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Birech Z, Mwangi PW, Bukachi F, Mandela KM. "Application of Raman spectroscopy in type 2 diabetes screening in blood using leucine and isoleucine amino-acids as biomarkers and in comparative anti-diabetic drugs efficacy studies." PLoS ONE. 2017;12(9):e0185130. Abstractapplication_of_raman_spectroscopy_in_type_2_journal.pone_.0185130.pdf

Diabetes is an irreversible condition characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. Currently, there are no predictive biomarkers for this disease and the existing ones such as hemoglobin A1c and fasting blood glucose are used only when diabetes symptoms are noticed. The objective of this work was first to explore the potential of leucine and isoleucine amino acids as diabetes type 2 biomarkers using their Raman spectroscopic signatures. Secondly, we wanted to explore whether Raman spectroscopy can be applied in comparative efficacy studies between commercially available anti-diabetic drug pioglitazone and the locally used anti-diabetic herbal extract Momordica spinosa (Gilg.)Chiov. Sprague Dawley (SD) rat's blood was used and were pipetted onto Raman substrates prepared from conductive silver paste smeared glass slides. Prominent Raman bands associated with glucose (926, 1302, 1125 cm-1), leucine (1106, 1248, 1302, 1395 cm-1) and isolecucine (1108, 1248, 1437 and 1585 cm-1) were observed. The Raman bands centered at 1125 cm-1, 1395 cm-1 and 1437 cm-1 associated respectively to glucose, leucine and isoleucine were chosen as biomarker Raman peaks for diabetes type 2. These Raman bands displayed decreased intensities in blood from diabetic SD rats administered antidiabetic drugs pioglitazone and herbal extract Momordica spinosa (Gilg.)Chiov. The intensity decrease indicated reduced concentration levels of the respective biomarker molecules: glucose (1125 cm-1), leucine (1395 cm-1) and isoleucine (1437 cm-1) in blood. The results displayed the power and potential of Raman spectroscopy in rapid (10 seconds) diabetes and pre-diabetes screening in blood (human or rat's) with not only glucose acting as a biomarker but also leucine and isoleucine amino-acids where intensities of respectively assigned bands act as references. It also showed that using Raman spectroscopic signatures of the chosen biomarkers, the method can be an alternative for performing comparative efficacy studies between known and new anti-diabetic drugs. Reports on use of Raman spectroscopy in type 2 diabetes mellitus screening with Raman bands associated with leucine and isoleucine molecules acting as reference is rare in literature. The use of Raman spectroscopy in pre-diabetes screening of blood for changes in levels of leucine and isoleucine amino acids is particularly interesting as once elevated levels are noticed, necessary interventions to prevent diabetes development can be initiated.

Tamimi IFM, Patel NB. "Open field ethogram and olfactory preference in naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glabus). .". In: Society of Neuroscientists of Africa. Entebbe, Uganda; 2017.imaan_-_sona_poster__27_may_2017.pdf
Amimo JO, Otieno TF, Okoth E, Onono JO, Bett B. "Risk factors for rotavirus infection in pigs in Busia and Teso subcounties, Western Kenya." Trop Anim Health Prod. 2017;49(1):105-112 . Abstract

We analysed data that were previously collected for molecular characterisation of rotavirus (RV) groups A and C in pigs from Teso and Busia subcounties in Kenya to determine risk factors for its infection. The data included records from 239 randomly selected piglets aged between 1 and 6 months raised in free range and backyard production systems. RV infection was confirmed by screening of fresh faecal samples by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); selected positive samples were subsequently sequenced and used for phylogenetic analysis. In this analysis, RV infection status was used as outcome variable, while the metadata collected at the time of sampling were used as predictors. A Bayesian hierarchical model which used integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA) method was then fitted to the data. The model accounted for the spatial effect by using stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs). Of the 239 samples screened, 206 were available for the analysis. Descriptive analyses showed that 27.7 % (57/206) of the samples were positive for rotaviruses groups A and C, 18.5 % were positive for group A rotaviruses, 5.3 % were positive for group C rotaviruses, while 3.9 % had co-infections from both groups of rotaviruses. The spatial effect was insignificant, and a simple (non-spatial) model showed that piglets (≤4 months) and those pigs kept in free range systems had higher risk of exposure to rotavirus infection as compared to older pigs (>4 months) and those tethered or housed, respectively. Intervention measures that will target these high-risk groups of pigs will be beneficial to farmers.

Mitema A, Rafudeen S, Okoth S, Iyer R. "Heterokaryon incompatibility and phenotypic characterisation of Aspergillus flavus isolates in low and high risk zones in Kenya.". In: The 14th International Aspergillus Meeting Asperfest 14. Asilomar Conference Center, PG, CA, USA; 2017.
Steven Awino, Afullo A. "Analytic BER of OFDM Powerline Communication at different IAT of Impulsive Noise.". In: SAUPEC. StellenBosch, South Africa; 2017.
Odhiambo JA, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF. "Corms as an additional feature to identify Gladiolus spp.". In: XXI AETFAT congress.; 2017. Abstractuse_of_corms_as__additional_features_to_identify.ppt

Gladiolus is a genus that consists of underground corms and strikingly showy flowers. The corms are mostly rounded and symmetrical enveloped with fibrous tunics. Presently the main and sure way to identify these plants is by their use of showy flowers; however, this becomes a challenge in during the dry seasons when the plants don’t flower. This study investigated the use of corms as additional feature for identification of Gladiolus species found in Kenya; Gladiolus watsonoides, G. goetzenii, G. ukambanensis and G. newii. Physical and histological features of the corms were evaluated according to Rolls, 2011, to investigate any differences across the different species. Although the analysis of the cells of corms did not reveal any obvious differences, their outward morphologies including the colour, shape and texture of the tunics were different across the species investigated. Therefore, corms form an additional feature of taxonomic value for identification and collection of these plants in the absence of flowers.
Key words: Gladiolus, Corms, Identification

Musila FM, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF, Nguta JM. "Molecular Phylogeny of ten Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade.". In: XXI AETFAT congress. Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya; 2017. Abstractaetfat_2017-fredrick_m.ppt

Plectranthus is one important genus of flowering plants whose member species have a variety of uses in the horticultural and in the medical field. Plectranthus species are difficult to distinguish morphologically and many species have been given different names by different authors. Use of morphological characters is not sufficiently enough to delimit the genus successfully. Molecular, anatomical and biochemical markers are better in studying interspecific variation compared to gross morphological markers. So far no study on molecular phylogeny of the Kenyan Plectranthus species has been conducted. By comparing the same gene sequence across species within a genus, a phylogenetic tree can be constructed which can support or give new insights into the existing classification and rule out the confusion brought by synonymy. As a result, the current study used molecular characters to classify ten Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade within the Plectranthus genus. The molecular characters used in the study were DNA sequences of two chloroplast genes: MatK and Rbcl genes considered as universal molecular markers. Genomic DNA from the ten species was obtained followed by amplification and sequencing of the two genes in each species. From the results, a phylogenetic tree reconstructed using MatK genes groups P. caninus, P. otostegioides, P. barbatus and P. lanuginosus together and all the four species form a monophyletic group. These four species together with P.aegyptiacus form a larger monophyletic group. The same pattern can be observed in the phylogenetic tree created using the Rbcl genes. Again based on the MatK genes; P. pseudomarruboides, P. ornatus, P. montanous and P. amboinicus have been showed to be closely related and are monophyletic. Again these four species together with P.edulis form a larger monophyletc group. This close relationship of these species can also be observed in phylogenetic tree produced using the Rbcl genes. The present study has grouped the ten study Plectranthus species using molecular characters into phylogenies which are supported by previous studies and proved that molecular characters can aid in plant identification and phylogenetic studies.
Key words; Plectranthus, Molecular phylogeny, MatK gene, Rbcl gene.

Olali T. "" A Critical Exposition of Jihad Trope as a Religious Philosophy in the Epic of Rasi'l Ghuli (1850-1855).". In: African Literature Association. Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut; 2017.
Birkin F, Ramos M, Makunda C, Margerison J, Polesie T, Balanzo A. "Revising the ontological status of traditional modes of living: The concepts and their practical consequences in sustainability issues in China, Kenya, Colombia and Sweden.". In: The 23rd International Sustainable Development Research Society (ISDRS) Conference. Bogota, Colombia; 2017.
Kilekwang L, Patel NB. "Catha edulis Forsk (khat) induces conditioned place preference in mice.". In: Society of Neuroscientists of Africa.; 2017.cpp_poster.pdf
WAITA SEBASTIAN, Aduda B. "Structural and Optical Characterization of Polymer based TiO2 films for Photovoltaic Applications.". In: Solar World Congress, 2017. Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Kenya and the August 2017 elections: A review of Key Drivers.". In: Commonwealth Foundation International Observers . Kenya; 2017.
Ndohvu JB. " African Values and Children's Rights Instruments.". In: In Jackson Wafula Muyila (Ed),African Values and the Rights of the Child: Challenges and Prospects. Saarbrucken: Editions Universitaires Europeennes; 2017.
M KP. " Influence of Legal Framework in Enhancing Democratic Governance Process in Kenya." Journal of Public Policy & Governance . 2017;1(2):43-57.
Odada E, Zalasiewicz J, Williams M, Waters CN, Barnosky AD, et al. " Scale and diversity of the physical technosphere: A geological perspective." The Anthropocene Review. 2017;4(1):9-22. AbstractFull Text

We assess the scale and extent of the physical technosphere, defined here as the summed material output of the contemporary human enterprise. It includes active urban, agricultural and marine components, used to sustain energy and material flow for current human life, and a growing residue layer, currently only in small part recycled back into the active component. Preliminary estimates suggest a technosphere mass of approximately 30 trillion tonnes (Tt), which helps support a human biomass that, despite recent growth, is ~5 orders of magnitude smaller. The physical technosphere includes a large, rapidly growing diversity of complex objects that are potential trace fossils or ‘technofossils’. If assessed on palaeontological criteria, technofossil diversity already exceeds known estimates of biological diversity as measured by richness, far exceeds recognized fossil diversity, and may exceed total biological diversity through Earth’s history. The rapid transformation of much of Earth’s surface mass into the technosphere and its myriad components underscores the novelty of the current planetary transformation.

