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2017
Gor SO. "The African Regional Integration Index: a Selective Audit." Trade and Development Review. 2017;9(1-2):86-98.
Wachege PN, Cherono F. "African Socio-religio Cultural Understanding of Family and Parenting: A Case of the Agikuyu, Kenya." The International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies. 2017;5(3):23-28.wachege_cherono_article2.pdf
Nyamai C, Daniel Ichang'i, Wamunyu AW, Feneyrol J, Giuliani G, et al. "Age and origin of the tsavorite and tanzanite mineralizing fluids in the Neoproterozoic Mozambique Metamorphic Belt." The Canadian Mineralogist. 2017;55(4):763-786. AbstractFull Text

The genetic model previously proposed for tsavorite- (and tanzanite-) bearing mineralization hosted in the Neoproterozoic Metamorphic Mozambique Belt (stretching from Kenya through Tanzania to Madagascar) is refined on the basis of new Sm-Nd age determinations and detailed Sr-O-S isotope and fluid-inclusion studies. The deposits are hosted within meta-sedimentary series composed of quartzites, graphitic gneisses, calc-silicate rocks intercalated with meta-evaporites, and marbles. Tsavorite occurs either in nodules (also called “boudins”) oriented parallel to the metamorphic foliation in all of the deposits in the metamorphic belt or in quartz veins and lenses located at the hinges of anticlinal folds (Lelatema fold belt and Ruangwa deposits, Tanzania). Gem tanzanite occurs in pockets and lenses in the Lelatema fold belt of northern Tanzania.

The Sm-Nd isotopic data for tsavorites and tanzanites hosted in quartz veins and lenses from Merelani demonstrate that they formed at 600 Ma, during the retrograde metamorphic episode associated with the East African Orogeny. The tsavorites hosted in nodules do not provide reliable ages: their sedimentary protoliths had heterogeneous compositions and their Sm-Nd system was not completely rehomogenized, even at the local scale, by the fluid-absent metamorphic recrystallization.

The initial 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios of calcite from marble and tanzanites from Merelani fit with the strontium isotopic composition of Neoproterozoic marine carbonates. Seawater sediment deposition in the Mozambique Ocean took place around 720 Ma.

The quartz-zoisite O-isotopic thermometer indicates a temperature of formation for zoisite between 385 and 448 °C.

The sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite (between –7.8 and –1.3‰ V-CDT) associated with tsavorite in the Lelatema fold belt deposits suggests the contribution of reduced marine sulfate. The sulfur in pyrite in the marbles was likely derived from bacterial sulfate reduction which produced H2S. Fluid inclusion data from tsavorite and tanzanite samples from the Merelani mine indicate the presence of a dominant H2S-S8±(CH4)±(N2)±(H2O)-bearing fluid. In the deposits in Kenya and Madagascar, the replacement of sulfate by tsavorite in the nodules and the boron isotopic composition of tourmaline associated with tsavorite are strong arguments in favor of the participation of evaporites in garnet formation.

Chimoita EL, Onyango CM, Kimenju JW, ph -Onyango JGP. "Agricultural Agents influence on the Uptake of Improved Sorghum Technologies." Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;5(4):219-225.
Chimoita EL, Onyango CM, John W. Kimenju, Gweyi-Onyango JP. "Agricultural Extension Approaches Influencing Uptake of Improved Sorghum Technologies in Embu County, Kenya." Universal Journal of Agricultural Research . 2017;5(1):45-51.
Kibera AN, Kuria MW, Kokonya DA. "Alcohol Use Disorders among HIV and AIDS Patients at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Comprehensive Care Centre, Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Research and Health Sciences. 2017;2(7):21-30.
Inyega HN, Inyega JO. All teachers teaching reading all children reading: a pedagogical shift in teacher education in Kenya. Nairobi: Jo-Vansallen Publishing Company ; 2017.
Mureithi AW, Onyari JM, Wanyonyi WC, Mulaa FJ. "Amino acid Composition of Gelatin Extracted from the Scales of Different Marine Fish Species in Kenya.". 2017. AbstractFull text link

Gelatin in this study was extracted by an enzymatic process from the scales of three marine fish species; Lutjanus
sebea (Red snapper), Lethrinus harak (Black spot emperor) and Scalus ghobban (Blue barred parrot fish).
Concentration of bacteria for mass production of enzyme was done in a fermentation medium using a bio reactor.
Scales were hydrolyzed at 500C and the pH maintained at 12. Complete hydrolysis took between 20 and 23 days for
all species. The yield for the dried gelatin was between 28.2% and 41.4% for the marine fish scales under study.
Fourier transform infrared spectra showed the presence of amide bands and two other additional absorption bands,
indicating the presence of amide bonds for all the three species. The amino acid composition analysis for the gelatin
of three species was then done showing the presence of 16 amino acids. Glycine was the most abundant for all the
three species with about 35% followed by Alanine both adding up to around 50% of the total amino acid
compositions. The amount of Proline was high for red snapper at over 14.2% compared to 11.1% and 11.6% for
blue barred parrot fish and black spot emperor respectively.

Madadi VO, Wandiga SO, Ndunda EN, Mavuti KM. "Analysis of Organochlorine Pesticides in Lake Naivasha Catchment." IJSRSET. 2017;3(5):139-149.
NDIRANGU MAINADAVID, CHIRA ROBERTMUTUGI, Wang’ondu V, Kairo JG. "Analysis of wave energy reduction and sediment stabilization by mangroves in Gazi Bay, Kenya." Bonorowo Wetlands. 2017;7(2):83-94.
NDIRANGU MAINADAVID, CHIRA ROBERTMUTUGI, Wang’ondu V, Kairo JG. "Analysis of wave energy reduction and sediment stabilization by mangroves in Gazi Bay, Kenya." Bonorowo Wetlands. 2017;7(2):83-94.
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Analytical Issues in Standard Kiswahili Phonology." Reyono Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 2017;6(1):52-68.20180523_172417.jpg20180523_172417.jpg
Makokha E, WAKASIAKA S, Inyama H, Oyieke J. "Antenatal care and birth outcomes relatedto HIV status among pregnant women at Pumwani Maternity Hospital. ." Kenya Journal of Nursing & Midwifery . 2017;2(2).
Odwory M, Oyieke JBO, Machoki JM, Osoti A. "Antental care visits and pregnancy outcomes at a Kenyan rural District Hospita.". 2017.
Musi, C, MIRIKAU, N, D. "Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade." Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2017;11(8):1003-1014 . Abstractantibacterial_antifungal_plectranthus_2017.pdfWebsite

Background Information: Plectranthus L’Hér. is an economically important genus with horticultural, medicinal and food uses. Most Plectranthus species are used in traditional medicine and have attracted the interest of researchers who have studied them in attempt to explore the bioactivities of their phytoconstituents.
Materials and Methods: The current study investigated the antimicrobial activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species through disc diffusion and broth dilution method.
Results:Results indicated that, dichloromethane/methanol (1:1) total leaf extracts from Plectranthus barbatus displayed the highest antimicrobial activity compared to the other nine Plectranthus species with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 25, 40, 100, 50, and 100 mg/ml against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger, respectively. At a concentration of 200 mg/ml, the antibacterial activity of total leaf extracts of P. barbatus (MIC value = 25 mg/ml) and Plectranthus lanuginosus (MIC value = 40 mg/ml) againstMRSA was not significantly different from positive control drug; amoxicillin. Similarity, at a concentration of 200 mg/ml,total leaf extracts from Plectranthus ornatus (MIC value= 50 mg/ml) and P. barbatus (MIC value = 50 mg/ml) exhibited antifungal activity against C. albicans which was not significantly different from that of the positive control; ketoconazole.
Conclusion: The study reports for the first time, the antimicrobial activity of Plectranthus pseudomarrubioides, Plectranthus edulis, Plectranthus aegyptiacus, Plectranthus Otostegioides, and Plectranthus lanuginosus. The study has demonstrated broad bacteriostatic activity of P. barbatus and thus recommends further studies on this plant aimed at discovery of novel antimicrobial agents.
KEY WORDS: Antimicrobial activity, Bioguidance, Minimum inhibitory concentration, Plectranthus

Musila FM, Nguta JM, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF. "Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade." Journal of Pharmacy Research| Vol. 2017;11(8):1003.
Musila, F.M., Nguta, CM, Lukhoba CW, S.F. D. "Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade." Journal of Pharmacy Research . 2017;11(8):1003-1014.
Musila FM, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF. "Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade." Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2017;Vol. 11,(Issue 8):pp 1003-1014.
and Gakuubi MWAWJM 4. "Antifungal activity of essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. against selected Fusarium spp.". 2017. Abstracthttps://profiles.uonbi.ac.ke/mainawagacha/

The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oil (EO) of
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. against five Fusarium spp. commonly associated with
maize. The essential oil had been extracted by steam distillation in a modified Clevenger-
type apparatus from leaves of E. camaldulensis and their chemical composition
characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Poisoned food technique was
used to determine the percentage inhibition of mycelial growth, minimum inhibitory …

Kawaljit S, Okombo J, Brunschwig C, Ndubi F, Barnard L, Wilkson C, Njogu PM, Njoroge M, et al. "Antimalarial pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazoles: Lead optimization, parasite life cycle stage profile, mechanistic evaluation, killing kinetics and in vivo oral efficacy in a mouse model." J. Med. Chem. 2017;60(4):1432-1448.
Mubiu JK, Ndwigah SN, Abuga KO, Ongarora DSB. "Antimicrobial activity of extracts and phytosterols from the root bark of Lonchocarpus eriocalyx." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. . 2017;20:13-16. Abstract

The root bark of Lonchocarpus eriocalyx was dried, powdered and extracted using chloroform, methanol and hot water. The extracts exhibited antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and antifungal activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The decoction (100mg/ml) was more active than the chloroform and methanol extracts against the four microorganisms. Chromatographic fractionation of the chloroform extract using normal phase silica yielded the phytosterols lupeol and lupenone. At 100 mg/ml, the compounds were active against all the four microorganisms, with lupeol being more active than lupenone. This is the first report of the isolation of lupenone from Lonchocarpus eriocalyx.

