dividend_policy.pdf

Past studies on the relationship between dividend policy and firm
performance continue being an unresolved predicament with few studies
interrogating the causality relationship between financial performance and
dividend policy. The purpose of this study was to establish the nature of
relationship between financial performance and dividend policy of firms
listed at the Nairobi securities exchange. The study applied positivism
research philosophy and descriptive causal research design. The study was
anchored on hypothetical view that the relationship between financial
performance and dividend policy of firms listed at the Nairobi securities
exchange is not significant which was tested against a sample size of 31
firms listed at the Nairobi securities exchange selected using purposive
sampling technique. The research findings were as follows: There was a
statistically significant direct association between return on equity and
dividend policy. This implies that as firm profitability improve; a
corresponding proportionate change in dividend payout ratio is initiated by
management. In addition, it was established that there was a statistically
significant positive linkage between operating cash flows and dividend
policy which denotes that as cash flow levels from operating activities
change, dividend payout ratio will change in the same direction leading

Ronoh K, Kamucha G, Odongo W, Olwal T, Omwansa T. Firefly Algorithm based Power Control in Wireless TV White Space Network. Cape Town, South Africa; 2017.
Amimo JO, Njuguna JN, Machuka E, Okoth E, Djikeng A. "First Complete Genome Sequence of Porcine Bocavirus Strains from East Africa." Genome Announcement. 2017.
Zipporah M, Rohit P, Robinson M, Ralph S. "First-principle investigation of structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Co2VIn and CoVIn Heusler compounds." AIP Advances. 2017;7. Abstract

Investigation of the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of full-Heusler Co2VIn as well as half-Heusler CoVIn Cobalt based Heusler compounds using density functional theory (DFT) leads to the general conclusion that Co2VIn and CoVIn are half-metallic materials with a gap at the Fermi level in the minority states and majority states respectively. A Hubbard-like Coulomb correlation term U has been included in the DFT (DFT+U) for the computation of the electronic and magnetic properties of the compounds. The structural properties have been calculated for the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases, and both Co2VIn and CoVIn are found to be stable in the ferromagnetic phase. The calculated magnetic moments are 2 μB2 μB and 0.9 μB0.9 μB per formula unit for Co2VIn and CoVIn respectively.

Opuko Hellen A., G. MM. "Flexible Work Practices and Job Performance in the Transport and Logistics Industry: The Kenyan perspective." DBA Africa Management Review. 2017;7(2):38-49.
Sarguta R. Four Routes to Mixed Poisson Distributions. Ottieno JAM, Mwaniki JI, Kipchirchir IC, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Mutende EA, Mwangi M, NJIHIA JM, Ochieng DE. "Free Cash Flows, Agency Costs and Performance of Firms Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange.". In: The Pan-African Journal of Business Management. Vol. 1.; 2017:. Abstractfree_cash_flows_agency_costs_and_performance_of_firms_listed_at_the_nairobi_securities.pdf

Abstract: Firm performance is affected by various factors, both internal and external. Internal
factors include firm characteristics such as firm size, age, liquidity, leverage, profitability,
growth prospects among others. External factors include regulation, agency costs and general
macro-economic factors. This paper sought to establish the influence of agency costs on the
relationship between free cash flows and firm performance. The second objective was to assess
the influence of agency costs on the relationship between free cash flows and performance of
firms listed at the Nairobi securities exchange. The study used both primary data and secondary
panel data which were obtained from all firms listed at the NSE for the period 2006 to 2015.
Panel data and simple regression analyses using OLS were employed in the study. Results
indicate that free cash flows have a significant positive relationship with firm performance, and,
agency costs have a positive significant moderating effect on the relationship between free cash
flows and firm performance. All the predictor variables had a joint positive and significant effect
on performance. The main academic contribution of the study is that free cash flows have a
positive relationship with firm performance and that agency costs; and specifically, firm
monitoring and corporate governance has a positive and significant effect on the performance of
firms listed at the NSE. Firm managers, shareholders, practitioners, the government and other
regulators should, therefore, enhance firm monitoring and corporate governance because the
benefits derived from investing therein seem to outweigh the costs.

