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2017
Mwangi S, Elly DD. "Effects of Operating Environment Factors on Infrastructure Finance Flows in the Capital Markets in Kenya ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):132-159 . Abstract

Purpose – This study sought to establish the whether the operating environment factors affect efficient infrastructure finance flows in the capital markets in Kenya. Policy framework, legal environment, regulations and institutions are the operating environment factors which influence the infrastructure finance flows through the capital markets.

Methodology – The study was undertaken using descriptive research design where a questionnaire was used targeting a population of 100 infrastructure related institutions. The questionnaire used to collect quantitative data was on the Likert scale with numerical scores 1 to 5. Descriptive and regression analysis were conducted on the data to show how each independent variable of the operating environment factors influences the infrastructure finance flows.

Findings – Majority of respondents think that there are inadequate policies, laws and regulations while half of these respondents believe that the institutions lack the necessary capacity to operate efficiently and effectively. From the results, majority of these respondents agreed that there is need for an urgent review of the existing financial sector policies and institutions. Half of the respondents want the regulations revised but majority of these respondents believe that the existing laws do not require review. The results indicated that the policy framework, legal environment, regulations and institutions significantly affect the infrastructure finance flows through the capital markets in Kenya. From the results, it can be concluded that there are no adequate policy, legal, regulatory and institutional arrangements to facilitate the uptake of infrastructure finance in the capital markets. Further, it can be deduced that the policy, legal, regulatory and institutional regimes are poorly configured to deliver financing of infrastructure projects in the capital markets of Kenya. Finally, it can be inferred that the financial sector policies, regulations and institutions are not strong enough to provide a supportive environment in delivery of infrastructure finance.

Implications – The financial sector policies, laws, regulations and institutions need to be reviewed in order to create a conducive operating environment for financing of infrastructure investments. Benchmarking studies are critical for enhancement of policies, laws, regulations and institutions based on the international best practices for efficient and effective delivery of infrastructure finance through the capital markets in Kenya. Further research is recommended on effects of operating environment factors on infrastructure finance flows in the capital markets in Kenya.

Keywords: Infrastructure investments, policy framework, legal environment, regulations, institutions

"EFFECTS OF SELECTED FIRMS CHARACTERISTICS ON CAPITAL STRUCTURE DECISIONS OF FIRMS LISTED AT THE NAIROBI SECURITIES EXCHANGE ." African development finance journal . 2017;1(2):102-116 . Abstracteffects_of_selected_firms_characteristics_on_capital_structure_decisions_of_firms_listed_at_the_nairobi_securities_exchange.pdf

Purpose - Capital structure choice remains a crucial decision alongside the vital choices intended by a corporate since they have a high consequence on the value and the cost of the company. Therefore this study main focus was to examine the effects of selected firms characteristics on the capital structure decisions of companies registered at the Nairobi Stock exchange.
Methodology - The study adopted a descriptive research design and used secondary data. The collected data was analyzed with the help of the SPSS software version 23 and presented with the help of frequency distributions, computation of mean and standard deviation. The association between the research variables was presented in a correlation matrix and a regression model.
Findings - Firm size showed greatest influence on the company choice of capital structure among the firms followed by asset structure, profitability and liquidity. Further, the regression model also generated adjusted R squared value of 0.692 that is to mean 69.2% of the variations in financing options can be well illustrated by variations in the firm size, asset structure, profitability and liquidity. The findings from the study indicated an affirmative correlation among firm’s size and the financing options. The findings also revealed an affirmative association among assets structure against the source of financing. The findings from the research also showed that there is undesirable association among the firm’s profitability and source of financing of the firms listed at the NSE while a negative relationship among liquidity and the principal investment was exhibited in the research findings. This leads to a conclusion that rise in company size resulted to a rise in the investment structure of a firm therefore increase in demand to increase the capital base by seeking more financing. The study also found out that an increase in asset structure resulted in an increase in capital structure while an increase in profitability levels resulted in decrease in capital structure; increase in in liquidity levels led to a decrease in capital structure of the firms listed at the NSE.
Implications –The study findings emphasize that firms should understand the specific characteristics that influence choice of their respective capital structure in order to opt for the best financing option. The study also further suggested that similar studies should be carried out every three to five years to find out the significance of firm characteristics on choice of capital structure of firms listed at the NSE
Value -The findings of the study would be significant to public institutions and other non-listed firms in the choice of financing options and design of capital structure. Policy makers would infer the findings in formulation of relevant capital structure policies.
Key words: Capital structure decisions, size of the firm, asset structure, profitability, liquidity

GITHINJI EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, KEMEI BRIGID, AMITO RICHARD, OMBOK MAURICE, WANJOYA ANTONY, M CHARLES. "Effects of target-site insecticide resistance on major malaria vectors’ biting patterns and entomological inoculation rates in Teso sub counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
GITHINJ EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, KEMEI BRIGID, AMITO RICHARD, OMBOK MAURICE, WANJOYA ANTONY, Mbogo CM, MATHENGE EVAN. "Effects of target-site insecticide resistance on major malaria vectors’ biting patterns and entomological inoculation rates in Teso sub counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
GITHINJI EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, KEMEI BRIGID, AMITO RICHARD, OMBOK MAURICE, WANJOYA ANTONY, Mbogo CM, MATHENGE EVAN. "Effects of target-site insecticide resistance on major malaria vectors’ biting patterns and entomological inoculation rates in Teso sub counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
Masinde SP, Ochieng DDE. "Effects of Working Capital Management on Financial Performance of Energy and Petroleum Companies Listed at Nairobi Securities Exchange ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(2):61-79. Abstract

Purpose – This paper sought to establish the effect of Working Capital Management on the financial performance of Energy and Petroleum Companies listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange. Methodology – The study was modelled as correlation survey. A data collection sheet was used to collect secondary data from the published financial statements of all Energy and Petroleum companies listed at Nairobi Securities Exchange for a period of eight years between 2007 and 2014. Both descriptive and quantitative analyses were adopted. Pearson correlation, regression and ANOVA analysis were also conducted. Findings - The study suggests that Working Capital Management influence the Return on Assets significantly. 17.8% of the variations in profitability were influenced by variations in the Working Capital Management. The study establishes that the influence of Working Capital Management on profitability is statistically significant. The study finds weak negative associations between profitability and inventory conversion period, accounts collection period, accounts payable period and cash conversion cycles. The study establishes that the negative relationships between accounts payable period, cash conversion cycle and profitability are statistically significant. The relationships between accounts collection period, inventory conversion period and performance are not statistically significant. Implications - It is incumbent upon the Finance Managers of Energy and Petroleum companies listed at Nairobi Securities Exchange to understand the Energy and Petroleum business operations, and put in place robust Working Capital Management framework because of significant and positive impact on the financial performance of these companies. Value - A vibrant and profitable Energy and Petroleum sector has been identified as a key pillar to the achievement of Kenya’s Vision 2030. It is critical therefore, to reevaluate existing Working Capital Management framework of these companies for robustness in order to realize the Vision 2030.

Key Words: Working Capital Management, Financial Performance, Nairobi Securities Exchange

Lengai GMW, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Wagacha M. "Efficacy of Plant Extracts and Antagonistic Fungi in Managing Tomato Pests and Diseases under Field Conditions." Journal of Agriculture and Life Sciences. 2017;4(2):20-27.
Wafula1 GO, Muthomi JW, Nderitu JH, Chemining’wa GN. "Efficacy of Potassium Salts of Fatty Acids in the Management of Thrips and Whitefly on Snap Beans." Sustainable Agriculture Research. 2017;6(4):45-54.
Wafula GO, Muthomi JW, Nderitu JH, Chemining’wa GN. "Efficacy of Potassium Salts of Fatty Acids in the Management of Thrips and Whitefly on Snap Beans." Sustainable Agriculture Research. 2017;6:45-54.
"Either Patronage or Partnership: John Gatu’s Proposal for Moratorium.". In: Dictionary of African Christian Biography.; 2017.
Nyongesa F, Aduda BO. "Electrophoretic Deposition of Titanium Dioxide Thin Films for Photocatalytic water purification systems." Advances in Materials. 2017;6(4):31-37. AbstractJournal Article Website

In this study, electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique was used to deposit titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films on
conducting glass substrates for application in water purification from organic contaminants. Phenol was used as a model
pollutant. The EPD suspension related parameters and deposition conditions were first optimized for good quality film
deposits. The suspension stability and deposition conditions that result in good adherence of TiO2 particles to the substrate with
homogeneous film coatings, is ethanol with a pH of 3.0, a TiO2 solid loading of 4.0 wt%, a 0.2 wt% iodine concentration in the
solvent and a deposition voltage of 20.0V in a time of 210.0s. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin films decreases
exponentially with the ultraviolet light (UV) illumination time and it is also dependent on film thickness, sintering temperature
and the intensity of the UV light. Highest rate of photocatalytic activity is observed at an optimal film thickness of 95.0 ±
2.0µm sintered at 300.0°C. The implications of these results are discussed for design of inexpensive waste water purification
systems for light industries before discharge into the ecosystem.
Keywords: Electrophoretic Deposition, Titanium Dioxide, Photocatalysis

WAITA SEBASTIAN, Aduda B. "Emphasis on Photovoltaic (PV) Solar System Installation Training: A Case Study of a PV Solar System Installed in Makueni County, Kenya." International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;3(8):31-37. AbstractJournal Article Website

The installation of Photovoltaic (PV) solar systems in institutions as well as homesteads in the rural areas in
Kenya is increasing at a high rate; and so is the need for the stake holders to make sure the PV solar systems are professionally designed, sized, installed and maintained. In PV solar system installation, the designing, sizing and the installation are very critical steps. A wrongly designed, sized and installed system will not perform optimally and will underperform (for undersized systems) and waste energy and resources (for oversized systems). Furthermore, undersized systems do not perform to the user’s expectation discouraging the user and eventually a negative customer attitude creeps in which may affect the uptake of solar PV systems. On the other hand, an oversized PV system is extra expense on the side of the client, creating an exaggerated high cost of PV solar systems, again discouraging potential clients from the adoption of the technology. Both scenarios mean loss of business, jobs and the economic and social benefits associated with PV technology. We present a case study of poorly installed PV systemsin Makueni County, Kenya. We observed that the solar modules pecifications at the back of the modules were not clearly done, the batteries were poorly matched and the cables used in the installation were undersized. Due to these issues, even a normal television set was not able to work since the system was installed four years ago (in 2012).The above case emphasizes the need for training in PV solar system design, sizing, installation, and maintenance.
Key words: Photovoltaic (PV), modules, solar system, Installation, training, professional

Inyega HN, Inyega JO. "Empowering children and teachers through literacy: the case of children’s book project (CBP) for Tanzania." Education Research Journal.. 2017;7(5):94-102.
HM M, AN K, ER M. "Environmental Estrogen-Like Endocrine Disrupting Compounds and the Dangers they pose on Male Fertility: Review Case of Nairobi River Water." Journal of Physical Science and Environmental Studies . 2017;3(3):25-29.
Wabomba JN, Shiundu PM, Onyari JM, Yanful E. "Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Cu(Ii) Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using a Kenyan Micaceous Mineral.". 2017. AbstractFull text link

Copper (II) sorption on a Kenyan micaceous mineral (Mica-K) was studied in the batch mode. The effects of different experimental parameters such as; initial concentration, contact time, sorbent dose, pH, particle size, agitation speed, competition and temperature on the kinetics of copper removal were studied. The sorption pattern of copper onto Mica-K followed Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters for copper sorption on Mica-K were also determined. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis of metal ion-equilibrated Mica-K, demonstrated that copper, cadmium and Zinc containing nodules existed on the surface of Mica-K.