Chalo DM, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji, S. F. "Antimicrobial activity, toxicity and phytochemical screening of selected medicinal plants of Losho, Narok County, Kenya. ." Journal of Natural Product Biochemistry. 2017;Vol 15((1)):pp. 29-43.
Waithaka PN, Mwaura FB, Wagacha JM, Gathuru EM, Githaiga BM. "Antimicrobial Properties of Actinomycetes Isolated from Menengai Crater in Kenya." CellBio. 2017;06(2):13.
Kama-Kama F, Omosa LK, Nganga J, Maina N, Osanjo G, Yaouba S, Ilias M, Midiwo J, Naessens J. "Antimycoplasmal Activities of Compounds from Solanum aculeastrum and Piliostigma thonningii against Strains from the Mycoplasma mycoides Cluster." Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2017;9:920.
Derese S. "Antiplasmodial prenylated flavanonols from Tephrosia subtriflora." Natural Product Research. 2017;2017:1-8. AbstractWebsite

The CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosia subtriflora afforded a new flavanonol, named subtriflavanonol (1), along with the known flavanone spinoflavanone B, and the known flavanonols MS-II (2) and mundulinol. The structures were elucidated by the use of NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of the flavanonols was determined based on quantum chemical ECD calculations. In the antiplasmodial assay, compound 2 showed the highest activity against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum reference clones (D6 and 3D7), artemisinin-sensitive isolate (F32-TEM) as well as field isolate (KSM 009) with IC50 values 1.4–4.6 μM without significant cytotoxicity against Vero and HEp2 cell lines (IC50 > 100 μM). The new compound (1) showed weak antiplasmodial activity, IC50 12.5–24.2 μM, but also showed selective anticancer activity against HEp2 cell line (CC50 16.9 μM).

Muthaura CN, Keriko JM, Mutai C, Yenesew A, Heydenreich M, Atilaw Y, Gathirwa JW, Irungu BN, Derese S. "Antiplasmodial, Cytotoxicity and Phytochemical Constituents of Four Maytenus Species Used in Traditional Medicine in Kenya." The Natural Products Journal. 2017;7(2):144-152.
Okombo J, Singh K, Ndubi F, Barnard L, Wilkson C, Peter M. Njogu, Mireille V, Keiser Jennifer, Egan T, Chibale K. "Antischistosomal activity of pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivatives and correlation with inhibition of β-hematin formation." ACS Infect. Dis.. 2017;3:411-420.
A. WG, D. A, Aluoch A. O., G.N. K, I. M. "Application of Eburru Rocks from Kenya as Urea Carrier Agents." International Journal of Recent advances in Multidisplinary Research. 2017;4(4):2532-2541.
KIMINGICHI WABENDE, PARK JEONGKYUNG. "APPLIED THEATRE AS A MEDIUM OF COMMUNAL COMMUNICATION: 'ACCESS TO JUSTICE' PROJECT IN KWALE, KENYA.". In: THE PELGRAVE HANDBOOK OF GLOBAL ARTS EDUCATION. LONDON: SPRINGER NATURE; 2017.
Mugambi MM. "Approaches to Inclusive Education and Implications for Curriculum Theory and Practice." International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE). 2017;Volume 4(Issue 10):92-106.inclusive_education_pdf.pdf
J.M.Mahasi, H.A.Ogot, Okoth SA, G.O.Obiero. "Assesment of Asian soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) disease severity in selected districts of Western Kenya." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2017;11(2):50-53.
Okoth S, Lindy J Rose, Abigael Ouko, Nakisani EI Netshifhefhe, Henry Sila, Viljoen A. "Assessing genotype-by-environment interactions in aspergillus ear rot and pre-harvest aflatoxin accumulation in maize inbred lines." Agronomy. 2017;7(4):86.
Njeru CM, Ekesi S, Mohamed SA, Kinyamario JI, Kiboi S, Maeda EE. "Assessing stock and thresholds detection of soil organic carbon and nitrogen along an altitude gradient in an east Africa mountain ecosystem." Geoderma Regional. 2017;10:29-38.
Bobadoye A, Ogara W, Ouma G, Onono J. "Assessing Vulnerability of Maasai Pastoralist in Kenya to Climate Change and Variability." Preprints. 2017. Abstractassessing_vulnerability_of_maasai_pastoralist_in_kenya_to_climate_change_and_variability.pdfPreprints

Human adaptive responses to climate change occur at the local level, where climatic variability is experienced. Therefore analyzing vulnerability at the local level is important in planning effective adaptation options in a semi-arid environment. This study was conducted to assess vulnerability of Maasai pastoralist communities in Kajiado County, Kenya to climate change by generating vulnerability index for the communities. Data was collected
using questionnaires that were administered to 305 households in the five different administrative wards (Oloosirkon/Sholinke, Kitengela, Kapetui North, Kenyawa-Poka and Ilmaroro) in Kajiado East. Vulnerability was measured as the net effect of adaptive capacity, sensitivity and exposure to climate change. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to assign weights to the vulnerability indicators used for the study and also to calculate the household vulnerability index. A vulnerability map was produced using the GIS software package ArcGIS 10.2. Results showed that gender of household head, age of household head, educational level, access to extension agents, herd size, livestock diversity and access to credit facility influenced vulnerability of the Maasai pastoralists  to  climate  change  in  Kajiado  East.  The  result  showed  that  the  most  vulnerable communities with the highest negative vulnerability index value are Ilpolosat (‐2.31), Oloosirikon (‐2.22), Lenihani (‐2.05), Konza (‐1.81) and Oloshaiki (‐1.53). The communities with the highest positive vulnerability index values were Kekayaya (4.02), Kepiro (3.47), Omoyi (2.81), Esilanke (2.23), Kisaju (2.16) and Olmerui (2.15). We conclude that provision of basic amenities such as good roads and electricity; access to extension agents, access to credit facilities and herd mobility will reduce vulnerability of Maasai pastoralists in Kajiado east to climate change and variability.

J KC, O OFD, DA A. "Assessment of Domestic Water Quality of Dams in Chepalungu Sub-county, Bomet County, Kenya." The International Journal of Science & Technology. 2017;5(6):144-130.
Gichamba A, Wagacha PW, Ochieng DO. "An Assessment of e-Extension Platforms in Kenya.". 2017. Abstract

The use of ICT in agriculture within developing countries has quickly gained
popularity among development agencies, the private sector and even the government. ICT
for agriculture (ICT4Ag) services such as trade platforms, notification platforms and
advisory/extension services have been developed. This has been catalyzed by the growing
number of farmers with access to ICT devices such as mobile phones. Among the available
services, advisory/extension platforms have gained popularity among farmers an

Gichamba A, Wagacha PW, Ochieng DO. "An Assessment of e-Extension Platforms in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Studies in Sciences and Engineering Technology . 2017;3(7):36-40. Abstractfull text link

The use of ICT in agriculture within
developing countries has quickly gained popularity
among development agencies, the private sector and
even the government. ICT for agriculture (ICT4Ag)
services such as trade platforms, notification platforms
and advisory/extension services have been developed.
This has been catalyzed by the growing number of
farmers with access to ICT devices such as mobile
phones. Among the available services, advisory/extension
platforms have gained popularity among farmers and
agriculture stakeholders in the developing world. These
platforms have proven to be of importance to farmers
who are curious about new farming methodologies,
strategies to improve their yields, breeding techniques,
among other factors. The ICT platforms employed
include SMS, mobile applications, Interactive Voice
Response systems, social media platform such as
Facebook and Twitter, chat applications such as
Whatsapp, blogs, radio programs and tv programs. The
aim of this research was to assess the e-Extension
platforms used in Kenya, whose purpose is to advise
millions of farmers across different parts of the country
using ICT platforms. 28 government e-Extension officers
employed to advise farmers using ICT platforms were
interviewed. The officers represented 15 different
counties in Kenya. The study made important findings
that would inform the government, agriculture extension
content providers, and other stakeholders on critical
aspects to be considered in deploying and managing eextension
platforms among a population of diverse users
within a developing country.

and Njue LG., Ombui JN. KLWGJK. "Assessment of effectiveness of garlic extract from Laikipia County on shelf life of meat." Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development. 2017;5(5):632-641.
Maina AW, Wagacha JM, Wagacha JM, Mwaura FB, Muthomi JW, Woloshuk CP. "Assessment of Farmers Maize Production Practices and Effect of Triple-Layer Hermetic Storage on the Population of Fusarium Spp. and Fumonisin Contamination." World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;5(1):21-30.
Ondiere VB, Vincent MO, Ochieng AA, Oduor FDO. "Assessment of Heavy Metals Contamination in Lake Elementaita Drainage Basin, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;3(5):283-289.
EK Mmboneiza, Chege MN, Omuga BO. "Assessment of Parents’ Perception of Quality of Pediatric Oncology Inpatient Care at Kenyatta National Hospital." Asia Pac J Oncol Nurs. 2017;2017 Jan-Mar; (4(1):): 29-37. Abstractassessment_of_parents_perception_of_quality_of_pediatric_oncology_inpatient_care_at_kenyatta_national_hospital.pdf

Assessment of Parents’ Perception of Quality of Pediatric Oncology Inpatient Care at Kenyatta National Hospital

Eunice Mmbone Keiza, MSN, Margaret Njambi Chege, and Blasio Osogo Omuga

Asia Pac J Oncol Nurs. 2017 Jan-Mar; 4(1): 29–37.
doi: 10.4103/2347-5625.199071

Abstract
Objective:
Adequate knowledge of parents’ perception of quality of pediatric cancer care helps to identify the areas of care improvement which would contribute to disease outcome in regard to the quality of life and satisfaction with the care provided. The aim of the study was to assess the parents’ perception of the quality of Pediatric Oncology Inpatient Care at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Methods:
A cross-sectional descriptive quantitative and qualitative study was undertaken using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire and a focused group discussion guide. Assessment of parents’ perception of quality of care was done in relation to the institution's structures and care delivery processes. These included the ward environment, resources for cancer treatment, care processes, service providers, and parents’ knowledge empowerment. Participants were systematically selected. Parents’ perception was defined as satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the care provided. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.) and presented as frequencies and percentages. Chi-square was used to test the significant association between variables. Level of significance was set at a P ≤ 0.05.
Results:
A total of 107 respondents were interviewed and 57.9% were satisfied with the overall quality of care they received. The determinants of overall satisfaction in this study were found to be related to resources for cancer treatment (odds ratio [OR] =3.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.39–6.90; P = 0.005), care delivery processes (OR = 2.87; 95% CI = 1.28–6.43; P = 0.009), and the ward environment (OR = 2.59; 95% CI = 1.17–5.74; P = 0.018).
Conclusions:
The parents were moderately satisfied with the oncology care services their children received. The gaps identified in service delivery included those related to the availability of the required resources for efficient care delivery and also educational as well as psychosocial needs of the parents.
Keywords: Parents, pediatric oncology, perception, quality of care

