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Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK. Soil and water management in semi-arid Kenya: an overview..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper presents results of a study aimed at quantifying soil and water management practices and identifying major constraints and implications for future adoption of appropriate technologies. The study was conducted in the Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya. Approximately 83% of the farmers interviewed were using manure, while only 4% use fertilizer. 60% had fanya juu terraces on their land, while only 13% were using grass strips. The study concluded that finance is a major constraint limiting farmers' adoption of practices enhancing soil fertility and that lack of conservation practices on grazing land is of great concern. The lack of knowledge of possible benefits of soil and water management practices is noted.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK. Soil erosion and conservation activities on land affected by road drainage: a case study of Nyeri District..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The existing soil erosion damage caused by water drained from minor roads in the Nyeri District of Kenya was assessed and the soil conservation works needed to stabilize the waterways and gullies along the roads are specified. The study evaluated the land affected by road drains/culverts on 25 minor roads with a total length of 149 km. Of the total of 321 culverts identified, 171 (53%) were found to require channel rehabilitation. 68% of the culverts discharged onto steep slopes (>10%). Erosion was found to be more severe in the coffee-growing zones than in tea-growing areas. In the plateau areas, soil erosion from the culvert outlets was minimal. Due to gentle slopes and more perennial vegetation. 20,346 m of channel excavation was needed to provide artificial waterways for the discharge of water drained from the roads. Channel stabilization with grass cover or installation of scour checks was necessary on very gentle slopes. Steep slopes required stone check-dams and single-row post/stone check-dams. Very steep slopes also required lock-and-spill drains and post/stone/wire check-dams. Gabions (57 crossings) were needed mainly for rehabilitation of large gullies along with double-row post/stone check-dams and post/stone/wire check dams. Cut-off drains were necessary in some cases to divert water from the culvert outlets. In areas where vegetation was easily accessible, brushwood check-dams could be used.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK. Soil erosion and conservation activities on land affected by road drainage: a case study of Nyeri District..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The existing soil erosion damage caused by water drained from minor roads in the Nyeri District of Kenya was assessed and the soil conservation works needed to stabilize the waterways and gullies along the roads are specified. The study evaluated the land affected by road drains/culverts on 25 minor roads with a total length of 149 km. Of the total of 321 culverts identified, 171 (53%) were found to require channel rehabilitation. 68% of the culverts discharged onto steep slopes (>10%). Erosion was found to be more severe in the coffee-growing zones than in tea-growing areas. In the plateau areas, soil erosion from the culvert outlets was minimal. Due to gentle slopes and more perennial vegetation. 20,346 m of channel excavation was needed to provide artificial waterways for the discharge of water drained from the roads. Channel stabilization with grass cover or installation of scour checks was necessary on very gentle slopes. Steep slopes required stone check-dams and single-row post/stone check-dams. Very steep slopes also required lock-and-spill drains and post/stone/wire check-dams. Gabions (57 crossings) were needed mainly for rehabilitation of large gullies along with double-row post/stone check-dams and post/stone/wire check dams. Cut-off drains were necessary in some cases to divert water from the culvert outlets. In areas where vegetation was easily accessible, brushwood check-dams could be used.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Some conceptions about sediment rating equations..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper examines the anomalies in the sedimentation rating equations in terms of existing notions of statistical analysis and concludes that c=aqb is the preferred relationship. The method of estimating parameters a and b through ordinary least squares and the method of prediction using the log normal probability distribution of the error component z (c=aqbz) is presented using data for the Mathare river at Kabete, Kenya. The need for nonlinear least squares for estimation of parameters a and b is discussed in relation to the additive nature of the error component (c=aqb + z) n the nonlinear form of rating equation. The equation c=Faqb (where F is a correction factor arising due to log normal distribution of the error term z) predicted the sediment yield of the Mathare catchment quite well for 61 days during the long rainy season of 1991.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Some conceptions about sediment rating equations..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper examines the anomalies in the sedimentation rating equations in terms of existing notions of statistical analysis and concludes that c=aqb is the preferred relationship. The method of estimating parameters a and b through ordinary least squares and the method of prediction using the log normal probability distribution of the error component z (c=aqbz) is presented using data for the Mathare river at Kabete, Kenya. The need for nonlinear least squares for estimation of parameters a and b is discussed in relation to the additive nature of the error component (c=aqb + z) n the nonlinear form of rating equation. The equation c=Faqb (where F is a correction factor arising due to log normal distribution of the error term z) predicted the sediment yield of the Mathare catchment quite well for 61 days during the long rainy season of 1991.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK. Some" near-farmer" research on land and water management for crop production in semi-arid Kenya..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper describes a "near-farmer" applied research project working on 10 field stations scattered through the arid and semi-arid lands of Embu, Meru and Isiolo Districts of Esatern Province, Kenya. The objective of the research was to define better extension messages for resource-poor farmers to enable them to improve their land and water management techniques for improved and sustained yields. Most of the trials related to soil fertility and soil moisture, as well as trials on the use of Vetiver grass for soil conservation, control of the legume root parasite Alectra vogelii, and new introductions such as groundnuts, simsim (sesame), tubers, fodder crops and fruits.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK. Some" near-farmer" research on land and water management for crop production in semi-arid Kenya..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper describes a "near-farmer" applied research project working on 10 field stations scattered through the arid and semi-arid lands of Embu, Meru and Isiolo Districts of Esatern Province, Kenya. The objective of the research was to define better extension messages for resource-poor farmers to enable them to improve their land and water management techniques for improved and sustained yields. Most of the trials related to soil fertility and soil moisture, as well as trials on the use of Vetiver grass for soil conservation, control of the legume root parasite Alectra vogelii, and new introductions such as groundnuts, simsim (sesame), tubers, fodder crops and fruits.