Gakuu, C. M. KKHJ & PN. Fundamentals of Research Methods: Concepts, Theories and Application. Aura Publishers, Nairobi; 2017.
Yangyuoru PM, Bradburn DA, Liu Z, Xiao TS, Russell R. "The G-quadruplex (G4) resolvase DHX36 efficiently and specifically disrupts DNA G4s via a translocation-based helicase mechanism." Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2017:jbc. M117. 815076.
Mandala N, Kaijage E, Aduda J, Iraya C. "Gender Diversity of Boards, Board Composition and Firm Performance." European Scientific Journal. 2017;13(34):pages62-79,.
Mageto E.K, D. Makumbi, and K. Njoroge, Nyankanga R. "Genetic analysis of early-maturing maize (Zea Mays L.) inbred lines under stress and nonstress conditions." Journal of Crop Improvement. 2017; DOI: 10.1080/15427528.2017.1315625(31:4, ):560-588.
Okoth S. "Genetic characterisation of Plasmodium falciparum isolates with deletion of the pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 genes in Colombia: the Amazon region, a challenge for malaria diagnosis and control." PloS one. 2017:1-17. Abstractjournal.pone_.0163137.pdfWebsite

Most Plasmodium falciparum-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) target histidine-rich
protein 2 (PfHRP2). However, P. falciparumisolates with deletion of the pfhrp2 gene and its
homolog gene, pfhrp3, have been detected. We carried out an extensive investigation on
365 P. falciparumdried blood samples collected from seven P. falciparumendemic sites in
Colombia between 2003 and 2012 to genetically characterise and geographically map
pfhrp2- and/or pfhrp3-negative P. falciparumparasites in the country. We found a high proportion
of pfhrp2-negative parasites only in Amazonas (15/39; 38.5%), and these parasites
were also pfhrp3-negative. These parasites were collected between 2008 and 2009 in
Amazonas, while pfhrp3-negative parasites (157/365, 43%) were found in all the sites and
from each of the sample collection years evaluated (2003 to 2012). We also found that all
pfhrp2- and/or pfhrp3-negative parasites were also negative for one or both flanking genes.
Six sub-population clusters were established with 93.3% (14/15) of the pfhrp2-negative
parasites grouped in the same cluster and sharing the same haplotype. This haplotype
corresponded with the genetic lineage BV1, a multidrug resistant strain that caused two outbreaks
reportedin Peru between 2010 and 2013. We found this BV1 lineage in the Colombian
Amazon as early as 2006. Two new clonal lineages were identified in these parasites
from Colombia: the genetic lineages EV1 and F. PfHRP2 sequence analysis revealed high
genetic diversity at the amino acid level, with 17 unique sequences identified among 53
PfHRP2 sequences analysed. The use of PfHRP2-based RDTs is not recommended in
Amazonas because of the high proportionof parasites with pfhrp2 deletion (38.5%), and
implementation of new strategies for malaria diagnosis and control in Amazonas must be
prioritised.Moreover, studies to monitor and genetically characterise pfhrp2-negative P. falciparumparasites in the Americas are warranted, given the extensive human migration
occurring in the region.

Osena G, Amugune NO, Nyaboga EN. "Genetic Stability of Cassava Plants Regenerated Through Organogenesis Using Microsatellite Markers." Journal of Plant Sciences. 2017;5(1):19-28.
Ng’ang’a TM, Wachira PM, Wango TJL, Ndung’u JM, Ndungo MN. "Geospatial Digital Rights Management: Challenge to Global Spatial Data Infrastructure.". In: Volunteered Geographic Information and the Future of Geospatial Data. London: IGI Global.; 2017.
Jakubowski H, Xie J, Mitra AK, Ghooi R, Hosseinkhani S, Alipour M, Hajipour B, Obiero G. "The Global Ethics Corner: foundations, beliefs, and the teaching of biomedical and scientific ethics around the world." Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education. 2017;45(5):385-395. Abstract

The profound advances in the biomolecular sciences over the last decades have enabled similar advances in biomedicine. These advances have increasingly challenged our abilities to deploy them in an equitable and ethically acceptable manner. As such, it has become necessary and important to teach biomedical and scientific ethics to our students who will become the researchers, medical professionals, and global citizens of the future. As advances in the biosciences and medicine are made, developed, and used across the globe, our survival on an endangered planet requires global dialog and consensual action. To that end, a group of us from around the world have come together to describe the differing foundations of our ethical beliefs, and how ethical issues in biomedicine and in science are described and confronted in our countries. We hope to show the commonality in our beliefs and practices.