Mutai BK, Muthama NJ, Ng'ang'a JK, Mwanthi MA, Wagner T. Assessment of Population Exposure to Future Climate Change-Induced Exceedances of Health-Based Air Pollutants over Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Birgen J, Wafula G, Yusuf A, Onyatta J. "Assessment of Sulphur Dioxide Levels in Selected Sites in Athi River, Kenya." International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD). 2017;1(5):416-422.
Birgen J, Yusuf AO, Wafula G, Onyatta JO. "Assessment of sulphur dioxide levels in selected sites in Athi River, Kenya." International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development. 2017;1(5):416-422.scan_trend.pdf
Okworo EK, Madadi VO, Abong’o DA, Ochieng A. "Assessment of the Level of Organochlorine Pesticides Contamination in Kales, Water and Soil from Naivasha, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;3(5):205-213.
K OE, V.O M, A A’oD, A O. "Assessment of the Level of Organochlorine Pesticides Contamination in Kales, Water and Soil from Naivasha, Kenya. ." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology . 2017;3(5):205-213.
TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Athari za Ndani na za Kilimwengu: Ujenzi wa Jadi ya Ushairi wa Kiswahili." . https:// creative commons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ . 2017:116-132.
Barasa IN. "Automobile Battery Monitoring System using Arduino Uno R3 Microcontroller Board." The International Journal Of Science & Technoledge. 2017;5(6):24-36.
Barasa IN, Simiyu J, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Wekesa D, Aduda B. "Automobile Battery Monitoring System using Arduino Uno R3 Microcontroller Board." The International Journal Of Science & Technoledge. 2017;5(6):24-36.
Okoth S. "Awareness and Prevalence of Mycotoxin Contamination in Selected Nigerian Fermented Foods." Toxins. 2017;9(11):363. Abstracttoxins-09-00363.pdfWebsite

Fermented food samples (n = 191) including maize gruel (ogi), sorghum gruel (ogi-baba), melon seed (ogiri), locust bean (iru) and African oil bean seed (ugba) from Southwest Nigeria were quantified for 23 mycotoxins, including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1), and sterigmatocystin (STE) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The practices, perceived understanding and health risks related to fungal and mycotoxin contamination amongst fermented food sellers was also established. Data obtained revealed that 82% of the samples had mycotoxins occurring singly or in combination. FB1 was present in 83% of ogi-baba samples, whereas 20% of ugba samples contained AFB1 (range: 3 to 36 µg/kg) and STE was present in 29% of the ogi samples. In terms of multi-mycotoxin contamination, FB1 + FB2 + FB3 + STE + AFB1 + alternariol + HT-2 co-occurred within one sample. The awareness study revealed that 98% of respondents were unaware of mycotoxin contamination, and their education level slightly correlated with their level of awareness (p < 0.01, r = 0.308). The extent to which the analyzed mycotoxins contaminated these food commodities, coupled with the poor perception of the population under study on fungi and mycotoxins, justifies the need to enact fungal and mycotoxin mitigation strategies along the food chain.

Joseph O, Otele O. "The Background and Practice of China-African Cooperation on Resources Development.". In: The Emerging Dominance of Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Kenya’s Mineral Resources Windfalls. Yunnan University Press; 2017.
Kanaya S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Kiboi SK, Afendi FM. "Big Data and Network Biology 2016." BioMed Research International. 2017;2017.
Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. "Biodegradation and Detoxification of Malachite Green Dye Using Novel Enzymes from Bacillus cereus Strain KM201428: Kinetic and Metabolite Analysis.". 2017. AbstractFull text link

Enzyme based degradation of organic pollutants is a promising detoxifying approach due to the promiscuous nature of the enzyme, efficiency, cost effective and ecofriendly. In the present study, we have carried out detailed decoloration and degradation studies on a model triphenyl methane group of dyes (Malachite Green dye (MG)) using a newly isolated enzyme from Bacillus cereus KM201428 under the static condition. Biodegradation of dyes was monitored by UV-VIS spectrophotometer and the resultant metabolites analyzed by Liquid Chromatography–Hybrid Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (LC–QToF-MS) and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC - MS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that enzymatic degradation of MG dye resulted in complete mineralization and benzene ring-removal; the latter known for organic dye toxicity. Kinetic study results revealed that first-order kinetic model was best applicable for describing MG dye decoloration. Michaelise-Menten kinetics, Lineweaver–Burk plot and Eadie-Hofstee plot models were used to establish the kinetic parameters for the dye decoloration. Lineweaver–Burk plot provided the best theoretical correlation of the experimental data with maximum rate (Vmax) of 17.70 mg l-1h-1 and Michaelis constant (Km) of 124 mgl-1. Results provide evidence that crude enzyme from Bacillus cereus strain KM201428 offers an effective, renewable, ecofriendly and affordable biotechnology for treatment of industrial effluents polluted with organic dye.

Kwadha CA, Ong’amo GO, Ndegwa PN, Raina SK, Fombong AT. "The biology and control of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella." Insects. 2017;8(2):61.
Kwadha CA, Ong’amo GO, Ndegwa PN, Raina SK, Fombong AT. "The biology and control of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella." Insects. 2017;8(2):61.
Gachago MM, AG K. "Branch Retinal Vein Occlusions. A Review." JOECSA. 2017;21(1):1-8.
Makunda CS. Bridging the divide between problem and solution: A design approach to housing production in Nairobi. Design School Kolding, Kolding, Denmark: Design School Kolding and Cumulus International Association of Universities and Colleges of Art, Design and Media; 2017.
Mgalula ME, Richter U, Hensel O, Hülsebusch C, Kaufmann B, Oliver Wasonga. "Bridging the gap between increasing knowledge and decreasing resources.". 2017. Abstract

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17. Charles Richard Oyier1, Paul Amollo Odundo1 BN1 JM&. "Budget Planning for Instructional Resources in Secondary Schools in Nairobi, Kenya." Asian Education Studies. 2017.
Maweu JM, Ndohvu JB. "A Case of Voice Poverty? Towards a New Paradigm in the Fight Against Poverty in Kenya.". In: Poverty and Human Rights: East African Experiences. Nairobi: Focus Publishers ltd; 2017.
Isabella Epiu, Jossy Verel Bahe Tindimwebwa, Cephas Mijumbi, Chokwe TM, Edwin Lugazia, Francois Ndarugirire, Tw T. "Challenges of Anesthesia in Low-and Middle-Income Countries: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Access to Safe Obstetric Anesthesia in East Africa ." Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2017;124(1):290-299.
John Habwe RTAS&. "Changamoto za Kuueleza Msamiati wa Samaki: Mtazamo wa Kiuhusiano in Mwanga wa Lugha." Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha nyingine za Kiafrika Chuo Kikuu cha Moi Juzuu . 2017;1(1):9-20 .
Ngugi HN, Mutuku FM, Ndenga BA, Musunzaji PS, Mbakaya JO, Aswani P, IRUNGU LUCYW, Mukoko D, Vulule J, Kitron U, LaBeaud AD. "Characterization and productivity profiles of Aedes aegypti (L.) breeding habitats across rural and urban landscapes in western and coastal Kenya." Parasites & vectors. 2017;10(1):331.
Mutuku FM, Ngugi HN, Ndenga BA, Musunzaji PS, Mbakaya JO, Aswani P, IRUNGU LUCYW, Mukoko D, Vulule J, Kitron U, LaBeaud AD. "Characterization and productivity profiles of Aedes aegypti (L.) breeding habitats across rural and urban landscapes in western and coastal Kenya.". 2017.
Ngugi HN, Mutuku F, Ndenga B, Siema P, Maleka H, IRUNGU LUCY, Mukoko D, Vulule J, Kitron U. "CHARACTERIZATION OF LARVAL HABITATS OF AEDES AEGYPTI IN KENYA.". 2017;95(5):56-57.
Nyirakanani C, Chibvongodze R, Kariuki L, Habtu M, Masika M, Mukoko D, Njunwa KJ. "Characterization of malaria vectors in Huye District, Southern Rwanda." Tanzania Journal of Health Research. 2017;19(3). AbstractWebsite

Background: Effective control of malaria requires knowledge of vector species, their feeding and resting behaviour as well as breeding habitats. The objective of this study was to determine malaria vector species abundance and identify their larval habitats in Huye district, southern Rwanda.

Methods: Adult mosquitoes were collected indoors using light trap and pyrethrum spray catch techniques, and outdoors using light traps. Female Anopheles mosquitoes were identified to species level by morphological characteristics. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to screen for Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein and host blood meal sources. Anopheles larvae were sampled using dippers and raised into adult mosquitoes which were identified morphologically.

Results: Anopheles gambiae sensu lato comprised of 70% of the 567 Anopheles collected. Other Anopheles species identified were An. funestus 4%, An. squamosus 16.5%, An. maculipalpis 6.5%, An. ziemanni 1.7%, An. pharoensis 1.2 % and An. coustani 0.1%. The majority, 63.5% of the collected mosquitoes were from indoors collections. The overall human blood index was 0.509. The P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein was found in 11 mosquitos including 8 Anopheles gambiae s.l. and 3 secondary vectors out of the 567 tested. The overall sporozoite rate was 1.9%. A total of 661 Anopheline larvae from 22 larval habitats were collected. They comprised of An. gambiae s.l. (89%) and An. ziemanni (11%). The absolute breeding index was 86.4%. The most common larval habitats were in full sunlight with still water like rice paddies and pools of stagnant water.