Mutala TM, Maina PN. "Evaluating Factors Affecting Clinicians’ Knowledge on Contrast Media: Kenyan Experience." Journal of Global Radiology. 2017;3(1):Art 1.
Mwathi ZM, Muiru WM, Kimenju JW, Wachira P. "Evaluation of bio-wastes for multiplication of Paecilomyces lilacinus." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2017;10 (6): 1-5.
Achieng BO, Nzuve FM, Muthomi JW, Olubayo FM. "Evaluation of maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes for resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2017;10(6):85-94.
8. Gladys A. Mbaringong, Nyaboga EN, Wang’ondu V, Kanduma E. "Evaluation of Selected Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Cultivars Grown in Kenya for Resistance to Bacterial Blight Disease." World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;5(2):94-101.
Gichuhi S, Gichangi M, Nyamori J, Gachago M, Nyenze EM, Nyaga PT, Karimurio J. "Evaluation of the Kenyatta National Hospital diabetic retinopathy screening program 2015-2016." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr. . 2017;21(2):40-44. Abstract

Objective: This operational evaluation was conducted to determine the effect of having a screening fundus
camera in the diabetes clinic on the demand for eye clinic diabetic retinopathy services at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
Methods: A before-after evaluation design was used. The reference point was installation of a screening retinal fundus camera in the KNH diabetes clinic in May 2016. The ‘before’ period was January to June 2015 and the ‘after’ period was June to November 2016. The one-year gap between the evaluation periods was used for program development and user training. The primary measure of outcome was a comparison of the mean numbers of patients seen and treated before and after starting the screening program. Data was obtained from the medical records on both the diabetes and eye clinics.
Results: The total number of diabetic patients screened in the two periods was 3011 (monthly mean=502,
SD=44) and 2739 (monthly mean=457, SD=38) respectively. The total number referred to the eye clinic increased from 494 (monthly mean=82, SD=16) to 1065 (monthly mean=178, SD=30) while the total number of patients treated with lasers or intravitreal injections increased from 107 (monthly mean=18, SD=5) to 333 (monthly mean=56, SD=39).
Conclusions: Starting a diabetic retinopathy screening program using a fundus camera used based at the
diabetes clinic doubled the number of patients referred for further evaluation at the eye clinic (2.2-fold increase) and tripled the number of diabetics who received treatment for diabetic retinopathy (3.1-fold increase).

Gichuhi S, Gichangi M, Nyamori J, Gachago M, Nyenze M, Nyaga PT, Karimurio J. "Evaluation of the Kenyatta National Hospital diabetic retinopathy screening program 2015-2016 ." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr.. 2017;21(2):40-5.
Gichuhi S, M G, J N, M G, E NYENZE, P N, J K. "Evaluation of the Kenyatta National Hospital diabetic retinopathy screening program 2015-2016." JOECSA. 2017;21(2):40-44.
Elias M, Richter U, Hensel O, Hülsebusch C, Kaufmann B, Oliver Wasonga. "Expansion of Crop Cultivation and its Impacts on Land Cover Changes in the Borana Rangeland Southern Ethiopia.". 2017. Abstract

n/a

Inyega HN, Inyega JO. "Experiences of student teachers’ on placement." International Journal of Educational Policy Research and Review. 2017;4(5):90-102.
"Experiences of student-teachers on placement. ." International Journal of Educational Policy Research and Review. 2017;4(5):90-102.
Gitonga P, Karani A, Kimani S. "Explore Best Practices in Family Nursing in Kenya: Empathy as a Value in Caring." http://www.opastonline.com/journal-of-nursing-healthcare/. 2017;2(2):1/4.
Abinya NA, Mwanda WO, Maina JMD, Odhiambo AO, Oyiro PO, Mwanzi SA, Dindi E, Waweru A. "Exploring Occupational and Familial Risks for Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia." Journal of US-China Medical Science . 2017;1(14):31-35.cml_risk_us-china_publ.pdf
Muiruri KS, Britt A, Amugune NO, Nguu EK, Chan S, Tripathi L. "Expressed Centromere Specific Histone 3 (CENH3) Variants in Cultivated Triploid and Wild Diploid Bananas (Musa spp.)." Frontiers in plant science. 2017;1034:1034.
Maina EM, Oboko RO, Waiganjo PW. "Extending moodle grouping functionality using artificial intelligent techniques." AFRICON, 2017 IEEE. 2017:55-58. AbstractFull website link

Learning Management Systems such as Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning
Environment (Moodle) only supports random group assignment or instructor based
assignment method. However, with the understanding that random assignment method only
increases the likelihood of heterogeneity in the group, while instructor based method
involves the instructors and it is not dynamic, there is need to develop a group formation
mechanism which can guarantee heterogeneity based on learner's collaboration
competence level, has dynamism in grouping students and has less instructor involvement.
In view of this, this paper discusses how to extend Moodle grouping functionality in
discussion forums using an intelligent grouping algorithm which has the capability to mine
discussion forum data in Moodle and cluster students to different clusters based

Muthwii F, M.Chege, M.Muiva. "FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SEVERITY OF NEONATAL SEPSIS DURING ADMISSION IN KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL PAEDIATRIC WARDS, KENYA: A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY ." East African Medical Journal . 2017;Vol. 91 No. 2 January 2017 . Abstract

East African Medical Journal Vol. 91 No. 2 January 2017
FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SEVERITY OF NEONATAL SEPSIS DURING ADMISSION IN KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL PAEDIATRIC WARDS, KENYA: A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY
F. Muthwii, M.Chege, M.Muiva,University of Nairobi, College of Health Sciences, School of Nursing Sciences, P.O. Box 19676-00202 Nairobi, Kenya and M.Habtu, Mount Kenya University, College of Health Sciences, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box P.O.Box 5826 Kigali, Rwanda, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, College of Health Sciences, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box 19676-00202 Kigali, Rwanda Request for reprints to: F. Muthwii , University of Nairobi, College of Health Sciences, School of Nursing Sciences, P.O. Box 19676-00202 Nairobi, Kenya. fkaluu77@gmail.com
FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SEVERITY OF NEONATAL SEPSIS DURING ADMISSION IN KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL PAEDIATRIC WARDS, KENYA: A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY F. MUTHWII, M.CHEGE, M.MUIVA and M.HABTU, ABSTRACT Background: Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of neonatal mortality. In the year of 2012, it accounted for 44% of all deaths of underfive years old children globally. Statistics indicate that 98% of the global, one million deaths as a result of neonatal sepsis occur in Africa. Neonatal sepsis contributes to 69% of neonatal mortality in Nigeria and 28% of neonatal mortality in Kenya. Objective: To establish factors associated with severity of neonatal sepsis among patients admitted in Kenyatta National Hospital Paediatric Wards. Design: The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional design. Setting: The study was carried out in paediatric wards of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Kenya. Subjects: Data was obtained from consenting mothers whose neonates had been admitted with neonatal sepsis and healthcare workers who worked within the paediatric wards. A total of 107 respondents were selected by systematic sampling method in which every alternate participant was selected. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather data on maternal and neonatal characteristics and environmental factors. In addition, three focused group discussions comprising nurses, doctors and clinical officers were conducted. Chi-square test was used to determine the factors associated with severity of neonatal sepsis (NNS) during admission. Results: Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of severe NNS. Of the 107 patients with neonatal sepsis, 37.4% had severe neonatal sepsis during admission.After multiple logistic regression analysis, the following factors were found to be independently associated with severe NNS: Neonates aged 8 to 28 days [AOR=2.89; 95%CI=1.07-7.99; P=0.047]compared to those neonates aged less than 8 days; Mothers with primary level of education [AOR=4.57; 95%CI=1.18-17.67; P=0.028]compared to those with tertiary education; primipara mothers [AOR=4.64; 95%CI=1.74-12.37; P=0.002]than multipara mothers and greenish amniotic fluid during labor [AOR=3.11; 95%CI=1.05-9.24; P=0.041]compared to clear amniotic fluid. Conclusion: The study found that severity of NNS was still high. The factors associated with severe NNS were; primiparity, maternal low economic status and poor antenatal clinic attendance. The study thus recommends that newborns at risk of developing severe neonatal sepsis should get prophylactic treatment and mothers be included in specialized programs geared towards reduction of the severity of NNS.

Muthwii F, M.Chege, M.Muiva, M.HABTU. "FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SEVERITY OF NEONATAL SEPSIS DURING ADMISSION IN KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL PAEDIATRIC WARDS, KENYA: A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY." East African Medical Journal. 2017. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of neonatal mortality. In the year of 2012,
it accounted for 44% of all deaths of underfive years old children globally. Statistics
indicate that 98% of the global, one million deaths as a result of neonatal sepsis occur
in Africa. Neonatal sepsis contributes to 69% of neonatal mortality in Nigeria and 28%
of neonatal mortality in Kenya.
Objective: To establish factors associated with severity of neonatal sepsis among
patients admitted in Kenyatta National Hospital Paediatric Wards.
Design: The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional design.
Setting: The study was carried out in paediatric wards of Kenyatta National Hospital
(KNH), Kenya.
Subjects: Data was obtained from consenting mothers whose neonates had been admitted
with neonatal sepsis and healthcare workers who worked within the paediatric wards.
A total of 107 respondents were selected by systematic sampling method in which
every alternate participant was selected. A semi-structured questionnaire was used
to gather data on maternal and neonatal characteristics and environmental factors.
In addition, three focused group discussions comprising nurses, doctors and clinical
officers were conducted. Chi-square test was used to determine the factors associated
with severity of neonatal sepsis (NNS) during admission.
Results: Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors
of severe NNS. Of the 107 patients with neonatal sepsis, 37.4% had severe neonatal
sepsis during admission.After multiple logistic regression analysis, the following
factors were found to be independently associated with severe NNS: Neonates aged 8
to 28 days [AOR=2.89; 95%CI=1.07-7.99; P=0.047]compared to those neonates aged less
than 8 days; Mothers with primary level of education [AOR=4.57; 95%CI=1.18-17.67;
P=0.028]compared to those with tertiary education; primipara mothers [AOR=4.64;
95%CI=1.74-12.37; P=0.002]than multipara mothers and greenish amniotic fluid during
labor [AOR=3.11; 95%CI=1.05-9.24; P=0.041]compared to clear amniotic fluid.
Conclusion: The study found that severity of NNS was still high. The factors associated
with severe NNS were; primiparity, maternal low economic status and poor antenatal
clinic attendance. The study thus recommends that newborns at risk of developing
severe neonatal sepsis should get prophylactic treatment and mothers be included in
specialized programs geared towards reduction of the severity of NNS.