Wamitila KW. Staging Masculinity.; 2000.Website
and Philip Kilbride, Collette Suda EN. Street Children in Kenya - Voices ofChildren in Search ofa Childhood. London: bergin & Garvey; 2000. Abstract

This book results from a cross-national and interdisciplinary research effort.
Although Collette Suda (C. S.), a rural sociologist, and Enos Njeru (E. N.), and
Philip Kilbride (P. K.), both anthropologists, were all academically trained in
the United States, we have benefited from an "insider" -" outsider" dialogue in
writing this book. C. S. and E. N., as Kenyans, kept our work closely grounded
in local language, cultural interpretations, and applied recommendations. P. K.
focused on ethnography as an "outsider," as non-Kenyans must do, and also
sought to coordinate our findings with comparative, cultural, and theoretical
concerns beyond the Kenyan scene. We operated, however, on some occasions
as insiders or outsiders given P. K.' s research on children and family in East
Africa since 1967 and E. N.'s and C. S.'s international travel, education, and
living experiences abroad. More details about our collaboration in research and
writing together are provided in the text.
Street children are often portrayed by the public and sometimes in
publications as a separate, socially distinct category of person. We have tried to
emphasize here social complexities that problemtize this simplistic view.
Following a holistic perspective, we have emphasized throughout the book how
street children in Kenya, in fact, live like other Kenyans, embedded, for
example, in similar institutions, informal work routines, cultural beliefs, and
family relations. Such involvements are not dissimilar in many respects from
others who make up the working poor in Nairobi. Still, street children do stand
apart as a distinct social category both in their own minds and that of the public
as well. We will consider reasons for this and which social characteristics seem
widely shared among street children. Throughout, however, while recognizing
commonalities, we attempt to emphasize the rich variation among children that
we discovered in our research.
In our book we seek to systematically provide information about street girls.
An awareness of difference and variation as our work progressed compelled us
to emphasize gender differences at every tum. We also wanted to highlight gender inasmuch as compared to boys, very little is published about street girls.
This is strikingly true in Kenya but, to a great degree, elsewhere in the world-as
well. We decided to incorporate a gendered analysis throughout the book rather
than providing separate chapters on girls. This decision was taken so as to
better put across the idea that there are commonalities among all street children
irrespective of gender differences. When all is said and done, boys and girls in
Kenya share a common label and many similar problems.
As part of our holistic perspective, we have taken special note of how the
current problem of street children in Kenya stands in sharp contrast to
indigenous derived practices and experiences associated with childhood in
Kenya. The street child is but a recent event in the culture history of Kenya.
Specifically, we have emphasized Kenyan family cultural beliefs and indigenous
practices as an interpretive framework not only because we believe this to be
relevant, but also inasmuch as family and gender issues themselves, apart from
street children, have occupied us prior to and throughout our work with street
children. For better or worse, we have tried here to relate social topics we know
the most about to the situation of street children. Only the reader can judge if
we have overstated our family-friendly interpretation and related practical
recommendations with which we conclude this book. We trust that most readers
will agree that family analysis is certainly relevant to a full understanding of
street children in Kenya. Whatever interpretive conclusions arise on this point,
we all hope that our descriptive materials about street children stand alone and
are informative in their own right.
Throughout our research and writing, we have followed research methods
that attempt to involve the voices of street children concerning events, beliefs,
experiences, and aspirations that they privilege in their own discourse about
themselves. Ethnography, focus group, and social survey converge around our
experience near research methodology. Overall, previous published materials in
Kenya have not systematically privileged children's voices in the multirnethod
sense that we have attempted here. Nevertheless, we have also set out
theoretical objectives and conceptual categories derived from our own
disciplinary, theoretical concerns and comparative understandings about street
children globally. Therefore, we will consider interplay between children's
voices and our theoretical framework as part of our discussion of methodology.
However, inclusion of street children's voices here is more than simply a
matter of epistemology. Our ultimate intention of being able to better suggest
some applied, practical recommendations to policy makers also compels us to
consider children's perspectives wherever possible. It is unlikely that many
policy recommendations concerning street children will get very far before
people first learn directly from the children about themselves. How best to
assist them is also something street children have thought about and about which
they have strong opinions. We end our book with policy recommendations that
take into account, but which are not limited to, the voices of those children
represented in our research. Weare hopeful that our recommendations, about social policy and applications of our research in Kenya will be of interest to all
of those thinking about applied solutions to what is, in fact, a global problem
concerning street children in many nations.
We use pseudonyms in this book for most individuals whom we encountered
in fieldwork. In particular, we have used real or invented nicknames for all
street children on the advice of street children who, themselves, use nicknames
to conceal their identities from the police. An exception is "Mama Ford," a
buyer of waste products from street boys who, after reading what we had written
about her with approval, requested that we give her real name, Josephine
Karanja, in publication.
We have also not published photographs so as to conceal the identities of
street children, most of whom are regularly under harassment from the police.
Moreover, most street children may want their past lives on the streets kept
private in the future. There is a rapid turnover on the streets such that as far as
the street children described here are concerned, all have left the streets or now
live in different locations in Nairobi. The wheel of field research and
publication grinds slowly; in our case, that has served our desire to protect the
identities of our informants as well as to become familiar with changes in their
lives over time.

