Publications

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2018
UngaiShihembetsa DL. "An Appraisal of Community Initiative in the Provision and Management of Water and Sanitation Facilities in the Kiambiu Slum Settlement in Nairobi." IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), . 2018;Volume 23, (Issue 10, Ver. 1(October. 2018) 49-62. e-ISSN: 2279-0837, p-ISSN: 2279-0845).
WAMBUI MBOTEBETH, Opere A, GITHAIGA JOHNM, Karanja FK. "Assessing the Impacts of Climate Variability and Climate Change on Biodiversity in Lake Nakuru, Kenya." Bonorowo Wetlands. 2018;8(1):13-24. Abstractassessing_the_impacts_of_climate_variability_and_climate_change_on_biodiversity_in_lake_nakuru_kenya.pdfSMUJO (smujo.id)

Wambui MB, Opere A, Githaiga MJ, Karanja FK. 2017. Assessing the impacts of climate variability and climate change on biodiversity in Lake Nakuru, Kenya. Bonorowo Wetlands 1: 13-24. This study evaluates the impacts of the raised water levels and the flooding of Lake Nakuru and its surrounding areas on biodiversity, specifically, the phytoplankton and lesser flamingo communities, due to climate change and climate variability. The study was to review and analyze noticed climatic records from 2000 to 2014. Several methods were used to ascertain the past and current trends of climatic parameters (temperature, rainfall and evaporation), and also the physicochemical characteristics of Lake Nakuru (conductivity, phytoplankton, lesser flamingos and the lake depth). These included time series analysis, and trend analysis, so the Pearson’s correlation analysis was used to show a relationship between the alterations in lake conductivity to alterations in population estimates of the lesser flamingos and the phytoplankton. Data set extracted from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) (IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) Atlas subset) models were subjected to time series analysis method where the future climate scenarios of near surface temperature, rainfall and evaporation were plotted for the period 2017 to 2100 (projection) for RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 relative to the baseline period 1971 to 2000 in Lake Nakuru were analysed. The results were used to evaluate the impact of climate change on the lesser flamingos and phytoplankton abundance. It was noticed that there was a raise in the mean annual rainfall during the study period (2009 to 2014) which brought the increment in the lake’s surface area from a low area of 31.8 km² in January 2010 to a high of 54.7 km² in Sept 2013, indicating an increment of 22.9 km² (71.92% surface area increment). Mean conductivity of the lake also lessened leading to the loss of phytoplankton on which flamingos feed making them to migrate. A strong positive correlation between conductivity and the lesser flamingo population was noticed signifying that low conductivity affects the growth of phytoplankton and since the lesser flamingos depend on the phytoplankton for their feed, this subsequently revealed that the phytoplankton density could be a notable predictor of the lesser flamingo occurrence in Lake Nakuru. There was also a strong positive correlation noticed between phytoplankton and the lesser flamingo population which confirms that feed availability is a key determining factor of the lesser flamingo distribution in the lake. It is projected that there would be an increment in temperatures, rainfall and evaporation for the period 2017 to 2100 under RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 relative to the baseline period 1971 to 2000 obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model ensemble. As a result, it is expected that the lake will further increment in surface area and depth by the year 2100 due to increased rainfall thereby affecting the populations of the lesser flamingos and phytoplankton, as the physicochemical factors of the lake will alter as well during the projected period.
Keywords: Biodiversity, climate change, Lake Nakuru, Kenya

Uwizeyimana D, Karuku NG, Mureithi MS, Kironchi G. "Assessing the potential of surface runoff generated from a conserved catchment under drought prone agro-ecological zone in Rwanda." Journal of Hydrologeology & Hydrologic Engineering. 2018;7 (1):1-9.
Kisangaki P, Nyamasyo G, Ndegwa P, Kajobe R. "Assessment of honey bee colony performance in the agro-ecological zones of Uganda." Current Investigations in Agriculture and Current Research. 2018;1(5):1-6.
Kasangaki P, Gideon Nyamasyo, Paul Ndegwa RK. "Assessment of Honeybee Colony Performance in the Agro-Ecological Zones of Uganda." Current Investigations in Agriculture and Current Research. 2018;1(5):122-127.
Simeon Lesrima, GH Nyamasyo KKK. "Assessment of the trends and presence of Water Related Conflicts in the Upper Ewaso Nyiro North River Basin: A Case for Laikipia County." Journal of International Business, Innovation and Strategic Management. 2018;1(8):22-40.
Simeon Lesrima, GH Nyamasyo KKK. "Assessment of Water resources Access, Use and Management, in the Upper Ewaso Nyiro North River Basin: A Case for Laikipia County." Journal of International Business, Innovation and Strategic Management. 2018;1(8):1-21.
Okunya LO, Mwangi DN. "ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DURATION OF INSTITUTIONALIZATION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL COPING STRATEGIES AMONG ADOLESCENTS ." International Journal of Education and Social Science Research . 2018;1(6).diana_njoki_coping_paper_ijessr_01_99.pdf
Oduor J. "An Autosegmental Analysis of the Downstepped High Tone in Dholuo.". In: In Helga and Prisca Jerono (eds.) Nilo-Saharan Issues and Perspectives. Cologne: Köppe, pp. 43 - 56.; 2018.
Kithinji AM. "BANK SIZE AS A MODERATING FACTOR ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BANK RESTRUCTURING AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN KENYA ." International Journal of Business Management and Economic Review. 2018;5(1):298-307. Abstractdr._angela_kithinji_publications_2018_to_2019_1.pdf

ABSTRACT
The main goal of this research was to examine how bank size moderates the relationship between
bank restructuring and financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya. This study
employed descriptive research design. The study was a census of all the 44 commercial banks in
Kenya which were in operation as at 31st December 2014. This research collected secondary
data gotten from banks annual report for the period of ranging from 2002 to 2014. The regression
analysis model was used to estimate the moderating effect of size on the relationship between
bank restructuring and profitability. The study established that moderation of the relationship
between bank restructuring and financial performance using bank size was not significantly
influenced by financial restructuring, operational restructuring and asset restructuring on
financial performance of commercial banks. However, when bank restructuring variables were
interacted with bank size the findings are that only capital restructuring had a significant
interaction. It was therefore, concluded that bank size therefore moderates the relationship
between bank restructuring and financial performance. The study recommends that there is need
to institute policy reforms geared towards increasing the size of banks either internally by
increasing their asset size or through mergers to expand their size. The regulator can also embark
on setting a minimum size threshold with a view to significantly reducing the number of banks
which would translate into the remaining ones becoming larger. Furthermore, there is need for
commercial banks to strike a balance between enhancing their operations through operational
restructuring or improving profits by focusing on aspects that have a direct positive effect on
profits.

