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2019
Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environmental Earth Science.. 2019;9(4). Abstract47529-51080-1-pb2.pdfWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Cuni-Sanchez A, Omeny P, Pfeifer M, Olaka L, Mamo MB, Marchant R, Burgess ND. "Climate change and pastoralists: perceptions and adaptation in montane Kenya." Climate and Development. 2019;11(6):513-524. Abstractclimate_change_and_pastoralists_perceptions_and_adaptation_in_montane_kenya.pdfWebsite

Abstract

Tropical montane forests are amongst the most threatened ecosystems by climate change. However, little is known about climatic changes already observed in these montane areas in Africa, or the adaptation strategies used by pastoralist communities. This article, focused on three mountains in northern Kenya, aims to fill these knowledge gaps. Focus-group discussions with village elders were organized in 10 villages on each mountain (n = 30). Villages covered different pastoralist ethnic groups. Historical data on rainfall, temperature and fog were gathered from Marsabit Meteorological station. All participants reported changes in the amount and distribution of rainfall, fog, temperature and wind for the past 20–30 years; regardless of the mountain or ethnicity. They particularly highlighted the reduction in fog. Meteorological evidence on rainfall, temperature and fog agreed with local perceptions; particularly important was a 60% reduction in hours of fog per year since 1981. Starting farming and shifting to camel herding were the adaptive strategies most commonly mentioned. Some adaptive strategies were only mentioned in one mountain or by one ethnic group (e.g. starting the cultivation of khat). We highlight the potential use of local communities’ perceptions to complement climatic records in data-deficient areas, such as many tropical mountains, and emphasize the need for more research focused on the adaptation strategies used by pastoralists.

HM M. "Climate Change as Driver of Migration, morbidity and Conflicts in Africa." Red Cross Headquarters, Nairobi; 2019.
Agesa BL, Onyango CM, M KV, Onwonga RN, GN K. "Climate Change Effects on Crop Production in Yatta sub-County: Farmer Perceptions and Adaptation Strategies." African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 2019;19(1):14010-14042.
Oredo J, Njihia J, Iraki XN. "Cloud Computing Adoption by Firms in Kenya: The Role of Institutional Forces." African Journal of Information Systems. 2019;11(3).
Mwaniki, S.W, Gakuya, F., Mwaura, F., Muthama, J.M. "Collaborative Governance for Sustainable Delivery of Public Open Spaces in Nairobi City, East African Journal of Science." Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2019.
Maluk MD, Kahiu N, Olubayo F, Eric M, Muthomi J, Nzuve F, Ochanda N. "Combining ability for earliness and yield among south sudanese F1 sorghum genotypes." Journal of Agriculture. 2019;6(3):1-13.
Mureithi SM, Verdoodt A, Njoka JT, Olesarioyo JS, Van Ranst E. "Community-Based Conservation: An Emerging Land Use at the Livestock-Wildlife Interface in Northern Kenya. .". In: In Wildlife Management-Failures, Successes and Prospects. London: IntechOpen Limited; 2019.
Mureithi SM, Verdoodt A, Njoka JT, Olesarioyo JS, Van Ranst E. "Community-Based Conservation: An Emerging Land Use at the Livestock-Wildlife Interface in Northern Kenya. .". In: In Wildlife Management-Failures, Successes and Prospects. London: IntechOpen Limited; 2019.
Prisca J. "A Comparative Account of Possession Expression in Tugen and Kiswahili." International Journal of Language and Linguistics. . 2019;7(2):55-62.
Muasya  D, Gitau G, Thaiyah G, Gakuya D, Vanleeuwen J, Mbatha P. "A comparison between indirect ELISA and tuberculin skin test in the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in Kenya.". 2019.
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Ogacho A. "Comparison Of The Effectiveness Of Various Designs Of Ceramic Filter Membranes In Domestic Water Purification." International Journal of Innovative Research and Advanced Studies (IJIRAS). 2019;6(Issue 1):70-73. Abstract

n/a

Nyamai DK, Mugambi M, R.K I. "Competence-Based Education: New Wine in Old Wine Skins?" Journal of Recent Innovations in Academic Research . 2019;3(4):60-74.
Ayuke FO, Kihara J, Ayaga G, Micheni AN. "Conservation agriculture enhances soil fauna richness and abundance in low input systems: examples from Kenya." Frontiers in Environmental Science. 2019;7 :97.
Olago DO. "Constraints and solutions for groundwater development, supply and governance in urban areas in Kenya." Hydrogeology Journal. 2019;27(3):1031-1050. Abstractolago2019_article_constraintsandsolutionsforgrou.pdfWebsite

Based on a five-town case-study cohort in Kenya, a conceptual framework has been developed to enable the formulation of holistic and effective strategies that encompass the national aspirations and regional to global sustainability agendas, and which can be used to monitor progress in achieving set objectives. The approach is flexible, scalable and transferrable, so that it can be applied in different contexts and using different indicators, based upon the same construct. Insufficient technical knowledge of urban aquifers and their interplay with the wider social-ecological system constrains the development of holistic, effective and robust management systems to ensure their sustainability for intended uses. The objective was to consider governance and management solutions that could promote water security for urban towns in Kenya through the sustainable use of groundwater in the context of its complex hydrogeology, water access disparities, competing uses and future risks. The in force national and county water policies, strategies, and plans for the case study areas were critically reviewed. The status of aquifer knowledge, water access disparities, competing uses, and risks was evaluated from critical literature reviews and data compilation, fieldwork, and analysis of indicator datasets from the Kenya 2009 census. Key aquifers need urgent characterisation to reverse the current situation whereby development proceeds with insufficient aquifer knowledge. Private sector and public participation in management should be enhanced through decentralised management approaches. Water infrastructure and technologies should be fit-for-purpose in application and scale, and the pro-poor focus should be underpinned by appropriately focused management regimes.

“Bahemuka MJ”, “Kivuva J”, “Michuki G”. "Construction of Knowledge Societies: A Postscript.". In: Knowledge for Wealth Creation: A Kenyan Perspective. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2019.
H. NGUETTIJ, K. IJ, W. OM, S. MITEMAE, F. MBACHAMW, J. WANG’OMBE. "Consumer’s Awareness of the presence of pathogenic bacteria and pesticide Residues on tomatoes sold in Nairobi." African Journal of Agricultural Research . 2019;14(35):2146-2158.
Shah P, Ayiemba E. "Convention on biological diversity and rural-urban connections with reference to Kenya." International Journal of Research in Environmental Studies. 2019;6:14-26.
Sewe S, Ngare P, Weke P. "Credit Scoring with Ego-Network Data." Journal of Mathematical Finance. 2019;9(3):522-534. AbstractWebsite

This article investigates a stochastic filtering problem whereby the bor-rower’s hidden credit quality is estimated using ego-network signals. The hidden credit quality process is modeled as a mean reverting Ornstein-Ulehnbeck process. The lender observes the borrower’s behavior modeled as a continuous time diffusion process. The drift of the diffusion process is driven by the hidden credit quality. At discrete fixed times, the lender gets ego-network signals from the borrower and the borrower’s direct friends. The observation filtration thus contains continuous time borrower data augmented with discrete time ego-network signals. Combining the continuous time observation data and ego-network information, we derive filter equations for the hidden process and the properties of the conditional variance. Further, we study the asymptotic properties of the conditional variance when the frequency of arrival of ego-network signals is increased.