Cherotich, M.G., Kalai, J.M., Kebenei PJ, Rose A. "). Prospects of Deputy Principals’ professional preparation on administrative tasks in boarding public secondary schools inBomet County, Kenya." The Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of educational and Social Science Research. 2017;5(2):109-117.
Jimmy ML, Nzuve F, Flourence O, Manyasa E, Muthomi J. ". Genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance and trait correlations in selected sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) varieties." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2017;11(5):47-56.
Ngowi BV, Tonnang HEZ, Khamis F, Mwangi EM, Nyambo B, Ndegwa PN, Subramanian S. "14.5 Population dynamics of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and Its Parasitoids Along Altitudinal Gradients of the Eastern Afromontane." Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods. 2017:231.
Mburu MM, Collins K Mweresa, Philemon Omusula, Alexandra Hiscox, Takken W, Wolfgang R Mukabana. "2-Butanone as a carbon dioxide mimic in attractant blends for the Afrotropical malaria mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus." Malaria journal. 2017;16(1):351.
Ambale 1. CA, Sinei KA, Amugune BK, Oluka MN. "Accessibility of medicines used in the management of substance use disorders in selected hospitals in Nairobi." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(2):102-108.
A. S. Azi, Riechi A. R., Khatete I. W. "Adequacy Assessment of Government’s Budgetary Allocations for the Provision of Lecture Halls in Nigeria’s Federal Universities." International Journal of Social Sciences and Information Technology. 2017;II(XI):1455-1467.abstract_5.doc
Wanjala, G., Akumu Maurice O. "Adminstrative Strategies Towards Disaster Awareness and Preparedness in Secondary Schools in Homa-Bay County, Kenya." International Journal of Development Research . 2017;7(10):16420-16423 .abstract3.pdf
Sherrif SS, Madadi V. "Adsorption of Lambda Cyhalothrin onto Athi River Sediments: Apparent Thermodynamic Properties." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;3(3):568-574.
Muinde VM, Onyari JM, Wamalwa B, Wabomba J, Nthumbi RM. "Adsorption of Malachite Green from Aqueous Solutions onto Rice Husks: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies." Journal of Environmental Protection. 2017;8(03):215. AbstractWebsite

A study was done to evaluate the removal of a cationic dye from simulated waste water onto rice husks (RH). Spectroscopic methods such as FTIR and SEM/EDX were used for adsorbent characterization. Experimental dependency on solution pH, initial dye concentration, agitation speed, adsorbentparticle size, temperature of the solution and contact time was evaluated. The adsorption data was tested using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The data fitted well into Langmuir isotherm model with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 6.5 mg/g. Further, the separation factor (RL) value was less than unity indicating a favorable adsorption process. Adsorption kinetics was determined using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion models. The results showed that the adsorption of malachite green onto rice husks followed pseudo-second-order model with a determination coefficient of 0.986. This work has revealed that rice husks have a great potential to sequester cationic dyes from aqueous solutions and therefore it can be utilized to clean contaminated effluents.

Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Hausler T, Luy B, Kuballa T, Rehm J, Lachenmeier DW. "Aflatoxin contamination in unrecorded beers from Kenya – A health risk beyond ethanol." Food Control. 2017;79:344-348. Abstract

Samples of unrecorded opaque beers (n=58; 40 based on maize, 5 on sorghum and 13 on other plants) and recorded wines (n=8) in Kenya were screened for aflatoxins using a rapid ELISA technique followed by confirmation using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Six of the maize beers were obtained from Kibera slums in Nairobi County. Aflatoxin contamination was detected in six unrecorded beers (10%), but in none of the recorded wines. Remarkably, three of the aflatoxin positive samples were from the Kibera slums.
The concentration of aflatoxins in the positive samples had a mean of 3.5 µg/L (range 1.8–6.8 µg/L), corresponding for an average consumption of 500 mL (1 standard drink) to a margin of exposure (MOE) of 36 (range: 15–58), which is considered as risk. On the other hand, the alcoholic strength of the aflatoxin positive samples had a mean of 4.3% vol (range 3.5-4.8%) corresponding to a MOE of 2.5 (range of 2.2-3.0) for the equivalent consumption volume. While aflatoxins pose a risk to the consumer, this risk is about 10 times lower than the risk of ethanol.
The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives sets no acceptable daily intake for aflatoxins since they are genotoxic carcinogens and instead recommends for the reduction of aflatoxin dietary exposure as an important public health goal, particularly in populations who consume high levels of any potentially aflatoxins contaminated food. Nevertheless, ethanol still posed a considerably higher risk in the unrecorded beers examined. However, consumers should be informed about aflatoxins, as these are an involuntary and unknown risk to them. In addition, producers should be educated about measures to reduce aflatoxins.

Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Hausler T, Luy B, Kuballa T, Rehm J, Lachenmeier DW. "Aflatoxin contamination in unrecorded beers from Kenya – A health risk beyond ethanol." Food Control. 2017;79(9):344-348.Website
Udomkun P, Wiredu AN, Mutegi C, Atehnkeng J, Nagle M, Nielsen F, Müller J, Vanlauwe B, Bandyopadhyay R. "Aflatoxin distribution in crop products from Burundi and Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.". 2017:1.
Genga EK, Oyoo O, Espinoza LR, Adebajo A. "Africa Journal of Rheumatology: enhancing the visibility of rheumatology in Africa.". 2017. Abstractajr_enhancing_the_visibility_of_rheumatology_in_africa_2017-clinical_rheumatology.pdf

Africa Journal of Rheumatology: enhancing the visibility
of rheumatology in Africa
Eugene K. Genga1,2 & Omondi Oyoo1,2 & Luis R. Espinoza3 & Adewale Adebajo4
Received: 5 July 2017 /Accepted: 10 July 2017
# International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) 2017
Clinical Rheumatology welcomes the African Journal of
Rheumatology as an important development for the furtherance
of rheumatological scholarship and education on the
African continent and for rheumatology research in
Africans. It is hoped that this development will in turn raise
the profile of rheumatological conditions in Africa and among
Africans. In particular, it is hoped that this will lead to the
much needed collection of African musculoskeletal epidemiological
and health services data, assist in the training of
African rheumatologists, help to open up African rheumatology
to the global rheumatology community, and ultimately
improve the quality of care for myriads of Africans with rheumatic
The current population of Africa is 1,241,858,354
which is equivalent to 16.36% of the total world population
based on the latest United Nations estimates [1].
There are many challenges facing Africa including limited
financial resources, misuse of finances, malnutrition, poor
water, and sanitation among others. Despite these many
challenges faced in Africa, in recent times, the continent
has undergone rapid economic growth and development.
The available healthcare resources are overburdened by
the high burden of communicable diseases and the rising
prevalence of non-communicable diseases. Rheumatic
diseases are therefore not considered a high priority by
the various African governments. Part of the reason for
this is due to the limited epidemiological data on rheumatic
diseases and their burden in Africa. Scientific
journals play a central role in the dissemination of research
results which will ultimately impact on policy
change. Horton et al. [2] noted that researchers and policy
makers in developing countries believe that the main way
to solve problems of developing countries is by using
information from Western research rather than using local
data to solve regional problems. He, however, noted that
in Africa “there is already a well-developed local information
culture that needs support, not swamping,” noting,
moreover, the lack of African journals in MEDLINE [2].
Researchers in Africa and the developing world require
access not only as readers but also as authors: for them
to feel part of the global science community, they need
not only to obtain information but also to be able to contribute
to it and take part in the global discourse. The
continent’s resources are prioritized towards infectious
diseases like HIV and malaria over the now increasing
non-communicable diseases. Data on rheumatic diseases
in Africa has been limited partly due to lack of infrastructure
thus under diagnosis but also due to low scholarly
output. Thus, the Africa Journal of Rheumatology was
born. Since its inception 5 years ago, it has provided an
uninterrupted forum through which medical practitioners
and scientists from Africa and beyond can publish their
rheumatology research. It has become a rich source of
information about rheumatic disorders in the continent
and a timely addition to our worldwide rheumatology
community [3]. The journal has published various research
articles on diseases once thought to be rare in Africa. They
* Adewale Adebajo
1 Department of Clinical Medicine and Therapeutics, College of
Health Sciences, University of Nairobi/Kenyatta National Hospital,
Nairobi, Kenya
2 Nairobi Arthritis Clinic, Nairobi, Kenya
3 Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA,
4 Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health, University of Sheffield,
Sheffield, UK
Clin Rheumatol
DOI 10.1007/s10067-017-3761-z
range from rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, gout, myositis to rheumatology
in HIV. Research articles published in the journal
shows rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, systemic
lupus erythematosus, and antiphospholipid syndrome to
be increasing in frequency in the indigenous populations of
East, West, Central, and Southern Africa [4–7]. The HIV pandemic
has changed the epidemiological spectrum of diseases
in Africa. It has led to an increase in a variety of previously
rarely seen conditions like spondyloarthropathies, fibromyalgia,
pyomyositis, and scleroderma. Various scholars have
shared their experiences in the journal [8–12]. The journal
has also provided a forum through which scholars have been
able to share their experiences in management of the rheumatic
diseases with biologic therapy. The results have been similar
to data from around the world [13, 14]. Case reports of rare
diseases and review articles have not been left out and have
enriched the content of the journal bringing diversity in the
articles published.
The visibility of the journal is hampered by the low scholarly
output. This is in part due to severe limitations in the
overall economic development and especially in research infrastructure.
Researchers have limited access to funding for
research as most African countries have no national agencies
that are responsible for research. This is compounded by limitations
in scientific writing, designing, and conducting research
and in reporting the results. Partnership with international
journals like the African Journal Partnership Project is
welcome to bridge that gap by training African health researchers
to improve the quality and visibility of their research
and make the Africa journal of rheumatology a better resource
for local researchers and policy makers [15].
This journal has become a site for exchange of knowledge
of local rheumatic diseases, research, and debate and providing
a forum through which international research can be made
applicable to the African set-up. The Africa Journal of
Rheumatology encourages international agencies, which conduct
research in the region to support the journal through
submission of research and subscription to the publication. It
is our hope that this journal will provide a big step to bridge
the big gaps in rheumatology in Africa.
Compliance with ethical standards
Disclosures None.
1. Worldometers (2017) (
2. Horton R (2000a) Development aid: manna or myth? Lancet 356:
3. Espinoza LR (2014) Welcoming an African asset: African Journal
of Rheumatology. Afr J Rheumatol 2(2):47–48
4. Otieno FO, Moots RJ, Oyoo GO (2017) Rheumatoid arthritis in
Kenya. Afr J Rheumatol 5(1):1–2
5. Akintayo RO, Aworinde OO, Olawumi HO, Yusuf IA (2016)
Antiphospholipid syndrome in Africa: a review. Afr J Rheumatol
6. Genga EK, Otieno FO, Oyoo GO (2015) Clinical profiles of patients
SLE in Nairobi. Afr J Rheumatol 3(2):62–66
7. Adelowo F (2013) Systemic lupus erythematosus: not a rare disease
among black Africans. Afr J Rheumatol 1(2):46–47
8. Oyoo GO, Genga EK, Otieno FO, Omondi EA (2016) Clinical
patterns of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a single tertiary centre experience
in Kenya Nairobi. Afr J Rheumatol 4(2):66–71
9. Venkat R, Jawad ASM, Chikanza IC (2014) Spontaneous resolution
of a case of anti-retroviral treatment-naïve HIV-associated
polymyositis. Afr J Rheumatol 2(2):78–84
10. Ilovi S, Oyoo G (2013) Characteristics of systemic sclerosis patients
in Nairobi, Kenya: a retrospective study. Afr J Rheumatol 1(1):8–12
11. Malombe NM, Oyoo GO, Maritim MC, Kwasa J (2013) Prevalence
of fibromyalgia in ambulatory HIV positive patients with musculoskeletal
pain at Comprehensive Care Clinic, Kenyatta National
Hospital. Afr J Rheumatol 1(2):70–75
12. Ouédraogo DD, Ouédraogo T, Kaboré F et al (2013) Prevalence of
HIV infection among the patients with an avascular necrosis of the
femoral head in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso Ouédraogo. Afr J
Rheumatol 1(2):57–60
13. Oyoo GO, Otieno FO, Mbuthia B, Omondi EA, Genga EK (2015)
Experience with rituximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in
Nairobi, Kenya. Afr J Rheumatol 3(1):17–21
14. Elhabbash B, Tarsin R (2017) Certolizumab effect in a cohort of 60
Libyan patients with rheumatic diseases. Afr J Rheumatol 5(1):19–
15. Muula AS (2008) Medical journals and authorship in low-income
countries. Croat Med J 49:681–683