Muthwii F, M.Chege, M.Muiva. "FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SEVERITY OF NEONATAL SEPSIS DURING ADMISSION IN KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL PAEDIATRIC WARDS, KENYA: A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY ." East African Medical Journal . 2017;91(2). Abstract

Abstract
Background:Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of neonatal mortality. In the year of 2012, it accounted for 44% of all deaths of underfive years old children globally. Statistics indicate that 98% of the global, one million deaths as a result of neonatal sepsis occur in Africa. Neonatal sepsis contributes to 69% of neonatal mortality in Nigeria and 28% of neonatal mortality in Kenya.
Objective:To establish factors associated with severity of neonatal sepsis among patients admitted in Kenyatta National Hospital Paediatric Wards.
Design:The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional design.
Setting:The study was carried out in paediatric wards of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Kenya.
Subjects:Data was obtained from consenting mothers whose neonates had been admitted with neonatal sepsis and healthcare workers who worked within the paediatric wards. A total of 107 respondents were selected by systematic sampling method in which every alternate participant was selected. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather data on maternal and neonatal characteristics and environmental factors. In addition, three focused group discussions comprising nurses, doctors and clinical officers were conducted. Chi-square test was used to determine the factors associated with severity of neonatal sepsis (NNS) during admission.
Results:Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of severe NNS. Of the 107 patients with neonatal sepsis, 37.4% had severe neonatal sepsis during admission.After multiple logistic regression analysis, the following factors were found to be independently associated with severe NNS: Neonates aged 8 to 28 days [AOR=2.89; 95%CI=1.07-7.99; P=0.047]compared to those neonates aged less than 8 days; Mothers with primary level of education [AOR=4.57; 95%CI=1.18-17.67; P=0.028]compared to those with tertiary education; primipara mothers [AOR=4.64; 95%CI=1.74-12.37; P=0.002]than multipara mothers and greenish amniotic fluid during labor [AOR=3.11; 95%CI=1.05-9.24; P=0.041]compared to clear amniotic fluid.
Conclusion:The study found that severity of NNS was still high. The factors associated with severe NNS were;primiparity, maternal low economic status and poor antenatal clinic attendance. The study thus recommends that newborns at risk of developing severe neonatal sepsis should get prophylactic treatment and mothers be included in specialized programs geared towards reduction of the severity of NNS.

Wanjala. G, Kogei, J.K, A.R. Riechi. "Factors Influencing Enrolment of Learners with Disabilities in Primary Schools with Inclusive Education in Nandi South District, Kenya." International Journal of Novel Research in Education and Learning. 2017;4(2):172-190 .abstract.pdf
Kiambi EG, Mugambi MM. "FACTORS INFLUENCING PERFORMANCE OF ORPHANS AND VULNERABLE CHILDREN PROJECTS IN IMENTI NORTH SUB COUNTY, MERU COUNTY, KENYA." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2017; 2(1):179-196.orphans_and_vulnerable_children_projects.pdf
Wachege PN, Rugendo FG. "Factors Leading to Premature Deaths of Male Youths: A Case of Karuri Village, Kiambu County - Kenya." IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2017;22(7):64-74.wachege_rugendo_article1.pdf
Ogada CN, Mutave RJ. "Factors that influence the use of the incisive pappila as refference to maxilary anterior tooth positions." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(8):592-596.
Tum PK, Wanjau RN, Thoruwa CL, Kithure JGN, Murungi JI. "Fate of lambda-cyhalothrin in kales, tomatoes and cabbage from rural setting in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2017;4(2):12-18.kithure.pdf
and Mette Lфrschal; Peder Klith Bфcher; Jeppe Pilgaard, Irene Amoke; Alice Odingo ATJ-CS. "Fencing bodes a rapid collapse of the unique Greater Mara Ecosystem." Nature. 2017;7:41450.
Okoth S. "Field evaluation of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in maize inbred lines in Kenya and South Africa." Journal of Crop Improvement. 2017;31(6):862-878. AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT
Aflatoxin, a carcinogenic toxin, is produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Contamination of maize (Zea mays L.) grain by these fungi occurs before harvest, and the easiest strategy to prevent this is to develop/use maize varieties resistant to Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin accumulation. The objective of this investigation was to identify potential sources of resistance among 23 maize inbred lines (13 obtained from the MAIZE Competitive Grants Initiative, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre and 10 from Agricultural Research Council, South Africa). The inbred lines were planted in a randomized complete-block design at two locations each in Kenya and South Africa. Maize ears were inoculated at silking with three toxigenic strains of A. flavus. The inoculated ears in each plot were harvested at 12–18% moisture, dried, and visually assessed for Aspergillus ear rot (AER). Aflatoxin concentration in the kernels was determined using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Significant variation for both AER and aflatoxin concentration existed among the inbred lines at both locations in Kenya and one location in South Africa. Combined analysis revealed a significant (p < 0.001) lines × locations interaction for both AER and aflatoxin concentration. Higher incidences of AER (0–86.0%) and aflatoxin concentration (0.21–6.51 µg/kg) were recorded at Kiboko in Kenya than at the other three locations. A stronger genetic correlation (rG = 0.936, p < 0.0001) between the AER and aflatoxin concentration was recorded in Potchefstroom than at the other three locations. Repeatability of aflatoxin concentration was high at Kiboko (0.87) and Potchefstroom in South Africa (0.74). Three inbred lines, CML247, CML444, and CML495, emerged as potentially useful sources of resistance to AER and aflatoxin accumulation as they showed low levels of aflatoxin contamination in both localities in Kenya and in South Africa.

Nzioka OM, Kaijage E, Ochieng DE. "Financial Integration, Macroeconomic Volatility And Economic Growth In The East African Community." European Scientific Journal. 2017;13(19):317-331. Abstract

This study aimed at determining the moderating effect of macroeconomic
volatility on the relationship between financial integration and
economic growth in the EAC.
The study adopted a positivistic research philosophy and casual research
design.. Generalized-two stage least squares instrumental variable regression
model (G2SLSIV) was then conducted to test the hypothesis. The findings of
the study showed that, macro-economic volatility does not have a significant
moderating effect on the relationship between financial integration and
economic growth. Therefore, the study recommends that, the governments of
respective member states work on a monetary policy that aims to attain a
single digit level of inflation rate (low inflation targeting), in the spirit of
macro-economic convergence. The study culminates with acknowledging the
limitations encountered and provides suggestions for further research.

Kimunduu GM, MWANGI MIRIE, Kaijage E, Ochieng DE. "Financial Performance and Dividend Policy." European Scientific Journal. 2017;13(28):138-154. Abstractfinancial_performance_and_dividend_policy.pdf

Past studies on the relationship between dividend policy and firm
performance continue being an unresolved predicament with few studies
interrogating the causality relationship between financial performance and
dividend policy. The purpose of this study was to establish the nature of
relationship between financial performance and dividend policy of firms
listed at the Nairobi securities exchange. The study applied positivism
research philosophy and descriptive causal research design. The study was
anchored on hypothetical view that the relationship between financial
performance and dividend policy of firms listed at the Nairobi securities
exchange is not significant which was tested against a sample size of 31
firms listed at the Nairobi securities exchange selected using purposive
sampling technique. The research findings were as follows: There was a
statistically significant direct association between return on equity and
dividend policy. This implies that as firm profitability improve; a
corresponding proportionate change in dividend payout ratio is initiated by
management. In addition, it was established that there was a statistically
significant positive linkage between operating cash flows and dividend
policy which denotes that as cash flow levels from operating activities
change, dividend payout ratio will change in the same direction leading

Ronoh K, Kamucha G, Odongo W, Olwal T, Omwansa T. Firefly Algorithm based Power Control in Wireless TV White Space Network. Cape Town, South Africa; 2017.
Amimo JO, Njuguna JN, Machuka E, Okoth E, Djikeng A. "First Complete Genome Sequence of Porcine Bocavirus Strains from East Africa." Genome Announcement. 2017.
Zipporah M, Rohit P, Robinson M, Ralph S. "First-principle investigation of structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Co2VIn and CoVIn Heusler compounds." AIP Advances. 2017;7. Abstract

Investigation of the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of full-Heusler Co2VIn as well as half-Heusler CoVIn Cobalt based Heusler compounds using density functional theory (DFT) leads to the general conclusion that Co2VIn and CoVIn are half-metallic materials with a gap at the Fermi level in the minority states and majority states respectively. A Hubbard-like Coulomb correlation term U has been included in the DFT (DFT+U) for the computation of the electronic and magnetic properties of the compounds. The structural properties have been calculated for the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases, and both Co2VIn and CoVIn are found to be stable in the ferromagnetic phase. The calculated magnetic moments are 2 μB2 μB and 0.9 μB0.9 μB per formula unit for Co2VIn and CoVIn respectively.