Ebanda RO, Michieka RW, Otieno DJ. "A cultural paradigm shift in Central Africa: Sociocultural determinants and cultural dimensions." The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social and Community Studies. 2019;14(1):83-99.
R. E, W. MR, Otieno DJ. "A Cultural Paradigm Shift in Central Africa: Sociocultural Determinants and Cultural Dimensions." The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social and Community Studies. 2019;14(1):19-37.
D.G OMAYIO, O. A’G, W. OM, K. GACHUIRIC, W MWANG’OMBEA. "Current status of guava (Psidium guajava L.) production, utilisation, processing and preservation in Kenya:A review." Current Agriculture Research Journal . 2019;7(3):318-331.
OMAYIO DUKEG, Abong’ GO, Okoth MW, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Mwang’ombe AW. "Current Status of Guava (Psidium Guajava L.) Production, Utilization, Processing and Preservation in Kenya." Current Agriculture Research Journal. 2019;Vol. 7,( No.(3) 2019, ):pg. 318-331.current_status_of_guava_psidium_guajava_l._production_utilization_processing_and_preservation_in_kenya.pdf
Fozia AA, Victor K, Armelle MT, Matthias H, Andreas K, Albert N, Beatrice I, Abiy Y, Thomas E. "Cytotoxic flavonoids from two Lonchocarpus species." Natural Product Research. 2019;33(18): 2609-2617 .
Adem FA, Kuete V, Mbaveng AT, Heydenreich M, Koch A, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Yenesew A, Efferth T. "Cytotoxic flavonoids from two Lonchocarpus species." Natural product research. 2019;33(18):2609-2617. AbstractNatural product research

Description
A new isoflavone, 4′-prenyloxyvigvexin A (1) and a new pterocarpan, (6aR,11aR)-3,8-dimethoxybitucarpin B (2) were isolated from the leaves of Lonchocarpus bussei and the stem bark of Lonchocarpus eriocalyx, respectively. The extract of L. bussei also gave four known isoflavones, maximaisoflavone H, 7,2′-dimethoxy-3′,4′-methylenedioxyisoflavone, 6,7,3′-trimethoxy-4′,5′-methylenedioxyisoflavone, durmillone; a chalcone, 4-hydroxylonchocarpin; a geranylated phenylpropanol, colenemol; and two known pterocarpans, (6aR,11aR)-maackiain and (6aR,11aR)-edunol. (6aR,11aR)-Edunol was also isolated from the stem bark of L. eriocalyx. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was tested by resazurin assay using drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant cancer cell lines. Significant antiproliferative effects with IC50 values below 10 …

Kuete V, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Karaosmanoğlu O, Sivas H. "Cytotoxicity of 11 naturally occurring phenolics and terpenoids from Kenyan flora towards human carcinoma cells." Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine. 2019;10(3):178-184. AbstractJournal article

Description
Background
Cancer constitutes a major hurdle worldwide and its treatment mainly relies on chemotherapy.
Objectives
The present study was designed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of eleven naturally occurring compounds including six phenolics amongst them were 4 chalcones and 2 flavanones as well as 5 terpenoids (3 clerodane and 2 trachylobane diterpenoids) against 6 human carcinoma cell lines and normal CRL2120 fibroblasts.
Materials and methods
The neutral red uptake (NR) assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the compounds, whilst caspase-Glo assay was used to detect caspase activation. Cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were all analyzed via flow cytometry meanwhile levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by spectrophotometry.
Results
Chalcones: 2′,4′-dihydroxy-6′-methoxychalcone (1); 4′,6′-dihydroxy-2′,5′-dimethoxychalcone (2); 2′,4 …

Omosa LK, Mbogo GM, Korir E, Omole R, Ean-JeongSeo, Yenesew A, Midiwo MHJO, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of Fagaramide Derivative and Canthin-6-one from Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) Species against Multidrug Resistant Leukemia Cells." Natural Products Research. 2019;https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2019.1587424:1-8.omosa_et_al_2019 pdf
Omosa LK, Mbogo GM, Korir E, Omole R, Ean-JeongSeo, Yenesew A, Heydenreich M, Midiwo JO, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of fagaramide derivative and canthin-6-one from Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) species against multidrug resistant leukemia cells." Natural product research. 2019:1-8. Abstract

In our continuous search for cytotoxic compounds from the genus Zanthoxylum, chromatographic separation of the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of Z. chalybeum yielded one new alkamide; 4-(isoprenyloxy)-3-methoxy-3,4-deoxymethylenedioxyfagaramide (1) and a known one; fagaramide (2). Similarly, from the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of the stem bark of Z. parachanthum four known compounds; canthin-6-one (3), dihydrochelerythrine (4), lupeol (5) and sesamin (6) were isolated. Characterization of the structures of these compounds was achieved using spectroscopic techniques (NMR and MS). Using resazurin reduction assay 1, 3 and 6 displayed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values below 50 μM against the drug sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cell lines. It is interesting to note that 3 was more active than the standard drug, doxorubicin against CEM/ADR5000 leukemia.

Omosa LK, Mbogo GM, Korir E, Omole R, Ean-JeongSeo, Yenesew A, Heydenreich M, Midiwo JO, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of fagaramide derivative and canthin-6-one from Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) species against multidrug resistant leukemia cells." Natural product research. 2019:1-8. Abstract

In our continuous search for cytotoxic compounds from the genus Zanthoxylum, chromatographic separation of the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of Z. chalybeum yielded one new alkamide; 4-(isoprenyloxy)-3-methoxy-3,4-deoxymethylenedioxyfagaramide (1) and a known one; fagaramide (2). Similarly, from the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of the stem bark of Z. parachanthum four known compounds; canthin-6-one (3), dihydrochelerythrine (4), lupeol (5) and sesamin (6) were isolated. Characterization of the structures of these compounds was achieved using spectroscopic techniques (NMR and MS). Using resazurin reduction assay 1, 3 and 6 displayed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values below 50 μM against the drug sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cell lines. It is interesting to note that 3 was more active than the standard drug, doxorubicin against CEM/ADR5000 leukemia …

Adem FA, Mbaveng AT, Kuete V, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Yenesew A, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones and biflavonoids from Ormocarpum kirkii towards multi-factorial drug resistant cancer." Phytomedicine. 2019;58:152-853. Abstract

While incidences of cancer are continuously increasing, drug resistance of malignant cells is observed towards almost all pharmaceuticals. Several isoflavonoids and flavonoids are known for their cytotoxicity towards various cancer cells.