Mukonzo SE, ODOCK SO. "Green manufacturing and operational performance of a firm: Case of a cement manufacturing firm in Kenya." International Journal of Business and Social Science. 2017;8(4):106-120. Abstract

Green Manufacturing includes all practices connected with ecological concerns that constantly incorporate environmental manufacturing processes and products. Green Manufacturing considers decrease from the start or prevention, recycling and green product designs. It focuses on the greening production stage where pollutants are largely generated. The outcomes of these strategies would be no pollution, defects, downtime and zero inventories. The study sought to establish the relationship between green manufacturing practices and operational performance of a selected cement manufacturing company in Kenya. Secondary data on green manufacturing practices and operational performance was collected for a period of 4 years from 2011-2014. The results indicate a significant relationship between green manufacturing practices and operational performance. There is also compliance with the Kenya’s environmental management and co-ordination regulations for 1999 on the part of the cement manufacturing firm. The study emphasizes the implementation of green manufacturing projects that would focus on eliminating or controlling all kinds of pollution in its conclusion.

Key Words: Green Manufacturing; Emissions; Dust; Pollution; Waste Management; Operational Performance

Hayford A, Joseph OO, Afra N. "Green Marketing Orientation (GMO) and Performance of SMEs in Ghana." American Journal of Management. 2017;11(1):99-109.amegbe_owino__nuwasiima_2017.pdf
Serem JK, Wahome RG, D.W. Gakuya, S.G.Kiama, G.C.Gitao, D, W O. "Growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and blood characteristics of growing pigs fed on different levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal health . 2017;9(11):327-333.serem_et_al_2017.pdf
N M, M G, Gichuhi S, G K, N N, L M, M B. Guidelines For Screening And Management of Diabetic Retinopathy. Nairobi: Ministry of Health Kenya; 2017.
Makunda CS. Harnessing cultural heritage for locally relevant interior design solutions for new apartments in Nairobi. University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Lachenmeier DW. "High Ethanol Contents of Spirit Drinks in Kibera Slums, Kenya: Implications for Public Health." Foods. 2017;6:89. Abstract

Cheap licit and artisanal illicit spirit drinks have been associated with numerous outbreaks of alcohol poisoning especially with methanol. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of cheap spirit drinks in Kibera slums in Nairobi County, Kenya. The samples consisted of cheap licit spirits (n = 11) and the artisanal spirit drink, ‘chang’aa’, (n = 28). The parameters of alcoholic strength and volatile composition were used as indicators of quality and were determined using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively. The ranges for alcoholic strength were 42.8–85.8% vol and 28.3–56.7% vol for chang’aa and licit spirit drinks respectively, while the pH ranges were 3.3–4.2 and 4.4–4.8 for chang’aa and licit spirit drinks respectively. The majority of volatiles were found in artisanal spirits and they included higher alcohols, ethyl esters and carbonyl compounds. The alcoholic strength of all the artisanal spirits (100%) and 91% of the licit spirits was above the 40% vol of standard spirits such as vodka. The high ethanol content of the alcohol products was the only element of public health significance in this study.