Gor SO. "The African Regional Integration Index: a Selective Audit." Trade and Development Review. 2017;9(1-2):86-98.
Wachege PN, Cherono F. "African Socio-religio Cultural Understanding of Family and Parenting: A Case of the Agikuyu, Kenya." The International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies. 2017;5(3):23-28.wachege_cherono_article2.pdf
Nyamai C, Daniel Ichang'i, Wamunyu AW, Feneyrol J, Giuliani G, et al. "Age and origin of the tsavorite and tanzanite mineralizing fluids in the Neoproterozoic Mozambique Metamorphic Belt." The Canadian Mineralogist. 2017;55(4):763-786. AbstractFull Text

The genetic model previously proposed for tsavorite- (and tanzanite-) bearing mineralization hosted in the Neoproterozoic Metamorphic Mozambique Belt (stretching from Kenya through Tanzania to Madagascar) is refined on the basis of new Sm-Nd age determinations and detailed Sr-O-S isotope and fluid-inclusion studies. The deposits are hosted within meta-sedimentary series composed of quartzites, graphitic gneisses, calc-silicate rocks intercalated with meta-evaporites, and marbles. Tsavorite occurs either in nodules (also called “boudins”) oriented parallel to the metamorphic foliation in all of the deposits in the metamorphic belt or in quartz veins and lenses located at the hinges of anticlinal folds (Lelatema fold belt and Ruangwa deposits, Tanzania). Gem tanzanite occurs in pockets and lenses in the Lelatema fold belt of northern Tanzania.

The Sm-Nd isotopic data for tsavorites and tanzanites hosted in quartz veins and lenses from Merelani demonstrate that they formed at 600 Ma, during the retrograde metamorphic episode associated with the East African Orogeny. The tsavorites hosted in nodules do not provide reliable ages: their sedimentary protoliths had heterogeneous compositions and their Sm-Nd system was not completely rehomogenized, even at the local scale, by the fluid-absent metamorphic recrystallization.

The initial 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios of calcite from marble and tanzanites from Merelani fit with the strontium isotopic composition of Neoproterozoic marine carbonates. Seawater sediment deposition in the Mozambique Ocean took place around 720 Ma.

The quartz-zoisite O-isotopic thermometer indicates a temperature of formation for zoisite between 385 and 448 °C.

The sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite (between –7.8 and –1.3‰ V-CDT) associated with tsavorite in the Lelatema fold belt deposits suggests the contribution of reduced marine sulfate. The sulfur in pyrite in the marbles was likely derived from bacterial sulfate reduction which produced H2S. Fluid inclusion data from tsavorite and tanzanite samples from the Merelani mine indicate the presence of a dominant H2S-S8±(CH4)±(N2)±(H2O)-bearing fluid. In the deposits in Kenya and Madagascar, the replacement of sulfate by tsavorite in the nodules and the boron isotopic composition of tourmaline associated with tsavorite are strong arguments in favor of the participation of evaporites in garnet formation.

Chimoita EL, Onyango CM, Kimenju JW, ph -Onyango JGP. "Agricultural Agents influence on the Uptake of Improved Sorghum Technologies." Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;5(4):219-225.
Chimoita EL, Onyango CM, John W. Kimenju, Gweyi-Onyango JP. "Agricultural Extension Approaches Influencing Uptake of Improved Sorghum Technologies in Embu County, Kenya." Universal Journal of Agricultural Research . 2017;5(1):45-51.
Kibera AN, Kuria MW, Kokonya DA. "Alcohol Use Disorders among HIV and AIDS Patients at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Comprehensive Care Centre, Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Research and Health Sciences. 2017;2(7):21-30.
Inyega HN, Inyega JO. All teachers teaching reading all children reading: a pedagogical shift in teacher education in Kenya. Nairobi: Jo-Vansallen Publishing Company ; 2017.
Mureithi AW, Onyari JM, Wanyonyi WC, Mulaa FJ. "Amino acid Composition of Gelatin Extracted from the Scales of Different Marine Fish Species in Kenya.". 2017. AbstractFull text link

Gelatin in this study was extracted by an enzymatic process from the scales of three marine fish species; Lutjanus
sebea (Red snapper), Lethrinus harak (Black spot emperor) and Scalus ghobban (Blue barred parrot fish).
Concentration of bacteria for mass production of enzyme was done in a fermentation medium using a bio reactor.
Scales were hydrolyzed at 500C and the pH maintained at 12. Complete hydrolysis took between 20 and 23 days for
all species. The yield for the dried gelatin was between 28.2% and 41.4% for the marine fish scales under study.
Fourier transform infrared spectra showed the presence of amide bands and two other additional absorption bands,
indicating the presence of amide bonds for all the three species. The amino acid composition analysis for the gelatin
of three species was then done showing the presence of 16 amino acids. Glycine was the most abundant for all the
three species with about 35% followed by Alanine both adding up to around 50% of the total amino acid
compositions. The amount of Proline was high for red snapper at over 14.2% compared to 11.1% and 11.6% for
blue barred parrot fish and black spot emperor respectively.

Madadi VO, Wandiga SO, Ndunda EN, Mavuti KM. "Analysis of Organochlorine Pesticides in Lake Naivasha Catchment." IJSRSET. 2017;3(5):139-149.
NDIRANGU MAINADAVID, CHIRA ROBERTMUTUGI, Wang’ondu V, Kairo JG. "Analysis of wave energy reduction and sediment stabilization by mangroves in Gazi Bay, Kenya." Bonorowo Wetlands. 2017;7(2):83-94.
NDIRANGU MAINADAVID, CHIRA ROBERTMUTUGI, Wang’ondu V, Kairo JG. "Analysis of wave energy reduction and sediment stabilization by mangroves in Gazi Bay, Kenya." Bonorowo Wetlands. 2017;7(2):83-94.
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Analytical Issues in Standard Kiswahili Phonology." Reyono Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 2017;6(1):52-68.20180523_172417.jpg20180523_172417.jpg
Makokha E, WAKASIAKA S, Inyama H, Oyieke J. "Antenatal care and birth outcomes relatedto HIV status among pregnant women at Pumwani Maternity Hospital. ." Kenya Journal of Nursing & Midwifery . 2017;2(2).
Odwory M, Oyieke JBO, Machoki JM, Osoti A. "Antental care visits and pregnancy outcomes at a Kenyan rural District Hospita.". 2017.
Musi, C, MIRIKAU, N, D. "Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade." Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2017;11(8):1003-1014 . Abstractantibacterial_antifungal_plectranthus_2017.pdfWebsite

Background Information: Plectranthus L’Hér. is an economically important genus with horticultural, medicinal and food uses. Most Plectranthus species are used in traditional medicine and have attracted the interest of researchers who have studied them in attempt to explore the bioactivities of their phytoconstituents.
Materials and Methods: The current study investigated the antimicrobial activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species through disc diffusion and broth dilution method.
Results:Results indicated that, dichloromethane/methanol (1:1) total leaf extracts from Plectranthus barbatus displayed the highest antimicrobial activity compared to the other nine Plectranthus species with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 25, 40, 100, 50, and 100 mg/ml against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger, respectively. At a concentration of 200 mg/ml, the antibacterial activity of total leaf extracts of P. barbatus (MIC value = 25 mg/ml) and Plectranthus lanuginosus (MIC value = 40 mg/ml) againstMRSA was not significantly different from positive control drug; amoxicillin. Similarity, at a concentration of 200 mg/ml,total leaf extracts from Plectranthus ornatus (MIC value= 50 mg/ml) and P. barbatus (MIC value = 50 mg/ml) exhibited antifungal activity against C. albicans which was not significantly different from that of the positive control; ketoconazole.
Conclusion: The study reports for the first time, the antimicrobial activity of Plectranthus pseudomarrubioides, Plectranthus edulis, Plectranthus aegyptiacus, Plectranthus Otostegioides, and Plectranthus lanuginosus. The study has demonstrated broad bacteriostatic activity of P. barbatus and thus recommends further studies on this plant aimed at discovery of novel antimicrobial agents.
KEY WORDS: Antimicrobial activity, Bioguidance, Minimum inhibitory concentration, Plectranthus

Musila FM, Nguta JM, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF. "Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade." Journal of Pharmacy Research| Vol. 2017;11(8):1003.
Musila, F.M., Nguta, CM, Lukhoba CW, S.F. D. "Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade." Journal of Pharmacy Research . 2017;11(8):1003-1014.
and Gakuubi MWAWJM 4. "Antifungal activity of essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. against selected Fusarium spp.". 2017. Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oil (EO) of
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. against five Fusarium spp. commonly associated with
maize. The essential oil had been extracted by steam distillation in a modified Clevenger-
type apparatus from leaves of E. camaldulensis and their chemical composition
characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Poisoned food technique was
used to determine the percentage inhibition of mycelial growth, minimum inhibitory …

Kawaljit S, Okombo J, Brunschwig C, Ndubi F, Barnard L, Wilkson C, Njogu PM, Njoroge M, et al. "Antimalarial pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazoles: Lead optimization, parasite life cycle stage profile, mechanistic evaluation, killing kinetics and in vivo oral efficacy in a mouse model." J. Med. Chem. 2017;60(4):1432-1448.
Mubiu JK, Ndwigah SN, Abuga KO, Ongarora DSB. "Antimicrobial activity of extracts and phytosterols from the root bark of Lonchocarpus eriocalyx." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. . 2017;20:13-16. Abstract

The root bark of Lonchocarpus eriocalyx was dried, powdered and extracted using chloroform, methanol and hot water. The extracts exhibited antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and antifungal activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The decoction (100mg/ml) was more active than the chloroform and methanol extracts against the four microorganisms. Chromatographic fractionation of the chloroform extract using normal phase silica yielded the phytosterols lupeol and lupenone. At 100 mg/ml, the compounds were active against all the four microorganisms, with lupeol being more active than lupenone. This is the first report of the isolation of lupenone from Lonchocarpus eriocalyx.