Conclusion: These findings show that Anopheles gambiae s.l. is the dominant malaria vector in the area with other vectors playing a secondary role in malaria transmission. Malaria interventions need to be strengthened to reduce even further the malaria transmission in the area.

Onjala J, OSCAR OTELE. "China’s Africa Policy on Trade, Investment and Development Assistance: An Overview and Assessment.". In: The Background and Practice of China-African Cooperation on Resources Development. Yunnan University Press; 2017.
Martelat J-E, Paquette J-L, Bosse V, Giuliani G, Monié P, Omito E, Simonet C, Ohnenstetter D, Daniel Ichang'i, Nyamai C, Wamunyu A. "Chronological Constraints On Tsavorite Mineralizations and Related Metamorphic Episodes In Southeast Kenya." The Canadian Mineralogist. 2017;55(5):845-865. AbstractFull text link

Tsavorite is exclusively hosted in the Neoproterozoic Metamorphic Mozambique Belt (NMMB). The gemstone mines, widespread between Kalalani (Tanzania) and Mgama Ridge (Kenya), define a continuous corridor over a hundred kilometers in length. The tsavorite is hosted by a metasedimentary sequence defined as the Kurase tsavorite-bearing metasediments (Kurase-TB metasediments) that also hosts rubies. These metasediments underwent amphibolite-facies metamorphism and are surrounded by granulitic gneisses that are also of sedimentary origin (the Kurase high-temperature gneisses). All these rocks lie below the Kasigau Group, a unit dominated by granulite-facies metamagmatic rocks.

To constrain the timing of events that led to this peculiar occurrence of tsavorite, we have performed geochronological analyses of thin sections and of separated grains of zircon, monazite, and rutile using LA-ICP-MS and ID-TIMS, as well as 40Ar/39Ar of muscovite and phlogopite from various lithologies. The results show that the different terranes were metamorphosed synchronously between 620–580 Ma but under different P-T strain conditions. The Kurase-HT gneisses and the rocks from the Kasigau Group are highly strained and underwent granulite-facies metamorphism with abundant partial melting and emplacement of felsic melts between 620 and 600 Ma. Textural observations also underlined a late regional water flux controlling the occurrence of V-free muscovite and monazite mineralizations at 585 Ma. The latter event can be related to the activity of the Galana shear zone, in the east. The Kurase-TB metasediments escaped strain and partial melting. They record amphibolite-facies conditions with static heating, since initial sedimentary structures were locally preserved. The age of the tsavorite mineralization was inferred at 600 Ma from metamorphic zircon rims and monazite from the closest host-rocks, sampled in the mines. Hence, tsavorite crystallization occurred statically at the end of the metamorphic event, probably when the temperature and the amount of volatiles were at maximum levels.

Conversely, the ruby formed by local metasomatism of felsic dikes and isolated ultramafic bodies. The rubies are older and zircons and monazites from a ruby-bearing felsic dike (plumasite) were dated at 615 Ma. Finally, data from rutile and micas indicate a global cooling below 430 °C of the whole region between 510 and 500 Ma.

Nyamai C, Wamunyu A, Daniel Ichang'i, Martelat J-E, Paquette J-L, et al. "Chronological Constraints On Tsavorite Mineralizations and Related Metamorphic Episodes In Southeast Kenya." The Canadian Mineralogist. 2017;55(5):845-865. AbstractFull Text

Tsavorite is exclusively hosted in the Neoproterozoic Metamorphic Mozambique Belt (NMMB). The gemstone mines, widespread between Kalalani (Tanzania) and Mgama Ridge (Kenya), define a continuous corridor over a hundred kilometers in length. The tsavorite is hosted by a metasedimentary sequence defined as the Kurase tsavorite-bearing metasediments (Kurase-TB metasediments) that also hosts rubies. These metasediments underwent amphibolite-facies metamorphism and are surrounded by granulitic gneisses that are also of sedimentary origin (the Kurase high-temperature gneisses). All these rocks lie below the Kasigau Group, a unit dominated by granulite-facies metamagmatic rocks.

To constrain the timing of events that led to this peculiar occurrence of tsavorite, we have performed geochronological analyses of thin sections and of separated grains of zircon, monazite, and rutile using LA-ICP-MS and ID-TIMS, as well as 40Ar/39Ar of muscovite and phlogopite from various lithologies. The results show that the different terranes were metamorphosed synchronously between 620–580 Ma but under different P-T strain conditions. The Kurase-HT gneisses and the rocks from the Kasigau Group are highly strained and underwent granulite-facies metamorphism with abundant partial melting and emplacement of felsic melts between 620 and 600 Ma. Textural observations also underlined a late regional water flux controlling the occurrence of V-free muscovite and monazite mineralizations at 585 Ma. The latter event can be related to the activity of the Galana shear zone, in the east. The Kurase-TB metasediments escaped strain and partial melting. They record amphibolite-facies conditions with static heating, since initial sedimentary structures were locally preserved. The age of the tsavorite mineralization was inferred at 600 Ma from metamorphic zircon rims and monazite from the closest host-rocks, sampled in the mines. Hence, tsavorite crystallization occurred statically at the end of the metamorphic event, probably when the temperature and the amount of volatiles were at maximum levels.

Conversely, the ruby formed by local metasomatism of felsic dikes and isolated ultramafic bodies. The rubies are older and zircons and monazites from a ruby-bearing felsic dike (plumasite) were dated at 615 Ma. Finally, data from rutile and micas indicate a global cooling below 430°C of the whole region between 510 and 500 Ma.

Phiri IA, et al. "Climate Change and Food Security: A Challenge for African Christianity.". In: Anthology of African Christianity. Oxford: Regnum; 2017.
Gichobi AN, Ndwigah SN, Sinei KA, Guantai EM. "Clinical audit of Heparin use in Rift Valley General Hospital, Nakuru County, Kenya. ." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. . 2017;6(1):27-37.
Gichobi 2. AN, Ndwigah SN, Sinei KA, Guantai EM. "Clinical audit of Heparin use in Rift Valley General Hospital, Nakuru County, Kenya." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(1):27-37.
Nyawira M, Muchai G, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Atieno J, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Ngugi N, Nyaga PT, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Clinical guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: an executive summary of the recommendations." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr. . 2017;21(2):33-39. Abstract

All persons living with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) have a lifetime risk of developing Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), a
potentially blinding microvascular complication of DM. The risk increases with the duration of diabetes. The
onset and progression of DR can be delayed through optimization of control of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipids. The risk of blindness from DR can be reduced through cost-effective interventions such as screening for DR and treatment of sight-threatening DR with laser photocoagulation and anti-VEGF medications.
Several factors make it important to provide guidance to clinicians who provide services for diabetes and
diabetic retinopathy in Kenya. First, the magnitude of both DM and DR is expected to increase over the next
decade. Secondly, as the retina is easily accessible for examination, the early signs of retinopathy may provide clinicians with the best evidence of microvascular damage from diabetes. This information can be used to guide subsequent management of both DM and DR. Thirdly, there are notable gaps in service delivery for the detection,treatment and follow-up of patients with DR, and the services are inequitable. Strengthening of service delivery will require close collaboration between diabetes services and eye care services.
Following a systematic and collaborative process of guideline development, the first published national
guidelines for the management of diabetic retinopathy have been developed. The purpose of this paper is to
highlight the recommendations in the guidelines, and to facilitate their adoption and implementation.

N M, M G, M G, Gichuhi S, G K, A J’o. "Clinical guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: An executive summary of the recommendations." JOECSA. 2017;21(2):33-39.
Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Ngugi N, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Clinical guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: an executive summary of the recommendations." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr.. 2017;21(2):33-9.
Malemba GM, Nzuve FM, Kimani, P.M; Kimani JM, Olubayo MF, Muthomi JW. "Combining Ability for Drought Tolerance in Upland Rice Varieties at Reproductive Stage." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2017;9(3):138-150.
community empowerment in the prevention obstetric fistula. Nairobi: Kenyatta University, Dept of Public Health; 2017.
Mutuku MW, Lu L, Otiato FO, Mwangi IN, Kinuthia JM, Maina GM, Laidemitt MR, Lelo EA, Ochanda H, Loker ES, Mkoji GM. "A Comparison of Kenyan Biomphalaria pfeifferi and B. Sudanica as Vectors for Schistosoma mansoni, Including a Discussion of the Need to Better Understand …." The Journal of parasitology. 2017;103(6):669-676.
Gwako Bosibori Jackline RTHM&. "A Comperative Analysis of Virtue-Based Content for Youth in Two Epics in Swahili." International Journal of Language and Linguistics . 2017;4(2374-8850 (Print) 2374-8869 (online)):200-215 .
Gwako Bosibori Jackline RTHM&. "A Comperative Analysis of Virtue-Based Content for Youth in Two Epics in Swahili: Siraji na Adili." International Journal of Language and Linguistics . 2017;4(4):200-215 .
G EL, BA K, F O, T D, RJ M. "Complications associated with crowns and fixed partial dentures provided to patients at a teaching hospital." International journal of multidisciplinary research review. 2017;1(32):19-24.publication_ijmdrr.pdf
Wafula HB, Musembi RJ, Juma AO, Patrick Tonui, Simiyu J, Sakwa T, Prakash D, K.D.Verma. "Compositional analysis and optical properties of Co doped TiO2 thin films fabricated by spray pyrolysis method for dielectric and photocatalytic applications." Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics. 2017;128:212-217.
Wanjiru KG. "Computer Based Instruction and Gender effect on learners’ performance in Art and Design in public secondary schools in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research.. 2017;5(6):ISSN:2309-0404 .
Wanjiru KG, Samwel Owino Mwanda, Ronnie Midigo. "Computer Based Instruction and Learner Achievement; Implications for Training Art and Design in Kenya’s Secondary Schools." Journal of Academic Research. . 2017;5(5):19-31.
J.S M, M. G. "Conserving Forest Biodiversity through Value Chain Development: The Case Study of Karura Forest.". In: A review of best practices for selected biodiversity-based value chains that promotes pro-poor conservation in the Horn of Africa. NAIROBI: ICRAF; 2017.
Lundengård K, Ogutu C, Silvestrov S, Weke P. Construction of moment-matching multinomial lattices using Vandermonde matrices and Gröbner bases.; 2017. Abstract

In order to describe and analyze the quantitative behavior of stochastic processes, such as
the process followed by a financial asset, various discretization methods are used. One such
set of methods are lattice models where a time interval is divided into equal time steps and
the rate of change for the process is restricted to a particular set of values in each time step.
The well-known binomial-and trinomial models are the most commonly used in applications,
although several kinds of higher order models have also been examined. Here we will
examine various ways of designing higher order lattice schemes with different node
placements in order to guarantee moment-matching with the process.