Keyword: Bank Size, Bank Restructuring, Financial Performance, Commercial Banks

Githui SN, Chege M, Wagoro MCA, Mwaura J. "Barriers to Screening Pregnant Women for Domestic Violence: A Cross- Sectional Study." Journal of Community and Public Health Nursing.Comm Pub Health Nurs 2018. 2018;4(10.4172/2471-9846.1000207).
Mulwa M, Samuel Ngigi. "Barriers to Uptake and Use of Added Value Mobile Money Products by the Lesser off Segments in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 2018;7(6):146-155.jun18049_1.pdf
Bulinda DM. "Basics of Educational Administration ." Lambart Academic Publishing. 2018.
Mbali KK, Mutembei HM MJK. "BENEFITS OF ADOPTING BIOGAS TECHNOLOGY IN." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(3):87-92.mutembei-mbali-benefits-2018.pdf
Anne W Muohi, Gerd‐Peter Zauke, Hans‐Jurgen Brumsack, Mavuti KM. "Bioaccumulation of trace elements in Arthrospira fusiformis algal blooms in Lakes Bogoria and Sonachi, Kenya: Evaluation and verification of toxicokinetic models." Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management. 2018;23(4):277-286.
ODUOR, Karanja, N.K, Onwonga, R.N., Mureithi, S.M., Pelster D, Nyberg G. "biomass in semi-arid rangeland using pasture enclosures." BMC ecology. 2018;18(1):45.
ODUOR, Karanja, N.K, Onwonga, R.N., Mureithi, S.M., Pelster D, Nyberg G. "biomass in semi-arid rangeland using pasture enclosures." BMC ecology. 2018;18(1):45.
Lengai G, Muthomi J. "Biopesticides and Their Role in Sustainable Agricultural Production." Journal of Biosciences and Medicines. 2018;6:7-41.
Angeline Anyona Aywak1*, Timothy Musila Mutala1, Purity Ndaiga1, Callen Onyambu1, Raza2 S. "Breast Cancer Prevalence Among Patients Referred for Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." The Journal of Global Radiology. 2018;4(1):1-7.
AA A, TM M, P N, C O, S. R. "Breast Cancer Prevalence Among Patients Referred for Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." J Glob Radiol. 2018;4((1)):10.7191/jgr.2018.1037.
Kamau A, Paul Kamau, Muia D, Baiya H, Ndung'u J. "Bridging the entrepreneurial gender gap through social protection among women small-scale traders in Kenya.". In: Women Entrepreneurs and the Myth of ‘Underperformance’: A New Look at Women’s Entrepreneurship Research. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing; 2018.1-14619-flier.pdf
Gannon KE, Conway D, Pardoe J, Ndiyoi M, Batisani N, E. O, Olago D, Opere A, et al. "Business experience of floods and drought-related water and electricity supply disruption in three cities in sub-Saharan Africa during the 2015/2016 El Niño." Global Sustainability . 2018;1:e14. AbstractWebsite

The El Niño event in 2015/2016 was one of the strongest since at least 1950. Through surveys and interviews with key informants, we found businesses in the capital cities of Zambia, Botswana and Kenya experienced major disruption to their activities from El Niño related hydroelectric load shedding, water supply disruption and flooding, respectively. Yet, during the 2015/2016 El Niño, fluctuations in precipitation were not extreme considering the strength of the El Niño event. Results therefore highlight that even fairly moderate precipitation anomalies can contribute to major disruption to economic activity. Addressing the risk of disruption – and supporting the private sector to adapt – is a development priority.

Kailemia M, Kariuki N, Laving A, Agweyu A, Wamalwa. D. "Caregiver oral rehydration solution fluid monitoring charts versus standard care for the management of some dehydration among Kenyan children: a randomized controlled trial." International Health. 2018;10(6):442-450. Abstract

Diarrhoea is a major cause of child mortality. Although oral rehydration solution (ORS) is an efficacious intervention for correcting dehydration, inadequate monitoring may limit its effectiveness in routine settings. We evaluated the effect of using a caregiver-administered chart to monitor oral fluid therapy on hydration status among children with some dehydration.

K. MS, G. MM. "CHALLENGES FACED IN SUCCESSION PLANNING IN THE HOTEL INDUSTRY IN KENYA." International Journal of Arts and Commerce. 2018;7(6):25-39.succession_planning_challenges.pdf
and Zubeda Mucheke DNBS. "Challenges to electronic conveyancing in Kenya." Open University of Tanzania Law Journal. 2018.
K, wa Gachigi. "Changes in Phytochemical content during different growth stages in tubers of five varieties of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2018;6(1):1-11. Abstractgeoffrey_kipkoech_kirui.pdfWebsite

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) synthesizes a variety of bioactive metabolites including phenolic compounds and glycoalkaloids that protects against insects and diseases, and may influence its nutritional quality. Phenolics provide valuable health promoting antioxidants, whereas glycoalkaloid concentrations exceeding the upper safety limit of 20 mg/100 g fresh weight (Fwt) are potential neurotoxins. Therefore, efficient selection for tuber nutritional quality is dependent upon safe and reliable analytical methods. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the concentration of glycoalkaloids and phenolic compounds during different growth stages in tubers of five selected potato varieties grown in Kenya. α-chaconine and α-solanine were separated and identified by HPLC. Total glycoalkaloids (TGA) and phenolics were determined by UV spectrophotometry. Recovery efficiencies for validation of analytical methods ranged from 85.9-93.5%. Significant differences in TGA and phenolic contents were detected among potato varieties. Tuber TGA content ranged from 6.80 to 10.56 mg/100g Fwt in vars. Dutch Robijn and Tigoni, respectively, and were within the upper safety limit. The corresponding values for chlorogenic acid contents in the examined varieties ranged from 46.39 to 58.04 mg/100 g Fwt. Total phenolic concentration in the examined tuber extracts varied ranged from 129.24 to 192.52 mg CGA/g Fwt. Glycoalkaloid and phenolic production were significantly reduced from time of initiation to maturity at 55 and 125 days, respectively, after planting (DAP). These results demonstrate that tuber phytochemicals were strongly influenced by variety and level of maturity. For nutritional safety and quality purposes, harvesting of mature potato tubers after 125 DAP is recommended