Waithaka PN, Mwaura FB, Wagacha JM, Gathuru EM, Githaiga BM. "Antimicrobial Properties of Actinomycetes Isolated from Menengai Crater in Kenya." CellBio. 2017;06(2):13.
Kama-Kama F, Omosa LK, Nganga J, Maina N, Osanjo G, Yaouba S, Ilias M, Midiwo J, Naessens J. "Antimycoplasmal Activities of Compounds from Solanum aculeastrum and Piliostigma thonningii against Strains from the Mycoplasma mycoides Cluster." Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2017;9:920.
Derese S. "Antiplasmodial prenylated flavanonols from Tephrosia subtriflora." Natural Product Research. 2017;2017:1-8. AbstractWebsite

The CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosia subtriflora afforded a new flavanonol, named subtriflavanonol (1), along with the known flavanone spinoflavanone B, and the known flavanonols MS-II (2) and mundulinol. The structures were elucidated by the use of NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of the flavanonols was determined based on quantum chemical ECD calculations. In the antiplasmodial assay, compound 2 showed the highest activity against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum reference clones (D6 and 3D7), artemisinin-sensitive isolate (F32-TEM) as well as field isolate (KSM 009) with IC50 values 1.4–4.6 μM without significant cytotoxicity against Vero and HEp2 cell lines (IC50 > 100 μM). The new compound (1) showed weak antiplasmodial activity, IC50 12.5–24.2 μM, but also showed selective anticancer activity against HEp2 cell line (CC50 16.9 μM).

Muthaura CN, Keriko JM, Mutai C, Yenesew A, Heydenreich M, Atilaw Y, Gathirwa JW, Irungu BN, Derese S. "Antiplasmodial, Cytotoxicity and Phytochemical Constituents of Four Maytenus Species Used in Traditional Medicine in Kenya." The Natural Products Journal. 2017;7(2):144-152.
Okombo J, Singh K, Ndubi F, Barnard L, Wilkson C, Peter M. Njogu, Mireille V, Keiser Jennifer, Egan T, Chibale K. "Antischistosomal activity of pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivatives and correlation with inhibition of β-hematin formation." ACS Infect. Dis.. 2017;3:411-420.
Mugambi MM. "Approaches to Inclusive Education and Implications for Curriculum Theory and Practice." International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE). 2017;Volume 4(Issue 10):92-106.inclusive_education_pdf.pdf
Okoth S, Lindy J Rose, Abigael Ouko, Nakisani EI Netshifhefhe, Henry Sila, Viljoen A. "Assessing genotype-by-environment interactions in aspergillus ear rot and pre-harvest aflatoxin accumulation in maize inbred lines." Agronomy. 2017;7(4):86.
Njeru CM, Ekesi S, Mohamed SA, Kinyamario JI, Kiboi S, Maeda EE. "Assessing stock and thresholds detection of soil organic carbon and nitrogen along an altitude gradient in an east Africa mountain ecosystem." Geoderma Regional. 2017;10:29-38.
Bobadoye A, Ogara W, Ouma G, Onono J. "Assessing Vulnerability of Maasai Pastoralist in Kenya to Climate Change and Variability." Preprints. 2017. Abstractassessing_vulnerability_of_maasai_pastoralist_in_kenya_to_climate_change_and_variability.pdfPreprints

Human adaptive responses to climate change occur at the local level, where climatic variability is experienced. Therefore analyzing vulnerability at the local level is important in planning effective adaptation options in a semi-arid environment. This study was conducted to assess vulnerability of Maasai pastoralist communities in Kajiado County, Kenya to climate change by generating vulnerability index for the communities. Data was collected
using questionnaires that were administered to 305 households in the five different administrative wards (Oloosirkon/Sholinke, Kitengela, Kapetui North, Kenyawa-Poka and Ilmaroro) in Kajiado East. Vulnerability was measured as the net effect of adaptive capacity, sensitivity and exposure to climate change. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to assign weights to the vulnerability indicators used for the study and also to calculate the household vulnerability index. A vulnerability map was produced using the GIS software package ArcGIS 10.2. Results showed that gender of household head, age of household head, educational level, access to extension agents, herd size, livestock diversity and access to credit facility influenced vulnerability of the Maasai pastoralists  to  climate  change  in  Kajiado  East.  The  result  showed  that  the  most  vulnerable communities with the highest negative vulnerability index value are Ilpolosat (‐2.31), Oloosirikon (‐2.22), Lenihani (‐2.05), Konza (‐1.81) and Oloshaiki (‐1.53). The communities with the highest positive vulnerability index values were Kekayaya (4.02), Kepiro (3.47), Omoyi (2.81), Esilanke (2.23), Kisaju (2.16) and Olmerui (2.15). We conclude that provision of basic amenities such as good roads and electricity; access to extension agents, access to credit facilities and herd mobility will reduce vulnerability of Maasai pastoralists in Kajiado east to climate change and variability.

J KC, O OFD, DA A. "Assessment of Domestic Water Quality of Dams in Chepalungu Sub-county, Bomet County, Kenya." The International Journal of Science & Technology. 2017;5(6):144-130.
Gichamba A, Wagacha PW, Ochieng DO. "An Assessment of e-Extension Platforms in Kenya.". 2017. Abstract

The use of ICT in agriculture within developing countries has quickly gained
popularity among development agencies, the private sector and even the government. ICT
for agriculture (ICT4Ag) services such as trade platforms, notification platforms and
advisory/extension services have been developed. This has been catalyzed by the growing
number of farmers with access to ICT devices such as mobile phones. Among the available
services, advisory/extension platforms have gained popularity among farmers an

Gichamba A, Wagacha PW, Ochieng DO. "An Assessment of e-Extension Platforms in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Studies in Sciences and Engineering Technology . 2017;3(7):36-40. Abstractfull text link

The use of ICT in agriculture within
developing countries has quickly gained popularity
among development agencies, the private sector and
even the government. ICT for agriculture (ICT4Ag)
services such as trade platforms, notification platforms
and advisory/extension services have been developed.
This has been catalyzed by the growing number of
farmers with access to ICT devices such as mobile
phones. Among the available services, advisory/extension
platforms have gained popularity among farmers and
agriculture stakeholders in the developing world. These
platforms have proven to be of importance to farmers
who are curious about new farming methodologies,
strategies to improve their yields, breeding techniques,
among other factors. The ICT platforms employed
include SMS, mobile applications, Interactive Voice
Response systems, social media platform such as
Facebook and Twitter, chat applications such as
Whatsapp, blogs, radio programs and tv programs. The
aim of this research was to assess the e-Extension
platforms used in Kenya, whose purpose is to advise
millions of farmers across different parts of the country
using ICT platforms. 28 government e-Extension officers
employed to advise farmers using ICT platforms were
interviewed. The officers represented 15 different
counties in Kenya. The study made important findings
that would inform the government, agriculture extension
content providers, and other stakeholders on critical
aspects to be considered in deploying and managing eextension
platforms among a population of diverse users
within a developing country.

and Njue LG., Ombui JN. KLWGJK. "Assessment of effectiveness of garlic extract from Laikipia County on shelf life of meat." Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development. 2017;5(5):632-641.
Maina AW, Wagacha JM, Wagacha JM, Mwaura FB, Muthomi JW, Woloshuk CP. "Assessment of Farmers Maize Production Practices and Effect of Triple-Layer Hermetic Storage on the Population of Fusarium Spp. and Fumonisin Contamination." World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;5(1):21-30.
Ondiere VB, Vincent MO, Ochieng AA, Oduor FDO. "Assessment of Heavy Metals Contamination in Lake Elementaita Drainage Basin, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;3(5):283-289.
EK Mmboneiza, Chege MN, Omuga BO. "Assessment of Parents’ Perception of Quality of Pediatric Oncology Inpatient Care at Kenyatta National Hospital." Asia Pac J Oncol Nurs. 2017;2017 Jan-Mar; (4(1):): 29-37. Abstractassessment_of_parents_perception_of_quality_of_pediatric_oncology_inpatient_care_at_kenyatta_national_hospital.pdf

Assessment of Parents’ Perception of Quality of Pediatric Oncology Inpatient Care at Kenyatta National Hospital

Eunice Mmbone Keiza, MSN, Margaret Njambi Chege, and Blasio Osogo Omuga

Asia Pac J Oncol Nurs. 2017 Jan-Mar; 4(1): 29–37.
doi: 10.4103/2347-5625.199071

Adequate knowledge of parents’ perception of quality of pediatric cancer care helps to identify the areas of care improvement which would contribute to disease outcome in regard to the quality of life and satisfaction with the care provided. The aim of the study was to assess the parents’ perception of the quality of Pediatric Oncology Inpatient Care at Kenyatta National Hospital.
A cross-sectional descriptive quantitative and qualitative study was undertaken using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire and a focused group discussion guide. Assessment of parents’ perception of quality of care was done in relation to the institution's structures and care delivery processes. These included the ward environment, resources for cancer treatment, care processes, service providers, and parents’ knowledge empowerment. Participants were systematically selected. Parents’ perception was defined as satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the care provided. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.) and presented as frequencies and percentages. Chi-square was used to test the significant association between variables. Level of significance was set at a P ≤ 0.05.
A total of 107 respondents were interviewed and 57.9% were satisfied with the overall quality of care they received. The determinants of overall satisfaction in this study were found to be related to resources for cancer treatment (odds ratio [OR] =3.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.39–6.90; P = 0.005), care delivery processes (OR = 2.87; 95% CI = 1.28–6.43; P = 0.009), and the ward environment (OR = 2.59; 95% CI = 1.17–5.74; P = 0.018).
The parents were moderately satisfied with the oncology care services their children received. The gaps identified in service delivery included those related to the availability of the required resources for efficient care delivery and also educational as well as psychosocial needs of the parents.
Keywords: Parents, pediatric oncology, perception, quality of care

Mutai BK, Muthama NJ, Ng'ang'a JK, Mwanthi MA, Wagner T. Assessment of Population Exposure to Future Climate Change-Induced Exceedances of Health-Based Air Pollutants over Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Birgen J, Wafula G, Yusuf A, Onyatta J. "Assessment of Sulphur Dioxide Levels in Selected Sites in Athi River, Kenya." International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD). 2017;1(5):416-422.
Birgen J, Yusuf AO, Wafula G, Onyatta JO. "Assessment of sulphur dioxide levels in selected sites in Athi River, Kenya." International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development. 2017;1(5):416-422.scan_trend.pdf
Okworo EK, Madadi VO, Abong’o DA, Ochieng A. "Assessment of the Level of Organochlorine Pesticides Contamination in Kales, Water and Soil from Naivasha, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;3(5):205-213.
K OE, V.O M, A A’oD, A O. "Assessment of the Level of Organochlorine Pesticides Contamination in Kales, Water and Soil from Naivasha, Kenya. ." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology . 2017;3(5):205-213.
TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Athari za Ndani na za Kilimwengu: Ujenzi wa Jadi ya Ushairi wa Kiswahili." . https:// creative . 2017:116-132.
Barasa IN. "Automobile Battery Monitoring System using Arduino Uno R3 Microcontroller Board." The International Journal Of Science & Technoledge. 2017;5(6):24-36.
Barasa IN, Simiyu J, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Wekesa D, Aduda B. "Automobile Battery Monitoring System using Arduino Uno R3 Microcontroller Board." The International Journal Of Science & Technoledge. 2017;5(6):24-36.
Okoth S. "Awareness and Prevalence of Mycotoxin Contamination in Selected Nigerian Fermented Foods." Toxins. 2017;9(11):363. Abstracttoxins-09-00363.pdfWebsite

Fermented food samples (n = 191) including maize gruel (ogi), sorghum gruel (ogi-baba), melon seed (ogiri), locust bean (iru) and African oil bean seed (ugba) from Southwest Nigeria were quantified for 23 mycotoxins, including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1), and sterigmatocystin (STE) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The practices, perceived understanding and health risks related to fungal and mycotoxin contamination amongst fermented food sellers was also established. Data obtained revealed that 82% of the samples had mycotoxins occurring singly or in combination. FB1 was present in 83% of ogi-baba samples, whereas 20% of ugba samples contained AFB1 (range: 3 to 36 µg/kg) and STE was present in 29% of the ogi samples. In terms of multi-mycotoxin contamination, FB1 + FB2 + FB3 + STE + AFB1 + alternariol + HT-2 co-occurred within one sample. The awareness study revealed that 98% of respondents were unaware of mycotoxin contamination, and their education level slightly correlated with their level of awareness (p < 0.01, r = 0.308). The extent to which the analyzed mycotoxins contaminated these food commodities, coupled with the poor perception of the population under study on fungi and mycotoxins, justifies the need to enact fungal and mycotoxin mitigation strategies along the food chain.