Opuko Hellen A., G. MM. "Flexible Work Practices and Job Performance in the Transport and Logistics Industry: The Kenyan perspective." DBA Africa Management Review. 2017;7(2):38-49.
Sarguta R. Four Routes to Mixed Poisson Distributions. Ottieno JAM, Mwaniki JI, Kipchirchir IC, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Mutende EA, Mwangi M, NJIHIA JM, Ochieng DE. "Free Cash Flows, Agency Costs and Performance of Firms Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange.". In: The Pan-African Journal of Business Management. Vol. 1.; 2017:. Abstractfree_cash_flows_agency_costs_and_performance_of_firms_listed_at_the_nairobi_securities.pdf

Abstract: Firm performance is affected by various factors, both internal and external. Internal
factors include firm characteristics such as firm size, age, liquidity, leverage, profitability,
growth prospects among others. External factors include regulation, agency costs and general
macro-economic factors. This paper sought to establish the influence of agency costs on the
relationship between free cash flows and firm performance. The second objective was to assess
the influence of agency costs on the relationship between free cash flows and performance of
firms listed at the Nairobi securities exchange. The study used both primary data and secondary
panel data which were obtained from all firms listed at the NSE for the period 2006 to 2015.
Panel data and simple regression analyses using OLS were employed in the study. Results
indicate that free cash flows have a significant positive relationship with firm performance, and,
agency costs have a positive significant moderating effect on the relationship between free cash
flows and firm performance. All the predictor variables had a joint positive and significant effect
on performance. The main academic contribution of the study is that free cash flows have a
positive relationship with firm performance and that agency costs; and specifically, firm
monitoring and corporate governance has a positive and significant effect on the performance of
firms listed at the NSE. Firm managers, shareholders, practitioners, the government and other
regulators should, therefore, enhance firm monitoring and corporate governance because the
benefits derived from investing therein seem to outweigh the costs.

Gakuu, C. M. KKHJ & PN. Fundamentals of Research Methods: Concepts, Theories and Application. Aura Publishers, Nairobi; 2017.
Yangyuoru PM, Bradburn DA, Liu Z, Xiao TS, Russell R. "The G-quadruplex (G4) resolvase DHX36 efficiently and specifically disrupts DNA G4s via a translocation-based helicase mechanism." Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2017:jbc. M117. 815076.
Mageto E.K, D. Makumbi, and K. Njoroge, Nyankanga R. "Genetic analysis of early-maturing maize (Zea Mays L.) inbred lines under stress and nonstress conditions." Journal of Crop Improvement. 2017; DOI: 10.1080/15427528.2017.1315625(31:4, ):560-588.
Okoth S. "Genetic characterisation of Plasmodium falciparum isolates with deletion of the pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 genes in Colombia: the Amazon region, a challenge for malaria diagnosis and control." PloS one. 2017:1-17. Abstractjournal.pone_.0163137.pdfWebsite

Most Plasmodium falciparum-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) target histidine-rich
protein 2 (PfHRP2). However, P. falciparumisolates with deletion of the pfhrp2 gene and its
homolog gene, pfhrp3, have been detected. We carried out an extensive investigation on
365 P. falciparumdried blood samples collected from seven P. falciparumendemic sites in
Colombia between 2003 and 2012 to genetically characterise and geographically map
pfhrp2- and/or pfhrp3-negative P. falciparumparasites in the country. We found a high proportion
of pfhrp2-negative parasites only in Amazonas (15/39; 38.5%), and these parasites
were also pfhrp3-negative. These parasites were collected between 2008 and 2009 in
Amazonas, while pfhrp3-negative parasites (157/365, 43%) were found in all the sites and
from each of the sample collection years evaluated (2003 to 2012). We also found that all
pfhrp2- and/or pfhrp3-negative parasites were also negative for one or both flanking genes.
Six sub-population clusters were established with 93.3% (14/15) of the pfhrp2-negative
parasites grouped in the same cluster and sharing the same haplotype. This haplotype
corresponded with the genetic lineage BV1, a multidrug resistant strain that caused two outbreaks
reportedin Peru between 2010 and 2013. We found this BV1 lineage in the Colombian
Amazon as early as 2006. Two new clonal lineages were identified in these parasites
from Colombia: the genetic lineages EV1 and F. PfHRP2 sequence analysis revealed high
genetic diversity at the amino acid level, with 17 unique sequences identified among 53
PfHRP2 sequences analysed. The use of PfHRP2-based RDTs is not recommended in
Amazonas because of the high proportionof parasites with pfhrp2 deletion (38.5%), and
implementation of new strategies for malaria diagnosis and control in Amazonas must be
prioritised.Moreover, studies to monitor and genetically characterise pfhrp2-negative P. falciparumparasites in the Americas are warranted, given the extensive human migration
occurring in the region.

Osena G, Amugune NO, Nyaboga EN. "Genetic Stability of Cassava Plants Regenerated Through Organogenesis Using Microsatellite Markers." Journal of Plant Sciences. 2017;5(1):19-28.
Ng’ang’a TM, Wachira PM, Wango TJL, Ndung’u JM, Ndungo MN. "Geospatial Digital Rights Management: Challenge to Global Spatial Data Infrastructure.". In: Volunteered Geographic Information and the Future of Geospatial Data. London: IGI Global.; 2017.
Mukonzo SE, ODOCK SO. "Green manufacturing and operational performance of a firm: Case of a cement manufacturing firm in Kenya." International Journal of Business and Social Science. 2017;8(4):106-120. Abstract

Green Manufacturing includes all practices connected with ecological concerns that constantly incorporate environmental manufacturing processes and products. Green Manufacturing considers decrease from the start or prevention, recycling and green product designs. It focuses on the greening production stage where pollutants are largely generated. The outcomes of these strategies would be no pollution, defects, downtime and zero inventories. The study sought to establish the relationship between green manufacturing practices and operational performance of a selected cement manufacturing company in Kenya. Secondary data on green manufacturing practices and operational performance was collected for a period of 4 years from 2011-2014. The results indicate a significant relationship between green manufacturing practices and operational performance. There is also compliance with the Kenya’s environmental management and co-ordination regulations for 1999 on the part of the cement manufacturing firm. The study emphasizes the implementation of green manufacturing projects that would focus on eliminating or controlling all kinds of pollution in its conclusion.

Key Words: Green Manufacturing; Emissions; Dust; Pollution; Waste Management; Operational Performance

Hayford A, Joseph OO, Afra N. "Green Marketing Orientation (GMO) and Performance of SMEs in Ghana." American Journal of Management. 2017;11(1):99-109.amegbe_owino__nuwasiima_2017.pdf
Serem JK, Wahome RG, D.W. Gakuya, S.G.Kiama, G.C.Gitao, D, W O. "Growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and blood characteristics of growing pigs fed on different levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal health . 2017;9(11):327-333.serem_et_al_2017.pdf
N M, M G, Gichuhi S, G K, N N, L M, M B. Guidelines For Screening And Management of Diabetic Retinopathy. Nairobi: Ministry of Health Kenya; 2017.
Makunda CS. Harnessing cultural heritage for locally relevant interior design solutions for new apartments in Nairobi. University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Lachenmeier DW. "High Ethanol Contents of Spirit Drinks in Kibera Slums, Kenya: Implications for Public Health." Foods. 2017;6:89. Abstract

Cheap licit and artisanal illicit spirit drinks have been associated with numerous outbreaks of alcohol poisoning especially with methanol. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of cheap spirit drinks in Kibera slums in Nairobi County, Kenya. The samples consisted of cheap licit spirits (n = 11) and the artisanal spirit drink, ‘chang’aa’, (n = 28). The parameters of alcoholic strength and volatile composition were used as indicators of quality and were determined using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively. The ranges for alcoholic strength were 42.8–85.8% vol and 28.3–56.7% vol for chang’aa and licit spirit drinks respectively, while the pH ranges were 3.3–4.2 and 4.4–4.8 for chang’aa and licit spirit drinks respectively. The majority of volatiles were found in artisanal spirits and they included higher alcohols, ethyl esters and carbonyl compounds. The alcoholic strength of all the artisanal spirits (100%) and 91% of the licit spirits was above the 40% vol of standard spirits such as vodka. The high ethanol content of the alcohol products was the only element of public health significance in this study.

Nyongesa AW, Patel N, Wango EO, Onyango DW. "High khat dose and long-term exposure impairs spermatogenesis: experimental study using rabbit model." J. Morphol. Sci. 2017;34(3):156-167.morphology_paper.pdf
Okoth S. "Histidine-rich protein 2 (pfhrp2) and pfhrp3 gene deletions in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from select sites in Brazil and Bolivia." PLOS One. 2017:1-13. Abstractjournal.pone_.0171150.pdfWebsite

More than 80% of available malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are based on the detection of histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP2) for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Recent studies have shown the genes that code for this protein and its paralog, histidine-rich protein-3 (PfHRP3), are absent in parasites from the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Lack of PfHRP2 protein through deletion of the pfhrp2 gene leads to false-negative RDT results for P. falciparum. We have evaluated the extent of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions in a convenience sample of 198 isolates from six sites in three states across the Brazilian Amazon Basin (Acre, Rondonia and Para) and 25 isolates from two sites in Bolivia collected at different times between 2010 and 2012. Pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene and their flanking genes on chromosomes 7 and 13, respectively, were amplified from 198 blood specimens collected in Brazil. In Brazil, the isolates collected in Acre state, located in the western part of the Brazilian Amazon, had the highest percentage of deletions for pfhrp2 25 (31.2%) of 79, while among those collected in Rondonia, the prevalence of pfhrp2 gene deletion was only 3.3% (2 out of 60 patients). In isolates from Para state, all parasites were pfhrp2-positive. In contrast, we detected high proportions of isolates from all 3 states that were pfhrp3-negative ranging from 18.3% (11 out of 60 samples) to 50.9% (30 out of 59 samples). In Bolivia, only one of 25 samples (4%) tested had deleted pfhrp2 gene, while 68% (17 out of 25 samples) were pfhrp3-negative. Among the isolates tested, P. falciparum pfhrp2 gene deletions were present mainly in those from Acre State in the Brazilian Amazon. These results indicate it is important to reconsider the use of PfHRP2-based RDTs in the western region of the Brazilian Amazon and to implement appropriate surveillance systems to monitor pfhrp2 gene deletions in this and other parts of the Amazon region.