Kirui GK, Saifuddin Fidahussein Dossaji, Amugune NO. "Changes in Phytochemical Content During Different Growth Stages in Tubers of Five Varieties of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.)." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science Journal. 2018;6(1):12-22.
Geoffrey Kipkoech Kirui, Saifuddin Fidahussein Dossaji NOA. "Changes in Phytochemical Content During Different Growth Stages in Tubers of Five Varieties of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.)." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science Journal. 2018;6(1):12-22.
Kabira WM. "Changing the Mainstream Celebrating Women’s Resilience.". In: Changing the Mainstream Celebrating Women’s Resilience.; 2018.
Olumeh1* DE, Adam2 R, Otieno1 DJ, Oluoch-Kosura1 W. "Characterizing Smallholder Maize Farmers’ Marketing in Kenya: An Insight into the Intra-Household Gender, Wealth-Status, Educational and Credit Access Dimensions ." Journal of Marketing and Consumer Research www.iiste.org. 2018;Vol.48(ISSN):2422-8451.
Olumeh DE, Rahma A, Otieno DJ, Oluoch-Kosura W. "Characterizing smallholder maize farmers’ marketing in Kenya: An insight into the intra-household gender, wealth-status, educational and credit access dimensions." Journal of Marketing and Consumer Research (JMCR). 2018;48(7)(ISSN 2422 – 8451):1-10.
Joseph O. "China’s Development Loans and the threat of Debt Crisis in Kenya." Development Policy Review. 2018; 36(S2): 0710-0728.Website
Paschalia Mbutu, Dr. Wanjiru Gichuhi DGN. "Choice of Place of Delivery during Pregnancy in Kenya: A Case of Kitui West Sub-County." International Journal ofbScience Arts and Commerce. 2018;3(5).
Etyang, P. P. & Okoth UA. "Class Teachers’ Role in Maintaining Students’ Discipline In Secondary Schools in Teso South District, Kenya ." International Journal of Human Resources Management (IJHRM). 2018;7(3):1-8.
Mungania BG, Schroeder H. "Clause chaining in the Kiswahili clause." Kiswahili. 2018;Vol. 81:120-146.
Cuni-Sanchez A, Omeny P, Pfeifer M, Olaka L, Mamo MB, Marchant R, Burgess ND. "Climate change and pastoralists: perceptions and adaptation in montane Kenya." Climate and Development. 2018:1-12. AbstractFull Text

Tropical montane forests are amongst the most threatened ecosystems by climate change. However, little is known about climatic changes already observed in these montane areas in Africa, or the adaptation strategies used by pastoralist communities. This article, focused on three mountains in northern Kenya, aims to fill these knowledge gaps. Focus-group discussions with village elders were organized in 10 villages on each mountain (n = 30). Villages covered different pastoralist ethnic groups. Historical data on rainfall, temperature and fog were gathered from Marsabit Meteorological station. All participants reported changes in the amount and distribution of rainfall, fog, temperature and wind for the past 20–30 years; regardless of the mountain or ethnicity. They particularly highlighted the reduction in fog. Meteorological evidence on rainfall, temperature and fog agreed with local perceptions; particularly important was a 60% reduction in hours of fog per year since 1981. Starting farming and shifting to camel herding were the adaptive strategies most commonly mentioned. Some adaptive strategies were only mentioned in one mountain or by one ethnic group (e.g. starting the cultivation of khat). We highlight the potential use of local communities’ perceptions to complement climatic records in data-deficient areas, such as many tropical mountains, and emphasize the need for more research focused on the adaptation strategies used by pastoralists.

"Climate Change Challenges and Food Production in Elwak South Madera County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development (IJIRD). 2018;Vol. 7(Issue 7):379-387.
Ogallo LA, Omondi P, Ouma G, Wayumba G. "Climate Change Projections and the Associated Potential Impacts for Somalia." American Journal of Climate Change. 2018;7(2):153. Abstractclimate_change_projections_and_the_associated_potential_impacts_for_somalia.pdfAmerican Journal of Climate Change

Somalia has faced severe challenges linked to climate variability, which has been exacerbated by conflict and limited governance that persisted for decades. Today climate extremes such as floods, drought, and coastal marine severe systems among others are always associated with the destruction of property and livelihoods; losses of lives lost, migrations, and resource based conflicts among many other miseries. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has shown that climate change is real and requires sound knowledge of local future climate change scenarios. The study attempted to provide projected rainfall and temperature change scenarios over Lower Jubba, Somalia. This was done using the downscaled Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) RCMs data. The simulated temperature and rainfall data derived from the CORDEX RCMs ensemble were compared with the observed data. The study focused on the IPCC projected periods of
2030, 2050 and 2070 benchmarks. Analysis of the projected rainfall indicated a decreasing trend in rainfall leading up to 2030 followed by an increase in rainfall with the 2050 and 2070 scenarios. In the case of temperature, the projections from all the models showed increase in minimum and maximum temperatures in all seasons and sub periods, like being observed by temperature projection over other parts of the world. The 2030, 2050 and 2070 projected rainfall and temperature change scenarios show that Somalia future development and livelihoods will in future face increased threats of climate extremes unless effective climate smart adaptation systems form integral components of national development strategies.

F M, JJ C. "Clinical Learning Experiences: A study among Undergraduate Nursing Students, Kenya." Nursing Research and Practice Journal. 2018.
Jane Aduda1, Patrick Weke2 PN2. "A Co-Integration Analysis of the Interdependencies between Crude Oil and Distillate Fuel Prices." journal of mathematical finance. 2018;8(2):478-496. AbstractA Co-Integration Analysis of the Interdependencies between Crude Oil and Distillate Fuel Prices

The co-evolution and co-movement of financial time series are of utmost importance in contemporary finance, especially when considering the joint behaviour of asset price realizations. The ability to model interdependencies and volatility spill-over effects introduces interesting dimensions in finance. This paper explores co-integrating relationships between crude oil and distillate fuel prices. Existence of multivariate co-integrating relations and bidirectional Granger-Causality is established among the series. It is also established that even after fitting a full VECM, the residuals are not necessarily multivariate normal suggesting the noise could as well be multivariate GARCH.

Yuga ME, Kimani, P.M; Kimani JM, Kimani PM, Olubayo MF, Muthomi JW, Nzuve FM. "Combining Ability and Heterosis for Agronomic and Yield Traits in Indica and Japonica Rice Crosses." Journal of Agricultural Science . 2018;10(12):92-103.
Rono S, Nzuve F, Muthomi J, Kimani J. "Combining Ability of Agronomic and Yield Traits in Rice Genotypes." Journal of Plant Physiology & Pathology. 2018;6:2.
Kataliko RK, Kimani PM, Muthomi JW, Wanderi SW, Olubayo FM, Nzuve FM. "Combining ability of resistance to pod shattering and selected agronomic traits of soybean." International Journal of Agricultural Policy and Research. 2018;6(10):176-188.
Kambura C, Tanga CM, Kilalo D, Muthomi J, Salifu D, Rwomushana I, Mohamed SA, Ekesi S. "Composition, Host Range and Host Suitability of Vegetable-Infesting Tephritids on Cucurbits Cultivated in Kenya." African Entomology. 2018;26(2):379-397.
Osiro OA, Kariuki DK, Gathece LW. "Composition, Particle Size, Setting Time of Clinker and Geopolymer Cements." East African Medical Journal. 2018;95(5):1522-1534.
Mwabora JM, Mulama AA, Oduor AO, Muiva CM. "Compositional and Thickness Effects on the Optical Properties of Zinc–Doped Selenium–Antimony Thin Films." Tanzania Journal of Science. 2018;44(4). Abstract

Chalcogenide system of antimony (Sb)-selenium (Se)-zinc (Zn) system is a promising semiconductor for phase change memory devices due to its thermal stability and low power consumption. The study investigated the effect of film thickness and zinc content on the optical properties of thermally evaporated Sb10Se90-xZnx (x = 0, 5, 10 & 15 at. %) thin films. It was found that transmittance (T~ 85-40%) and optical band gap energy (Eopt ~ 1.60 eV – 1.22 eV) decreased but absorption coefficient (α~0.840–2.031 104 cm–1) increased with increase in zinc content. Furthermore, as the film thickness increased from 53 ± 5 nm to 286 ± 10 nm, transmittance decreased but band gap energy increased due to zinc defects and localized states in the Sb10Se90-xZnx system.