Adem FA, Mbaveng AT, Kuete V, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Yenesew A, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones and biflavonoids from Ormocarpum kirkii towards multi-factorial drug resistant cancer." Phytomedicine. 2019;58:152853. AbstractPhytomedicine

Description
Background
While incidences of cancer are continuously increasing, drug resistance of malignant cells is observed towards almost all pharmaceuticals. Several isoflavonoids and flavonoids are known for their cytotoxicity towards various cancer cells.
Purpose
The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of isoflavones: osajin (1), 5,7-dihydroxy-4ˈ-methoxy-6,8-diprenylisoflavone (2) and biflavonoids: chamaejasmin (3), 7,7″-di-O-methylchamaejasmin (4) and campylospermone A (5), a dimeric chromene [diphysin(6)] and an ester of ferullic acid with long alkyl chain [erythrinasinate (7)] isolated from the stem bark and roots of the Kenyan medicinal plant, Ormocarpum kirkii. The mode of action of compounds 2 and 4 was further investigated.
Methods
The cytotoxicity of compounds was determined based on the resazurin reduction assay. Caspases activation was evaluated using the caspase-Glo assay. Flow …

Buyinza D, Yang LJ, Derese S, Ndakala A, Coghi P, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Möller HM, Yenesew A. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones from Millettia dura." Natural Product Research. 2019:1-4. AbstractNatural Product Research

Abstract

The first phytochemical investigation of the flowers of Millettia dura resulted in the isolation of seven isoflavones, a flavonol and a chalcone. Eleven isoflavones and a flavonol isolated from various plant parts from this plant were tested for cytotoxicity against a panel of cell lines, and six of these showed good activity with IC50 values of 6-14 μM. Durmillone was the most active with IC50 values of 6.6 μM against A549 adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cancer cell line with low cytotoxicity against the non-cancerous cell lines BEAS-2B (IC50 = 58.4 μM), LO2 hepatocytes (IC50 78.7 μM) and CCD19Lu fibroblasts (IC50 >100 μM).
Keywords: Millettia dura, Leguminosae, isoflavone, cytotoxicity.

Buyinza D, Yang LJ, Derese S, Ndakala A, Coghi P, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Möller HM, Yenesew A. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones from Millettia dura." Natural Product Research. 2019:1-4. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
The first phytochemical investigation of the flowers of Millettia dura resulted in the isolation of seven isoflavones, a flavonol and a chalcone. Eleven isoflavones and a flavonol isolated from various plant parts from this plant were tested for cytotoxicity against a panel of cell lines, and six of these showed good activity with IC50 values of 6-14 μM. Durmillone was the most active with IC50 values of 6.6 μM against A549 adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cancer cell line with low cytotoxicity against the non-cancerous cell lines BEAS-2B (IC50 = 58.4 μM), LO2 hepatocytes (IC50 78.7 μM) and CCD19Lu fibroblasts (IC50 >100 μM).

Kuete V, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Karaosmanoğlu O, Sivas H. "Cytotoxicity of naturally occurring phenolics and terpenoids from Kenyan flora towards human carcinoma cells." Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine. 2019;10(3):178-184. AbstractJournal article

Description
Background
Cancer constitutes a major hurdle worldwide and its treatment mainly relies on chemotherapy.
Objectives
The present study was designed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of eleven naturally occurring compounds including six phenolics amongst them were 4 chalcones and 2 flavanones as well as 5 terpenoids (3 clerodane and 2 trachylobane diterpenoids) against 6 human carcinoma cell lines and normal CRL2120 fibroblasts.
Materials and methods
The neutral red uptake (NR) assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the compounds, whilst caspase-Glo assay was used to detect caspase activation. Cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were all analyzed via flow cytometry meanwhile levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by spectrophotometry.
Results
Chalcones: 2′,4′-dihydroxy-6′-methoxychalcone (1); 4′,6′-dihydroxy-2′,5′-dimethoxychalcone (2); 2′,4 …
Scholar articles
Cytotoxicity of naturally occurring phenolics and terpenoids from Kenyan flora towards human carcinoma cells
V Kuete, LK Omosa, JO Midiwo, O Karaosmanoğlu… - Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine, 2019
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Kwadha CA, Janet Irungu, George Ongamo, Paul Ndegwa, Suresh Raina AFT. "Decanal as a major component of larval aggregation pheromone of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella." Journal of Applied Entomology. 2019;143(4):417-429.
Kwadha CA, Mutunga JM, Irungu J, Ongamo G, Ndegwa P, Raina S, Fombong AT. "Decanal as a major component of larval aggregation pheromone of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella." Journal of Applied Entomology. 2019;143(4):417-429.
Obosi OJ. "Decentralized Governance in the Management of Urban Health Care Systems in Developing Countries." Open Journal Of Political Science. 2019;9(1):189-202.
Ritho CN, Nzuma JM, Mwololo HM, Ogutu SO, Kabunga N. "Determinants of actual and potential adoption of improved indigenous chicken under asymmetrical exposure conditions in rural Kenya,." African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development. 2019.
Mwololo, M.H., Nzuma, M.J., Ritho, N.C., Ogutu, S.O., Kabunga, N. "Determinants of actual and potential adoption of improved indigenous chicken under asymmetrical exposure conditions in rural Kenya." African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development. 2019;DOI: 10.1080/20421338.2019.1636489.
Kawakyu N, Nduati R, Obimbo E, Munguambe K, Coutinho J, Mburu N, DeCastro G, Inguane C, Zunt A, Abburi N, Sherr K, S. G. "Development and Implementation of a Mobile Phone-Based Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV Cascade Analysis Tool: Usability and Feasibility Testing in Kenya and Mozambique." JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2019;13;7(5):( doi: 10.2196/13963.):e13963.
David K. Chikati, Lydiah N. Wachira JMN. "The Development of Education for Teachers of the Visually Impaired Learners in Kenya: A Historical perspective." Journal of Education and Practice . 2019;10(32).
David K. Chikati, Lydiah N. Wachira JMM. "Development of special Education for the Visually Impaired Learners in Kenya – A Historical Perspective." European Journal of Special Education Research. 2019;4.
"Development of Special Education for the Visually Impaired Learners in Kenya: A Historical Perspective." European Journal of Special Education Research, . 2019;4(2):80-92.
"Device Simulation of Sb2S3 Solar Cells by SCAPS-1D Software." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2019;3, 2019. Abstract