Olago D, Campisano CJ, Cohen AS, Arrowsmith RJ, Asrat A, Behrensmeyer AK, et al. "The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project: High-Resolution Paleoclimate Records from the East African Rift System and Their Implications for Understanding the Environmental Context of Hominin Evolution." Paleo Anthropology. 2017;1:43. Abstract2017_campisano_et_al._hspdp_drilling_paper.pdfFull Text

The possibility of a causal relationship between Earth history processes and hominin evolution in Africa has been the subject of intensive paleoanthropological research for the last 25 years. One fundamental question is: can any geohistorical processes, in particular, climatic ones, be characterized with sufficient precision to enable temporal correlation with events in hominin evolution and provide support for a possible causal mechanism for evolutionary changes? Previous attempts to link paleoclimate and hominin evolution have centered on evidence from the outcrops where the hominin fossils are found, as understanding whether and how hominin populations responded to habitat change must be examined at the local basinal scale. However, these outcrop records typically provide incomplete, low-resolution climate and environmental histories, and surface weathering often precludes the application of highly sensitive, state-of-the-art paleoenvironmental methods. continuous and well-preserved deep-sea drill core records have provided an alternative approach to reconstructing the context of hominin evolution, but have been collected at great distances from hominin sites and typically integrate information over vast spatial scales. The goal of the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) is to analyze climate and other Earth system dynamics using detailed paleoenvironmental data acquired through scientific drilling of lacustrine depocenters at or near six key paleoanthropological sites in Kenya and Ethiopia. This review provides an overview of a unique collaboration of paleoanthropologists and earth scientists who have joined together to explicitly explore key hypotheses linking environmental history and mammalian (including hominin) evolution and potentially develop new testable hypotheses. With a focus on continuous, high-resolution proxies at timescales relevant to both biological and cultural evolution, the HSPDP aims to dramatically expand our understanding of the environmental history of eastern Africa during a significant portion of the Late Neogene and Quaternary, and to generate useful models of long-term environmental dynamics in the region.

Masika M, Wachihi C, Muriuki F, Kimani J, R K. "Hypertension and obesity among HIV patients in a care programme in Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(5). AbstractWebsite

Objective: To determine the prevalence of hypertension and obesity among HIV patients enrolled in the Sex Worker Outreach Programme (SWOP), Nairobi, Kenya.

Design: A retrospective a study.

Setting: SWOP managed by the University of Manitoba, Nairobi team.

Subjects: We selected clinic visit records from HIV patients seen between 2011 and 2014, which had valid blood pressure and age entries.

Interventions: We analysed data to determine prevalence and correlates of hypertension and obesity in the study population. Associations were tested using chi-square for categorical variables and t-test for continuous variables.

Main outcome measures: Hypertension and obesity.

Results: Three thousand one hundred ninety seven subjects were included in the study. All were HIV-positive and most (97.8%) were on ART. The mean age was 39.7 years (standard deviation = 8.8) and 72.4% of the subjects were female. The prevalence of hypertension was 7.7% (246/3197) and 31% of the study cases (798/2590) were either overweight or obese. Males were more likely to have hypertension (p < 0.001) while females were more predisposed to obesity (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Hypertension and obesity are important co-morbidities among HIV patients. Preventive and management strategies should be adopted as part of the comprehensive packages on offer at all existing HIV care and ART centres targeting those enrolled for services as well as their relatives and the community at large.

Awori MN. I AM- the meaning of life. USA: Kindle direct publish; 2017.
Olag D, Wolff C, Verschuren D, Daele MEV, Waldmann N, Meyer I, Lane CS, der Meeren VT, Ombori T, Kasanzu C. "ICDP Project DeepCHALLA: Reconstructing 250,000 Years of Climate Change and Environmental History on the East African Equator." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 2017. AbstractFull Text

Sediments on the bottom of Lake Challa, a 92-m deep crater lake on the border of Kenya and Tanzania near Mt. Kilimanjaro, contain a uniquely long and continuous record of past climate and environmental change in easternmost equatorial Africa. Supported in part by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Programme (ICDP), the DeepCHALLA project has now recovered this sediment record down to 214.8 m below the lake floor, with 100% recovery of the uppermost 121.3 m (the last 160 kyr BP) and ca.85% recovery of the older part of the sequence, down to the lowermost distinct reflector identified in seismic stratigraphy. This acoustic basement represents a ca.2-m thick layer of coarsely laminated, diatom-rich organic mud mixed with volcanic sand and silt deposited 250 kyr ago, overlying an estimated 20-30 m of unsampled lacustrine deposits representing the earliest phase of lake development. Down-hole logging produced profiles of in-situ sediment composition that confer an absolute depth- scale to both the recovered cores and the seismic stratigraphy. An estimated 74% of the recovered sequence is finely laminated (varved), and continuously so over the upper 72.3 m (the last 90 kyr). All other sections display at least cm-scale lamination, demonstrating persistence of a tranquil, profundal depositional environment throughout lake history. The sequence is interrupted only by 32 visible tephra layers 2 to 9 mm thick; and by several dozen fine-grained turbidites up to 108 cm thick, most of which are clearly bracketed between a non-erosive base and a diatom-laden cap. Tie points between sediment markers and the corresponding seismic reflectors support a preliminary age model inferring a near-constant rate of sediment accumulation over at least the last glacial cycle (140 kyr BP to present). This great time span combined with the exquisite temporal resolution of the Lake Challa sediments provides great opportunities to study past tropical climate dynamics at both short (inter-annual to decadal) and long (glacial-interglacial) time scales; and to assess the multi-faceted impact of this climate change on the region's freshwater resources, the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, and the history of the African landscape in which modern humans (our species, Homo sapiens) originally evolved and have lived ever since.

and Njue LG., Ombui JN. KLWGJKMJO. "Identification of antimicrobial compounds in garlic grown in Laikipia county." Journal of Agricultural research and review,. 2017;5(5):636-643.
Akello MO, Nzuve F, Olubayo F, Macharia G, Muthomi J. "Identification of Resistance Sources to Wheat Stem Rust from Introduced Genotypes in Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2017;9(2):73-87.
Orao J. "Identity and Nationalism in MG Vassanji’s ‚The In-Between World of Vikram Lall’.". In: Samosa Festival. University of Nairobi; 2017.
Wachege PN, Nyongesa KL. "Impact of Sabaot Land Defense Force Conflict (2006-2008) on the Roman Catholic Church in Cheptais, Bungoma." IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2017;22(12):62-73.wachege_and_kibet_article.pdf
G. W, Koriyow Hussein A. "Impact of Subsidised Fees on Students’ Access to Quality Education in Public Secondary Schools in Wajir County, Kenya. ." International Journal of Education and Research . 2017;5(7):247-262 .abstract.pdf
Inyega JO, Inyega HN, Hardman F. "Implementing cross-age peer tutoring in the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools." The International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies ISSN 2321 – 9203. 2017;5(4):16-22.
"Implementing cross-age peer tutoring in the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools. ." International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies. 2017;5(4).
Wanjala. G, Koriyow Hussein A. "Implication of Subsidised Fees Programme on Pedagogical Practices in Public Secondary Schools in Wajir County , Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology . 2017;4(8):19-34.abstract.pdf
Kiragu H, Kamucha G, Mwangi E. "An Improved Reconstruction Method for Compressively Sampled Magnetic Resonance Images Using Adaptive Gaussian Denoising." Springer International Publishing AG. 2017;416(LNEE):192-200.
Falkenstrom F, Gee MG, Kuria MW, Othieno CJ, Kumar M. "Improving the effectiveness of psychotherapy in two public hospitals in Nairobi." BJP Psych. International. 2017;14(3).
Muthomi JW, Lengai GMW, Wagacha MJ, Narla RD. "In vitro activity of plant extracts against some important plant pathogenic fungi of tomato." Australian Journal of Crop Science. 2017;11(6):83-689.
Thuo BM, Thoithi GN, Maingi N, Ndwigah SN, Gitari RN, Otieno RO. "In vitro anthelmintic activity of Albizia gummifera, Crotalaria axillaris, Manilkara discolor, Teclea trichocarpa and Zanthoxylum usambarense using sheep nematodes." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2017;6(1):38-42.
Muthomi JW, Lengai GMW, Wagacha MJ, Narla RD. "In'vitro'activity of plant extracts against some important plant pathogenic fungi of tomato." Australian Journal of Crop Science. 2017;11(6):683.
Motomura K, Ganchimeg T, Nagata C, Ota E, Vogel JP, Betran AP, Torloni MR, Jayaratne K, Jwa SC, Mittal S, Recidoro ZD, Matsumoto K, Fujieda M, Nafiou I, Yunis K, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Souza JP, Mori R. "Incidence and outcomes of uterine rupture among women with prior caesarean section: WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health." Scientific Reports. 2017;7. AbstractWebsite

Caesarean section (CS) is increasing globally, and women with prior CS are at higher risk of uterine rupture in subsequent pregnancies. However, little is known about the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of uterine rupture in women with prior CS, especially in developing countries. To investigate this, we conducted a secondary analysis of the World Health Organization Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health, which included data on delivery from 359 facilities in 29 countries. The incidence of uterine rupture among women with at least one prior CS was 0.5% (170/37,366), ranging from 0.2% in high-Human Development Index (HDI) countries to 1.0% in low-HDI countries. Factors significantly associated with uterine rupture included giving birth in medium- or low-HDI countries (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.0 and 3.88, respectively), lower maternal educational level (≤6 years) (AOR 1.71), spontaneous onset of labour (AOR 1.62), and gestational age at birth <37 weeks (AOR 3.52). Women with uterine rupture had significantly higher risk of maternal death (AOR 4.45) and perinatal death (AOR 33.34). Women with prior CS, especially in resource-limited settings, are facing higher risk of uterine rupture and subsequent adverse outcomes. Further studies are needed for prevention/management strategies in these settings.

Use of caesarean section (CS) deliveries has been steadily increasing, from 6.7% in 1990 to 19.1% in 2014 globally1,2. Consequently, the number of deliveries by mothers with prior CS is also on the rise1.

Women with prior CS are at higher risk of uterine rupture. The reported incidence of uterine rupture among women with prior CS ranged from 0.22% to 0.5% in some developed countries3,4,5,6. The risk factors for uterine rupture in women with a history of CS include prior classical incision, labour induction or argumentation, macrosomia, increasing maternal age, post-term delivery, short maternal stature, no prior vaginal delivery, and prior periviable CS4,7,8,9,10,11. Uterine rupture poses considerable risk of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. The prevalence of maternal and perinatal complications, such as severe post-hemorrhagic anemia, major puerperal infection, bladder injury, hysterectomy, and perinatal mortality, are significantly higher in women with uterine rupture than women without uterine rupture4,10,12,13.

A World Health Organization (WHO) systematic review to determine the prevalence of uterine rupture worldwide identified uterine rupture as a serious obstetric complication being more prevalent and with more serious consequences in developing countries than in developed countries14. In developing countries, uterine rupture has been reportedly associated with obstructed labour, grand multiparity, injudicious obstetric interventions/manipulations, lack of antenatal care, unbooked status, poor access to emergency obstetric care, and low socioeconomic status rather than prior CS15,16,17,18. However, uterine rupture after prior CS is becoming more common as the availability of CS increases in these settings18. According to a literature review on uterine rupture in developing countries, the proportion of women with prior CS or uterine scar among women who had uterine rupture was up to 64%18. A study in India reported that the incidence of uterine rupture among women with prior CS was 1.69%19. Nevertheless, there are few studies about the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of uterine rupture among women with prior CS from these settings.