Gachene CKK, GichukiDN; Gachene CKK, FN; Mungai. Systematic gully evaluation as a precondition for control..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper examines some of the reasons for the low success rate in gully control and argues that a more careful examination of each situation and a greater understanding of the processes at work could lead to more successful interventions. It outlines a systematic evaluation of a gully erosion problem and analysis of the options for control or reclamation. Evaluation should involve assessment of the causes of gully formation, gully morphology, gully erosion/sedimentation processes, soil characteristics, land use in the vicinity, and catchment characteristics.

Gachene CKK;, Klingspor P;, Oduor AR. Use of cover crops to improve soil productivity: preliminary studies using tropical velvet bean.; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Initial observations of a two-phase trial on the use of Mucuna deeringianum [M. deeringiana] to improve soil productivity are presented. In phase one, 42 seeds were sown at Kabete, Kenya, in October 1990 with 89% germination rate. By September 1991, 4 kg of beans had been harvested. The second phase studied the effects of M. deeringiana on improving crop cover and reducing soil loss at Mbooni and Kabete, resp. Initial observations show that the crop preformed fairly well, providing a cover of up to 25cm uncompressed thickness. Treatments on the runoff plots at Kabete include: bare ground (control), M. deeringiana; maize; the two crops intercropped and sown at the same time; intercropping with M. deeringiana sown one week after the maize; or intercropped with M. deeringiana sown two weeks after the maize. The highest soil loss was found on the bare plot (65 t/ha), followed by the intercropped plot with two weeks between sowing (50 t/ha). Soil loss was lowest in runoff plots with a pure stand of M. deeringiana (11 t/ha). Intercropping and sown at the same time provided highest percentage cover.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Use of soil survey information in soil and water management..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The results of soil surveys at the ICIPE research site at Ungoye, South Nyanza, and the Ngori Ngori toposequence in Narok, Kenya, are discussed to provide insight into the applicability of soil survey information to soil and water management. It is concluded that soil survey information in soil and water management programmes can be used through understanding and appreciation of the criteria used in categorizing soils and their management implications. From the examples given it is noted that chemical aspects of the soil should be viewed not just as a means to assess its fertility, but also as a base to predict the behaviour of the soils when subjected to different types of management.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Use of soil survey information in soil and water management..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The results of soil surveys at the ICIPE research site at Ungoye, South Nyanza, and the Ngori Ngori toposequence in Narok, Kenya, are discussed to provide insight into the applicability of soil survey information to soil and water management. It is concluded that soil survey information in soil and water management programmes can be used through understanding and appreciation of the criteria used in categorizing soils and their management implications. From the examples given it is noted that chemical aspects of the soil should be viewed not just as a means to assess its fertility, but also as a base to predict the behaviour of the soils when subjected to different types of management.