Henry M. "Connection between Environment and Peace." National Symposium of Peace and Environment, Nairobi.; 2018.
Rukwaro P. "Conservation of Natural and Cultural Heritage in Kenya." www.ucl.ac.uk/ucl-press; 2018.
Ekirapa, A. F. &Okoth UA. "Constituency bursary scheme for secondary schools in Kenya: Challenges of the constituency development fund (CDF). ." IMPACT. International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Literature (Impact: IJRHAL). 2018;6(3):229-240.
Kunyanga Catherine. N., Amimo JKLC'wa GN. "Consumer Risk Exposure to Chemical and Microbial Hazards through Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables in Kenya. ." Journal of Food Science and Quality Management. 2018;78:59-69.
Quinlan MM, Birungi J, Coulibaly MB, Diabaté A, Facchinelli L, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, M J. "Containment studies of transgenic mosquitoes in disease endemic countries: The broad concept of facilities readiness." Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 2018;18(1):14-20.
John Mwangi Prisca Mary Oluoch PAO. "Content of Vignettes and Ethical Decision Making Among Business Education Students at the University of Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. 2018;17(11).
Matula PD, Sikalie D. Cross- Cultural Management..; 2018.
Yaouba S, Valkonen A, Coghi P, Gao J, Guantai EM, Derese S, Wong VKW, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "Crystal Structures and Cytotoxicity of ent-Kaurane-Type Diterpenoids from Two Aspilia Species." Molecules. 2018;23(12):31-99. Abstract

A phytochemical investigation of the roots of Aspilia pluriseta led to the isolation of ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids and additional phytochemicals (1–23). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. The absolute configurations of seven of the ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids (3–6, 6b, 7 and 8) were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Eleven of the compounds were also isolated from the roots and the aerial parts of Aspilia mossambicensis. The literature NMR assignments for compounds 1 and 5 were revised. In a cytotoxicity assay, 12α-methoxy-ent-kaur-9 (11), 16-dien-19-oic acid (1)(IC 50= 27.3±1.9 µM) and 9β-hydroxy-15α-angeloyloxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (3)(IC 50= 24.7±2.8 µM) were the most cytotoxic against the hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep-G2) cell line, while 15α-angeloyloxy-16β, 17-epoxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (5)(IC 50= 30.7±1.7 µM) was the most cytotoxic against adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial (A549) cells.

Derese S. "Crystal Structures and Cytotoxicity of ent-Kaurane-Type Diterpenoids from Two Aspilia Species." Molecules 23. 2018;23(12):3199. Abstract

A phytochemical investigation of the roots of Aspilia pluriseta led to the isolation of ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids and additional phytochemicals (1–23). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. The absolute configurations of seven of the ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids (3–6, 6b, 7 and 8) were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Eleven of the compounds were also isolated from the roots and the aerial parts of Aspilia mossambicensis. The literature NMR assignments for compounds 1 and 5 were revised. In a cytotoxicity assay, 12α-methoxy-ent-kaur-9 (11), 16-dien-19-oic acid (1)(IC 50= 27.3±1.9 µM) and 9β-hydroxy-15α-angeloyloxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (3)(IC 50= 24.7±2.8 µM) were the most cytotoxic against the hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep-G2) cell line, while 15α-angeloyloxy-16β, 17-epoxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (5)(IC 50= 30.7±1.7 µM) was the most cytotoxic against adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial (A549) cells.

Sungura R, Onyambu C, Mathenge I. "The CT Angiographic Prevalence of Renal Accessory Arteries in Kenya." International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2018;7(1):2745-2754.Online
Sungura R, Onyambu C, Mathenge I. "The CT Angiographic Prevalence of Renal Accessory Arteries in Kenya." International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2018;7(1): 2745-2754.
and Karibe Wilson KCIJ. "Current status and utilization of beef slaughter by-product by the pastoral communities in Kenya: the case of bovine tripe." Journal of Advances in Food Science & Technology. 2018;5(2):48-57.
Chanzu, Oliver. KCIJKWNK. "Current Status of Pre-slaughter, Slaughtering and Post-slaughter Practices of Fresh Beef in Pastoral Areas of Kenya." Journal of Food Science and Quality Management;. 2018;78:17-22.
Adem FA, Kuete V, Mbaveng AT, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Efferth T, Yenesew A. "Cytotoxic benzylbenzofuran derivatives from Dorstenia kameruniana." Fitoterapia. 2018;128:26-30. Abstract

Chromatographic separation of the extract of the roots of Dorstenia kameruniana (family Moraceae) led to the isolation of three new benzylbenzofuran derivatives, 2-(p-hydroxybenzyl)benzofuran-6-ol (1), 2-(p-hydroxybenzyl)-7-methoxybenzofuran-6-ol (2) and 2-(p-hydroxy)-3-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)benzyl)benzofuran-6-ol(3) (named dorsmerunin A, B and C, respectively), along with the known furanocoumarin, bergapten (4). The twigs of Dorstenia kameruniana also produced compounds 1–4 as well as the known chalcone licoagrochalcone A (5). The structures were elucidated by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The isolated compounds displayed cytotoxicity against the sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cells, where compounds 4 and 5 had the highest activities (IC50 values of 7.17 μM and 5.16 μM, respectively) against CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Compound 5

Kuete V, Omosa LK, Karaosmanoğlu O, Sivas H. "Cytotoxicity of 11 Naturally occurring Phenolics and Terpenoids from Kenyan Flora towards Human Carcinoma Cells." Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine. 2018;https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaim.2018.04.001.kuete_et_al_2018 pdfkuete_et_al_2018 pdf
Nyaboke HO, Moraa M, Omosa LK, Mbaveng AT, Vaderament-Alexe N-N, Masila V, Okemwa E, Heydenreich M, Efferth T, Kuete V. "Cytotoxicity of Lupeol from the Stem Bark of Zanthoxylum gilletii against Multi-factorial Drug Resistant Cancer Cell Lines ." Investigational Medicinal Chemistry & Pharmacology . 2018;1(1):10.
Mutekhele, B; Rambo ONCM; O;. "Data Dissemination and Use and Performance of Educational Building Infrastructural Projects: A Case of Bungoma County, Kenya." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) . 2018;7(10).
Kimani M, E A, P W, R P, M N, H K. The Data Services Layer: A Data analytics approach to evidence-based decision making for healthcare in Kenya. Nairobi: The Pan African Health Informatics Association; 2018.
Muigua K. "Dealing with Conflicts in Project Management." Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (Kenya), Alternative Dispute Resolution.. 2018;6(2):1-36.dealing_with_conflicts_in_project_management.pdf
M’Ikiugu MH. "Demographic Factors that Affect Adoption of Biogas Technology in Kiambu County, Kenya." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH AND KNOWLEDGE. 2018;3(1):48-57.mbali_et_al._2018-_mutemebi-_muthee.pdf
Maina EG, Gachanja AN, Gachanja AN, Price H. "Demonstrating PM2.5 and road-side dust pollution by heavy metals along Thika superhighway in Kenya, sub-Saharan Africa." Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2018;(190):251.
Kuballa T, Hausler T, Okaru AO, Neufeld M, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Rehm J, Luy B, Walch SG, Lachenmeier DW. "Detection of counterfeit brand spirits using 1H NMR fingerprints in comparison to sensory analysis." Food Chem.. 2018;245:112-115. Abstract