Kanaya S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Kiboi SK, Afendi FM. "Big Data and Network Biology 2016." BioMed Research International. 2017;2017.
Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. "Biodegradation and Detoxification of Malachite Green Dye Using Novel Enzymes from Bacillus cereus Strain KM201428: Kinetic and Metabolite Analysis.". 2017. AbstractFull text link

Enzyme based degradation of organic pollutants is a promising detoxifying approach due to the promiscuous nature of the enzyme, efficiency, cost effective and ecofriendly. In the present study, we have carried out detailed decoloration and degradation studies on a model triphenyl methane group of dyes (Malachite Green dye (MG)) using a newly isolated enzyme from Bacillus cereus KM201428 under the static condition. Biodegradation of dyes was monitored by UV-VIS spectrophotometer and the resultant metabolites analyzed by Liquid Chromatography–Hybrid Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (LC–QToF-MS) and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC - MS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that enzymatic degradation of MG dye resulted in complete mineralization and benzene ring-removal; the latter known for organic dye toxicity. Kinetic study results revealed that first-order kinetic model was best applicable for describing MG dye decoloration. Michaelise-Menten kinetics, Lineweaver–Burk plot and Eadie-Hofstee plot models were used to establish the kinetic parameters for the dye decoloration. Lineweaver–Burk plot provided the best theoretical correlation of the experimental data with maximum rate (Vmax) of 17.70 mg l-1h-1 and Michaelis constant (Km) of 124 mgl-1. Results provide evidence that crude enzyme from Bacillus cereus strain KM201428 offers an effective, renewable, ecofriendly and affordable biotechnology for treatment of industrial effluents polluted with organic dye.

Kwadha CA, Ong’amo GO, Ndegwa PN, Raina SK, Fombong AT. "The biology and control of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella." Insects. 2017;8(2):61.
Kwadha CA, Ong’amo GO, Ndegwa PN, Raina SK, Fombong AT. "The biology and control of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella." Insects. 2017;8(2):61.
Gachago MM, AG K. "Branch Retinal Vein Occlusions. A Review." JOECSA. 2017;21(1):1-8.
Makunda CS. Bridging the divide between problem and solution: A design approach to housing production in Nairobi. Design School Kolding, Kolding, Denmark: Design School Kolding and Cumulus International Association of Universities and Colleges of Art, Design and Media; 2017.
Mgalula ME, Richter U, Hensel O, Hülsebusch C, Kaufmann B, Oliver Wasonga. "Bridging the gap between increasing knowledge and decreasing resources.". 2017. Abstract


17. Charles Richard Oyier1, Paul Amollo Odundo1 BN1 JM&. "Budget Planning for Instructional Resources in Secondary Schools in Nairobi, Kenya." Asian Education Studies. 2017.
Maweu JM, Ndohvu JB. "A Case of Voice Poverty? Towards a New Paradigm in the Fight Against Poverty in Kenya.". In: Poverty and Human Rights: East African Experiences. Nairobi: Focus Publishers ltd; 2017.
Isabella Epiu, Jossy Verel Bahe Tindimwebwa, Cephas Mijumbi, Chokwe TM, Edwin Lugazia, Francois Ndarugirire, Tw T. "Challenges of Anesthesia in Low-and Middle-Income Countries: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Access to Safe Obstetric Anesthesia in East Africa ." Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2017;124(1):290-299.
John Habwe RTAS&. "Changamoto za Kuueleza Msamiati wa Samaki: Mtazamo wa Kiuhusiano in Mwanga wa Lugha." Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha nyingine za Kiafrika Chuo Kikuu cha Moi Juzuu . 2017;1(1):9-20 .
Ngugi HN, Mutuku FM, Ndenga BA, Musunzaji PS, Mbakaya JO, Aswani P, IRUNGU LUCYW, Mukoko D, Vulule J, Kitron U, LaBeaud AD. "Characterization and productivity profiles of Aedes aegypti (L.) breeding habitats across rural and urban landscapes in western and coastal Kenya." Parasites & vectors. 2017;10(1):331.
Mutuku FM, Ngugi HN, Ndenga BA, Musunzaji PS, Mbakaya JO, Aswani P, IRUNGU LUCYW, Mukoko D, Vulule J, Kitron U, LaBeaud AD. "Characterization and productivity profiles of Aedes aegypti (L.) breeding habitats across rural and urban landscapes in western and coastal Kenya.". 2017.
Ngugi HN, Mutuku F, Ndenga B, Siema P, Maleka H, IRUNGU LUCY, Mukoko D, Vulule J, Kitron U. "CHARACTERIZATION OF LARVAL HABITATS OF AEDES AEGYPTI IN KENYA.". 2017;95(5):56-57.
Nyirakanani C, Chibvongodze R, Kariuki L, Habtu M, Masika M, Mukoko D, Njunwa KJ. "Characterization of malaria vectors in Huye District, Southern Rwanda." Tanzania Journal of Health Research. 2017;19(3). AbstractWebsite

Background: Effective control of malaria requires knowledge of vector species, their feeding and resting behaviour as well as breeding habitats. The objective of this study was to determine malaria vector species abundance and identify their larval habitats in Huye district, southern Rwanda.

Methods: Adult mosquitoes were collected indoors using light trap and pyrethrum spray catch techniques, and outdoors using light traps. Female Anopheles mosquitoes were identified to species level by morphological characteristics. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to screen for Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein and host blood meal sources. Anopheles larvae were sampled using dippers and raised into adult mosquitoes which were identified morphologically.

Results: Anopheles gambiae sensu lato comprised of 70% of the 567 Anopheles collected. Other Anopheles species identified were An. funestus 4%, An. squamosus 16.5%, An. maculipalpis 6.5%, An. ziemanni 1.7%, An. pharoensis 1.2 % and An. coustani 0.1%. The majority, 63.5% of the collected mosquitoes were from indoors collections. The overall human blood index was 0.509. The P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein was found in 11 mosquitos including 8 Anopheles gambiae s.l. and 3 secondary vectors out of the 567 tested. The overall sporozoite rate was 1.9%. A total of 661 Anopheline larvae from 22 larval habitats were collected. They comprised of An. gambiae s.l. (89%) and An. ziemanni (11%). The absolute breeding index was 86.4%. The most common larval habitats were in full sunlight with still water like rice paddies and pools of stagnant water.

Conclusion: These findings show that Anopheles gambiae s.l. is the dominant malaria vector in the area with other vectors playing a secondary role in malaria transmission. Malaria interventions need to be strengthened to reduce even further the malaria transmission in the area.

Martelat J-E, Paquette J-L, Bosse V, Giuliani G, Monié P, Omito E, Simonet C, Ohnenstetter D, Daniel Ichang'i, Nyamai C, Wamunyu A. "Chronological Constraints On Tsavorite Mineralizations and Related Metamorphic Episodes In Southeast Kenya." The Canadian Mineralogist. 2017;55(5):845-865. AbstractFull text link

Tsavorite is exclusively hosted in the Neoproterozoic Metamorphic Mozambique Belt (NMMB). The gemstone mines, widespread between Kalalani (Tanzania) and Mgama Ridge (Kenya), define a continuous corridor over a hundred kilometers in length. The tsavorite is hosted by a metasedimentary sequence defined as the Kurase tsavorite-bearing metasediments (Kurase-TB metasediments) that also hosts rubies. These metasediments underwent amphibolite-facies metamorphism and are surrounded by granulitic gneisses that are also of sedimentary origin (the Kurase high-temperature gneisses). All these rocks lie below the Kasigau Group, a unit dominated by granulite-facies metamagmatic rocks.

To constrain the timing of events that led to this peculiar occurrence of tsavorite, we have performed geochronological analyses of thin sections and of separated grains of zircon, monazite, and rutile using LA-ICP-MS and ID-TIMS, as well as 40Ar/39Ar of muscovite and phlogopite from various lithologies. The results show that the different terranes were metamorphosed synchronously between 620–580 Ma but under different P-T strain conditions. The Kurase-HT gneisses and the rocks from the Kasigau Group are highly strained and underwent granulite-facies metamorphism with abundant partial melting and emplacement of felsic melts between 620 and 600 Ma. Textural observations also underlined a late regional water flux controlling the occurrence of V-free muscovite and monazite mineralizations at 585 Ma. The latter event can be related to the activity of the Galana shear zone, in the east. The Kurase-TB metasediments escaped strain and partial melting. They record amphibolite-facies conditions with static heating, since initial sedimentary structures were locally preserved. The age of the tsavorite mineralization was inferred at 600 Ma from metamorphic zircon rims and monazite from the closest host-rocks, sampled in the mines. Hence, tsavorite crystallization occurred statically at the end of the metamorphic event, probably when the temperature and the amount of volatiles were at maximum levels.

Conversely, the ruby formed by local metasomatism of felsic dikes and isolated ultramafic bodies. The rubies are older and zircons and monazites from a ruby-bearing felsic dike (plumasite) were dated at 615 Ma. Finally, data from rutile and micas indicate a global cooling below 430 °C of the whole region between 510 and 500 Ma.

Nyamai C, Wamunyu A, Daniel Ichang'i, Martelat J-E, Paquette J-L, et al. "Chronological Constraints On Tsavorite Mineralizations and Related Metamorphic Episodes In Southeast Kenya." The Canadian Mineralogist. 2017;55(5):845-865. AbstractFull Text

Tsavorite is exclusively hosted in the Neoproterozoic Metamorphic Mozambique Belt (NMMB). The gemstone mines, widespread between Kalalani (Tanzania) and Mgama Ridge (Kenya), define a continuous corridor over a hundred kilometers in length. The tsavorite is hosted by a metasedimentary sequence defined as the Kurase tsavorite-bearing metasediments (Kurase-TB metasediments) that also hosts rubies. These metasediments underwent amphibolite-facies metamorphism and are surrounded by granulitic gneisses that are also of sedimentary origin (the Kurase high-temperature gneisses). All these rocks lie below the Kasigau Group, a unit dominated by granulite-facies metamagmatic rocks.