G KAMAU, A WAUSI NJIHIAJ. "CONTEXTUAL FACTORS AND PUBLIC VALUE OF E-GOVERNMENT SERVICES IN KENYA.". 2017. Abstractfull text link

E-government research has been skewed towards technological deterministic
perspective mainly centering on technological issues. This provides no explicit guidance to
the design and practice of e-government programs that result to increased uptake of e-
government services. Theoretical discourse reveals undisputed consensus among e-
government researchers that e-government uptake may be influenced by others contextual
factors such as administrative and political consequences and should not be overlooked

C O, J W, J O, M.F O. "Corporate Governance Practices and Financial Performance of Deposit Taking Saccos in Western Kenya." Scholars Journal of Economics, Business and Management . 2017;4(3):195-212.corporate_governance_practices.pdf
Marika NM, M MJ, Munjuri MG. "CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND EMPLOYER ATTRACTIVENESS AMONG BUSINESS STUDENTS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI, KENYA." International Journal of Arts and Commerce . 2017;6(2):71-88. Abstract7._71-88.pdf

In this era of globalization, winning the war for top talent to gain a competitive advantage is critical for the
survival of organizations. In Kenya today, attracting and retaining talent is a major challenge to many
organizations. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been identified as influencing employee attraction
and retention. A pay cheque alone is no longer sufficient; people want to work in organizations whose
values match their own and that impact and contribute to society. The aim of this study was to determine if
CSR affects organizational attractiveness. Final year business students from the University of Nairobi were
surveyed to see the extent to which CSR issues will influence their decision to work in a given organization.
The findings indicated that how an organization handles its economic responsibility, legal responsibility,
ethical responsibility, philanthropic responsibility and environmental responsibility of CSR affects
prospective employees' decision to seek employment with an organization.

K.Muriithi M, G.Mutegi R, Mwabu G. "Counting unpaid work in Kenya: Gender and age profiles of hours worked and imputed wage incomes." The journal of the Economics Aging. 2017.
Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Cow Dung to Kilo Watt using Double Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell." IJSRSET. 2017;3(5):70-79. Abstract

In the current study, voltage is generated from cow waste at varying time duration of 6 to 11 days. PVC pipe was used to make a salt bridge using agarose and potassium chloride and Sodium chloride. The performance of microbial fuel cells was evaluated by characterizing the generated voltage, current, power and surface power density. It was observed that despite the high impedance of the substrate, all the generated parameters have shown maximum values at day 6 and then a decline in trend was observed on 7 days onwards. The highest values of voltage, current, power, current density and power density obtained were 0.5090V, 0.28μA, 0.0093μW, 0.05181mA/m2 and 0.0000006 W/m2 respectively. The study concluded that microbial fuel cells technology can be used to generate electricity from cow dung.
Keywords: Microbial Fuel Cells, Voltage, Current, Power Density

Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Kuete V. "Curcuma longa.". In: Medicinal Spices and Vegetables from Africa Therapeutic Potential against Metabolic, Inflammatory, Infectious and Systemic Diseases. Academic Press; 2017:. Abstract

Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae), commonly known as turmeric, is native to Southwest India with its rhizomes being the source of a bright yellow spice with various medicinal applications. It is widely cultivated throughout the tropics and similarly used for it medicinal value, in the cosmetic industry, and as a dye. Herein, the medicinal potentials of this plant as well as that of one of its bioactive constituents, curcumin, has been compiled. Turmeric can be regarded as a drug for the management of many diseases, such as cancer, inflammations, microbial infections, diabetes, arthritic, muscular disorders, biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, diabetic wounds, hepatic disorders, and sinusitis. Curcumin also displayed various pharmacological activities including antioxidant, antineoplastic, antiviral, antiinflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antidiabetic, anticoagulant, antifertility, cardiovascular protective, hepatoprotective, and immunostimulant activities in animals. This chapter provides baseline information to encourage the use of this plant in the management of various human ailments.

and Ogumo E. O., Kunyanga OKCNMW. "Current knowledge and performance of existing charcoal coolers in improving the overall quality and shelf-life of French beans." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;12(49):3399-3409.
Ondeto BM, Nyundo C, Kamau L, Muriu SM, Mwangangi JM, Njagi K, Mathenge EM, Ochanda H. "Current status of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors in Kenya." Parasites & vectors. 2017;10(1):429.
Mwaguni S, Ayiemba E, Onyari J. "DANCING TO THE TUNE OF OPPORTUNITIES –HUMAN SETTLEMENTS ALIGNED TO SHARE THE JACKPOT OF KENYA’S COASTAL TOURISM BENEFITS SPOIL THE BROTH.". 2017. AbstractFull text link

This paper highlights how human settlements aligned themselves to share the benefits to arise from coastal tourism development in
the Kenya coast, but have come to bedevil the industry through poor management of domestic waste. The study area comprised of
Nyali-Bamburi-Shanzu and Diani-Chale, which are two important tourist destinations in the country. It attempted to establish
population numbers in these habitations, the waste loads generated, and how it was managed. The study was accomplished through
field visits, library research and application of the World Health Organization (WHO 1989) rapid assessment methods for land, air
and water pollution. The relevant data for assessment was obtained from records of population census, bed nights, occupancy, and the
waste disposal methods in use. The study revealed that human settlements aligned themselves in clusters inland, reflecting the clusters
of the beach hotels dotting the shore line of the Indian Ocean. Large volumes of domestic waste were being generated in both the
human settlements and in the hotels. Management of the waste in the settlements was largely on-site and mixed, through the use of
both pit latrines and septic-tank/soakage pit systems in the human settlements, and only through septic-tank/soakage pits in the hotel
establishments. None of the settlements had wastewater treatment facilities. Only 5 beach hotels had wastewater treatment plants.
While the settlements positioned themselves to benefit from the tourism industry, tapping in business and employment opportunities,
the arrangement has seemed to spoil the broth as the settlements came to be the main source domestic waste affecting environmental
quality and undermining tourism growth and sustainability. Also, through the large number of visitors, during the peak tourist periods,
the beach hotels themselves have come contribute to large waste generation. On-site sanitation, it is concluded, is not appropriate for
managing domestic waste in coastal areas dependent on good quality environmental to flourish the tourism economic sector. Tourism
thrives in areas where the environment is aesthetically appealing; domestic waste undermine. Consequently, it is recommended that
innovative approaches are pursued for domestic waste management in order to flourish and sustain the industry.

Parkar RB, Wanyoike GJ, Otieno D, J O. "Day Care Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy outcomes at a dedicated unit in Nairobi, Kenya: Is it time to change?" East African Medical Journal . 2017;94:6-12.
"Kanyinga K". "Demystifying politics of land tenure: Okoth-Ogendo and the concept of land in Africa.". In: The Gallant Academic: Essays in Honour of H. W. O. Okoth-Ogendo. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Kihara EN  , P G, Liversidge HM, F B, Gikenye. "Dental age estimation in a group of Kenyan children using Willems' method: a radiographic study." Ann Hum Biol. 2017;44:614-621(7):614-621.
Njogu PM, Okombo J, Chibale K. "Designed Hybrid Compounds for Tropical Parasitic Diseases.". In: Design of Hybrid Molecules for Drug Development (First Edition). London: Elsevier; 2017.
Gichamba A, Wagacha PW, Ochieng DO. "Designing mAgriculture Applications for Rural Smallholder Farmers.". 2017. Abstract

ICT has been widely accepted and adopted as a key driver for various sectors of
the economy for both the developing and developed nations. In developing countries, there
have been multiple interventions to employ the available technology such as mobile,
wireless, radio and TV technologies in key areas that concern human development such as
health, agriculture, education and finance. The design and development practices, are
mostly borrowed from established markets with different user profiles, and do not always

KARURI J, Waiganjo P, Daniel ORWA. "Determinants of Acceptance and Use of DHIS2 in Kenya: UTAUT-Based Model." Journal of Health Informatics in Developing Countries. 2017;11(1). Abstractfull text link

Background: In 2010, Kenya initiated the process of adoption and implementation of a web-based system (DHIS2) as the national HIS to facilitate management of routine health information for evidence-based decision making. To reap maximum benefit from this implementation, DHIS2 needed to gain acceptance from all categories of targeted users. This study, conducted between June and August 2014, sought to develop a new technology acceptance model that can better explain the key determinants of acceptance and use of DHIS2 in Kenya.
Methods: The model was adapted from the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). An exploratory study was conducted primarily through the use of quantitative methods, but qualitative Key Informant Interview (KII) data was also collected in a pre-study to provide the background and contextual information used in refining the model. In the main phase of the study, a questionnaire was administered to health workers through cross-sectional survey both at national and regional levels.
Results: The total number of valid questionnaires returned was 269 against the 300 that were issued. This number represents slightly more than 20% of the approximately 1,100 health workers who have been trained on DHIS2 in Kenya, and these were drawn from at least 10 of Kenya’s 47 counties. Analysis of the survey data was done in two parts: descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS statistical analysis tool for the purpose of obtaining frequencies, means, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis. Subsequently Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and specifically Partial Least Square path modeling (PLS), was used to analyze the conceptual model and test the proposed hypotheses.
Conclusion: The resulting model revealed that social influence was the most pertinent predictor of behavioral intention in the study setting, while facilitating condition and computer anxiety play a significant role in predicting actual use of DHIS2. Findings from this case study can be extended to explain acceptance and use of health IT in other similar settings. Future research can test more variables and moderators to increase the overall predictive levels of the model.