Hamilton SR, Aaltonen LA, for on Cancer IAR, Organization WH, others. Pathology and genetics of tumours of the digestive system. Vol. 48. IARC press Lyon:; 2000. AbstractWebsite
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P. OCHILO. 15. Professional Ethics: Fair Play Impartiality in Covering Elections. . Nairobi, Kenya.: United States International University (USIU) ; 1999.
P. OCHILO. 16. The Growing Gap between Training and Employment in Communications in Anglophone Africa: Diagnostic and Strategies for Intervention in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. . Nairobi, Kenya.: UNESCO and ORBICOM INTERNATIONAL Network of UNESCO Chairs and Associates in Communications ; 1999.
Mbindyo JM. Benefits of Registering Births and Deaths, Planning and Provision of Improved Health Services - The Roles of health Personnel in Civil Registration. 30. Mbindyo, J.M. “Benefits of Registering Births and Deaths, Planning and Provision of Improved Health Services - The Roles of health Personnel in Civil Registration” a Consultancy booklet for UNESCO - Kenya Country Office,; 1999.
O. KG. Changing patterns in water resource tenure in Kenya and mechanisms for resolving emerging conflicts. East African Regional Seminar for Journalists, African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS), March; 1999. Abstract

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S MRWANYAMAJOSEPH. Mpuonzi's Dream, a Novel.. Nairobi: Africawide Network; 1999.Website
Wamitila KW. Nguvu ya Sala. Nairobi: Longhorn Publishers; 1999.
Wasamba P, Timamy R. Sauti Kutoka Pwani 1. Nairobi: Kenya Oral Literature Association; 1999.
Wamitila KW. Spectrum Media.; 1999.Website
Dequan S. “An Analysis on Exams of English Intensive and Extensive Reading”, . Tianjin: Tianjin University Press ; 1999.
Oni EA, Ayoade JO, Owolabi IE. Advances in Geodesy and Geophysics Research in Africa.; 1998.Website
Air Breathing: the Elite Respiration.; 1998. AbstractWebsite

Water forms an important structural and functional constituent of the intercellular and intracelular lung tissue (e.g., Bastacky et al. 1987). Furthermore, a hydrated layer lines the air spaces of the lung (e.g., Fishman et al. 1957; Cantin et al. 1987; Chinard 1992). In the larger air spaces, the aqueous layer is comprised mostly of mucus, a glycoprotein-containing phase which is about 98% water (e.g., Sturgess 1979). The mucus forms an important source of moisture which humidifies the inhaled air, traps solid particles, and protects the ciliated epithelium. At the alveolar level, the hydrated layer occurs in form of an aqueous subphase in which proteins, carbohydrates, ions, and surfactant are dissolved. In the vertebrate lungs, where detailed investigations have been carried out, gas exchange occurs across an extracellular alveolar fluid film which lines the surface. The lining has been lucidly demonstrated by Finley et al. (1968), Weibel and Gil (1968), Kikkawa (1970), Bastacky et al. (1987, 1993), and Hook et al. (1987). In the airways, the thickness of the surface liquid lining is 20 to 150 µm (Widdicombe 1997) while on the alveolar surface, the thickness ranges from 0.1 to 0.241Im (Weibel and Gil 1968; Bastacky et al. 1993, 1995; Stephens et al. 1996). In the human lung, it has been estimated physiologically (e.g., Rennard et al. 1986) that the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) makes up 20 to 40 ml while through morphometric techniques (e.g., Untersee et al. 1971; Gorin and Steward 1979), the ELF was estimated to range from 15 to 70 ml. The alveolar fluid layer contributes significantly to the gas exchange function of the lung