Beverage fraud involving counterfeiting of brand spirits is an increasing problem not only due to deception of the consumer but also because it poses health risks e.g. from possible methanol admixture. Suspicious spirit samples from Russia and Kenya were analysed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in comparison to authentic products. Using linear regression analysis of spectral integral values, 4 counterfeited samples from Russia and 2 from Kenya were easily identifiable with R2 < 0.7. Sensory analysis using triangle test methodology confirmed significant taste differences between counterfeited and authentic samples but the assessors were unable to correctly identify the counterfeited product in the majority of cases. An important conclusion is that consumers cannot assumed to be self-responsible when consuming counterfeit alcohol because there is no general ability to organoleptically detect counterfeit alcohol. Beverage fraud involving counterfeiting of brand spirits is an increasing problem not only due to deception of the consumer but also because it poses health risks e.g. from possible methanol admixture. Suspicious spirit samples from Russia and Kenya were analysed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in comparison to authentic products. Using linear regression analysis of spectral integral values, 4 counterfeited samples from Russia and 2 from Kenya were easily identifiable with R2 < 0.7. Sensory analysis using triangle test methodology confirmed significant taste differences between counterfeited and authentic samples but the assessors were unable to correctly identify the counterfeited product in the majority of cases. An important conclusion is that consumers cannot assumed to be self-responsible when consuming counterfeit alcohol because there is no general ability to organoleptically detect counterfeit alcohol.

Machio PM. "Determinants of Neonatal and Under-five Mortality in Kenya: Do Antenatal and Skilled Delivery Care Services Matter?" Journal of African Development, African Finance and Economic Association. 2018;20(1):59-67.
Aluda AT, Amugune BK, Abuga KO, Kamau FN. "Development and Validation of a Gas Chromatographic Method for Determination of Menthol in Cold-Cough Syrups." PJK. 2018;23(3):90-93. Abstract

Background
Common cold is the most common infection of the upper respiratory tract and cold-cough syrups are often prescribed. Although menthol is one of the common constituents of these syrups, quality checks on cold-cough syrups normally target the major active pharmaceutical ingredients without regard to menthol content.

Objective
To develop and validate a gas chromatography method for determination of menthol in cold-cough syrups.

Methods
A simple, rapid, robust, accurate and reliable Gas Chromatography method was developed and validated for the determination of menthol in cold-cough syrups that may also contain ambroxol, chlorpheniramine, guaifenesin, bromhexine and salbutamol.

Results
Optimized chromatographic conditions were: A ZB-WAXplus 60m ×0.25mm; 0.25μm fused silica capillary column. Oven temperature program of 110 0C (2 min), ramp 10 0C/min to 190 0C (2 min). Injector port temperature maintained at 240 0C. Injection volume of 1.0 μl split in the ratio of 50:1. Carrier gas as nitrogen at 1.0mL/min which also serves as make up gas (30 mL/min) in the flame ionization detector (260 0C). Other detector gases were hydrogen (30 mL/ min) and industrial air (300 mL/ min) and the diluent for samples and standards was grade chloroform.
From recovery studies, 97.56 to 102.97 % recovery was reported. Repeatability studies had a coefficient of variation of 0.55 while intermediate precision was 0.32. The method was linear over a range of 0.042 to 0.169 mg/mL with a coefficient of determination (R2) 0.9986.
Of the 21 samples analyzed, only 10 samples (47.6 %) complied with assay specifications of 90.0 to 110.0 % label claim for finished products according to the United States Pharmacopeia 2016.

Conclusion and recommendation
A gas chromatographic method was developed and validated for the determination of menthol in cold-cough syrups in Kenya. This method can be used together with a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method to assay cold-cough syrups that may also contain ambroxol, bromhexine, chlorpheniramine maleate, guaifenesin and salbutamol.
This method can be useful in routine analysis such as pre-registration studies as well as post market surveillance to curb substandard and counterfeit cold-cough syrups.

Chikondi Memory Liomba, Catherine Nkirote Kunyanga AA. "Development of Multimix Composite Flour as Complementary Food for Infants in Malawi. ." International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2018;(2):11.
Wachege PN, Cherono F. "Discourse on Ecumenical Implications of Pneumatological Vital Force Towards University Students' Welfare." IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2018;23(7):62-73.prof_wachege__cherono_article.pdf
J K, P N, Ndegwa P, L I, J I, B BO, C. A. "Discovery of Phlebotomus Species of Sand Flies in Mwea Irrigation Scheme, Kirinyaga County, Kenya: A Possible Leishmaniases focus. ." Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology . 2018;4(3):1103-1107.
MM M, Opanga S, Oluka M, Godman B. "'Dispensing of antimicrobials in Kenya: a cross sectional pilot study and its implications' ." Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice. 2018:1-8.
Waswa G. A, I. M, Abong'o D. A, Mbugua J. K., D. A, Aluoch A. O. "Dissipation and Sorption of Urea on Eburru Soils in Kenya." Journal of Physical Chemistry and Biophysics. 2018;8(3):271.
Ong’amo GO, Pallangyo B, Ali A, Njaku M, LeRu BP. "Diversity and abundance of lepidopteran stem borers and their respective native hosts in different vegetation mosaics in Tanzania." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):50-62.
Templer N, Probst L, Onwonga R, Kamusingize D, Ogwali H, Hauser M, Owamani A, Mulumba LN. "Does certified organic agriculture increase agroecosystem health? Evidence from four farming systems in Uganda." 2018 Impact Factor 2.243 International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability. 2018;16(2):150-166 .
Twalib MH, K'OBONYO PO. "DOES KISSING UP TO THE BOSS PAY?" International Journal of Innovation Research and Knowledge.. 2018;3(3):1-10. Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the influence of ingratiation on employees’ career mobility. The study used a descriptive survey and a population study of 169 employees with a response rate of 122(72.2%). This is considered sufficient as recommended by experts (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2009). Primary data was collected using self-administered structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the data and the hypothesis formulated was analysed using linear regression analysis. The results confirmed the hypothesis thatingratiation influences career mobility (R2=.944, F=2011.237, P≤0.05). The correlation coefficient for the model was 0.971 which also confirms that there is a strong relationship between ingratiation and career mobility. The study recommends that objective means of performance appraisals be established and followed by superiors to ensure fair and credible ways of career mobility to its employees. The paper suggests if the same study can be replicated in other organizations using a longitudinal research design.