Maalim H, Omuga B, Ongeso A, Okube T. "Determinants of Mode of Delivery Among Postnatal Mothers Admitted in Wajir County Referral Hospital, Kenya." EC Gynaecology. 2017;6(4):128-138. Abstract

Background: Globally, giving birth through the natural process, ‘Vaginally’ has been widely accepted as unquestioned mode of birth. On the other hand, use of caesarean Section (CS), which involves a surgical incision, has also been utilized as a mode of delivery especially among women with medical or obstetric indications. Delivery through CS is a life saving measure which plays a crucial role in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality from direct causes such as hemorrhage, infection, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and obstructed labor [1]. In Kenya, the National maternal mortality rate was 362/100,000. However, in the study area, Wajir county, it was 1683/100,000 [2]. Advances in technology and its adoption in reproductive health have resulted in an increase in the number of Caesarean delivery in the recent years. This has increased options for preferred mode of delivery for mothers and plays a significant role in reduction of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity rates. However, in most African countries, mainly in rural and marginalized areas, use of caesarian section remains low even when there is clear indication. Despite this, limited studies to establish determinants of modes of delivery have been done especially in remote rural areas such as Wajir County.
Objective: The main objective of this study was to establish determinants of mode of delivery among postnatal mothers admitted in Wajir County referral Hospital.
Materials and Methods: A hospital based descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. Mixed method of quantitative and qualitative data was employed among 178 postnatal mothers who were systematically sampled from Wajir county Referral hospital.
Quantitative data was collected using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire and qualitative data was collected using Focus group discussion from the postnatal mothers. Descriptive analysis using means, frequency and proportions was computed. Chi-square test
(p < 0.05) with corresponding 95% confidence interval was used to determine the association between the various variables.
Results: The prevalence of Caesarian Section delivery among the respondents was 32%. Analyses with Chi-Square test of independence revealed that maternal age (p = 0.001), marital status (p = 0.016), level of education (p = 0.007), parity (p = 0.03), FGM practice
(p = 0.001) and belonging to the social health groups (p = 0.001) were the variables significantly associated with mode of delivery. A substantial number of women did not have sufficient knowledge on delivery options, benefits and risks to inform their decisions on delivery modes.
Conclusion: Vaginal Delivery is the most preferred mode of delivery even when CS is medically indicated. Caesarian section acceptance remains low due to lack of correct knowledge, poor attitude towards CS and lack of proper women counseling during ANC visits. Therefore, there is need for educational and economic empowerment of women and girls complemented with effective community sensitization and awareness campaigns on delivery-related complications, risks and alternative delivery options for emergency cases.
Keywords: Mode of Delivery; Postnatal Mothers; Wajir County Referral Hospital; Vaginal Delivery

and Joseph G. Kabiru PMEMN. "Determinants of workers’ welfare in cut flower industry in Kenya." International Jounal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2017;4(2313-3759):1-17.
Okoth S. "Determining resistance to Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin accumulation in African maize inbred lines resistant to Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxins." Euphytica. 2017;213(4):93. Abstract10.10072fs10681-017-1883-7.pdfWebsite

Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus
flavus cause Fusarium ear rot (FER) and Aspergillus
ear rot (AER) of maize, respectively. Both pathogens
are of concern to producers as they reduce grain yield
and affect quality. F. verticillioides and A. flavus also
contaminate maize grain with the mycotoxins fumonisins
and aflatoxins, respectively, which has been
associated with mycotoxicosis in humans and animals.
The occurrence of common resistance mechanisms to
FER and AER has been reported. Hence, ten Kenyan
inbred lines resistant to AER and aflatoxin accumulation
were evaluated for resistance to FER, F.
verticillioides colonisation and fumonisin accumulation;
and compared to nine South African lines
resistant to FER and fumonisin accumulation. Field
trials were conducted at three localities in South Africa
and two localities in Kenya. FER severity was
determined by visual assessment, while F. verticillioides
colonisation and fumonisin content were
quantified by real-time PCR and liquid chromatography
tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Significant
genotype x environment interactions was
determined at each location (P B 0.05). Kenyan
inbred CML495 was most resistant to FER and F.
verticillioides colonisation, and accumulated the lowest
concentration of fumonisins across localities. It
was, however, not significantly more resistant than
Kenyan lines CML264 and CKL05015, and the South
African line RO549 W, which also exhibited low FER
severity (B5%), fungal target DNA (B0.025 ng lL-1
)
and fumonisin levels (B2.5 mg kg-1
). Inbred lines
resistant to AER and aflatoxin accumulation appear to
be promising sources of resistance to F. verticillioides
and fumonisin contamination.
Keywords Fusarium ear rot Aspergillus ear rot
Resistance Mycotoxins Maize inbred lines
In

English MM, Irimu GG, Nyamai RR, Were FF, Garner PP, Opiyo NN, F W. "Developing guidelines in low-income and middle-income countries: lessons from Kenya." Arch Dis Child. 2017;1(6). AbstractWebsite

There are few examples of sustained nationally organised, evidence-informed clinical guidelines development processes in Sub-Saharan Africa. We describe the evolution of efforts from 2005 to 2015 to support evidence-informed decision making to guide admission hospital care practices in Kenya. The approach to conduct reviews, present evidence, and structure and promote transparency of consensus-based procedures for making recommendations improved over four distinct rounds of policy making. Efforts to engage important voices extended from government and academia initially to include multiple professional associations, regulators and practitioners. More than 100 people have been engaged in the decision-making process; an increasing number outside the research team has contributed to the conduct of systematic reviews, and 31 clinical policy recommendations has been developed. Recommendations were incorporated into clinical guideline booklets that have been widely disseminated with a popular knowledge and skills training course. Both helped translate evidence into practice. We contend that these efforts have helped improve the use of evidence to inform policy. The systematic reviews, Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approaches and evidence to decision-making process are well understood by clinicians, and the process has helped create a broad community engaged in evidence translation together with a social or professional norm to use evidence in paediatric care in Kenya. Specific sustained efforts should be made to support capacity and evidence-based decision making in other African settings and clinical disciplines.

Wambua L, Bernd Schneider, Allan Okwaro, Joseph Odhiambo Wanga, Olive Imali, Peninah Nduku Wambua, Lavender Agutu, Cassandra Olds, Chris Stephen Jones. "Development of field-applicable tests for rapid and sensitive detection of Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae." Molecular and cellular probes. 2017;35:44-56.
King-Okumu C, Wasonga OV, Jarso I, Salah YMS. "Direct use values of climate-dependent ecosystem services in Isiolo County, Kenya.". 2017. Abstract

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P.O O, D.N K, P.K G. Diseases of domestic rabbits and associated risk factors in Kenya. Germany : LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing ; 2017.
Nguhiu J, P M F M, JK W, Mbuthia P G. "Disorders of the claw and their association with laminitis in smallholder zero-grazed dairy cows." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2017;6(2):64-69.
Bernard K, Wandiga SO, Madadi VO, Mukabi M. "Dissipation studies of Amitraz in cattle dips in Bureti, Kericho county- Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;3(5):248-253.
Kamau BN, Wandiga SO, Madadi VO. "Dissipation Studies of Ridomil Gold Pesticide on Potatoes in Nyandarua County, Kenya." IJSRSET. 2017;3(5):221-229.
Nyaga LW, Gach. "Distance Learning Approach to Train Health Sciences Students at the University of Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(February 2017):101-105.
Aldhaher A, Langat M, Ndunda B, Chirchir D, Midiwo JO, Njue A, Schwikkard S, Carew M, Mulholland D. "Diterpenoids from the roots of Croton dichogamus Pax." Phytochemistry. 2017;144:1-8. AbstractFull text

Four previously undescribed diterpenoids including two crotofolanes, crotodichogamoin A and B, and two halimanes, crothalimene A and B, a new sesquiterpenoid, and fifteen previously reported compounds, including the crotofolane, crotohaumanoxide, the casbane, depressin, a further seven furanohalimane diterpenoids, three patchoulane and two further cadinane sesquiterpenoids and aleuritolic acid were isolated from the root of Croton dichogamus. Crotodichogamoin B is an important biosynthetic intermediate of the crotofolane class and this is the first report of patchoulene sesquiterpenoids from the genus. Compounds were tested at one concentration, 1 × 10−5 M, in the NCI59 cell one-dose screen but did not show significant activity snd were also evaluated for their cytotoxicity against Caco-2 cell lines using the neutral red assay. 10-epi-Maninsigin D reduced Caco-2 cell viability at 10, 30 and 100 μM, with values of decreased viability of 28%, 48% and 43% respectively. None of the other tested compounds showed significant activity.
Keywords
Croton dichogamusEuphorbiaceaeCrotofolaneCrotodichogamoin BCrothalimene ACrothalimene BPatchoulaneCaco-2 cell viability

Odhiambo, G. WOOJJ & M. "Dividend Announcements and Market Value of Shares in the Agricultural Companies Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange. ." Scholars Journal of Economics, Business and Management. 2017.
Mulanda ES, Awori RM, Chuhila Y, Adero MO, Amugune NO, Akunda E, Kinyamario JI. "A DNA-barcode for Melia volkensii Grke (Meliaceae) and its phylogenetic relationship with some economically important relatives." African Journal of Plant Science. 2017;10(3):58-67.
Kariuki Samwel Muiruri, Britt A, Amugune NO, Nguu E, Chan S, Tripathi L. "Dominant Allele Phylogeny and Constitutive Subgenome Haplotype Inference in Bananas Using Mitochondrial and Nuclear Markers." Genome biology and evolution. 2017;9(10):2510-2521.
Madadi VO, Ngotho MW, Masese FA. "Drinking Water Quality Challenges in Nakuru County, Kenya." IJSRSET. 2017;3(6):5-11.
Dr. Juliet Gathoni Muiga PRWR. "Drivers of Gated Community Developments in Urban Areas (Case Study: Nairobi, Kenya)." International Journal of Architecture and Urban Development -IJAUD. 2017;Volume 7(Issue 4):Pages 5-18.
Egeru A, Wasonga O, Majaliwa Mwanjalolo GJ, MacOpiyo L, Mburu J. "Dynamics of land use and land cover change in semi-arid Karamoja sub-region, Uganda.". 2017. Abstract

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Soki KB, Were AJ, OGOLA EN, Nyale GM, Murage MM. "An echocardiographic evaluation of pulmonary pressures in hemodialysis patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(6). AbstractWebsite

Abstract

Background: A high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has been noted. In these patients, PH increases morbidity and mortality and worsens prognosis post-renal transplant. Its aetiopathogenesis may be multifactorial, involving the process of haemodialysis itself.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of PH among patients with ESRD undergoing haemodialysis at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), using Doppler echocardiography

Design: 117 patients were consecutively recruited into this cross-sectional study.
Medical history was used to exclude patients with possible PH of known aetiology. Patients were examined for features of fluid overload. Each patient then underwent haemodialysis followed by echocardiography within two hours. Haemoglobin was measured.