To constrain the timing of events that led to this peculiar occurrence of tsavorite, we have performed geochronological analyses of thin sections and of separated grains of zircon, monazite, and rutile using LA-ICP-MS and ID-TIMS, as well as 40Ar/39Ar of muscovite and phlogopite from various lithologies. The results show that the different terranes were metamorphosed synchronously between 620–580 Ma but under different P-T strain conditions. The Kurase-HT gneisses and the rocks from the Kasigau Group are highly strained and underwent granulite-facies metamorphism with abundant partial melting and emplacement of felsic melts between 620 and 600 Ma. Textural observations also underlined a late regional water flux controlling the occurrence of V-free muscovite and monazite mineralizations at 585 Ma. The latter event can be related to the activity of the Galana shear zone, in the east. The Kurase-TB metasediments escaped strain and partial melting. They record amphibolite-facies conditions with static heating, since initial sedimentary structures were locally preserved. The age of the tsavorite mineralization was inferred at 600 Ma from metamorphic zircon rims and monazite from the closest host-rocks, sampled in the mines. Hence, tsavorite crystallization occurred statically at the end of the metamorphic event, probably when the temperature and the amount of volatiles were at maximum levels.

Conversely, the ruby formed by local metasomatism of felsic dikes and isolated ultramafic bodies. The rubies are older and zircons and monazites from a ruby-bearing felsic dike (plumasite) were dated at 615 Ma. Finally, data from rutile and micas indicate a global cooling below 430°C of the whole region between 510 and 500 Ma.

Phiri IA, et al. "Climate Change and Food Security: A Challenge for African Christianity.". In: Anthology of African Christianity. Oxford: Regnum; 2017.
Gichobi AN, Ndwigah SN, Sinei KA, Guantai EM. "Clinical audit of Heparin use in Rift Valley General Hospital, Nakuru County, Kenya. ." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. . 2017;6(1):27-37.
Gichobi 2. AN, Ndwigah SN, Sinei KA, Guantai EM. "Clinical audit of Heparin use in Rift Valley General Hospital, Nakuru County, Kenya." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(1):27-37.
Nyawira M, Muchai G, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Atieno J, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Ngugi N, Nyaga PT, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Clinical guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: an executive summary of the recommendations." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr. . 2017;21(2):33-39. Abstract

All persons living with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) have a lifetime risk of developing Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), a
potentially blinding microvascular complication of DM. The risk increases with the duration of diabetes. The
onset and progression of DR can be delayed through optimization of control of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipids. The risk of blindness from DR can be reduced through cost-effective interventions such as screening for DR and treatment of sight-threatening DR with laser photocoagulation and anti-VEGF medications.
Several factors make it important to provide guidance to clinicians who provide services for diabetes and
diabetic retinopathy in Kenya. First, the magnitude of both DM and DR is expected to increase over the next
decade. Secondly, as the retina is easily accessible for examination, the early signs of retinopathy may provide clinicians with the best evidence of microvascular damage from diabetes. This information can be used to guide subsequent management of both DM and DR. Thirdly, there are notable gaps in service delivery for the detection,treatment and follow-up of patients with DR, and the services are inequitable. Strengthening of service delivery will require close collaboration between diabetes services and eye care services.
Following a systematic and collaborative process of guideline development, the first published national
guidelines for the management of diabetic retinopathy have been developed. The purpose of this paper is to
highlight the recommendations in the guidelines, and to facilitate their adoption and implementation.

N M, M G, M G, Gichuhi S, G K, A J’o. "Clinical guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: An executive summary of the recommendations." JOECSA. 2017;21(2):33-39.
Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Ngugi N, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Clinical guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: an executive summary of the recommendations." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr.. 2017;21(2):33-9.
Malemba GM, Nzuve FM, Kimani, P.M; Kimani JM, Olubayo MF, Muthomi JW. "Combining Ability for Drought Tolerance in Upland Rice Varieties at Reproductive Stage." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2017;9(3):138-150.
Mutuku MW, Lu L, Otiato FO, Mwangi IN, Kinuthia JM, Maina GM, Laidemitt MR, Lelo EA, Ochanda H, Loker ES, Mkoji GM. "A Comparison of Kenyan Biomphalaria pfeifferi and B. Sudanica as Vectors for Schistosoma mansoni, Including a Discussion of the Need to Better Understand …." The Journal of parasitology. 2017;103(6):669-676.
Gwako Bosibori Jackline RTHM&. "A Comperative Analysis of Virtue-Based Content for Youth in Two Epics in Swahili: Siraji na Adili." International Journal of Language and Linguistics . 2017;4(4):200-215 .
G EL, BA K, F O, T D, RJ M. "Complications associated with crowns and fixed partial dentures provided to patients at a teaching hospital." International journal of multidisciplinary research review. 2017;1(32):19-24.publication_ijmdrr.pdf
Wafula HB, Musembi RJ, Juma AO, Patrick Tonui, Simiyu J, Sakwa T, Prakash D, K.D.Verma. "Compositional analysis and optical properties of Co doped TiO2 thin films fabricated by spray pyrolysis method for dielectric and photocatalytic applications." Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics. 2017;128:212-217.
Wanjiru KG. "Computer Based Instruction and Gender effect on learners’ performance in Art and Design in public secondary schools in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research.. 2017;5(6):ISSN:2309-0404 .
Wanjiru KG, Samwel Owino Mwanda, Ronnie Midigo. "Computer Based Instruction and Learner Achievement; Implications for Training Art and Design in Kenya’s Secondary Schools." Journal of Academic Research. . 2017;5(5):19-31.
J.S M, M. G. "Conserving Forest Biodiversity through Value Chain Development: The Case Study of Karura Forest.". In: A review of best practices for selected biodiversity-based value chains that promotes pro-poor conservation in the Horn of Africa. NAIROBI: ICRAF; 2017.
Lundengård K, Ogutu C, Silvestrov S, Weke P. Construction of moment-matching multinomial lattices using Vandermonde matrices and Gröbner bases.; 2017. Abstract

In order to describe and analyze the quantitative behavior of stochastic processes, such as
the process followed by a financial asset, various discretization methods are used. One such
set of methods are lattice models where a time interval is divided into equal time steps and
the rate of change for the process is restricted to a particular set of values in each time step.
The well-known binomial-and trinomial models are the most commonly used in applications,
although several kinds of higher order models have also been examined. Here we will
examine various ways of designing higher order lattice schemes with different node
placements in order to guarantee moment-matching with the process.


E-government research has been skewed towards technological deterministic
perspective mainly centering on technological issues. This provides no explicit guidance to
the design and practice of e-government programs that result to increased uptake of e-
government services. Theoretical discourse reveals undisputed consensus among e-
government researchers that e-government uptake may be influenced by others contextual
factors such as administrative and political consequences and should not be overlooked

C O, J W, J O, M.F O. "Corporate Governance Practices and Financial Performance of Deposit Taking Saccos in Western Kenya." Scholars Journal of Economics, Business and Management . 2017;4(3):195-212.corporate_governance_practices.pdf

In this era of globalization, winning the war for top talent to gain a competitive advantage is critical for the
survival of organizations. In Kenya today, attracting and retaining talent is a major challenge to many
organizations. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been identified as influencing employee attraction
and retention. A pay cheque alone is no longer sufficient; people want to work in organizations whose
values match their own and that impact and contribute to society. The aim of this study was to determine if
CSR affects organizational attractiveness. Final year business students from the University of Nairobi were
surveyed to see the extent to which CSR issues will influence their decision to work in a given organization.
The findings indicated that how an organization handles its economic responsibility, legal responsibility,
ethical responsibility, philanthropic responsibility and environmental responsibility of CSR affects
prospective employees' decision to seek employment with an organization.

K.Muriithi M, G.Mutegi R, Mwabu G. "Counting unpaid work in Kenya: Gender and age profiles of hours worked and imputed wage incomes." The journal of the Economics Aging. 2017.
Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Cow Dung to Kilo Watt using Double Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell." IJSRSET. 2017;3(5):70-79. Abstract

In the current study, voltage is generated from cow waste at varying time duration of 6 to 11 days. PVC pipe was used to make a salt bridge using agarose and potassium chloride and Sodium chloride. The performance of microbial fuel cells was evaluated by characterizing the generated voltage, current, power and surface power density. It was observed that despite the high impedance of the substrate, all the generated parameters have shown maximum values at day 6 and then a decline in trend was observed on 7 days onwards. The highest values of voltage, current, power, current density and power density obtained were 0.5090V, 0.28μA, 0.0093μW, 0.05181mA/m2 and 0.0000006 W/m2 respectively. The study concluded that microbial fuel cells technology can be used to generate electricity from cow dung.
Keywords: Microbial Fuel Cells, Voltage, Current, Power Density

Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Kuete V. "Curcuma longa.". In: Medicinal Spices and Vegetables from Africa Therapeutic Potential against Metabolic, Inflammatory, Infectious and Systemic Diseases. Academic Press; 2017:. Abstract

Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae), commonly known as turmeric, is native to Southwest India with its rhizomes being the source of a bright yellow spice with various medicinal applications. It is widely cultivated throughout the tropics and similarly used for it medicinal value, in the cosmetic industry, and as a dye. Herein, the medicinal potentials of this plant as well as that of one of its bioactive constituents, curcumin, has been compiled. Turmeric can be regarded as a drug for the management of many diseases, such as cancer, inflammations, microbial infections, diabetes, arthritic, muscular disorders, biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, diabetic wounds, hepatic disorders, and sinusitis. Curcumin also displayed various pharmacological activities including antioxidant, antineoplastic, antiviral, antiinflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antidiabetic, anticoagulant, antifertility, cardiovascular protective, hepatoprotective, and immunostimulant activities in animals. This chapter provides baseline information to encourage the use of this plant in the management of various human ailments.

and Ogumo E. O., Kunyanga OKCNMW. "Current knowledge and performance of existing charcoal coolers in improving the overall quality and shelf-life of French beans." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;12(49):3399-3409.
Ondeto BM, Nyundo C, Kamau L, Muriu SM, Mwangangi JM, Njagi K, Mathenge EM, Ochanda H. "Current status of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors in Kenya." Parasites & vectors. 2017;10(1):429.