Typically, uterine rupture occurs suddenly and requires immediate critical emergency care for mothers, fetuses, or neonates. The strategies for prevention and management, as well as the quality of affordable care for women at risk of or experiencing uterine rupture, are likely to vary across settings depending on their diagnostic capacity, availability of obstetric interventions, and human and facility resources. Therefore, the findings in developed countries may not be generalizable to low-resource countries and settings. The aim of this analysis was to describe the incidence, risk factors, and maternal and perinatal outcomes of uterine rupture among women with prior CS using data from the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS), which was conducted in facilities in 29 countries worldwide from 2010 to 2011.

Samuillah MH, Varma V, Nguhiu J, Mogoa E. "Incidence, types and outcomes of distal limb fractures of racehorses in Kenya: a retrospective study of radiographs (2005-2014)." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2017;6(2):81-85.
Ogada CN, Mutave RJ. "Incisive Papilla and Positions of Maxillary Anterior Teeth Among Kenyans of African Descent." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(5):385-390.
M KP. "Influence of Capacity Building in Enhancing Democratic Governance Process in Kenya." Journal of Human Resource & Leadership . 2017;1(2):42-57.
Kimuyu DM, Veblen KE, Riginos C, Chira RM, GITHAIGA JOHNM, Young TP. "Influence of cattle on browsing and grazing wildlife varies with rainfall and presence of megaherbivores." Ecological Applications. 2017;27(3):786-798.
Twalib MH, Magutu J. "INFLUENCE OF COMPENSATION ON EMPLOYEE TURNOVER." Influence of Compensation on Employee Turnover . 2017;2(6):125-135. Abstractinfluence_of_compensation_on_employee_turnover.pdf

The main objective of the study was to determine the influence of compensation on employee
turnover and the hypothesis that emanated from this was stated as compensation influences
employee turnover. The study used a descriptive survey. From a target population of 65
employees a sample of 26employees was selected, which is 40% of the target population.
Primary data was collected using self-administered structured questionnaires. Descriptive
statistics was used to analyse the data and the hypothesis formulated was analysed using simple
linear regression analysis. The results confirmed the hypothesis that compensation influences
employee turnover (R2=.866, F=167.783, P≤0.05). The correlation coefficient for the model was
0.93 which also confirms that there is a strong relationship between compensation and employee
turnover. The study recommends that organizations should consider compensation as a strategy
of ensuring employee loyalty which will lead to competitive advantage of the organization. The paper suggests that the same study should be replicated in other larger organizations with more
population.

M KP. "Influence of Decentralized Units in Enhancing Democratic Governance Process in Kenya,." Journal of Public Policy & Governance . 2017;1(1):1-13.
Rose N. Obae, Selpher K. Cheloti, Mwangi G. "Influence of Free Day Secondary Education Subsidy On Completion Rates; A Case of Public Day Secondary Schools in Kitui County, Kenya." International Journal of Research in Economics and Social Sciences (IJRESS). 2017;7(2):2249-7382.
Twalib MH, Lukio OA. "THE INFLUENCE OF GENDER ON ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR AT KENYA POWER ." DBA Africa Management Review . 2017;7 (2):215-227. Abstractpublished_ocb_article.pdf

Abstract
The main focus of the paper was determining the effect of gender on organizational
citizenship behaviour.The sub objectives emanated from this include to determine the
influence of gender on altruism, sportsmanship, courtesy and civic virtue. The study used a
descriptive survey and a population study of 200 employees with a sample of 80 employees
which is 40% of the total population as recommended by experts(Mugenda and Mugenda,
2009). Primary data was collected using self-administered structured questionnaires.
Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the data and the hypothesis formulated was
analysed using linear regression analysis. The results confirmed the main hypothesis that
gender influences organizational citizenship behaviour (R
2
=.167, F=13.869, P≤0.05). The
correlation coefficient for the model was 0.409 which also confirms that there is
anassociation between gender and organizational citizenship behaviour. The paper failed to
confirm the sub hypothesis that Female employees practice altruism than their male
counterparts. It failed to confirm thatMale employees practice more sportsmanship than
female employees. The other sub-hypothesis that female employees practice more courtesy
than their male counterpart was also confirmed. Civic Virtue was seen to be practiced
more with male employees than female employees. This sub hypothesis was confirmed. The
study recommends that managers should focus on integrating all the genders strong traits
for the benefit of the organization. The paper suggests if the same study can be replicated
in other organization.

Mwaniki JR, Mugambi MM. "INFLUENCE OF HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEM (HIS) ON SERVICE DELIVERY IN PUBLIC HEALTH FACILITIES IN KENYA: A CASE OF IMENTI NORTH SUB-COUNTY, MERU COUNTY." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2017;2(1):239-258.health_information_system.pdf
Wabwoba CN, Ursulla A. Okoth, Mugambi M. "Influence Of Lecture Method On Pupil’s Performance In English Language In Kenya Certificate Of Primary Education In Non Formal Schools In Korogocho, Nairobi Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention. 2017;6(11):13-19.catherine_publication.pdf
Sugut, W.K; Rambo OCM & JA. "Influence of Monitoring and Evaluation on Sustainability of HIV/Aids Programmes among Community Based Organizations in Kericho County, Kenya." Journal of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) . 2017;22(10).
Sugut, W.K; Rambo OCM & JA. "Influence of Monitoring and Evaluation on Sustainability of HIV/Aids Programmes among Community Based Organizations in Kericho County, Kenya." Journal of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS). 2017;22(10).
Macharia RW, Kibera PFN, Munyoki JN, Kinoti MW. "Influence of Organizational Demographics on the Relationship between Green Marketing Practices and Customer Satisfaction in the Soft Drink Industry in Nairobi Kenya ." Journal of Marketing and Consumer Research . 2017;32(2422):64-78.
Kante M, Oboko R, Chepken C. "Influence of Perception and Quality of ICT‐Based Agricultural Input Information on Use of ICTs by Farmers in Developing Countries: Case of Sikasso in Mali." The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries. 2017;83(1):1-21.Full website link
Mule, J.M., Kalai, J.M., Mulwa, J.K. "Influence of Principals' level of education on student leaders' involvement in secondary schools governance in Kenya." he Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of educational and Social Science Research. 2017;5(1):2304-2885.5.pdf
Mule, J.M., Kalai, J.M., Mulwa, J.K. "Influence of Principals' level of education on student leaders' involvement in secondary schools governance in Kenya." The Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of educational and Social Science Research. 2017;5(1).
Wambua, P.M., Okoth, S.A, Kalai, J.M. "Influence of Principals’ Involvement of Students in Decision Making on Discipline in Secondary Schools, Kenya." European Scientific Journal. 2017;13(22).7.pdf
Kibui AW. "Influence of School Environment on student's performance in Kenyan Secondary Schools." International Journal of Science and Research. 2017;6(4):2295-2300.
(2017) K, et al. "Influence of Social Equity on Enhancing Democratic Governance Process in Kenya." Journal of Public Policy & Governance . 2017;6(3).
Klopp J, Orwa D, Wagacha PW, Williams S, White A. "Informal 2.0: Seeing and Improving Urban Informal Practices through Digital Technologies The Digital Matatus case in Nairobi." Field Actions Science Reports. The journal of field actions. 2017;(16):39-43. Abstractfull text link

Conceived out of collaboration between Kenyan and American universities and the technology sector in Nairobi, Digital Matatus shows how to leverage the ubiquitous nature of cellphone technology to collect missing data for essential infrastructure - including those with high levels of informality. The project captured transit data in standardized form for Nairobi’s semi-formal bus system, developed the first public transit map for such a system and made the map and data free to the public, spurring innovation and improved services for citizens.
While most cities develop sophisticated IT projects to make their organization smarter, the Digital Matatus case suggests the value of a much more modest and bottom-up approach: it encourages reliance on common technologies like cellphones to understand and improve existing urban services – that often involve informality – in emerging countries. By developing the first-ever high quality data set and map of the Matatu network (very common semi-informal mini-buses in Kenya), the projects promotes a new, low-cost and more practical vision of smart and transit-oriented cities.

Inyega HN, Inyega JO. "Infusing Reading Instruction into Early Childhood Teacher Education Programs: The Case of University of Nairobi.". In: In M. N. Amutabi (ed.). Africa at development crossroads, Chapter 9, pp. 111-126. Nairobi: Centre for Democracy Research and Development (CEDRED); 2017.
"Infusing Reading Instruction into Early Childhood Teacher Education Programs: The Case of University of Nairobi.". In: Africa at development crossroads. Nairobi: Centre for Democracy Research and Development (CEDRED); 2017.
Maonga TW, Inyega JO, Inyega HN. "Inquiry-based learning and secondary school student performance in map work in two selected Counties of Trans-Nzoia and Uasin Gishu in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge (IJIRK). 2017;2(4):15-22.
Ouma GO, Dieye AM, Ogallo LO, Olang LO. "Institutional Challenges in Scaling-up Climate Change Adaptation Actions: Experiences from Rural Communities in Senegal and Kenya." Climate and Development. 2017:1-10. Abstractinstitutional_challenges_in_scaling_up_climate_change_adaptation_actions_experiences_from_rural_communities_in_senegal_and_kenya.pdfTaylor &amp; Francis

Regional institutions in Africa have the potential to reinforce the adaptive capacity of rural communities in handling climate change impacts. The institutional arrangements provide the rationale for scaling-up adaptation actions by setting the roles of individual players involved in the planning process at local, national and regional levels. The scaling-up then seeks to extend and disseminate the lessons learnt across the levels to support refinement and inclusive implementation of long-term climate change adaptation strategies. This article discusses these considerations through studies of two rural communities faced with the implementation of climate change adaptation strategies in Senegal and Kenya. The cases illustrate different approaches of institutional arrangements and scaling-up of adaptation actions from community to national levels. The lessons from the
communities are typical of most vulnerable rural regions and were hence important for extended dissemination
considering that the impacts of climate change in Africa are felt largely at community levels. A reduction of this
vulnerability requires efficient and realistic adaptation strategies that seek to understand the rural communities while developing considerate policy-based alternatives at all levels of administration