Olago D, Marchant R, Richer S, Capitani C, Courtney-Mustaphi C, Prendergast M. "Drivers and trajectories of land cover change in East Africa: Human and environmental interactions from 6000years ago to present." Earth-Science Reviews. 2018;178:322-378. AbstractFull Text

East African landscapes today are the result of the cumulative effects of climate and land-use change over millennial timescales. In this review, we compile archaeological and palaeoenvironmental data from East Africa to document land-cover change, and environmental, subsistence and land-use transitions, over the past 6000 years. Throughout East Africa there have been a series of relatively rapid and high-magnitude environmental shifts characterised by changing hydrological budgets during the mid- to late Holocene. For example, pronounced environmental shifts that manifested as a marked change in the rainfall amount or seasonality and subsequent hydrological budget throughout East Africa occurred around 4000, 800 and 300 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP). The past 6000 years have also seen numerous shifts in human interactions with East African ecologies. From the mid-Holocene, land use has both diversified and increased exponentially, this has been associated with the arrival of new subsistence systems, crops, migrants and technologies, all giving rise to a sequence of significant phases of land-cover change. The first large-scale human influences began to occur around 4000 yr BP, associated with the introduction of domesticated livestock and the expansion of pastoral communities. The first widespread and intensive forest clearances were associated with the arrival of iron-using early farming communities around 2500 yr BP, particularly in productive and easily-cleared mid-altitudinal areas. Extensive and pervasive land-cover change has been associated with population growth, immigration and movement of people. The expansion of trading routes between the interior and the coast, starting around 1300 years ago and intensifying in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries CE, was one such process. These caravan routes possibly acted as conduits for spreading New World crops such as maize (Zea mays), tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) and tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), although the processes and timings of their introductions remains poorly documented. The introduction of southeast Asian domesticates, especially banana (Musa spp.), rice (Oryza spp.), taro (Colocasia esculenta), and chicken (Gallus gallus), via transoceanic biological transfers around and across the Indian Ocean, from at least around 1300 yr BP, and potentially significantly earlier, also had profound social and ecological consequences across parts of the region.

Through an interdisciplinary synthesis of information and metadatasets, we explore the different drivers and directions of changes in land-cover, and the associated environmental histories and interactions with various cultures, technologies, and subsistence strategies through time and across space in East Africa. This review suggests topics for targeted future research that focus on areas and/or time periods where our understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and land-cover change are most contentious and/or poorly resolved. The review also offers a perspective on how knowledge of regional land-use change can be used to inform and provide perspectives on contemporary issues such as climate and ecosystem change models, conservation strategies, and the achievement of nature-based solutions for development purposes.

Mewa E. A, Okoth M. W KRCNMN. "Drying Modelling, Moisture Diffusivity and Sensory quality of Thin Layer dried Beef." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2018;6(2):552-565.
Ebanda RO, Michieka RW, Otieno DJ, Geiger V. "The dynamics of culture on environmental sustainability: A case of Central Africa." The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Environmental Studies. 2018;12(3)(ISSN 2329-1559):1-15.
Ebanda RO, Michieka RW, Otieno DJ, V. G. "The Dynamics of Culture on Environmental Sustainability: A Case of Central Africa." The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social and Community Studies. 2018;12(3):1-15.
FA F, J K, CF O, A W, S N. "Dysglycaemia among kidney transplant recipients at a national referral hospital in Kenya." Journal of Kenya Association of Physicians. 2018;1(1).
Kelder EM, Marijnissen JCM, Karuga WS. "EDHA for energy production, storage and conversion devices." Journal of Aerosol Science. 2018;125(2018):119-147.
Mandala, N E, Aduda J, Iraya C. "The Effect of Board Structure and CEO Tenure on the Performance of Financial Institutions in Kenya." Journal of Finance and Investment Analysis. 2018;7(1):59-77.jfia_vol_7_1_4.pdfjfia_vol_7_1_4.pdf
Mewa, Eunice. A. OMKCRWNMN. "Effect of drying air temperature and slice thickness on the physical and microbiological quality of dried beef." LWT - Food Science and Technology. 2018;92:484-489.
Kasaya MA, Munjuri MG. "Effect of Employee Involvement on Job Performance in the Medical Research Industry in Kenya." International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management. 2018;6(5):826-847.job_involvement_and_job_performance.pdf
Ndombi EM, Abudho B, Kittur N, Carter JM, Korir H, Riner DK, Ochanda H, Lee Y‐M, S EW. "Effect of four rounds of annual school‐wide mass praziquantel treatment for schistosoma mansoni control on schistosome‐specific immune responses." Parasite Immunology. 2018:e12530.
STELLAH NEKESA WANYONYI, EVANS MUNGAI MWANGI NATHANGICHUKI. "Effect of habitat disturbance on distribution and abundance of Papyrus endemic birds in Sio Port Swamp, Western Kenya." Bonorowo Wetlands. 2018;8(2):51-62.
A Obiero, J Kalai OU. "Effect of Home Related Factors on Students Discipline in Public Secondary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya. ." International Journal of Education and Social Science. 2018;5(10):2415-1246 .
Mutiso PM, Kinama JM, O C. "Effect of in situ moisture conservation techniques on yield and water use efficiency of pearl millet in Makueni, Kenya ." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR) . 2018;12(6):186-196.
Pierre HJM, Kinama JM, Olubayo FM, Wanderi SW, Muthomi JW, Nzuve FM. "Effect of Intercropping Maize and Promiscuous Soybean on Growth and Yield. ." Journal of Experimental Agriculture International. 2018;12(2):1-21.
Pierre HJM, Kinama JM, Olubayo FM, Olubayo FM. "Effect of Intercropping Maize-Soybean on Grain Quality Traits in Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(2):341-351.
Okumu OO, Muthomi J, Ojiem J, Narla R, Nderitu J. "Effect of lablab green manure on population of soil microorganisms and establishment of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)." American Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;5(3):44-54.
Onjala J, Awiti J, Gideon M. "Effect of Public Spending on Economic Growth in Kenya." Journal of Economics. 2018;6(2).
Buyela SN, Muthomi JW, Mwang’ombe AW, Njau P, Olubayo F. "Effect of Seed Treatment on Wheat Seed Viability and Vigour." American Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;5(1):1-9.
Mdenye BB, Kinama JM, Olubayo FM'mogi, Kivuva BM, Muthomi JW. "Effect of storage methods of cassava planting materials on establishment and early growth vigour." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR) . 2018;12(1):1-10.
6. Muriithi EM. "Effect of teacher characteristics on learner academic achievement in physics in Kenyan secondary schools." International Journal of Education and Research. 2018;6(3):169-178.
Okumu O, Muthomi J, Ojiem J, Narla R, Nderitu J. "Effect of time after incorporation of lablab green manure on root rot pathogens and establishment of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)." World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2018;6(4):113-121.
Uwizeyimana D, Mureithi SM, Karuku G, Kironchi G. "Effect of water conservation measures on soil moisture and maize yield under drought prone agro-ecological zones in Rwanda ." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2018;6(3):21.
Uwizeyimana D, Mureithi SM, Karuku G, Kironchi, G. "Effect of water conservation measures on soil moisture and maize yield under drought prone agro-ecological zones in Rwanda." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2018;6(3):21.
Uwizeyimana, D., Mureithi, S.M., and Karuku G, Kironchi G. "Effect of water conservation measures on soil moisture and maize yield under drought prone agro-ecological zones in Rwanda." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2018;6(3):21.
Bill Okemwa, Nathan Gichuki, Munir Virani, James Kanya, Jenesio Kinyamario AS. "Effectiveness of LED lights on bomas in protecting livestock from predation in southern Kenya." Conservation Evidence. 2018.
JJ C, G O, W M. "Effectiveness of Mobile Phone Text Message Reminder on Birth Preparedness in a Rural Community in Kenya." Obstetrics and Gynaecology International Journal. 2018.
Ogolla KO, Okumu PO, Gathumbi PK, Waruiru. RM. "Effects of Anticoccidial Drugs on Gross and Histopathological Lesions Caused by Experimental Rabbit Coccidiosis." SOJ Veterinary Sciences. 2018;4(3): 1-10.symbiosis.pdf
Josyline K, Philip N, Lucy I, Paul N, Johnstone I, Reuben R, Osero B, Chritopher A. "Effects of Lambdacyhalothrin incorporated into 1,4-Dichlorobenzene on sand fly and mosquito vectors in endemic areas of Kenya. ." Journal of Zoological Research . 2018;2(1):1-6.
Ebanda RO, Michieka RW, Otieno DJ, Geiger V. "The effects of sociocultural determinants on cultural dimensions: A case of East Africa." The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social and Community Studies. 2018;13(4)(ISSN 2324-7584):19-37.
O. ER, W MR, Otieno DJ. "The Effects of Sociocutural Determinants on Cultural Dimensions: A Case of East Africa." The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social and Community Studies. 2018;13(4):19-37.
Kingi, P. M. "Effects of Teachers’ Participation in School Community Partnership and Motivation." IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS. 2018;7(4):48-55.
Ogolla KO, Gathumbi PK, Waruiru RM, Okumu PO, Kitala PM, Chebet J. "Efficacy of Sulphachloropyrazine, Amprolium Hydrochloride, Trimethoprim-Sulphamethoxazole, and Diclazuril against Experimental and Natural Rabbit Coccidiosis." Journal of veterinary medicine. 2018;1:11.
Miruka AC, Kariuki DK, Yusuf AO, Onyatta JO. "Efficiency of a Wastewater Treatment Plant in the City of Nairobi." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2018;38(1):152-162.
Kinyungu TN, Muthomi JW, Subramanian S, Miano DW, Olubayo FM, Wagura J. "Efficiency of aphid and thrips vectors in transmission of viruses causing maize lethal necrosis disease." World Journal of Agricultural Research . 2018;6(4):144-152.
Nguu J, Nyongesa F, Robinson Musembi, Aduda B. "Electrophoretic Deposition and Characterization of TiO2/Nb2O5 Composite Thin Films for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells.". 2018. AbstractJournal article website