Antimony sulphide (Sb2S3) has drawn research interest due to its promising properties for photovoltaic applications. The progress in developing highly efficient Sb2S3 solar cells has stimulated this study to a great extent. In this paper, we present the results of a simulation of solar cell processing parameters on the performance of the solar cell through theoretical analysis and device simulation using SCAPS software. The results of this simulation show that the solar cell performance can be enhanced to a great extent by adjusting the thickness, doping concentration and defect density of both the TiO2 buffer layer and Sb2S3 absorber layer and also the electron affinity of the TiO2 buffer layer. Optimized parameters were found to be: doping concentration of (1.0 X 1017CM3 for TiO2 and 3.0 X 1016 CM3 for Sb2S3), defect density of the Sb2S3 absorber at (1.0 X 1015.....3) and the electron affinity of the buffer layer at (4.26 eV). The results obtained were as follows: Voc of 750 mV, Jsc of 15.23 mA/cm2, FF of 73.55% and efficiency of 8.41%. These results show that Sb2S3 is a potential earth-abundant compound that can yield highly efficient solar cells.

Kwanya T, Kiplanga't J, Wamukoya J, Njiraine D. Digital Technologies for Information and Knowledge Management. Nairobi: The Technical University of Kenya; 2019.
Kuria JKN. "Disease caused by bacteria in cattle: Tuberculosis.". In: Disease caused by bacteria in cattle. London: IntechOpen books; 2019.
Mwololo, M.H., Nzuma, M.J., Ritho, N.C. "Do farmers’ socio-economic characteristics influence their preference for agricultural extension methods?, ." Development in Practice. 2019;DOI: 10.1080/09614524.2019.1638344.
Odhiambo SA, ZP Q, PM N, Kosgei RJ, AB K, Ayieko P, PK K, A O, Odawa FX, GN G, MK K, O K, O O. "Early Neonatal Outcomes among Mothers receiving variable doeses of Dexamethasone for Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes at Kenyatta National Hospital: A restrospective Cohort Study ." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East & Central Africa. 2019;30(2):54-61.Website
Alphayo I. Lutta, Lance W. Robinson, Oliver V. Wasonga, Ruto E, Jason Sircely, Nyangito MM. "Economic valuation of grazing management practices: Discrete choice modeling in pastoral systems of Kenya." Journal of Environmental Planning and Management . 2019.
Alphayo I. Lutta, Lance W. Robinson, Oliver V. Wasonga, Ruto E, Jason Sircely, Nyangito MM. "Economic valuation of grazing management practices: Discrete choice modeling in pastoral systems of Kenya." Journal of Environmental Planning and Management . 2019.
Kaaria LM, Oduma JA, Kaingu CK, Mutai PC, Wafula DK. "Effect of Asparagus racemosus on selected female reproductive parameters using Wistar rat model.". 2019;6(4):199-204.
Kithinji AM. "The Effect of Bank Restructuring on Financial Performance Controlled by Customer Deposits: An Empirical Investigation of Commercial Banks in Kenya ." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR INNOVATIVE RESEARCH IN MULTIDISCIPLINARY FIELD. 2019;5(1):13-19. Abstract

Abstract: The ability of commercial banks to provide market knowledge, transaction efficiency and contract
enforcement create demand for its services in the financial markets. Commercial banks operating in Kenya have
undertaken restructuring so as to be more competitive, to restore bank solvency, to increase the banking sector
capacity for financial intermediation and to improve financial performance. Previous researches done on the aspects
of bank restructuring and financial performance found conflicting results and some of them did not include the
intervening effect of deposits on this relationship. The study is informed by the theory of financial intermediation,
agency theory, and the institutional theory. This study sought to investigate the relationship between bank
restructuring, deposits and financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya. The population of the study was
the 44 commercial banks licensed and registered under the banking act to do business in Kenya but data availed
from financial statements of 39 commercial banks which were in operation for the period 2002 to 2014. Descriptive
and inferential data analysis methods were used to analyze the secondary data collected. The empirical findings
conclude that commercial banks use all the four types of bank restructuring which were financial, capital, operational
and asset restructuring. The findings of the first model revealed that capital restructuring, and asset restructuring
were the only variables found to have significant positive and negative influence respectively on the performance of
commercial banks in Kenya. In testing the second hypothesis, deposit were used as an intervening variable on the
relationship between bank restructuring and financial performance, where financial restructuring and capital
restructuring was found to significantly cause an increase in the profit margin of commercial banks while operational
restructuring and deposits were found to have a significant negative effect on bank profits. The composite variable
of financial services was not found to have a significant effect. Therefore, the research disclosed that operational
restructuring, and deposits did not influence banks profitability. The research concludes that the performance of most
commercial banks in Kenya is determined through restructuring banks’ financial and capital ratios The study
recommends that there is need to institute policy reforms geared towards viable restructuring and deposit
mobilization and that to continuously improve bank performance banks should encourage more borrowing and funds
from shareholders and banks need to continuously focus on restructuring rather than ownership.

Key Words: Bank Restructuring, Capital, Financial, Asset, Operational, Deposits.
1. INTRODUCTION:
Bank restructuring is usually undertaken to address the problems in individual banks experiencing

Mutundi AN, Muthomi JW, Olubayo FM, Leley PK, Nzuve FM. "Effect of Farm Saved Maize (Zea mays L.) Seed on Intensity of Foliage Diseases." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2019;11(8):45-57.
C. CHEMUTAI., Chemining’wa GN, Ambuko J. "Effect of fertilizers and harvesting method on yield of cowpea." African Journal of Rural Development,. 2019;3(2):779-785.
Muia SM, Kariuki MI. "Effect of Financial Management Practices on Performance of Savings and Credit Co-Operative Societies in Mombasa County, Kenya. ." Journal of Economics and Finance (IOSR-JEF). 2019;10(4):47-57.
Kithinji AM. "The Effect of Government Expenditure on Fiscal Deficits in Kenya." THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLEDGE . 2019;7(2):122-125. Abstract

Abstract:
In many economies world over, accountability and transparency as well as fiscal discipline in public expenditures take
priority as the main catalysts to economic growth. However, large fiscal deficits have been reported in most developing
countries which lead to inflation and currency devaluations. In this case, Kenyan government is no exception as its
expenditures are consistently way above its revenues. This study therefore attempted to assess the relationship between
government expenditure and fiscal deficit in Kenya. This study used a causal research design. Secondary data was
obtained from the financial records of National Bureau of Statistics, The Economic Surveys, Kenya Institute of Policy
Analysis and Research (KIPRA) and the Institute of Policy Analysis and Research (IPAR) ranging from year 2004/05 to
2010/11. Regression model was used to estimate the effect of government expenditure on fiscal deficits. The study
established that a unit increase in government expenditure, increases fiscal deficit of GDP. The study recommends that
the government of Kenya should come up with strong working policy to regulate the expenditure of its resources.