Boon TRE;, Nathan I;, Buttoud G;, Kouplevatskaya I, Lund DH;. Analysis along procedural elements.; 1998.Website
Wang'ombe JK. Capacity of Non.; 1998. Abstract

The author illustrates how qualitative data from open-ended interviews, pile sorts, and triad sorts can be used to test quantitatively for intracultural variation in norms. Specifically, the author tests whether Gusii men and women in the Suneka Division of Kisii District in southwest Kenya have developed a common set of standards in response to symptoms of malaria. In this small sample, the focus is on internal, rather than external, validity. While the findings about Gusii responses to malaria are not generalizable beyond the village where the data were collected, the method described may be used to study cultural similarities across socioeconomic, gender, and other groups.

J.A O. Educational Management: Theory and Practice. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press; 1998.
Wasamba P, Mwangi E. Notes on Margaret Ogolla’s The River and the Source.. Nairobi: Stantex; 1998.
Wasamba P, Wanjiku K. Reclaiming Women's Space in Politics. Nairobi: CCGD; 1998.
Kabira WM, Wasamba P. Reclaiming women's space in politics.; 1998.Website
Wasamba P, Wanjiku K. Tilda: A Collection of Poems on Girls and Women. Nairobi: CCGD; 1998.
Dequan S. “A Guide to Top Results on English Grammar” . Tianjin: Tianjin University Press; 1998.
Dequan S. “A Guide to Top Results on English Reading” . Tianjin: Tianjin University Press; 1998.
Dequan S. “Grammar of College English” . Tianjin: Tianjin Science and Technology Press; 1998.
Nduati R&WK. Communicating with adolescents about HIV/AIDS: Experience from Eastern and Southern Africa. . Ottowa, Onterio: International Development Research Centre, 1997.; 1997.
11. Perspectives for Editorial Independence published in: Strengthening Democratic Voices. . Nairobi, Kenya.: . UNESCO – Paris Series on Public Service Broadcasting and Editorial Independence ; 1997.
Abagi O, Odipo G. Access, Quality and Efficiency in Education in Kenya. Nairobi: Institute of Policy Analysis and Research (IPAR).; 1997.
Nyasani PJ. The African Psyche. Nairobi: Theological Printing Press; 1997.
Kabira WM. The oral artist.; 1997.Website
Dequan S. “Listening Courses of English Broadcasts”. Tianjin: Tianjin Science and Technology Press; 1997.
Gatumu HN. Essentials of Educational Statistics. Nairobi: East African Education Publishers Ltd; 1996.
Ngatia TA;, Mbuthia PG;, Njiro M;, Kanyari PWN;, Ngotho J. gross Lesions Encountered In Slaughtered Wild Animals In A Game Ranching Farm In Kenya."..; 1996.Website
Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia TA;, Njiro M;, Kanyari PWN;, Munyua W k;, Ngotho J. "gross Lesions Encountered In Slaughtered Wild Animals In A Game Ranching Farm In Kenya."..; 1996.Website
Njiro M;, Ngatia TA;, Mbuthia PG;, Kanyari PWN;, Munyua W k;, Ngotho J. "gross Lesions Encountered In Slaughtered Wild Animals In A Game Ranching Farm In Kenya."..; 1996.Website
Kanyari PWN;, Munyua W k;, Ngotho J, Njiro M;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia TA;. "gross Lesions Encountered In Slaughtered Wild Animals In A Game Ranching Farm In Kenya."..; 1996.Website
SHEIKH ABDULATIFAHMED. How to nature our children properly.; 1996.
Odada EO, Johnson TC. The Limnology, Climatology and Paleoclimatology of the East African lakes. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers,; 1996.
Nyasani PJ. The Metaphysics of the Cosmos and Related Recurrent Issues of Metaphysics. Nairobi: School of Journalism; 1996.
SWALEH AMIRI. Mwongozo wa Kifo Kisimani , Nairobi, Longhorn Publishers. Nairobi: ISBN – 9966 – 49 – 778 – 1.; 1996.
Oluoch Kosura, W; Michieka RW;, Muchiri G;, Dibbits HJ. Ox-drawn equipment development in Kenya..; 1996. AbstractWebsite