In this study, Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD) technique was used to fabricate TiO2/Nb2O5 composite
thin films on FTO coated glass for application as photoelectrodes in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC). A
TiO2/Nb2O5 ratio of 1:1 was used in a 2-propanol suspension solution with a solid loading of 0.25g/L. Optical
investigations showed that the film with thickness of 5.5 µm deposited at 35.0 V for 90.0 s had the highest
transmittance of 55.0 % at a wavelength (λ) of 1,300 nm. The optical band gap energy (Eg) was 3.884 eV and was
found to be dependent on the annealing time. The solar cell fabricated from this film had an open circuit voltage
(VOC) of 0.66 V, fill factor (FF) of 57.0%, short current density (JSC) of 5.25 mA/cm2 and photo conversion
efficiency (PCE) of 2.0%. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analysis indicate that the DSSC device
with thinner photoelectrodes have more efficient electron transport in the photoanode compared to thicker
photoelectrodes to achieve higher conversion efficiencies.
Keywords: electrophoretic deposition, dye-sensitized solar cell, TiO2/Nb2O5 composite thin films

Nguu J, Nyongesa F, J. Musembi, Aduda B. "Electrophoretic Deposition and Characterization of TiO2/Nb2O5 Composite Thin Films for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells." Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry. 2018;6(1):1-8.
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Nyaga WG. "Electrophoretic Deposition of TiO2 Thin Films for Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Water." Tanzania Journal of Science. 2018;44(4):65-76. AbstractFull Text Link

In this study, electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique was used to deposit titanium dioxide (TiO 2) thin films on conducting glass substrates for application in photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants in water. Phenol was used as a model pollutant. The EPD suspension related parameters and deposition conditions were first optimized for good quality film deposits. The suspension stability and deposition conditions that result in good adherence of TiO 2 particles to the substrate with homogeneous film coatings are ethanol, a TiO 2 solid loading of 4 wt%, a 0.2 wt% iodine concentration in the solvent and a deposition voltage of 20 V in a time of 3.5 minutes. The photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 thin films decreased exponentially with the ultraviolet light (UV) illumination time and it was also dependent on film thickness, and sintering temperature of the TiO 2 thin films. Highest rate of photocatalytic activity was observed at an optimal film thickness of 95±2 µm sintered at 300 C. The implications of these results are discussed for design of inexpensive wastewater purification systems for light industries as well for semi urban small communities

and Joseph Kabiru PMEMN. "Emerging conditions of labour in the cut flower industry in Kenya." International Jounal of Education and Research. 2018;6(2411-5681):1-12.
Sihanya B. "Emerging electoral jurisprudence in Kenya and Nigeria." International Conference on Emerging Electoral Jurisprudence in Africa in Nigeria. 2018.
Mandala, N K, E, Aduda J, Iraya C. "An Empirical Investigation of the Relationship between Board Structure and Performance of Financial Institutions in Kenya." Journal of Finance and Investment Analysis. 2018;7(1):37-57.
Twalib MH, K'OBONYO PO. "EMPLOYEE JOB TENURE; AN ACCOLADE OR AN ABASH?" International Journal of Innovation Research and Knowledge.. 2018;3(3):11-21. Abstract

The objective of the study is to determine the effect of job tenure on employees’ career mobility. The study used a descriptive survey and a population study of 169 employees with a response rate of 122(72.2%). Primary data was collected using self-administered structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data and the hypothesis formulated was analyzed using linear regression analysis. The results confirmed the hypothesis that job tenure influences employee career mobility (R2=.141, F=19.77, P≤0.05). The correlation coefficient for the model was 0.376 which also confirms that there is a positive but weak relationship between length of service and career mobility. The study recommends that employees who have served and organization for long should be considered for promotion this brings about employees loyalty and commitment to the organization. The paper suggests that other variables can be added in terms of moderating and mediating variables to strengthen the model.