Keywords: Government expenditure, fiscal deficits, recurrent expenditures, development expenditures, budget deficits

Yumbya P, Hutchinson M, Ambuko J, Owino W. "Effect of Hexanal as a Post-harvest Treatment to Extend the Shelf-life of Banana Fruits (Musa acuminata var. Sweet Banana) in Kenya." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science. 2019;29(21-16):1-16.absract.pdf
Yumbya P, Hutchinson M, Ambuko J, Owino W. "Effect of Hexanal as a Post-harvest Treatment to Extend the Shelf-life of Banana Fruits (Musa acuminata var. Sweet Banana) in Kenya." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science. 2019;29(21-16):1-16.absract.pdf
Okumu OO, Muthomi JW, Ojiem J, Narla R, Nderitu JH. "Effect of Legume Extracts on Germination, Seedling Health of Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Soil Microorganisms." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science. 2019;28(1):1-13.
Nyangena I, Owino W, Imathiu S, Ambuko J. "Effect of pretreatments prior to drying on antioxidant properties of dried mango slices." Scientific African. 2019;doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sciaf.2019.e00148.
A. MEWAE, W. OM, N. KC, MN R. "EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON DESORPTION ISOTHERMS FOR BEEF." Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and Environment. 2019;5(1):1-7.
Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. "Effective biotransformation of Reactive Black 5 Dye Using Crude Protease from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428." Energy Procedia. 2019;157:815-824. Abstract

Effective effluent treatment is a paramount step towards conserving the dwindling clean water resources. The present study describes the use of crude protease extract from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428 biotransformation of azo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5). Batch experimental results displayed over 97% decolorization efficiency with initial dye concentration of 1.0 x 10-4M. The decolorization process was highly dependent on contact time, dye concentration and pH. The optimum contact time and pH for decolorization were 120 hours and pH 9 respectively at 25˚C. Biotransformation of RB5 dye was monitored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and formed metabolites characterized by LC–QTOF-MS. Comparison of resultant LC–QTOF-MS chromatograms after decolorization confirmed complete cleavage of RB5 dye. First order kinetic fitted well with experimental data for different RB5 dye concentrations

Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. "Effective biotransformation of Reactive Black 5 Dye Using Crude Protease from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428." Energy Procedia. 2019;157:815-824. AbstractEnergy Procedia

Description

Effective effluent treatment is a paramount step towards conserving the dwindling clean water resources. The present study describes the use of crude protease extract from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428 biotransformation of azo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5). Batch experimental results displayed over 97% decolorization efficiency with initial dye concentration of 1.0 x 10-4M. The decolorization process was highly dependent on contact time, dye concentration and pH. The optimum contact time and pH for decolorization were 120 hours and pH 9 respectively at 25˚C. Biotransformation of RB5 dye was monitored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and formed metabolites characterized by LC–QTOF-MS. Comparison of resultant LC–QTOF-MS chromatograms after decolorization confirmed complete cleavage of RB5 dye. First order kinetic fitted well with experimental data for different RB5 dye concentrations …

HM M. "Effective monitoring and Evaluation of progress in postgraduate training." Kenya Climate Smart Agriculture postgraduate induction workshop, Nakuru; 2019.
P G, H S, D M, L L, E B, T MD, L O, V W, C W, Z Q, E O, A G, R M. "Effectiveness of an Electronic Partogram: A Mixed-Method, Quasi- experimental Study." Global Health: Science and Practice. 2019;7(4):521-539. AbstractWebsite

Background: Timely identification and management of intrapartum complications could significantly reduce maternal deaths, intrapartum stillbirths, and newborn deaths due to hypoxia. The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies monitoring of labor using the paper partograph as a high-priority intervention for identifying abnormities in labor and fetal well-being. This article describes a mixed-method, quasi-experimental study to assess the effectiveness of an Android tablet-based electronic, labor clinical decision-support application (ePartogram) in limited-resource settings.

Methods: The study, conducted in Kenya from October 2016 to May 2017, allocated 12 hospitals and health centers to an intervention (ePartogram) or comparison (paper partograph) group. Skilled birth attendants (SBAs) in both groups received a 2-day refresher training in labor management and partograph use. The intervention group received an additional 1-day orientation on use and care of the Android-based ePartogram app. All outcomes except one compare post-ePartogram intervention versus paper partograph controls. The exception is outcome of early perinatal mortality pre- and post-ePartogram introduction in intervention sites compared to control sites. We used log binomial regression to analyze the primary outcome of the study, suboptimal fetal outcomes. We also analyzed for secondary outcomes (SBAs performing recommended actions), and conducted in-depth interviews with facility in-charges and SBAs to ascertain acceptability and adoptability of the ePartogram.

Results: We compared data from 842 clients in active labor using ePartograms with data from 1,042 clients monitored using a paper partograph. SBAs using ePartograms were more likely than those using paper partographs to take action to maintain normal labor, such as ambulation, feeding, and fluid intake, and to address abnormal measurements of fetal well-being (14.7% versus 5.3%, adjusted relative risk=4.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.95–8.19). Use of the ePartogram was associated with a 56% (95% CI=27%–73%) lower likelihood of suboptimal fetal outcomes than the paper partograph. Users of the ePartogram were more likely to be compliant with routine labor observations. SBAs stated that the technology was easy to use but raised concerns about its use at high-volume sites. Further research is needed to evaluate costs and benefit and to incorporate recent WHO guidance on labor management.

Conclusion: ePartogram use was associated with improvements in adherence to recommendations for routine labor care and a reduction in adverse fetal outcomes, with providers reporting adoptability without undue effort. Continued development of the ePartogram, including incorporating new clinical rules from the 2018 WHO recommendations on intrapartum care, will improve labor monitoring and quality care at all health system levels.