Barasa L, Kimuyu P, Vermeulen P, Knoben J, Kinyanjui B. "Institutions, resources and innovation in East Africa: A firm level approach." Research Policy. 2017;46:280-291.
Matula PD, KYALO DN, MULWA SA. Instructional Supervision:Bridging Theory and Practice(A handbook for students and Lecturers). Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 2017.
Masvawure TB, Mantell JE, Tocco JU  , P G, Restar A, Chabeda SV, Lafort Y, TGM S. "Intentional and Unintentional Condom Breakage and Slippage in the Sexual Interactions of Female and Male Sex Workers and Clients in Mombasa, Kenya." AIDS Behav. 2017:doi: 10.1007/s10461-017-1922-.
Omondi HM, Ochieng DE. "INTERNAL FACTORS INFLUENCING EXTERNAL AUDITORS INDEPENDENCE AMONG PRACTICING ACCOUNTANTS IN KENYA." African development finance journal. 2017;1(2):117-144. Abstract

Methodology - The study employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design and used primary
data. The collected data was analyzed with the help of the SPSS software version 22 and presented
with the help of frequency distributions, computation of mean and standard deviation. The
association between the research variables was presented using an ordinal a regression model.
Findings – The study established that internal factors influence auditor independence by 31.7%.
From the results of the research, it also revealed that there is a significant relationship between
audit tenure, audit firm size and audit independence. This was indicated with a p-value of 0.029
and 0.009. The study also established that there is no significant relationship between audit
committee and audit independence with a p-value of 0.465. The study concludes that audit tenure
and firm size affect audit independence and thereby the study recommends the need for ICPAK
to develop a policy that will guide audit tenure and audit committee.
Implications –The study findings suggest that ICPAK develops a policy that will guide the audit
tenure and audit committees, this will in essence promote an understanding of the auditors‟ independence
in the profession. The study also further suggested that similar studies should be carried
and focus on the perception of users such as institutional and private investors, audit committees
and members of regulatory bodies.
Value -The findings of the study concludes that audit tenure and firm size affect audit independence
and thereby the study recommends the need for the Institute of Certified Public Accountants
of Kenya (ICPAK) to develop a policy that will guid

Kimunduu GM, MWANGI MIRIE, Kaijage E, Ochieng DE. "Intervening Effect of Cash Holdings in the Relationship Between Financial Performance and Dividend Policy." European Scientific Journal. 2017;13(28):264-281. Abstract

Many studies on relationship between financial performance and
dividend policy have resulted to controversial outcome with few studies
questioning the intervening effect of cash holdings. The purpose of this study
was to evaluate the effect of cash holdings on the relationship between
financial performance and dividend policy. The study applied positivism
research philosophy and descriptive causal research design. The study was
anchored on hypothetical view that the relationship between financial
performance and dividend policy of firms listed at the Nairobi securities
exchange is not intervened by cash holdings which was tested against a
sample size of 31 firms listed at the Nairobi securities exchange selected
using purposive sampling technique. The research findings were as follows:
There was a significant direct association between operating cash flows and
dividend policy which was intervened by cash holdings. In general it was
concluded that the link between financial performance and dividend policy
of firms listed at the Nairobi securities exchange was significant. The study
outcome augment existing knowledge on financial performance and dividend
policy for it is evident that firms with ability to generate income directly
influence dividend payout ratio and therefore, top management should
enhance financial performance an

Mwaniki OK, Abongo DA, Onyatta JO, Kithure JG. "Investigating the Effects of Formulation and Geographical Location on Degradation of Carbendazim in French Beans, Kenya." The International Journal of Science & Technolodge . 2017;5(2):44-51.
Mwaniki O K, A A’oD, O OJ, G KJ. "Investigating the Effects of Formulation, and Geographical Location on Degradation of Carbendazim in French Beans, Kenya." The International Journal of Science & Technology . 2017;5(2):44-51.
Kalui DM, Moturi CA, Muketha GM, Tarus JK. "An Investigation into Customers' Requirements for Electronic Banking: A Case Study of Microfinance Institutions in Kenya." International Journal of Innovation in the Digital Economy. 2017;8(2):39-54. AbstractIGI Global

There is a general consensus that governments, businesses and all individuals need to harness the power of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and ICT enabled services for wider access and improved welfare standards. The requirements of MFI clients in regard to electronic banking (e- banking) have received limited attention in the reviewed literature. In Kenya, little is known and understood about the customers' requirements with emergence of e-banking. In this paper, the authors investigate the MFIs clients' e-banking requirements to align with the MFIs preparedness for sustainable success. Besides, it narrows the digital divide in provision of financial services to Kenyans. Findings from this study indicate that in Kenya, MFI clients are ready for e-banking. The paper finally recommends some possible solutions that MFIs could embrace towards successful implementation of e-banking.

"Isoflavones and Rotenoids from the Leaves of Millettia oblata ssp. teitensis." Journal of natural products. 2017;80(7):2060-2066. AbstractWebsite

A new isoflavone, 8-prenylmilldrone (1), and four new rotenoids, oblarotenoids A–D (2–5), along with nine known compounds (6–14), were isolated from the CH2Cl2/CH3OH (1:1) extract of the leaves of Millettia oblata ssp. teitensis by chromatographic separation. The purified compounds were identified by NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses, whereas the absolute configurations of the rotenoids were established on the basis of chiroptical data and in some cases by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Maximaisoflavone J (11) and oblarotenoid C (4) showed weak activity against the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 with IC50 values of 33.3 and 93.8 μM, respectively.

Samita F, Ochieng CO, Owuor PO, Manguro LOA, Midiwo JO. "Isolation of a new β-carboline alkaloid from aerial parts of Triclisia sacleuxii and its antibacterial and cytotoxicity effects." Natural product research. 2017;31(5):529-536. AbstractFull text link

A new β-carboline alkaloid named sacleuximine A (1) together with known compounds palmatine (2), isotetrandrine (3), trans-N-feruloyltyramine (4), trans-N-caffeoyltyramine (5), yangambin (6), syringaresinol (7), sesamin (8), (+) epi-quercitol (9), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (10), β-sitosterol (11), quercetin 3-O-rutinoside (12) and myricetin 3-O-β-glucose (1→6) α-rhamnoside (13) have been isolated from methanol extract of Triclisia sacleuxii aerial parts. Compounds 1–10 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against human adenocarcinoma (HeLa), human hepatocarcinoma (Hep3B) and human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cells lines and also for antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The cytotoxicity (IC50) values ranged between 0.15 and 36.7 μM while the minimum inhibitory concentrations were found to be in the range of 3.9 and 125 μM, respectively. This is the first report of antibacterial compounds and the isolation of lignans together with a β-carboline alkaloid from T. sacleuxii.
Keywords: Triclisia sacleuxii, Menispermaceae, secondary metabolites, cytotoxicity, antibacterial, aerial parts

Waithaka PN, Mwaura FB, Wagacha JM, Gathuru EM. "Isolation of Actinomycetes from Geothermal Vents of Menengai Crater in Kenya." Int J Mol Biol Open Access. 2017;2(5):00031.
Bochaberi JO, Onyatta JO, Okemwa KE. "Kinetics of Cadmium Adsorption in Aqueous Media Using Banana Stem Biomass." International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET). 2017;6(7):751-755.
Makworo NK, Ochieng VO, Ogoyi DO, Mukabana RW. "Knock down efficacy of commercially available insecticides against Anopheles gambiae." Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology Vol. 2017;5(2):077-084.
Mirara A, Maitho T, Okoth UA. "Legal Setup and Performance of Post-Privatization Artificial Insemination Service Providers in Nyeri County, Kenya." International Journal of Livestock Research. 2017;7(1).
Wanjala. G, Wanjala E. "Level of Teachers’ Efficiency in Work Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Wajir North District, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology . 2017;4(4):23-36.abstract.pdf
Michaelina Almaz YOHANNIS, Timothy M WAEMA MHUTCHINSONAWAUSI. "Linking Climate Information to Livelihood Strategies through ICTs: the Role of Integrated Sustainable Livelihoods Framework.". 2017. Abstracthttps://profiles.uonbi.ac.ke/wausi/

Abstract: In this paper, we propose that an Integrated Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (I-
SLF), that mainstreams ICT-driven climate information, provides the ideal means by which
such information may be leveraged to ensure sustainable enhanced livelihoods. We focus
on rural areas of Kitui County, Kenya. Guided by a range of theories such as Gender and
Development (GAD), Bourdieu's ideas of social capital, and the Information Needs
Assessment Model (INAM), we draw on the emerging variables to demonstrate that, while

Njuguna NM, Abuga KO, Kamau FN, Thoithi GN. "A liquid chromatography method for simultaneous determination of diphenhydramine, promethazine, chlorpheniramine and ephedrine in cold-cough syrups." Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. 2017;51(2):153-158. Abstract

A simple, rapid isocratic liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of diphenhydramine, promethazine, chlorpheniramine, and ephedrine in cold-cough syrups commonly available in the Kenyan market. The influence of the percentage of organic modifier, ion pairing agent, buffer concentration as well as pH and column temperature on the selectivity with respect to analytes was investigated. Optimum chromatographic separation was achieved using a C18 Gemini NX column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) maintained at 40°C and a mobile phase comprising methanol –triethylamine-0.2 M ammonium acetate pH 5.0 -water mixture (50:0.15: 40:9.85, v/v) delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Upon validation, the proposed liquid chromatography method satisfied the International Committee on Harmonization acceptance criteria for linearity, sensitivity, precision, and robustness. The method was applied in the analysis of commercial samples obtained from Nairobi County, Kenya. The method can be used in routine analysis of cold-cough syrups containing the specified compounds.

Keywords: diphenhydramine; promethazine; chlorpheniramine; ephedrine, cold-cough syrups.

Mbithi, B; Muturi RW & CM. "Macro environment moderating Effects on Strategy and Performance. Published in Haya." The Saudi Journal of Life Sciences. . 2017.
Inyega JO, Inyega HN. "Mainstreaming early grade reading instruction in early childhood teacher education." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2017;5(4):103-119.
"Mainstreaming early grade reading instruction in early childhood teacher education." International Journal of Innovation Education and Research. 2017;5(4):103-119.
J Coetzer, L Grobbelaar MEM. Making software humane: the effects of affective and anthropomorphism on the adoption of an m-health application. Association for Computing Machinery; 2017. Abstract

With the proliferation of mobile devices, provision of M-health care services has become feasible even in the remotest villages of Africa. Research however shows that many M-health initiatives have not been adopted and used effectively especially in rural communities. Some of the factors contributing to this range from a lack of knowledge with regard the use of technology, literacy challenges, possible fear of technology, to a lack of information regarding these interventions.
In this paper, we demonstrate that an initiative designed to recognize usability as its core function plays a critical role in the use and adoption of M-health interventions in rural communities. Two versions of an M-health intervention were developed and two interface design principles that may have an impact on users' emotions applied, namely affective design and anthropomorphism.
Using the Sethakeng rural community in the Northern Cape (South Africa) as the case study, we were able to determine the extent to which both anthropomorphism and affective design influence the adoption of an M-Health application. Further, the research revealed that because of its ability to include human-like qualities to non-living objects, anthropomorphism is a more effective method for designing M-Health applications targeting rural communities.