Recent efforts to develop ox-drawn equipment in Kenya arise out of the dilemma caused by unsuccessful efforts to promote tractors. The country has a number of about 10 000 tractors cultivating about 600 000 ha in the large-farm sector and 42 000 ha in the small-farm sector. The tractor market has slowed down to less than 1000 a year. The failure of tractor mechanization in small-scale farming coupled with the lack of ox-drawn equipment means that about 84% of smallholdings is using hand tools. In 1975, a workshop concluded that expanded ox-cultivation has a major part to play in increased agricultural production. After 4 years, the first 3 stages of development of ox-drawn equipment were accomplished. Aspects of local manufacture, training, extension and marketing are discussed.

Muchiri, G; W; Michieka RW;, Dibbits HJ, Dibbits HJ, Oluoch Kosura. Ox-drawn equipment development in Kenya..; 1996. AbstractWebsite

Recent efforts to develop ox-drawn equipment in Kenya arise out of the dilemma caused by unsuccessful efforts to promote tractors. The country has a number of about 10 000 tractors cultivating about 600 000 ha in the large-farm sector and 42 000 ha in the small-farm sector. The tractor market has slowed down to less than 1000 a year. The failure of tractor mechanization in small-scale farming coupled with the lack of ox-drawn equipment means that about 84% of smallholdings is using hand tools. In 1975, a workshop concluded that expanded ox-cultivation has a major part to play in increased agricultural production. After 4 years, the first 3 stages of development of ox-drawn equipment were accomplished. Aspects of local manufacture, training, extension and marketing are discussed.

MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ. Transitivity in Swahili. Coiogne: Rudiger Koppe Verlag; 1996.
J.O O. Urban migrants and rural development in Kenya. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press; 1996.
Odada EO, Braatz BB, Brown, S., Isichel AO. African Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventories and Mitigation Options: Forestry, Land-use Change and Agriculture. Amsterdam: Kluwer Academic Publishers Group; 1995.
Control System Analysis and Design.; 1995. AbstractWebsite

This book emphasizes undergraduate topics and the use of CAD programs,while still providing a rigorous treatment of advanced topics and derivation techniques. It instills the basic principles of feedback control essential to all specialty areas of engineering. The first part offers a comprehensive analysis of the fundamentals necessary for feedback control systems analysis. The second part provides thorough coverage of root locus,frequency response and state feedback techniques. The last part includes a number of modern techniques that are useful to the systems design engineer. CAD technology is enhanced by the use of MATLAB problems throughout the text.

Hamu HJ. Maumbile si huja.; 1995.Website
Awuondo CO. Syracuse memos.; 1995.Website
Dequan S. “Modern Chinese Dictionary of International Trade”. Tianjin: China Railway Press ; 1995.
Kolb, Helga H, Fernandez, Eduardo E, Nelson, Ralph R (Eds.). Webvision: {The} {Organization} of the {Retina} and {Visual} {System}. Salt Lake City (UT): University of Utah Health Sciences Center; 1995. Abstract

Understanding the organization of the vertebrate retina has been the goal of many talented visual scientists during the past 100 years. With Cajal's (1892) anatomic descriptions of the cell types that constitute the retina in a number of vertebrate species, and with an early understanding of the role of visual purple in photochemistry in combination with psychophysical studies of adaptation and color vision, we had in the sixties the rudiments of an understanding of how the retina might be organized and functioning. To go further, though, we were beginning to need detailed information of neural circuits that underlie these functions. It was the advent of electron microscopy, microelectrode recording techniques, and pharmacology that then allowed us an era of very rapid advancement. The purpose of this Electronic Tutorial is to summarize these recent advances and to describe our present understanding, based primarily on anatomic investigations, of the Neural Organization of the Mammalian Retina. As time goes on we have been inviting other authors to write chapters on their speciality concerning the retina or other visual pathways. A great addition has been a section on Psychophysics of Vision which we hope will be of general information to all interested in learning the basics of visual perception.