and Onyango C.M., Kunyanga Catherine N. WKMIRGDN. "Employer Perceptions and Attitudes towards Agricultural University Training in Kenya." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2018;6:175-185.
ODUOR, Karanja, N.K, Onwonga, R.N., Mureithi, S.M., Pelster D, Nyberg G. "Enhancing soil organic carbon, particulate organic carbon and microbial biomass in semi-arid rangeland using pasture enclosures." BMC ecology. 2018;18(1):45.
iJames M. Gathungu BS& M. "Entrepreneur Financial Literacy, Financial Access, Transaction Costs and Performance of Microenterprises in Nairobi City County in Kenya." Global Journal of Management and Business Research: An Administration and Management. 2018;18(6).
Henry M. "Environmental Governance and its role in Kenya." International Scientific Conference for Asia and Pacific, Yokohama, Japan.; 2018.
Maweu JM. "Equality, Difference and the Complementarity of African and Western Philosophy.". In: Thinking Polyloguous: Considerations Concerning An Intercultural-Philosophical Minimal Rule. Vienna: Polylog; 2018.
Farquhar C, Nduati RW, JN. W. "Ethical Obligations in Short-Term Global Health Clinical Experiences: The Devil Is in the Details." Ann Intern Med.. 2018; 1;(168(9):):672-673.
Asingo PO. "Ethnicity and Political Inclusivity in Kenya: Retrospective Analysis and Prospective Solutions.". In: Ethnicity and Politicization in Kenya: The National Study. Nairobi: Kenya Human Rights Commission; 2018.Ethnicity and Politicization in Kenya
K. MM, S.M. G, C.M. O, P.W. M. "Evaluation of Agronomic Performance of Green Gram Accessions Grown under Reduced Light Intensity in the Arid and Semi-Arid Areas of Kenya ." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science . 2018;23(2):1-11.
Musungayi EM, Ngugi K, Ngugi K, Muthomi JW, Were VW, Olubayo FM, Nzuve FM. "Evaluation of resistance of cassava half-sib progenies to cassava mosaic disease and their agronomic performances in Western Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(12):78-91.
Derese S. "Evaluation of β-Sitosterol Loaded PLGA and PEG-PLA Nanoparticles for Effective Treatment of Breast Cancer: Preparation, Physicochemical Characterization, and Antitumor Activity." Pharmaceutics. 2018;10(4):232. Abstract

β-Sitosterol (β-Sit) is a dietary phytosterol with demonstrated anticancer activity against a panel of cancers, but its poor solubility in water limits its bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. In this study, poly (lactide-co-glycolic acid)(PLGA) and block copolymers of poly (ethylene glycol)-block-poly (lactic acid)(PEG-PLA) were used to encapsulate β-Sit into nanoparticles with the aim of enhancing its in vitro anticancer activity. β-Sitosterol-loaded PLGA and PEG-PLA nanoparticles (β-Sit-PLGA and β-Sit-PEG-PLA) were prepared by using a simple emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. The nanoparticles were characterized for size, particle size distribution, surface charge, and encapsulation efficiency. Their cellular uptake and antiproliferative activity was evaluated against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells using flow cytometry and MTT assays, respectively. β-Sit-PLGA and β-Sit-PEG-PLA nanoparticles were spherical in shape with average particle sizes of 215.0±29.7 and 240.6±23.3 nm, a zeta potential of− 13.8±1.61 and− 23.5±0.27 mV, respectively, and with narrow size distribution. The encapsulation efficiency of β-Sit was 62.89±4.66 and 51.83±19.72% in PLGA and PEG-PLA nanoparticles, respectively. In vitro release in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and PBS/with 0.2% Tween 20 showed an initial burst release, followed by a sustained release for 408 h. β-Sit-PLGA nanoparticles were generally stable in a protein-rich medium, whereas β-Sit-PEG-PLA nanoparticles showed a tendency to aggregate. Flow cytometry analysis (FACS) indicated that β-Sit-PLGA nanoparticles were efficiently taken up by the cells in contrast to β …

Kaoga J, Ouma G, Olago D, Ouma G. "The Evidence of Changing Rainfall Patterns in Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Development. 2018;7(6):223-228. Abstract137075-327682-1-pb.pdfWebsite

The Maasai pastoralists have in the past decade experienced disruptions as precipitation season shifts. These shifts have adversely affected their economies and livelihoods. Moreover, they have been losing up to 30 % of their herd annually to drought related disasters, yet the locals’ capacity on climate pattern shifts is inadequate. To address this gap, a study focused on Kajiado County due to its harboring large of livestock. The study aimed at determining the historical precipitation characteristics. To achieve this, the study utilized Climate Hazards group Infra-Red Precipitation with Stations data set (CHIRPS) for the period 1983-2014 for each of the five sub-counties within Kajiado County. The key findings, encompassed: declining trend in the average annual precipitation; shifting from the usual bi-modal rainfall seasons with March to May (MAM) experiencing worst failure compared to October to December (OND) and the shortening of the famine cycles.

Shihembetsa DLU. "Examining Contemporary Housing for the Urban Poor: The case of Pumwani Housing. ." International Journal of Creative Research and Studies (IJCRS).. 2018;Volume-2,(Issue-9, September):201 (1-23). ISSN 0249-4655.
Bulinda, D. M. MJW. "Extent to which system migration influence the implementation of core banking systems project: A case of NIC Bank Kenya LTD." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(10):156-166.
Hadullo K, Oboko R, Omwenga E. "Factors affecting asynchronous e-learning quality in developing countries university settings." International Journal of Education and Development using ICT. 2018;14(1). AbstractFull website link

Despite the potential of Learning Management System (LMS) supported asynchronous e-
learning to improve asynchronous e-learning system quality by enhancing learning
effectiveness and academic achievement of HEIs, several challenges are faced in the
process of providing the e-learning mode of study particularly in developing countries. The
study will explore five factors that influence quality of asynchronous e-learning: instructional
design, learner support, contextual factors, student characteristics and instructor
characteristics. The quality factors can be used to evaluate quality so as to monitor and
improve the inputs, processes and outputs of asynchronous e-learning systems. The study
examines existing e-learning literature and then proposes five factors that determine the
quality of e-learning systems.

Oboko R, Omwenga E. "Factors affecting asynchronous e-learning quality in developing countries. A qualitative pre-study of JKUAT University Kennedy Hadullo Technical University of Mombasa, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology. 2018;14(1): 152-163. Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to identify the influencing factors of asynchronous
elearning system quality particular in developing countries via a review of current literature
and a qualitative pre-study conducted at Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and
Technology (JKUAT). Despite the perceived benefits of these systems to overcome
challenges facing education sector in the region, studies show that the majority of them have
not been successful. After a thorough review of existing literature on developing countries
and a qualitative pre-study conducted at JKUAT University, the study identified the factors
that influence quality of e-learning systems as: Course Design, Content support, social
support, and Student Characteristics, Instructor Characteristics, Technician Characteristics,
Course Assessment and Institutional factors.

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