Nyongesa AW, Patel N, Wango EO, Onyango DW. "High khat dose and long-term exposure impairs spermatogenesis: experimental study using rabbit model." J. Morphol. Sci. 2017;34(3):156-167.morphology_paper.pdf
Okoth S. "Histidine-rich protein 2 (pfhrp2) and pfhrp3 gene deletions in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from select sites in Brazil and Bolivia." PLOS One. 2017:1-13. Abstractjournal.pone_.0171150.pdfWebsite

More than 80% of available malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are based on the detection of histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP2) for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Recent studies have shown the genes that code for this protein and its paralog, histidine-rich protein-3 (PfHRP3), are absent in parasites from the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Lack of PfHRP2 protein through deletion of the pfhrp2 gene leads to false-negative RDT results for P. falciparum. We have evaluated the extent of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions in a convenience sample of 198 isolates from six sites in three states across the Brazilian Amazon Basin (Acre, Rondonia and Para) and 25 isolates from two sites in Bolivia collected at different times between 2010 and 2012. Pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene and their flanking genes on chromosomes 7 and 13, respectively, were amplified from 198 blood specimens collected in Brazil. In Brazil, the isolates collected in Acre state, located in the western part of the Brazilian Amazon, had the highest percentage of deletions for pfhrp2 25 (31.2%) of 79, while among those collected in Rondonia, the prevalence of pfhrp2 gene deletion was only 3.3% (2 out of 60 patients). In isolates from Para state, all parasites were pfhrp2-positive. In contrast, we detected high proportions of isolates from all 3 states that were pfhrp3-negative ranging from 18.3% (11 out of 60 samples) to 50.9% (30 out of 59 samples). In Bolivia, only one of 25 samples (4%) tested had deleted pfhrp2 gene, while 68% (17 out of 25 samples) were pfhrp3-negative. Among the isolates tested, P. falciparum pfhrp2 gene deletions were present mainly in those from Acre State in the Brazilian Amazon. These results indicate it is important to reconsider the use of PfHRP2-based RDTs in the western region of the Brazilian Amazon and to implement appropriate surveillance systems to monitor pfhrp2 gene deletions in this and other parts of the Amazon region.

Serem Jared K., John M. Kimani, Raphael G. Wahome, Daniel W. Gakuya, G.Kiama S, Onyango DW, Mbuthia PG. "Histopathological Evaluation of Spleen, Liver and Kidneys from Pigs Fed on Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal Diets Global Veterinaria 19 (1): 478-486, .". 2017.
Olago D, Campisano CJ, Cohen AS, Arrowsmith RJ, Asrat A, Behrensmeyer AK, et al. "The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project: High-Resolution Paleoclimate Records from the East African Rift System and Their Implications for Understanding the Environmental Context of Hominin Evolution." Paleo Anthropology. 2017;1:43. Abstract2017_campisano_et_al._hspdp_drilling_paper.pdfFull Text

The possibility of a causal relationship between Earth history processes and hominin evolution in Africa has been the subject of intensive paleoanthropological research for the last 25 years. One fundamental question is: can any geohistorical processes, in particular, climatic ones, be characterized with sufficient precision to enable temporal correlation with events in hominin evolution and provide support for a possible causal mechanism for evolutionary changes? Previous attempts to link paleoclimate and hominin evolution have centered on evidence from the outcrops where the hominin fossils are found, as understanding whether and how hominin populations responded to habitat change must be examined at the local basinal scale. However, these outcrop records typically provide incomplete, low-resolution climate and environmental histories, and surface weathering often precludes the application of highly sensitive, state-of-the-art paleoenvironmental methods. continuous and well-preserved deep-sea drill core records have provided an alternative approach to reconstructing the context of hominin evolution, but have been collected at great distances from hominin sites and typically integrate information over vast spatial scales. The goal of the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) is to analyze climate and other Earth system dynamics using detailed paleoenvironmental data acquired through scientific drilling of lacustrine depocenters at or near six key paleoanthropological sites in Kenya and Ethiopia. This review provides an overview of a unique collaboration of paleoanthropologists and earth scientists who have joined together to explicitly explore key hypotheses linking environmental history and mammalian (including hominin) evolution and potentially develop new testable hypotheses. With a focus on continuous, high-resolution proxies at timescales relevant to both biological and cultural evolution, the HSPDP aims to dramatically expand our understanding of the environmental history of eastern Africa during a significant portion of the Late Neogene and Quaternary, and to generate useful models of long-term environmental dynamics in the region.