This paper highlights how human settlements aligned themselves to share the benefits to arise from coastal tourism development in
the Kenya coast, but have come to bedevil the industry through poor management of domestic waste. The study area comprised of
Nyali-Bamburi-Shanzu and Diani-Chale, which are two important tourist destinations in the country. It attempted to establish
population numbers in these habitations, the waste loads generated, and how it was managed. The study was accomplished through
field visits, library research and application of the World Health Organization (WHO 1989) rapid assessment methods for land, air
and water pollution. The relevant data for assessment was obtained from records of population census, bed nights, occupancy, and the
waste disposal methods in use. The study revealed that human settlements aligned themselves in clusters inland, reflecting the clusters
of the beach hotels dotting the shore line of the Indian Ocean. Large volumes of domestic waste were being generated in both the
human settlements and in the hotels. Management of the waste in the settlements was largely on-site and mixed, through the use of
both pit latrines and septic-tank/soakage pit systems in the human settlements, and only through septic-tank/soakage pits in the hotel
establishments. None of the settlements had wastewater treatment facilities. Only 5 beach hotels had wastewater treatment plants.
While the settlements positioned themselves to benefit from the tourism industry, tapping in business and employment opportunities,
the arrangement has seemed to spoil the broth as the settlements came to be the main source domestic waste affecting environmental
quality and undermining tourism growth and sustainability. Also, through the large number of visitors, during the peak tourist periods,
the beach hotels themselves have come contribute to large waste generation. On-site sanitation, it is concluded, is not appropriate for
managing domestic waste in coastal areas dependent on good quality environmental to flourish the tourism economic sector. Tourism
thrives in areas where the environment is aesthetically appealing; domestic waste undermine. Consequently, it is recommended that
innovative approaches are pursued for domestic waste management in order to flourish and sustain the industry.

Parkar RB, Wanyoike GJ, Otieno D, J O. "Day Care Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy outcomes at a dedicated unit in Nairobi, Kenya: Is it time to change?" East African Medical Journal . 2017;94:6-12.
"Kanyinga K". "Demystifying politics of land tenure: Okoth-Ogendo and the concept of land in Africa.". In: The Gallant Academic: Essays in Honour of H. W. O. Okoth-Ogendo. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Kihara EN  , P G, Liversidge HM, F B, Gikenye. "Dental age estimation in a group of Kenyan children using Willems' method: a radiographic study." Ann Hum Biol. 2017;44:614-621(7):614-621.
Njogu PM, Okombo J, Chibale K. "Designed Hybrid Compounds for Tropical Parasitic Diseases.". In: Design of Hybrid Molecules for Drug Development (First Edition). London: Elsevier; 2017.
Gichamba A, Wagacha PW, Ochieng DO. "Designing mAgriculture Applications for Rural Smallholder Farmers.". 2017. Abstract

ICT has been widely accepted and adopted as a key driver for various sectors of
the economy for both the developing and developed nations. In developing countries, there
have been multiple interventions to employ the available technology such as mobile,
wireless, radio and TV technologies in key areas that concern human development such as
health, agriculture, education and finance. The design and development practices, are
mostly borrowed from established markets with different user profiles, and do not always

KARURI J, Waiganjo P, Daniel ORWA. "Determinants of Acceptance and Use of DHIS2 in Kenya: UTAUT-Based Model." Journal of Health Informatics in Developing Countries. 2017;11(1). Abstractfull text link

Background: In 2010, Kenya initiated the process of adoption and implementation of a web-based system (DHIS2) as the national HIS to facilitate management of routine health information for evidence-based decision making. To reap maximum benefit from this implementation, DHIS2 needed to gain acceptance from all categories of targeted users. This study, conducted between June and August 2014, sought to develop a new technology acceptance model that can better explain the key determinants of acceptance and use of DHIS2 in Kenya.
Methods: The model was adapted from the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). An exploratory study was conducted primarily through the use of quantitative methods, but qualitative Key Informant Interview (KII) data was also collected in a pre-study to provide the background and contextual information used in refining the model. In the main phase of the study, a questionnaire was administered to health workers through cross-sectional survey both at national and regional levels.
Results: The total number of valid questionnaires returned was 269 against the 300 that were issued. This number represents slightly more than 20% of the approximately 1,100 health workers who have been trained on DHIS2 in Kenya, and these were drawn from at least 10 of Kenya’s 47 counties. Analysis of the survey data was done in two parts: descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS statistical analysis tool for the purpose of obtaining frequencies, means, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis. Subsequently Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and specifically Partial Least Square path modeling (PLS), was used to analyze the conceptual model and test the proposed hypotheses.
Conclusion: The resulting model revealed that social influence was the most pertinent predictor of behavioral intention in the study setting, while facilitating condition and computer anxiety play a significant role in predicting actual use of DHIS2. Findings from this case study can be extended to explain acceptance and use of health IT in other similar settings. Future research can test more variables and moderators to increase the overall predictive levels of the model.

Maalim H, Omuga B, Ongeso A, Okube T. "Determinants of Mode of Delivery Among Postnatal Mothers Admitted in Wajir County Referral Hospital, Kenya." EC Gynaecology. 2017;6(4):128-138. Abstract

Background: Globally, giving birth through the natural process, ‘Vaginally’ has been widely accepted as unquestioned mode of birth. On the other hand, use of caesarean Section (CS), which involves a surgical incision, has also been utilized as a mode of delivery especially among women with medical or obstetric indications. Delivery through CS is a life saving measure which plays a crucial role in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality from direct causes such as hemorrhage, infection, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and obstructed labor [1]. In Kenya, the National maternal mortality rate was 362/100,000. However, in the study area, Wajir county, it was 1683/100,000 [2]. Advances in technology and its adoption in reproductive health have resulted in an increase in the number of Caesarean delivery in the recent years. This has increased options for preferred mode of delivery for mothers and plays a significant role in reduction of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity rates. However, in most African countries, mainly in rural and marginalized areas, use of caesarian section remains low even when there is clear indication. Despite this, limited studies to establish determinants of modes of delivery have been done especially in remote rural areas such as Wajir County.
Objective: The main objective of this study was to establish determinants of mode of delivery among postnatal mothers admitted in Wajir County referral Hospital.
Materials and Methods: A hospital based descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. Mixed method of quantitative and qualitative data was employed among 178 postnatal mothers who were systematically sampled from Wajir county Referral hospital.
Quantitative data was collected using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire and qualitative data was collected using Focus group discussion from the postnatal mothers. Descriptive analysis using means, frequency and proportions was computed. Chi-square test
(p < 0.05) with corresponding 95% confidence interval was used to determine the association between the various variables.
Results: The prevalence of Caesarian Section delivery among the respondents was 32%. Analyses with Chi-Square test of independence revealed that maternal age (p = 0.001), marital status (p = 0.016), level of education (p = 0.007), parity (p = 0.03), FGM practice
(p = 0.001) and belonging to the social health groups (p = 0.001) were the variables significantly associated with mode of delivery. A substantial number of women did not have sufficient knowledge on delivery options, benefits and risks to inform their decisions on delivery modes.
Conclusion: Vaginal Delivery is the most preferred mode of delivery even when CS is medically indicated. Caesarian section acceptance remains low due to lack of correct knowledge, poor attitude towards CS and lack of proper women counseling during ANC visits. Therefore, there is need for educational and economic empowerment of women and girls complemented with effective community sensitization and awareness campaigns on delivery-related complications, risks and alternative delivery options for emergency cases.
Keywords: Mode of Delivery; Postnatal Mothers; Wajir County Referral Hospital; Vaginal Delivery

and Joseph G. Kabiru PMEMN. "Determinants of workers’ welfare in cut flower industry in Kenya." International Jounal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2017;4(2313-3759):1-17.
Okoth S. "Determining resistance to Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin accumulation in African maize inbred lines resistant to Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxins." Euphytica. 2017;213(4):93. Abstract10.10072fs10681-017-1883-7.pdfWebsite

Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus
flavus cause Fusarium ear rot (FER) and Aspergillus
ear rot (AER) of maize, respectively. Both pathogens
are of concern to producers as they reduce grain yield
and affect quality. F. verticillioides and A. flavus also
contaminate maize grain with the mycotoxins fumonisins
and aflatoxins, respectively, which has been
associated with mycotoxicosis in humans and animals.
The occurrence of common resistance mechanisms to
FER and AER has been reported. Hence, ten Kenyan
inbred lines resistant to AER and aflatoxin accumulation
were evaluated for resistance to FER, F.
verticillioides colonisation and fumonisin accumulation;
and compared to nine South African lines
resistant to FER and fumonisin accumulation. Field
trials were conducted at three localities in South Africa
and two localities in Kenya. FER severity was
determined by visual assessment, while F. verticillioides
colonisation and fumonisin content were
quantified by real-time PCR and liquid chromatography
tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Significant
genotype x environment interactions was
determined at each location (P B 0.05). Kenyan
inbred CML495 was most resistant to FER and F.
verticillioides colonisation, and accumulated the lowest
concentration of fumonisins across localities. It
was, however, not significantly more resistant than
Kenyan lines CML264 and CKL05015, and the South
African line RO549 W, which also exhibited low FER
severity (B5%), fungal target DNA (B0.025 ng lL-1
and fumonisin levels (B2.5 mg kg-1
). Inbred lines
resistant to AER and aflatoxin accumulation appear to
be promising sources of resistance to F. verticillioides
and fumonisin contamination.
Keywords Fusarium ear rot Aspergillus ear rot
Resistance Mycotoxins Maize inbred lines

English MM, Irimu GG, Nyamai RR, Were FF, Garner PP, Opiyo NN, F W. "Developing guidelines in low-income and middle-income countries: lessons from Kenya." Arch Dis Child. 2017;1(6). AbstractWebsite

There are few examples of sustained nationally organised, evidence-informed clinical guidelines development processes in Sub-Saharan Africa. We describe the evolution of efforts from 2005 to 2015 to support evidence-informed decision making to guide admission hospital care practices in Kenya. The approach to conduct reviews, present evidence, and structure and promote transparency of consensus-based procedures for making recommendations improved over four distinct rounds of policy making. Efforts to engage important voices extended from government and academia initially to include multiple professional associations, regulators and practitioners. More than 100 people have been engaged in the decision-making process; an increasing number outside the research team has contributed to the conduct of systematic reviews, and 31 clinical policy recommendations has been developed. Recommendations were incorporated into clinical guideline booklets that have been widely disseminated with a popular knowledge and skills training course. Both helped translate evidence into practice. We contend that these efforts have helped improve the use of evidence to inform policy. The systematic reviews, Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approaches and evidence to decision-making process are well understood by clinicians, and the process has helped create a broad community engaged in evidence translation together with a social or professional norm to use evidence in paediatric care in Kenya. Specific sustained efforts should be made to support capacity and evidence-based decision making in other African settings and clinical disciplines.