P G, H S, D M, L L, E B, T MD, L O, V W, C W, Z Q, E O, A G, R M. "Effectiveness of an Electronic Partogram: A Mixed-Method, Quasi- experimental Study." Global Health: Science and Practice. 2019;7(4):521-539. AbstractWebsite

Background: Timely identification and management of intrapartum complications could significantly reduce maternal deaths, intrapartum stillbirths, and newborn deaths due to hypoxia. The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies monitoring of labor using the paper partograph as a high-priority intervention for identifying abnormities in labor and fetal well-being. This article describes a mixed-method, quasi-experimental study to assess the effectiveness of an Android tablet-based electronic, labor clinical decision-support application (ePartogram) in limited-resource settings.

Methods: The study, conducted in Kenya from October 2016 to May 2017, allocated 12 hospitals and health centers to an intervention (ePartogram) or comparison (paper partograph) group. Skilled birth attendants (SBAs) in both groups received a 2-day refresher training in labor management and partograph use. The intervention group received an additional 1-day orientation on use and care of the Android-based ePartogram app. All outcomes except one compare post-ePartogram intervention versus paper partograph controls. The exception is outcome of early perinatal mortality pre- and post-ePartogram introduction in intervention sites compared to control sites. We used log binomial regression to analyze the primary outcome of the study, suboptimal fetal outcomes. We also analyzed for secondary outcomes (SBAs performing recommended actions), and conducted in-depth interviews with facility in-charges and SBAs to ascertain acceptability and adoptability of the ePartogram.

Results: We compared data from 842 clients in active labor using ePartograms with data from 1,042 clients monitored using a paper partograph. SBAs using ePartograms were more likely than those using paper partographs to take action to maintain normal labor, such as ambulation, feeding, and fluid intake, and to address abnormal measurements of fetal well-being (14.7% versus 5.3%, adjusted relative risk=4.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.95–8.19). Use of the ePartogram was associated with a 56% (95% CI=27%–73%) lower likelihood of suboptimal fetal outcomes than the paper partograph. Users of the ePartogram were more likely to be compliant with routine labor observations. SBAs stated that the technology was easy to use but raised concerns about its use at high-volume sites. Further research is needed to evaluate costs and benefit and to incorporate recent WHO guidance on labor management.

Conclusion: ePartogram use was associated with improvements in adherence to recommendations for routine labor care and a reduction in adverse fetal outcomes, with providers reporting adoptability without undue effort. Continued development of the ePartogram, including incorporating new clinical rules from the 2018 WHO recommendations on intrapartum care, will improve labor monitoring and quality care at all health system levels.

Ndono PW, Nzioka JM, Muigua K. "Effectiveness of the Nyumba Kumi community policing initiative in Kenya." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019;1(2):63-67.
Githanga D. "The effects of aflatoxin exposure on Hepatitis B-induced immunity in Kenyan children." Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 2019. 2019:1-14. Abstractresearchgate

Background: Globally, approximately three million children die each year from vaccine preventable infectious diseases mainly in developing countries. Despite the success of the expanded immunization program, not all infants and children around the world develop the same protective immune response to the same vaccine. A vaccine must induce a response over the basal immune response that may be driven by population-specific, environmental or socio-economic factors. Mycotoxins like aflatoxins are immune suppressants that are confirmed to interfere with both cell-mediated and acquired immunity. The mechanism of aflatoxin toxicity is through the binding of the bio-activated AFB1-8, 9-epoxide to cellular macromolecules. Methods: We studied Hepatitis B surface antibodies [anti-HBs] levels to explore the immune modulation effects of dietary exposure to aflatoxins in children aged between one and fourteen years in Kenya. Hepatitis B vaccine was introduced for routine administration for Kenyan infants in November 2001. To assess the effects of aflatoxin on immunogenicity of childhood vaccines Aflatoxin B1-lysine in blood serum samples were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence detection while anti-HBs were measured using Bio-ELISA anti-HBs kit. Results: The mean § SD of AFB1-lysine adducts in our study population was 45.38 § 87.03 pg/mg of albumin while the geometric mean was 20.40 pg/mg. The distribution of AFB1-lysine adducts was skewed to the right. Only 98/205 (47.8%) of the study population tested positive for Hepatitis B surface antibodies. From regression analysis, we noted that for every unit rise in serum aflatoxin level, anti-HBs dropped by 0.91 mIU/ml (¡0.9110038; 95% C.I ¡1.604948,¡0.21706). Conclusion: Despite high coverage of routine immunization, less than half of the study population had developed immunity to HepB. Exposure to aflatoxin was high and weakly associated with low anti-HBs antibodies. These findings highlight a potentially significant role for environmental factors that may contribute to vaccine effectiveness warranting further research.

W.A 1. O, GN C’wa, J.I K, P.N N. "Effects of Azolla and inorganic nitrogen application on growth and yield of rice in Mwea Irrigation Scheme." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2019;14 (3):1-8.
Mwangi WE, Mogoa EM, Mwangi JN, Mbuthia PG, Mbugua SW. "Effects of butorphanol, meloxicam and butorphanol-meloxicam combination on wound healing after ovariohysterectomy in dogs." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2019;8(4):300-307.
Ang’u C, Muthama NJ, Oludhe C, Kong’ani LNS. "Effects of civil conflicts on global oil prices and their impact on the energy sector." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019;1(1):12-18.
Ang'u C, Muthama NJ, Oludhe C, Kong'ani LNS. "Effects of civil conflicts on global oil prices and their impact on the energy sector." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019;1(1):12-18.
W.A 1. O, GN C’wa, J.I K, P.N N. "Effects of inorganic nutrient P and N application on Azolla biomass growth and nutrient uptake." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2019;14 (02):1-9.
Marete GN, Kanja LW, Mbaria JM, Okumu MO, Ateku PA, Korhonen H, Joutsjoki V. "Effects of the Use of Good Agricultural Practices on Aflatoxin Levels in Maize Grown in Nandi County, Kenya." SCi. 2019;1(28)(MDPI):1-19.
Oyang WA, P.A K, J.I. K. "Effects of Varied Nitrogen Levels and Plant Density on Growth and Yield of Nerica 1 Rice Variety ." Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS) . 2019;12(3):72-77.
Ogolla KO, Chebet J, Waruiru RM, Gathumbi PK, Okumu PO, Aboge GO. "Efficacy of Ivermectin, Liquid Paraffin, and Carbaryl against Mange of Farmed Rabbits in Central Kenya." Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2019;130:1487-1504.
Waruiru RM, Gathumbi PK, Okumu PO, Ogolla KO, Chebet J, Aboge GO. "Efficacy of ivermectin, liquid paraffin, and carbaryl against mange of farmed rabbits in central Kenya." Hindawi Journal of Tropical Medicine.. 2019;2019.
Ogolla KO, Chebet J, Waruiru RM, Gathumbi PK, Okumu PO, Aboge GO. "Efficacy of Ivermectin, Liquid Paraffin, and Carbaryl against Mange of Farmed Rabbits in Central Kenya." Journal of Tropical Medicine . 2019;Volume 2019, Article ID 5092845(https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/5092845).
Njogu REN, Fodran P, Tian Y, Njenga LW, Kariuki DK, Yusuf AO, Scheblykin I, Wendt OF, Wallentin C-J. "Electronically Divergent Triscyclometalated Iridium (III) 2-(1-naphthyl) pyridine Complexes and Their Application in Three-Component Methoxytrifluoromethylation of Styrene." Synlett. 2019;3007:792-798. AbstractJournal Publication