Kang’ethe EK, H Korhonen, KA Marimba, G Nduhiu, JK Mungatu, Okoth SA, V Joutsjoki, LW Wamae, Shalo P. "Management and mitigation of health risks associated with the occurrence of mycotoxins along the maize value chain in two counties in Kenya." Food Quality and Safety. 2017;1(4):268-274.
Muthomi J, Fulano AM, Wagacha JM, Mwang’ombe AW. "Management of Snap Bean Insect Pests and Diseases by Use of Antagonistic Fungi and Plant Extracts." Sustainable Agriculture Research. 2017;6(3):52.
Muthomi JW, Fulano AM, Wagacha JM, Mwang’ombe AW. "Management of Snap Bean Insect Pests and Diseases by Use of Antagonistic Fungi and Plant Extracts." Sustainable Agriculture Research. 2017;6(3):52-63.
Derese S, Guantai EM, Yaouba S, Kuete V. "Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae).". In: Medicinal Spices and Vegetables from Africa. London: Elsevier Academic Press; 2017.
"Mapping of Hydrothermal Minerals Related to Geothermal Activities Using Remote Sensing and GIS: Case Study of Paka Volcano in Kenyan Rift Valley." International Journal of Scientific Research and Management. 2017;8(5):711-725. AbstractFull Text

Remote sensing investigations combined with Geographical investigation systems (GIS) provide a rapid and cost-effective method for prospecting hydrothermal and geothermal systems. Most geothermal systems in Kenya are found in remote areas where accessibility is difficult. This study was carried out on Paka volcano which is located in the Kenyan rift valley. The aim of the study was to use remote sensing and GIS to investigate hydrothermal minerals and structures associated with geothermal activities. The study involves use of Landsat TM image classification using ENVI 5.1 and ArcGIS. Lineament extraction was done using PCI geomatics 2015 while Rose diagrams were generated using Rockworks 16. The research has shown that lithological, hydrothermal mineralization and structural maps can be generated form Landsat TM images using remote sensing and GIS. It has been shown that faults trend in the Northeast, North and Northwest direction. Hydrothermal minerals that are rich in iron and clays occur on Paka volcano mountain and its neighbouring areas.

Mota SF, Oliveira DF, Heleno VCG, Soares ACF, Midiwo JO, Souza EA. "Methyl and p-Bromobenzyl Esters of Hydrogenated Kaurenoic Acid for Controlling Anthracnose in Common Bean Plants." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2017;65(8):1489-1495. AbstractFull text link

Kaurenoic acid derivatives were prepared and submitted to in vitro assays with the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, which causes anthracnose disease in the common bean. The most active substances were found to be methyl and p-bromobenzylesters, 7 and 9, respectively, of the hydrogenated kaurenoic acid, which presented a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.097 and 0.131 mM, respectively, while the commercial fungicide methyl thiophanate (MT) presented a MIC of 0.143 mM. Substances 7 (1.401 mM) and 9 (1.886 mM) reduced the severity of anthracnose in common bean to values statistically comparable to MT (2.044 mM). According to an in silico study, both compounds 7 and 9 are inhibitors of the ketosteroid isomerase (KSI) enzyme produced by other organisms, the amino acid sequence of which could be detected in fungal genomes. These substances appeared to act against C. lindemuthianum by inhibiting its KSI. Therefore, substances 7 and 9 are promising for the development of new fungicides.
Keywords: Colletotrichum lindemuthianum; ent-kauran-18-oic acid methyl ester; ent-kauran-18-oic acid p-bromobenzyl ester; fungicide; ketosteroid isomerase

Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Microbial Fuel Cells: Influence of External Resistors on Power, Current and Power Density." Journal of Thermodynamics & Catalysis. 2017;8(1):1-5. Abstract

The effect of external resistance on voltage, current, power, power density and current density is investigated in a microbial fuel cells using cowdung is investigated. This involves use of varying resistance resistors. The fuel cells were operated under anaerobic condition for 9 days. PVC pipe was used to make a salt bridge using lamp wicks and potassium chloride. The obtained results indicated that the maximum voltage was on day 7 with 0.153 V across 33 kΩ resistor. The power was in the range of 0.000001 to 0.01 mW, current density was in the 0.1 to 23.29 mA/m2
range while the power density was in 7.5 × 10-7 to 3.1036 mW/m2 range.

Njage PMK, Sawe CT, Onyango CM, I HABIB, NJAGI EDMUNDNJERU, AERTS MARC, MOLENBERGHS GEERT. "Microbial Performance of Food Safety Control and Assurance Activities in a Fresh Produce Processing Sector Measured Using a Microbial Assessment Scheme and Statistical Modeling." Journal of Food Protection. 2017;80(1):177-188.
Okumu MO, Ochola FO, Mbaria JM, Kanja LW, Gakuya DW, Kinyua AW, Okumu PO, Kiama SG. "Mitigative effects of Moringa Oleifera against liver injury induced by artesunate-amodiaquine antimalarial combination in wistar rats." Clinical Phytoscience. 2017;3(18):1-8.mitigative_effects_of_moringa_oleifera_against_liv.pdf
Kasangaki P, Nyamasyo G, Ndegwa P, Kajobe R, Angiro C, Agapitus Kato, Masembe C. "Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers reveal low genetic variation and the presence of two honey bee races in Uganda’s agro-ecological zones." Journal of Apicultural Research. 2017;56(2):112-121.
Ireri BN, Wario RD, Omwenga EI, Oboko R, Mukiri MI. "Mobile Learning: Content Format and Packaging for Effective Teaching and Learning in a Learner-Centered Pedagogy." Handbook of Research on Transformative Digital Content and Learning Technologies. 2017. AbstractFull Text Link

When an instructor is able to identify, develop and apply appropriate digital media
content that motivates learners and encourages them to learn, the process of learning is
empowered. This study has identified multimedia digital content packaged in the format of
video as the most preferred learning media by the learners. Content formats that had highest
hit rate with accessed mean rate above 300 (discussion forums, video clips, and graphics)
are discussed.

Lorroki P, Muthomi J, Ininda J, Gichuru L, Githiri S, Wagacha. M. "Mode of Gene Action to Maize Streak Virus in Mid Altitude Inbred Lines CML202 and Osu23i." International Journal of Applied Science and Technology. 2017;7(3):9-18.
Hadullo K, Oboko R, Omwenga E. "A model for evaluating e-learning systems quality in higher education in developing countries." International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology. 2017;13(2). AbstractFull text link

The rapid growth of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has brought
about significant changes in the practice of e-learning globally. In recent years, there has
been an increasing adoption of Learning Management System (LMS) assisted e-learning in
higher education institutions (HEIs) in developing countries. Despite the perceived benefits
attached to e-learning, several studies concur that there are still many challenges facing e-
learning.

Oboko R, Omwenga E. "A model for evaluating e-learning systems quality in higher education in developing countries Kennedy Hadullo Technical University of Mombasa, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology. 2017;13(2). Abstract

The rapid growth of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has
brought about significant changes in the practice of e-learning globally. In recent years,
there has been an increasing adoption of Learning Management System (LMS) assisted e-
learning in higher education institutions (HEIs) in developing countries. Despite the
perceived benefits attached to e-learning, several studies concur that there are still many
challenges facing e-learning.

Maina ME, Wagacha PW, Oboko RO. "A Model for Improving Online Collaborative Learning through Machine Learning." IGI Global. 2017:424-440. AbstractFull Text

Online collaborative learning provides new opportunities for student
collaboration in an online learning environment and at the same time spawns new
challenges for teachers supporting group work. With the current Course Management
Systems (CMS) such as Moodle, technology has provided online tools that include
discussions forums, chat rooms, e-mails, newsgroups, workshops, etc. These tools provide a
collaborative learning environment. To include constructivist learning in an online learning ...

Mbugua JK, Guto PM, Madadi VO, Kamau GN. "Modeling of Experimental Adsorption Isotherm Data for Chlorothalonil by Nairobi River Sediment." IJSRSET,. 2017;3(5):259-268.
Bruce OJ, Joseph OO. "The Moderating Influence of Industry Competition on the Relationship between Corporate Strategy and Organizational Performance." International Journal of Research in Business Studies and Management. 2017;4(4):13-20. Abstractogaga_and_owino_2017.pdf

The influence of strategic choice on performance is a subject of debate in strategic management. However,
previous studies have yielded inconsistent results. While industrial organization economics theory and the
contingency theory emphasize the role of industry environment in organizational performance, little
research attention has been directed towards investigating the indirect influence of the competitive
environment on performance. The current study, attempts to highlight the indirect influence of the
environment by testing the moderating influence of industry competition on the relationship between
corporate strategy and performance. The study adopted the descriptive cross sectional survey with data
collected from companies listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange. Structured questionnaire was used and
data analyzed through both descriptive and inferential statistics and linear regression. The findings
demonstrate that industry competition has a significant moderating influence on the relationship between
corporate strategy and performance. Drawing from the findings, we conclude that performance of the firm
depends on the degree of alignment of corporate strategy to industry competition.

Ochieng DE, JM N, Mwangi M, Mutende EA. "The moderating role of firm characteristics on the relationship between free cash flows and financial performance of firms listed at the Nairobi securities exchange." Journal of Finance and Investment Analysis,. 2017;6(4):55-57. Abstract

This paper sought to find out the influence of firm characteristics on the
relationship between free cash flows and firm financial performance. Specifically,
the objectives of the study were two-fold: first, to establish the relationship
between free cash flows and financial performance of firms listed at the NSE; and
secondly, to determine the influence of firm characteristics on the relationship
between free cash flows and financial performance of firms listed at the NSE. The
firm characteristics considered in this study are firm size and age. The study used
secondary panel data which was obtained from all firms listed at the NSE for the
period 2006 to 2015. Regression analysis was employed in data analysis. Results
indicate that free cash flows have a significant positive effect on financial
performance; while firm characteristics have a negative significant moderating
effect on the relationship between free cash flows and financial performance. The
main academic contribution of the study is that free cash flows have a positive
statistically significant effect on financial performance. The study recommends
that firm managers, shareholders and practitioners should focus more on the need
for firms to generate more FCF

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