Wambua L, Bernd Schneider, Allan Okwaro, Joseph Odhiambo Wanga, Olive Imali, Peninah Nduku Wambua, Lavender Agutu, Cassandra Olds, Chris Stephen Jones. "Development of field-applicable tests for rapid and sensitive detection of Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae." Molecular and cellular probes. 2017;35:44-56.
King-Okumu C, Wasonga OV, Jarso I, Salah YMS. "Direct use values of climate-dependent ecosystem services in Isiolo County, Kenya.". 2017. Abstract


P.O O, D.N K, P.K G. Diseases of domestic rabbits and associated risk factors in Kenya. Germany : LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing ; 2017.
Nguhiu J, P M F M, JK W, Mbuthia P G. "Disorders of the claw and their association with laminitis in smallholder zero-grazed dairy cows." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2017;6(2):64-69.
Bernard K, Wandiga SO, Madadi VO, Mukabi M. "Dissipation studies of Amitraz in cattle dips in Bureti, Kericho county- Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;3(5):248-253.
Kamau BN, Wandiga SO, Madadi VO. "Dissipation Studies of Ridomil Gold Pesticide on Potatoes in Nyandarua County, Kenya." IJSRSET. 2017;3(5):221-229.
Nyaga LW, Gach. "Distance Learning Approach to Train Health Sciences Students at the University of Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(February 2017):101-105.
Aldhaher A, Langat M, Ndunda B, Chirchir D, Midiwo JO, Njue A, Schwikkard S, Carew M, Mulholland D. "Diterpenoids from the roots of Croton dichogamus Pax." Phytochemistry. 2017;144:1-8. AbstractFull text

Four previously undescribed diterpenoids including two crotofolanes, crotodichogamoin A and B, and two halimanes, crothalimene A and B, a new sesquiterpenoid, and fifteen previously reported compounds, including the crotofolane, crotohaumanoxide, the casbane, depressin, a further seven furanohalimane diterpenoids, three patchoulane and two further cadinane sesquiterpenoids and aleuritolic acid were isolated from the root of Croton dichogamus. Crotodichogamoin B is an important biosynthetic intermediate of the crotofolane class and this is the first report of patchoulene sesquiterpenoids from the genus. Compounds were tested at one concentration, 1 × 10−5 M, in the NCI59 cell one-dose screen but did not show significant activity snd were also evaluated for their cytotoxicity against Caco-2 cell lines using the neutral red assay. 10-epi-Maninsigin D reduced Caco-2 cell viability at 10, 30 and 100 μM, with values of decreased viability of 28%, 48% and 43% respectively. None of the other tested compounds showed significant activity.
Croton dichogamusEuphorbiaceaeCrotofolaneCrotodichogamoin BCrothalimene ACrothalimene BPatchoulaneCaco-2 cell viability

Odhiambo, G. WOOJJ & M. "Dividend Announcements and Market Value of Shares in the Agricultural Companies Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange. ." Scholars Journal of Economics, Business and Management. 2017.
Mulanda ES, Awori RM, Chuhila Y, Adero MO, Amugune NO, Akunda E, Kinyamario JI. "A DNA-barcode for Melia volkensii Grke (Meliaceae) and its phylogenetic relationship with some economically important relatives." African Journal of Plant Science. 2017;10(3):58-67.
Kariuki Samwel Muiruri, Britt A, Amugune NO, Nguu E, Chan S, Tripathi L. "Dominant Allele Phylogeny and Constitutive Subgenome Haplotype Inference in Bananas Using Mitochondrial and Nuclear Markers." Genome biology and evolution. 2017;9(10):2510-2521.
Madadi VO, Ngotho MW, Masese FA. "Drinking Water Quality Challenges in Nakuru County, Kenya." IJSRSET. 2017;3(6):5-11.
Dr. Juliet Gathoni Muiga PRWR. "Drivers of Gated Community Developments in Urban Areas (Case Study: Nairobi, Kenya)." International Journal of Architecture and Urban Development -IJAUD. 2017;Volume 7(Issue 4):Pages 5-18.
Egeru A, Wasonga O, Majaliwa Mwanjalolo GJ, MacOpiyo L, Mburu J. "Dynamics of land use and land cover change in semi-arid Karamoja sub-region, Uganda.". 2017. Abstract


Soki KB, Were AJ, OGOLA EN, Nyale GM, Murage MM. "An echocardiographic evaluation of pulmonary pressures in hemodialysis patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(6). AbstractWebsite


Background: A high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has been noted. In these patients, PH increases morbidity and mortality and worsens prognosis post-renal transplant. Its aetiopathogenesis may be multifactorial, involving the process of haemodialysis itself.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of PH among patients with ESRD undergoing haemodialysis at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), using Doppler echocardiography

Design: 117 patients were consecutively recruited into this cross-sectional study.
Medical history was used to exclude patients with possible PH of known aetiology. Patients were examined for features of fluid overload. Each patient then underwent haemodialysis followed by echocardiography within two hours. Haemoglobin was measured.

Setting: The Renal Unit, KNH, a tertiary hospital in Nairobi

Subjects: Patients undergoing regular haemodialysis within the renal unit, thirteen years and above, who gave written informed consent or assent.

Results: 63.2% of the participants were male. Mean age was 44 years. Prevalence of PH among ESRD patients was 32.5%, with a median PASP of 47.3mmHg and a range of 36.1–79 mmHg. A strong association between PH and EF of less than 50%, as a marker of LV dysfunction, was demonstrated.

Conclusion: The prevalence of PH among end-stage renal disease patients was high. This suggests an indication for routinely screening haemodialysis patients for PH.

Keywords: ESRD: End stage renal disease, LV: Left ventricle, KNH: Kenyatta National Hospital, PASP: Pulmonary arterial systolic pressure, PH: Pulmonary Hypertension

Mutegi R.G., Muriithi. M.K., G. W. "Education Policies in Kenya : Does Free Secondary Education Promote Equity in Public Secondary Schools?" In International Journal of Development Research. 2017;7(11):16696-16699 .abstract2.pdf
Mutegi RG, Muriithi MK, Wanjala G. "EDUCATION POLICIES IN KENYA: DOES FREE SECONDARY EDUCATION PROMOTE EQUITY IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS?" International Journal of Development Research. 2017;07(11):16696-16699.policies_in_education.pdf
Richard K, Faith O, Margaret O, Anne N, Wallace B. "Effect of ABCB1 C3435T Polymorphism on Clinical Outcomes in Kenyan HIV Patients on Lopinavir-Based Regimens." Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2017;7:478-488. Abstract13-jpp2017041704.pdf


Mungai LM, Elly D. "The Effect of Alternative Investments on the Financial Performance of Pension Funds in Kenya." African development finance journal. 2017;1(2):160-181. Abstract

Purpose - This research focused on the effects of alternative investments on the
financial performance of pension schemes in Kenya.
Methodology - This research was descriptive and Secondary data covering a period
of 5 years, 2012-2016, and comprised a population of 442 segregated pension
schemes and from which a sample of 90 schemes was selected using stratified
sampling technique. Only data from 385 schemes was available. The remaining 57
schemes did not qualify for sampling due to incomplete data, data received did not
pass sense checks and also responses to queries were not received on time. The data
was obtained from the Retirement Benefit Authority and the Actuaries Survey from
Alexander Forbes Consulting. Diagnostic tests carried out were tests for normality,
multicollinearity and autocorrelation. They were used to test for data fitness before
any further analysis. The study also employed the use of a linear multiple regression
model to analyze the effect of alternative investments on the financial performance of
pension funds in Kenya. The tests of significance used in the study were the t-test, F

Ogilo F. "EFFECT OF BANKING REGULATIONS ON FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN KENYA." International Journal of Science Arts and Commerce. 2017;Vol. 2 No. 9, November-2017(2(9)):72-78.
Mwangi JT, Kibui AW. "Effect of Chemistry Practicals on Students’ Performance in Chemistry in Public Secondary Schools of Machakos and Nairobi Counties in Kenya." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2017;Volume 6(Issue 8):586-588.
and Digolo, P.O.O. KNMWGBNS. "Effect of Computer Based Instruction on Learner Performance in art and Design in Public secondary Schools in Kenya." The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies, . 2017;5(6):99-103.
Wanjiru KG, Digolo Patrick Ochieng Obonyo, Boniface N, Owino MS. "Effect of Computer Based Instruction on Learners’ Performance in Art and Design in public secondary schools in Kenya. ." The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies.. 2017;5(6).
Shakur H, Roberts I, Fawole B, Chaudhri R, El-Sheikh M, desina Akintan, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Kidanto H, Vwalika B, Abdulkadir A, Etuk S, Noor S, Asonganyi E, Alfirevic Z, Beaumont D, Ronsmans C, Arulkumaran S. "Effect of early tranexamic acid administration on mortality, hysterectomy, and other morbidities in women with post-partum haemorrhage (WOMAN): an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial." Lancet. 2017. AbstractWebsite

Post-partum haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide. Early administration of
tranexamic acid reduces deaths due to bleeding in trauma patients. We aimed to assess the effects of early administration
of tranexamic acid on death, hysterectomy, and other relevant outcomes in women with post-partum haemorrhage.
In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited women aged 16 years and older with a
clinical diagnosis of post-partum haemorrhage after a vaginal birth or caesarean section from 193 hospitals in 21 countries.
We randomly assigned women to receive either 1 g intravenous tranexamic acid or matching placebo in addition to usual
care. If bleeding continued after 30 min, or stopped and restarted within 24 h of the first dose, a second dose of 1 g of
tranexamic acid or placebo could be given. Patients were assigned by selection of a numbered treatment pack from a box
containing eight numbered packs that were identical apart from the pack number. Participants, care givers, and those
assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. We originally planned to enrol 15
000 women with a composite primary
endpoint of death from all-causes or hysterectomy within 42 days of giving birth. However, during the trial it became
apparent that the decision to conduct a hysterectomy was often made at the same time as randomisation. Although
tranexamic acid could influence the risk of death in these cases, it could not affect the risk of hysterectomy. We therefore
increased the sample size from 15
000 to 20
000 women in order to estimate the effect of tranexamic acid on the risk of
death from post-partum haemorrhage. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with
ISRCTN76912190 (Dec 8, 2008);, number NCT00872469; and PACTR201007000192283.
Between March, 2010, and April, 2016, 20
women were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive
tranexamic acid (n=10
051) or placebo (n=10
009), of whom 10
036 and 9985, respectively, were included in the analysis.
Death due to bleeding was significantly reduced in women given tranexamic acid (155 [1·5%] of 10
036 patients
[1·9%] of 9985 in the placebo group, risk ratio [RR] 0·81, 95% CI 0·65–1·00; p=0·045), especially in women given
treatment within 3 h of giving birth (89 [1·2%] in the tranexamic acid group
127 [1·7%] in the placebo group,
RR 0·69, 95% CI 0·52–0·91; p=0·008). All other causes of death did not differ significantly by group. Hysterectomy
was not reduced with tranexamic acid (358 [3·6%] patients in the tranexamic acid group
351 [3·5%] in the placebo
group, RR 1·02, 95% CI 0·88–1·07; p=0·84). The composite primary endpoint of death from all causes or hysterectomy
was not reduced with tranexamic acid (534 [5·3%] deaths or hysterectomies in the tranexamic acid group
546 [5·5%]
in the placebo group, RR 0·97, 95% CI 0·87-1·09; p=0·65). Adverse events (including thromboembolic events) did
not differ significantly in the tranexamic acid versus placebo group.
Tranexamic acid reduces death due to bleeding in women with post-partum haemorrhage with no
adverse effects. When used as a treatment for postpartum haemorrhage, tranexamic acid should be given as soon as
possible after bleeding onset.
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Pfizer, UK Department of Health, Wellcome Trust, and
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Mbogo NW, Kinama JM, Onyango CM, JN K. "Effect of inorganic fertilizer and cattle manure on growth and yield of two Kenyan potato varieties." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR). 2017;10(1):65-72.

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