Mweri JG. "How access to health care for deaf people can be improved in Kenya ." The conversation. 2017;march(2):1-3.
Masika M, Wachihi C, Muriuki F, Kimani J, R K. "Hypertension and obesity among HIV patients in a care programme in Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(5). AbstractWebsite

Objective: To determine the prevalence of hypertension and obesity among HIV patients enrolled in the Sex Worker Outreach Programme (SWOP), Nairobi, Kenya.

Design: A retrospective a study.

Setting: SWOP managed by the University of Manitoba, Nairobi team.

Subjects: We selected clinic visit records from HIV patients seen between 2011 and 2014, which had valid blood pressure and age entries.

Interventions: We analysed data to determine prevalence and correlates of hypertension and obesity in the study population. Associations were tested using chi-square for categorical variables and t-test for continuous variables.

Main outcome measures: Hypertension and obesity.

Results: Three thousand one hundred ninety seven subjects were included in the study. All were HIV-positive and most (97.8%) were on ART. The mean age was 39.7 years (standard deviation = 8.8) and 72.4% of the subjects were female. The prevalence of hypertension was 7.7% (246/3197) and 31% of the study cases (798/2590) were either overweight or obese. Males were more likely to have hypertension (p < 0.001) while females were more predisposed to obesity (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Hypertension and obesity are important co-morbidities among HIV patients. Preventive and management strategies should be adopted as part of the comprehensive packages on offer at all existing HIV care and ART centres targeting those enrolled for services as well as their relatives and the community at large.

Awori MN. I AM- the meaning of life. USA: Kindle direct publish; 2017.
Olag D, Wolff C, Verschuren D, Daele MEV, Waldmann N, Meyer I, Lane CS, der Meeren VT, Ombori T, Kasanzu C. "ICDP Project DeepCHALLA: Reconstructing 250,000 Years of Climate Change and Environmental History on the East African Equator." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 2017. AbstractFull Text

Sediments on the bottom of Lake Challa, a 92-m deep crater lake on the border of Kenya and Tanzania near Mt. Kilimanjaro, contain a uniquely long and continuous record of past climate and environmental change in easternmost equatorial Africa. Supported in part by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Programme (ICDP), the DeepCHALLA project has now recovered this sediment record down to 214.8 m below the lake floor, with 100% recovery of the uppermost 121.3 m (the last 160 kyr BP) and ca.85% recovery of the older part of the sequence, down to the lowermost distinct reflector identified in seismic stratigraphy. This acoustic basement represents a ca.2-m thick layer of coarsely laminated, diatom-rich organic mud mixed with volcanic sand and silt deposited 250 kyr ago, overlying an estimated 20-30 m of unsampled lacustrine deposits representing the earliest phase of lake development. Down-hole logging produced profiles of in-situ sediment composition that confer an absolute depth- scale to both the recovered cores and the seismic stratigraphy. An estimated 74% of the recovered sequence is finely laminated (varved), and continuously so over the upper 72.3 m (the last 90 kyr). All other sections display at least cm-scale lamination, demonstrating persistence of a tranquil, profundal depositional environment throughout lake history. The sequence is interrupted only by 32 visible tephra layers 2 to 9 mm thick; and by several dozen fine-grained turbidites up to 108 cm thick, most of which are clearly bracketed between a non-erosive base and a diatom-laden cap. Tie points between sediment markers and the corresponding seismic reflectors support a preliminary age model inferring a near-constant rate of sediment accumulation over at least the last glacial cycle (140 kyr BP to present). This great time span combined with the exquisite temporal resolution of the Lake Challa sediments provides great opportunities to study past tropical climate dynamics at both short (inter-annual to decadal) and long (glacial-interglacial) time scales; and to assess the multi-faceted impact of this climate change on the region's freshwater resources, the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, and the history of the African landscape in which modern humans (our species, Homo sapiens) originally evolved and have lived ever since.

and Njue LG., Ombui JN. KLWGJKMJO. "Identification of antimicrobial compounds in garlic grown in Laikipia county." Journal of Agricultural research and review,. 2017;5(5):636-643.

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