Setting: The Renal Unit, KNH, a tertiary hospital in Nairobi

Subjects: Patients undergoing regular haemodialysis within the renal unit, thirteen years and above, who gave written informed consent or assent.

Results: 63.2% of the participants were male. Mean age was 44 years. Prevalence of PH among ESRD patients was 32.5%, with a median PASP of 47.3mmHg and a range of 36.1–79 mmHg. A strong association between PH and EF of less than 50%, as a marker of LV dysfunction, was demonstrated.

Conclusion: The prevalence of PH among end-stage renal disease patients was high. This suggests an indication for routinely screening haemodialysis patients for PH.

Keywords: ESRD: End stage renal disease, LV: Left ventricle, KNH: Kenyatta National Hospital, PASP: Pulmonary arterial systolic pressure, PH: Pulmonary Hypertension

Mutegi R.G., Muriithi. M.K., G. W. "Education Policies in Kenya : Does Free Secondary Education Promote Equity in Public Secondary Schools?" In International Journal of Development Research. 2017;7(11):16696-16699 .abstract2.pdf
Mutegi RG, Muriithi MK, Wanjala G. "EDUCATION POLICIES IN KENYA: DOES FREE SECONDARY EDUCATION PROMOTE EQUITY IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS?" International Journal of Development Research. 2017;07(11):16696-16699.policies_in_education.pdf
Richard K, Faith O, Margaret O, Anne N, Wallace B. "Effect of ABCB1 C3435T Polymorphism on Clinical Outcomes in Kenyan HIV Patients on Lopinavir-Based Regimens." Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2017;7:478-488. Abstract13-jpp2017041704.pdf

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Mungai LM, Elly D. "The Effect of Alternative Investments on the Financial Performance of Pension Funds in Kenya." African development finance journal. 2017;1(2):160-181. Abstract

Purpose - This research focused on the effects of alternative investments on the
financial performance of pension schemes in Kenya.
Methodology - This research was descriptive and Secondary data covering a period
of 5 years, 2012-2016, and comprised a population of 442 segregated pension
schemes and from which a sample of 90 schemes was selected using stratified
sampling technique. Only data from 385 schemes was available. The remaining 57
schemes did not qualify for sampling due to incomplete data, data received did not
pass sense checks and also responses to queries were not received on time. The data
was obtained from the Retirement Benefit Authority and the Actuaries Survey from
Alexander Forbes Consulting. Diagnostic tests carried out were tests for normality,
multicollinearity and autocorrelation. They were used to test for data fitness before
any further analysis. The study also employed the use of a linear multiple regression
model to analyze the effect of alternative investments on the financial performance of
pension funds in Kenya. The tests of significance used in the study were the t-test, F

Ogilo F. "EFFECT OF BANKING REGULATIONS ON FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN KENYA." International Journal of Science Arts and Commerce. 2017;Vol. 2 No. 9, November-2017(2(9)):72-78.
Mwangi JT, Kibui AW. "Effect of Chemistry Practicals on Students’ Performance in Chemistry in Public Secondary Schools of Machakos and Nairobi Counties in Kenya." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2017;Volume 6(Issue 8):586-588.
and Digolo, P.O.O. KNMWGBNS. "Effect of Computer Based Instruction on Learner Performance in art and Design in Public secondary Schools in Kenya." The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies, . 2017;5(6):99-103.
Wanjiru KG, Digolo Patrick Ochieng Obonyo, Boniface N, Owino MS. "Effect of Computer Based Instruction on Learners’ Performance in Art and Design in public secondary schools in Kenya. ." The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies.. 2017;5(6).
Shakur H, Roberts I, Fawole B, Chaudhri R, El-Sheikh M, desina Akintan, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Kidanto H, Vwalika B, Abdulkadir A, Etuk S, Noor S, Asonganyi E, Alfirevic Z, Beaumont D, Ronsmans C, Arulkumaran S. "Effect of early tranexamic acid administration on mortality, hysterectomy, and other morbidities in women with post-partum haemorrhage (WOMAN): an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial." Lancet. 2017. AbstractWebsite

Summary
Background
Post-partum haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide. Early administration of
tranexamic acid reduces deaths due to bleeding in trauma patients. We aimed to assess the effects of early administration
of tranexamic acid on death, hysterectomy, and other relevant outcomes in women with post-partum haemorrhage.
Methods
In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited women aged 16 years and older with a
clinical diagnosis of post-partum haemorrhage after a vaginal birth or caesarean section from 193 hospitals in 21 countries.
We randomly assigned women to receive either 1 g intravenous tranexamic acid or matching placebo in addition to usual
care. If bleeding continued after 30 min, or stopped and restarted within 24 h of the first dose, a second dose of 1 g of
tranexamic acid or placebo could be given. Patients were assigned by selection of a numbered treatment pack from a box
containing eight numbered packs that were identical apart from the pack number. Participants, care givers, and those
assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. We originally planned to enrol 15
000 women with a composite primary
endpoint of death from all-causes or hysterectomy within 42 days of giving birth. However, during the trial it became
apparent that the decision to conduct a hysterectomy was often made at the same time as randomisation. Although
tranexamic acid could influence the risk of death in these cases, it could not affect the risk of hysterectomy. We therefore
increased the sample size from 15
000 to 20
000 women in order to estimate the effect of tranexamic acid on the risk of
death from post-partum haemorrhage. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with
ISRCTN76912190 (Dec 8, 2008); ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00872469; and PACTR201007000192283.
Findings
Between March, 2010, and April, 2016, 20
060
women were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive
tranexamic acid (n=10
051) or placebo (n=10
009), of whom 10
036 and 9985, respectively, were included in the analysis.
Death due to bleeding was significantly reduced in women given tranexamic acid (155 [1·5%] of 10
036 patients
vs
191
[1·9%] of 9985 in the placebo group, risk ratio [RR] 0·81, 95% CI 0·65–1·00; p=0·045), especially in women given
treatment within 3 h of giving birth (89 [1·2%] in the tranexamic acid group
vs
127 [1·7%] in the placebo group,
RR 0·69, 95% CI 0·52–0·91; p=0·008). All other causes of death did not differ significantly by group. Hysterectomy
was not reduced with tranexamic acid (358 [3·6%] patients in the tranexamic acid group
vs
351 [3·5%] in the placebo
group, RR 1·02, 95% CI 0·88–1·07; p=0·84). The composite primary endpoint of death from all causes or hysterectomy
was not reduced with tranexamic acid (534 [5·3%] deaths or hysterectomies in the tranexamic acid group
vs
546 [5·5%]
in the placebo group, RR 0·97, 95% CI 0·87-1·09; p=0·65). Adverse events (including thromboembolic events) did
not differ significantly in the tranexamic acid versus placebo group.
Interpretation
Tranexamic acid reduces death due to bleeding in women with post-partum haemorrhage with no
adverse effects. When used as a treatment for postpartum haemorrhage, tranexamic acid should be given as soon as
possible after bleeding onset.
Funding
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Pfizer, UK Department of Health, Wellcome Trust, and
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Mbogo NW, Kinama JM, Onyango CM, JN K. "Effect of inorganic fertilizer and cattle manure on growth and yield of two Kenyan potato varieties." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR). 2017;10(1):65-72.
Njiru FAK, Elly D. "Effect of Monetary Policy on Credit Supply in Kenya ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):28-43. Abstract

Purpose- This paper sought to establish the effect of monetary policy on credit supply in Kenya.
Methodology- This study adopted a descriptive research design. Descriptive statistics such as mean, median, minimum, maximum and standard deviation were used to describe the trend of the variables. Breusch Godfrey serial correlation LM test was used to test correlation of the study variables. Stationarity tests on time series data was conducted using augmented dickey fuller test statistic. Regression analysis was used to establish the influence of monetary policy on credit supply.
Findings- The study concluded that CRR, OMO and Inflation are significant and have a negative effect on credit supply. The model was also fit to explain the relationship as 76% (R2= 0.761160) variation of the dependent variable (Credit supply) was explained by the independent variables (OMO, CRR, CBR and Inflation) in the long run. Adjusted R- square which provides adjustment to the R Square was73% (Adjusted R2= 0.736664) indicating 73% variation in credit supply was explained by independent variables (OMO, CRR, CBR and Inflation). F- Statistic 31.07233 was significant at 1% level P=0.0000.
Implications – The study recommends that the Central Bank of Kenya should come up with monitoring and evaluation programmes of monitoring how credit supply is influenced by various monetary policy instruments and should streamline the economic environment in which banks operate by ensuring CRR, OMO and Inflation are maintained at a constant.
Value –The study narrowed in scope to commercial banks and excluded the non-banking organizations. Additionally a study should be done on the impact of monetary policy on money supply to capture both banking and non-banking institutions. The research had a presumption that the relationship of the variables was linear therefore more studies should be carried out explore nonlinear relationship on the variables of study,
Key Words: Credit Supply, Monetary policy

Jawuoro SO, Koech OK, Karuku GN, Mbau JS. "Effect of piospheres on physio-chemical soil properties in the Southern Rangelands of Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017;6:14.
Ombega NJ, Mureithi SM, Koech OK, Karuma AN, Gachene CKK. "Effect of rangeland rehabilitation on the herbaceous species composition and diversity in Suswa catchment, Narok County, Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017;6(1):41.
Kinyanjui E, Ochieng DE. "Effect of Remittances from Diaspora on Financial Sector Deepening in the East African Community ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):82-10. Abstract

Abstract
Purpose – This paper investigated the effect of diaspora remittances on financial sector deepening in the East African Community. Personal diaspora remittances were used as a measure of remittances from diaspora. The three proxies for financial deepening that were employed in the study were domestic credit as a ratio of GDP, total credit provided by the financial sector as a percentage of GDP and degree of monetization, M2 as a percentage of GDP.
Methodology – The study adopted an explanatory research design. It employed panel data analysis - fixed effects method, to model the linear regression equation. The population of the study was the five East African Community member countries and covered a 20-year period (1997 to 2016). The data for this study was obtained from the World Bank statistics website.
Findings – This study established that there exists a positive relationship between remittances from diaspora and financial sector deepening in the EAC but this relationship is not significant. The three models analyzed in this study, show that a 0.31, 0.08 and 0.28 change respectively, in remittances in the respective models, leads to a unit change in the level of financial sector deepening in the EAC.
Implications – The results of this study show that an increase in the level of remittances leads to increased financial deepening in the EAC economies. There is therefore need for the government in liaison with the private sector, to provide a conducive environment for development of financially innovative products that ease and reduce the cost of sending remittances as this will foster further financial deepening, which has the positive effect of financial inclusion, access to credit and economic growth.
Value – This study recommended the fostering of activities that are geared towards the ease of sending remittances and cost reduction of sending the remittances through employment of new financial technologies. Further studies have also been recommended to increase the frontiers of the study especially on developed countries in order to gain more conclusive understanding and generalizability of the remittances-financial sector deepening nexus.