Kolb, Helga, Fernandez, Eduardo, Nelson, Ralph (Eds.). Webvision: {The} {Organization} of the {Retina} and {Visual} {System}. Salt Lake City (UT): University of Utah Health Sciences Center; 1995. AbstractWebsite

Understanding the organization of the vertebrate retina has been the goal of many talented visual scientists during the past 100 years. With Cajal's (1892) anatomic descriptions of the cell types that constitute the retina in a number of vertebrate species, and with an early understanding of the role of visual purple in photochemistry in combination with psychophysical studies of adaptation and color vision, we had in the sixties the rudiments of an understanding of how the retina might be organized and functioning. To go further, though, we were beginning to need detailed information of neural circuits that underlie these functions. It was the advent of electron microscopy, microelectrode recording techniques, and pharmacology that then allowed us an era of very rapid advancement. The purpose of this Electronic Tutorial is to summarize these recent advances and to describe our present understanding, based primarily on anatomic investigations, of the Neural Organization of the Mammalian Retina. As time goes on we have been inviting other authors to write chapters on their speciality concerning the retina or other visual pathways. A great addition has been a section on Psychophysics of Vision which we hope will be of general information to all interested in learning the basics of visual perception.

Kolb, Helga, Fernandez, Eduardo, Nelson, Ralph (Eds.). Webvision: {The} {Organization} of the {Retina} and {Visual} {System}. Salt Lake City (UT): University of Utah Health Sciences Center; 1995. AbstractWebsite

Understanding the organization of the vertebrate retina has been the goal of many talented visual scientists during the past 100 years. With Cajal's (1892) anatomic descriptions of the cell types that constitute the retina in a number of vertebrate species, and with an early understanding of the role of visual purple in photochemistry in combination with psychophysical studies of adaptation and color vision, we had in the sixties the rudiments of an understanding of how the retina might be organized and functioning. To go further, though, we were beginning to need detailed information of neural circuits that underlie these functions. It was the advent of electron microscopy, microelectrode recording techniques, and pharmacology that then allowed us an era of very rapid advancement. The purpose of this Electronic Tutorial is to summarize these recent advances and to describe our present understanding, based primarily on anatomic investigations, of the Neural Organization of the Mammalian Retina. As time goes on we have been inviting other authors to write chapters on their speciality concerning the retina or other visual pathways. A great addition has been a section on Psychophysics of Vision which we hope will be of general information to all interested in learning the basics of visual perception.

Nyong’o NA;, Mulimba AO;. A 15 – Year Retrospective Analysis Of Osteogenic Sarcoma In Kenya.; 1994. AbstractWebsite

Cases of osteogenic sarcoma were studied as reported in the Kenya Cancer Registry covering a period of 15 years between January 1976 and December 1990. There were 271 cases with 113 (41.5%) coming from the Kikuyu community. The male to female ratio was 1.3 to 1 and the median age was 17 years. The tribal bias suggests either a genetic aetiology or a common environmental factor.

Brief Guidelines for the Institutional Screening of Local Governments. http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/42720 ; 1994.
KIBISU MC. Faculty of Commerce Business Studies Book. Nairobi: E.A. Literature Bureau; 1994.
Namai HW, Odegi-Awuondo C. Human needs and environmental over-exploitation.; 1994.Website
M. B, Wamukowa N, Odegi-Awuondo C. Masters of Survival. Nairobi: Basic Books (K) LTD; 1994.
Namai HW, Odegi-Awuondo C. Mutomo: a market in the periphery.; 1994.Website
Mbuthia DEM, Timmamy DR, Amiri DS. Swahili Drama, -a study module for distance learning students . Nairobi: Departmment of Educational Studies,U.o N..; 1994.
Ikiara GK, Masai WS, Teitel S, Soifer R. Technology and skills in Kenyan manufacturing:RPED Case Study Series.; 1994.Website
Masai WS, Ikiara GK, Soifer R, Teitel S. Technology and skills in Kenyan manufacturing:RPED Case Study Series.; 1994.Website
Nzomo M, Adhiambo-Oduol J, Kabira WM. Democratic Change in Africa: Women's Perspective.; 1993.Website
Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Thomas DB. Development of a streamflow model for rural catchments in Kenya..; 1993. AbstractWebsite