Key Words; Diaspora remittances, Financial sector deepening, East Africa Community

Otsyina H, Nguhiu J, E M, Mbuthia P G, W O. "Effect of ruminal plastic bags on wellbeing of goats." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production Africa. 2017;65:435-443.
Mumia BI, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Nyongesa M, Olubayo FM. "Effect of Seed Potato Tuber Storage Methods on Occurrence of Potato Diseases." International Journal of Research in Agricultural Sciences . 2017;4(4):23-48.
Mwangi PM, Ochieng DE. "The Effect of Selected Macro-economic Variables on Exchange Rates in Kenya." African development finance journal. 2017;1(2):162-177. Abstractthe_effect_of_selected_macro_economic_variables_on_exchange_rates_in_kenya.pdf

Purpose – This paper sought to establish the effect of selected macro-economic variables
on exchange rates in Kenya. The selected macro-economic variables for this study were
interest rates, inflation rates and trade flows.
Methodology – The study was modeled as a descriptive survey. A data collection sheet
was used to collect secondary data from the published bulletin and other publications by
Central Bank of Kenya and Kenya National Bureau of Statistics for a period of ten years
between 2006 and 2015. The data was examined using descriptive, correlation and
regression analyses.
Findings - Results of the study showed that interest rate had a positive correlation
coefficient of 0.446 with exchange rate, Inflation rate and exchange rate had a correlation
coefficient of negative 0.395 while the Level of aggregation of trade flows had a
correlation coefficient of positive 0.829 to the exchange rate. The value of R square was
0.745, a discovery that 74.5 percent of the deviations in exchange rates in Kenya
occurred due to changes in interest rate, inflation rate and trade flows at 95 percent
confidence level. The significance value obtained was less than p=0.05 implying that the
model was statistically significant in predicting how the macro economic variables of
interest rate, inflation rate and trade flows affect exchange rates in Kenya.
Implications - The Kenyan shilling has been depreciating in value over the years
implying a weakening of its purchasing power in the international markets. Policy makers
should come up with policies that will contribute to reversing this trend. Managing the
prevailing levels of inflation, interest rates and trade flows will be key as they have been
found to significantly affect exchange rates.
Value - The study will act as a guide to variou

Abong'o DA, Onyatta JO, Mbugua H. "The Effect of Septic Tanks Sewage Disposal System Distances on Borehole Water Quality in Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, Kenya." European International Journal of Science and Technology. 2017;6(3):1-10.
A A’oD, J.O O, M H. "The Effect of Septic Tanks Sewage Disposal System Distances On Borehole Water Quality in Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, Kenya:." The Effect of Septic Tanks Sewage Disposal System Distances On Borehole Water Quality in Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, Kenya. 2017;6(3):1-10.
Munyao SM, ODOCK SO, Rucha K. "Effect of service quality management practices on operational performance of petroleum distributing firms in Kenya." International Journal of Science Arts and Commerce. 2017;2(2):49-71. Abstract

The desire of any service organization is to deliver quality service that meets their customer expectations so as to remain profitable and in business. The service market has now become more competitive than ever before and meeting customer needs is a necessity. Petroleum distributing firms in Kenya are at a great task of perfecting their service delivery systems to ensure that their customers get quality product at the right time, right quantity and above all safely. Well managed service quality practices have the potential of transforming the operational performance of an organization. The objectives of the study were to determine the extent of adoption of service quality management practices by petroleum distributing firms in Kenya, the challenges they face in the implementation of these practices and the effect of these practices on the firms’ operational performance. The study was carried out through a descriptive survey of 32 petroleum distributing firms in Kenya. Drop and pick later questionnaires were used to collect primary data. The collected data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and descriptive statistics like mean and standard deviation used to summarize the findings. The regression analysis technique was used to establish the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. The research findings were presented in tables. The findings indicated that petroleum distributing firms adopted various service quality management practices to a large extent. The findings also indicated that the firms were faced by various challenges in their endeavour to implement the service quality management practices. Further, the findings indicated that there existed generally a positive relationship between service quality management practices and operational performance. The main conclusion was that the adoption of service quality management practices by petroleum distributing firms was inevitable since it improved the operational performance of these firms. The researcher recommends that policy makers should ensure organizations embrace service quality management practices for improved productivity and better returns from their investments. The researcher concludes by suggesting that similar research to be carried out in other sectors of the economy other than petroleum industry.

Morris MM, Muthomi JW, Wagacha JM. "Effect of Soil Fertility and Intercropping on the Incidence and Severity of Root Rot Diseases of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). ." World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;5(4):189-199.
Otieno AO, Karuku GN, Raude JM, Koech OK. "Effectiveness of the Horizontal, Vertical and Hybrid Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland Systems in Polishing Municipal Wastewater." Environmental Management and Sustainable Development. 2017;6(2):158-173.
Waweru G, Ochieng’ DDE. "EFFECTS OF CAPITAL FLOWS ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN KENYA ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):1-17. Abstracteffects_of_capital_flows_on_economic_growth_in_kenya.pdf

Purpose -This study investigated the immediate and lagged effects of the various forms of capital flows - FDI flows, portfolio flows and “Other investments capital flows” (which mainly represents corporate, financial institutions and general government borrowings as well as remittances from the diaspora) - on economic growth in Kenya over a 30 year period from 1984 to 2014.
Methodology – The study adopted a quantitative research design in the form of an econometric model known as Auto Regressive Distributed Lag Model (ARDLM). Findings -FDI and portfolio investments flows have a negative impact on the GDP growth rate and that their impact is not statistically significant.However, other investments flows, which mainly represent corporate, financial institutions, general government borrowings and remittances from the diaspora, have a positive impact on GDP growth rate and the impact is statistically significant.Based on the study findings, it can be inferred that a significant slowdown or a reversal in capital flows in form of “Other investments capital flows” into Kenya result into significant slowdown in economic growth in the country. Implications -Policy makers may lay much emphasis on attracting portfolio investment flows and “Other investments capital flows”, while investors and firms should consider the upside opportunities that may be created by increase in other investments capital flows and the downside risks that could results from a significant slowdown or a reversal in these forms of capital flows into the country.

Keywords: Capital flows, Economic growth, FDI flows, portfolio investment flows, Private equity, Diaspora remittances, Auto Regressive Distributed Lag Model.

Mwangi TJ, Kibui AW. "Effects of Chemistry practicals on students' performance in secondary school chemistry." International Journal of Science and Research. 2017;(ISSN (Online)).
Elly D, Kaijage ES. "Effects of Demand Side Factors on Access to External Finance by Small and Medium Manufacturing Enterprises in Nairobi, Kenya ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):44-6. Abstract

Abstract Purpose - This paper investigates how demand-side factors affect access to external finance by small and medium manufacturing enterprises (SMMEs) in Nairobi, Kenya. The demand-side factors considered in the study are firm characteristics, financial management practices and entrepreneur characteristics. Methodology - The study employs an exploratory survey design utilizing quantitative methods in data collection and analysis. Data is analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Logistic regression is used to test the relationship between demand-side factors and access to external finance because of the dichotomous nature of the dependent variable. Findings – The study establishes that some of the demand-side factors significantly influence access to external finance. These factors include variations in entrepreneur’s networks, firm growth and earnings volatility which explain variations in odds of access to external finance by 39.9 percent for networks and 45.8 percent for earnings volatility and firm growth. Implications – To minimize SMMEs financial constraints, social networking amongst entrepreneurs, firm growth and stabilized earning should be prioritized by management and policy makers. Though ethnic orientation influences the odds of access to external finance, policy efforts should be put in place to ensure efficiency in external financing markets so that entrepreneurs are not disenfranchised on this basis. Value - The study recommends establishment and support of sustainable social networks that guarantee enterprise growth given that firm growth also influence odds of access to external finance. Further studies should probe the significance of good financial management practices on odds of access to external finance in diverse settings and industries.

E K, J M. "Effects of East African Community integration on trade volume in the region." International Journal of Science, Arts and Commerce. 2017;2(9):23-37.
HM M, Kipyegon AN TVT. "Effects of Exposure to Effluent Contaminated River Water on Boar Reproduction." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2017;6(1):49-52.mutembei_and_kipyegon_2017.pdf
AN K, Mutembei HM, Tsuma VT, Oduma JA. "Effects of exposure to effluent contaminated river water on boar reproduction." Inter J Vet Sci. 2017;6(1):49-52.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "The effects of Intermolecular Interaction in Line Broadening Phenomena.". In: J. Molecular Physics. University of Nairobi Press; 2017. Abstract

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GITHINJI EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, MACHANI MAXWEL. "Effects of kdr gene frequencies on major malaria vectors’ resting behaviour in Teso sub-counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
GITHINJI EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, MACHANI MAXWEL. "Effects of kdr gene frequencies on major malaria vectors’ resting behaviour in Teso sub-counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.

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