A stream flow model was developed for use in rural catchments in Kenya. In the model the physical environment was divided into three zones: the unsaturated zone (consists of multiple hydrological response units defined by homogenous land use and soil type in which a daily soil moisture balance is maintained), shallow saturated and deep saturated zones which were modelled as regional aquifers. Rainfall and evapotranspiration were distributed according to altitude, and runoff was determined using the curve number method devised by the US Soil Conservation Service: a function of five-day antecedent precipitation. Evapotranspiration was varied according to the soil moisture content, and the weather generator allowed Monte Carol simulations over a long period. The data consisted of daily rainfall, mean daily evaporation for each month, land use/vegetation and soil type. The ARC-INFO GIS package was used to assemble the topographical, hydrological, land use/vegetation type and soil information in different layer. The model was tested on the Naro Moru catchment (172kn2) in Kenya, which has climatic conditions that vary from the glaciated peaks of Mount Kenya (5,200 m) to the semi-arid Laikipia plateau (1,800 m). The model was calibrated over a two-year period and validated over a different two-year period. A comparison of the observed and simulated stream flow showed that minimal calibration was required. The simulated stream flow compared well with the observed values for both the calibration and the validation periods (70-85% for the 10-day period) indicating that the model is appropriate for ungauged catchments.

Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Development of a streamflow model for rural catchments in Kenya..; 1993. AbstractWebsite

A stream flow model was developed for use in rural catchments in Kenya. In the model the physical environment was divided into three zones: the unsaturated zone (consists of multiple hydrological response units defined by homogenous land use and soil type in which a daily soil moisture balance is maintained), shallow saturated and deep saturated zones which were modelled as regional aquifers. Rainfall and evapotranspiration were distributed according to altitude, and runoff was determined using the curve number method devised by the US Soil Conservation Service: a function of five-day antecedent precipitation. Evapotranspiration was varied according to the soil moisture content, and the weather generator allowed Monte Carol simulations over a long period. The data consisted of daily rainfall, mean daily evaporation for each month, land use/vegetation and soil type. The ARC-INFO GIS package was used to assemble the topographical, hydrological, land use/vegetation type and soil information in different layer. The model was tested on the Naro Moru catchment (172kn2) in Kenya, which has climatic conditions that vary from the glaciated peaks of Mount Kenya (5,200 m) to the semi-arid Laikipia plateau (1,800 m). The model was calibrated over a two-year period and validated over a different two-year period. A comparison of the observed and simulated stream flow showed that minimal calibration was required. The simulated stream flow compared well with the observed values for both the calibration and the validation periods (70-85% for the 10-day period) indicating that the model is appropriate for ungauged catchments.

Denga FO;, Ongwenyi GS;, Kitheka JU;, Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Thomas DB. Erosion and sedimentation problems in the arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya..; 1993. AbstractWebsite

This paper examine past and present trends in the development of Kenyan water resources, and the status of Kenya's arid and semi-arid lands. It considers the parameters linked with soil erosion and sedimentation processes and suggests means of combating the problem.

Mungai DN;, Denga, F. O; Ongwenyi GS;, Gichuki FN;, Kitheka JU;, Kitheka JU;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Erosion and sedimentation problems in the arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya..; 1993. AbstractWebsite

This paper examine past and present trends in the development of Kenyan water resources, and the status of Kenya's arid and semi-arid lands. It considers the parameters linked with soil erosion and sedimentation processes and suggests means of combating the problem.

Omondi LN. Kenya: Introduction.; 1993.Website
Kabira WM, Masinjila M. Needs Assessment Rusinga Island.; 1993.Website
Sihanya B, Juma C. Policy options for scientific and technological capacity-building.; 1993. AbstractWebsite

The ability of policies on biodiversity prospecting to contribute over the long term to economic development, conservation and the equitable sharing of genetic resources is examined. Consideration is given to: national innovation policy and biodiversity, the linkage of biotechnology to biodiversity, biotechnology transfer, technology assessment, and blind alleys and windows of opportunity. The discussion underlines that biodiversity prospecting will not contribute much to developing countries unless it helps them accumulate technological capacity through training programmes and technology development through scientific innovation. In order that national biotechnology policies enhance biodiversity prospecting much attention needs to be paid to human resource development, technological innovation, legal and institutional reforms, biotechnology regulation and intellectual property management. The experiences of INBio (Costa Rica's National Biodiversity Institute), a pilot technology transfer project, are discussed

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