Description
A systematic study of the photophysical and electrochemical properties of triscyclometalated homoleptic iridium(III) complexes based on 2-(1-naphthyl)pyridine (npy) ligands is presented. A systematic investigation of ligand substitution patterns showed an influence on the lifetime of the excited state, with slight changes in the absorption and emission spectral features. Specifically, the emission lifetime of a complex of an npy ligand substituted with a strongly electron-withdrawing trifluoromethyl group was longer than that of the corresponding complex with the electronically nonperturbed ligand (3.7 μs versus 1.5 μs). Electronically complementary ligands and complexes with orthogonal configurations showed slightly shorter excited state lifetimes compared with unsubstituted npy (1.4–3.0 μs). All complexes displayed reversible or quasireversible redox-couple processes, with the complex of the trifluoromethylated …

Njogu REN, Fodran P, Tia Y, Njenga LW, Kariuki DK, Yusuf AO, Scheblykin I, Wendt OF, Wallentin C-J. "Electronically Divergent Triscyclometalated Iridium (III) 2-(1-naphthyl) pyridine Complexes and Their Application in Three-Component Methoxytrifluoromethylation of Styrene." Synlett. 2019;30(07):792-798. AbstractSynlett

Description
A systematic study of the photophysical and electrochemical properties of triscyclometalated homoleptic iridium(III) complexes based on 2-(1-naphthyl)pyridine (npy) ligands is presented. A systematic investigation of ligand substitution patterns showed an influence on the lifetime of the excited state, with slight changes in the absorption and emission spectral features. Specifically, the emission lifetime of a complex of an npy ligand substituted with a strongly electron-withdrawing trifluoromethyl group was longer than that of the corresponding complex with the electronically nonperturbed ligand (3.7 μs versus 1.5 μs). Electronically complementary ligands and complexes with orthogonal configurations showed slightly shorter excited state lifetimes compared with unsubstituted npy (1.4–3.0 μs). All complexes displayed reversible or quasireversible redox-couple processes, with the complex of the trifluoromethylated …

Lydia W. Njenga, Njogu REN, Fodran P, Kariuki DK, Amir O. Yusuf, Scheblykin I, Ola F. Wendt, Wallenti C-J. "Electronically Divergent Triscyclometalated Iridium(III)2-(1-naphthyl)pyridine Complexes and Their Application in Three-Component Methoxytrifluoromethylation of Styrene ." Synlett. 2019;30:A-G.
Macharia A, Ahmed F, Achieng L, Walong E, Mwango GM, Wamalwa D. "Empyema necessitans due to Aspergillus in a 3-year-old boy." The Pan African Medical Journal. 2019;34:86.
Njiraine D. "Enabling Knowledge Sharing Practices for Academic and Research in Higher Education Institutions." Information and Knowledge Management. 2019;9(3):82-89.
Nyberg, Gert, Stephen M. Mureithi, Deborah N. Muricho, Ostwald M. "Enclosures as a land management tool for food security in African drylands." Journal of Land Use Science. 2019:1-12.
Yohannis MA, Agnes N. Wausi, Hutchinson MJ, Waema TM. "Enhancing Access and Use of Climate Information through ICTs." Journal of Climate Change and Sustainability. 2019;3(1):1-12. AbstractWebsite

Although the role of ICTs in improving human life in Kenya is acknowledged widely, the focus of much
of ICT-related developments has been on human experiences at the level of disease and needs for
communication and mobility. Less obvious is how such technological interventions may be used to
address seemingly abstract yet grave concerns like climate change and its impact on the quality of human
life. This review paper, therefore, shall investigate the different situations where ICTs may be deployed
in relaying packaged and relevant localized climate information that can help rural farmers in Kitui
County, Kenya to make pertinent and timely decisions to improve their productivity and, ultimately, their
livelihoods. We hypothesize that rural communities' use ICT tools such as the mobile phones and the
community radios to access localized climate information (weather, seasonal forecasts, and agroadvisories)
and that livelihood assets and livelihood strategies positively change with the increasing
availability and use of the ICT-based climate information. The idea of the paper presented is to merge
theoretical and applied research outcomes to narrow the gap between the theory of ICTs usage and the
practice of it, while linking it to climate information and enhanced rural livelihood strategies. The review
of this paper shall be captured in social-scientific terms, and shall contribute to knowledge by helping
researchers and policymakers to determine climate information needs of rural ASAL communities,
knowledge on innovations related to ICTs, among others.

Ouma S, Hughes A, Murphy JT, Opondo M. "Envisioning African futures: Perspectives from economic geography." Geoforum. 2019. Abstractdoi.org

Abstract
The commentaries and reviews in the section that follow take up the recently popularized notion of 'African futures' in order to explore the geographies, modes, potentialities, politics, and practices of epistemic, socio-economic, political and socio-ecological transformations that may be complementary or antagonistic to the global capitalist project.

Keywords
FuturesDevelopmentEconomic geographyAfricaDecolonialitySouthern theory

Wainaina Samuel Murigi, Mbaria James Mucunu, Wakonyu KL, Misonge OJ. "Ethnobotanical Survey of Plants Used For Management of Arthritis In Nyamira North Sub-County of Nyamira County, Kenya." The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. 2019;130(2019)(ISJN):1510-1531.
Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of Formulated Nano-NPK Slow Release Fertilizer Composite on the Perfomance and Yeild of Maize, Kale and Capsicum." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;05:10.
Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of formulated nano-NPK slow release fertilizer composite on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;64(1):Pages 9-19. AbstractAnnals of Agricultural Sciences

Abstract

Effect of formulated slow release NPK fertilizer [cellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide)/nanohydroxyapatite/soluble fertilizer] composite (SRF) on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. No significant difference in growth parameters was observed between SRF and commercial fertilizer (CF) treatments. SRF recorded higher dry matter and yields relative to CF with similar application rates, though statistically insignificant. P deficiency was observed in maize at lowest SRF application rate of 45-57-17. N deficiency in CF was observed at the 8th week, but not in SRF with similar application rates during the same period. Kale showed both N and P deficiencies in the 7th week, while capsicum alone showed N deficiency in the 14th week in SRF at low application rates. NPK content in both maize and kale tissues, was significant between the amendments and control. Capsicum tissues had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher N content both in SRF and CF higher application rates of 125-159-45 & 100-100-100, respectively, compared to control. At final harvest, soil samples planted with maize and amended with the highest SRF rate showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher P content, compared to lower rates and the control. The agronomic optimal rate of SRF determined by quadratic function were found to be higher than that of CF. SRF was found to enhance growth and yields of crops just like CF and could potentially have greater benefits such as improving soil health and resilience.

Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of formulated nano-NPK slow release fertilizer composite on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;64(1):9-19. Abstract

Abstract

Effect of formulated slow release NPK fertilizer [cellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide)/nanohydroxyapatite/soluble fertilizer] composite (SRF) on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. No significant difference in growth parameters was observed between SRF and commercial fertilizer (CF) treatments. SRF recorded higher dry matter and yields relative to CF with similar application rates, though statistically insignificant. P deficiency was observed in maize at lowest SRF application rate of 45-57-17. N deficiency in CF was observed at the 8th week, but not in SRF with similar application rates during the same period. Kale showed both N and P deficiencies in the 7th week, while capsicum alone showed N deficiency in the 14th week in SRF at low application rates. NPK content in both maize and kale tissues, was significant between the amendments and control. Capsicum tissues had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher N content both in SRF and CF higher application rates of 125-159-45 & 100-100-100, respectively, compared to control. At final harvest, soil samples planted with maize and amended with the highest SRF rate showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher P content, compared to lower rates and the control. The agronomic optimal rate of SRF determined by quadratic function were found to be higher than that of CF. SRF was found to enhance growth and yields of crops just like CF and could potentially have greater benefits such as improving soil health and resilience.

Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of formulated nano-NPK slow release fertilizer composite on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;64(1):9-19. AbstractAnnals of Agricultural Sciences

Description
Effect of formulated slow release NPK fertilizer [cellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide)/nanohydroxyapatite/soluble fertilizer] composite (SRF) on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. No significant difference in growth parameters was observed between SRF and commercial fertilizer (CF) treatments. SRF recorded higher dry matter and yields relative to CF with similar application rates, though statistically insignificant. P deficiency was observed in maize at lowest SRF application rate of 45-57-17. N deficiency in CF was observed at the 8th week, but not in SRF with similar application rates during the same period. Kale showed both N and P deficiencies in the 7th week, while capsicum alone showed N deficiency in the 14th week in SRF at low application rates. NPK content in both maize and kale tissues, was significant between the amendments and control …

Wamaitha MN, Mogoa EM, Mande JD. "Evaluation of anesthesia produced by ketofol in acepromazine-or medetomidine-sedated dogs." Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research . 2019;6 (2):215-221.
M.Adwet W, J.Pant H, J.Mangala M, A.Masinza S. "Evaluation of hydraulic performance of an anaerobic pond using radiotracer technique." Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 2019;145:101-105.
Mundia J, Makunda C, Maina SM, Gachie SN. "An Evaluation of Interior Styles in the Serviced Apartment Sector in Nairobi." Africa Design Review Journal. 2019;1(1):54-73.
Mewa, E. A. OKRMWCN. "Experimental evaluation of beef drying kinetics in a solar tunnel dryer." Renewable Energy. 2019;139:235-241.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Karani R, Wamitila KW. "Exploring Equivalence as Measure of Skopos in Translation of Software Products: The Case of English to Kiswahili." Jarida la Kimataifa la Isimu ya Kibantu (JAKIIKI). Journal of Bantu Linguistics. 2019;(Special):1-16.
Henry M, Victor T, David K. "Factors Affecting Adoption Of Embryo Transfer Technology In Dairy Cattle In Kenya." Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal. 2019;5(8):456-463.mutembei-kios_2018.pdf
Onyango OS, Mukoya-Wangia SM, Kinama JM, Olet PA. "Factors affecting farmers’ Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis control methods in Lamu County, Kenya." International Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. 2019;4(2)(ISSN):21-29.
Opiyo RO, Nyasulu PS, Olenja J, Zunza M, Nguyen KA, Bukania Z, Nabakwe E, Mbogo A, Were AO. "Factors associated with adherence to dietary prescription among adult patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis in national referral hospitals in Kenya: a mixed-methods survey." Renal Replacement Therapy Journal. 2019. AbstractWebsite

Introduction: Adherence to dietary prescriptions among patients with chronic kidney disease is known to prevent
deterioration of kidney functions and slow down the risk for morbidity and mortality. This study determined factors
associated with adherence to dietary prescription among adult patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis.
Methods: A mixed-methods study, using parallel mixed design, was conducted at the renal clinics and dialysis units at
the national teaching and referral hospitals in Kenya from September 2018 to January 2019. The study followed a
QUAN + qual paradigm, with quantitative survey as the primary method. Adult patients with chronic kidney disease on
hemodialysis without kidney transplant were purposively sampled for the quantitative survey. A sub-sample of
adult patients and their caregivers were purposively sampled for the qualitative survey. Numeric data were collected
using a structured, self-reported questionnaire using Open Data Kit “Collect software” while qualitative data were
collected using in-depth interview guides and voice recording. Analysis on STATA software for quantitative and
NVIV0 12 for qualitative data was conducted. The dependent variable, “adherence to diet prescription” was analyzed as a
binary variable. P values < 0.1 and < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant in univariate and multivariate logistic
regression models respectively. Qualitative data were thematically analyzed.
Results: Only 36.3% of the study population adhered to their dietary prescriptions. Factors that were independently
associated with adherence to diet prescriptions were “flexibility in the diets” (AOR 2.65, 95% CI 1.11–6.30, P
0.028), “difficulties in following diet recommendations” (AOR 0.24, 95% CI 0.13–0.46, P < 001), and “adherence
to limiting fluid intake” (AOR 9.74, 95% CI 4.90–19.38, P < 0.001).
Conclusions: For patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis, diet prescriptions with less restrictions
and requiring minimal extra efforts and resources are more likely to be adhered to than the restrictive ones.
Patients who adhere to their fluid intake restrictions easily follow their diet prescriptions. Prescribed diets should be based
on the individual patient’s usual dietary habits and assessed levels of challenges in using such diets. Additionally, diet
adherence messages should be integrated with fluid limitation messages. Further research on understanding patients’
adherence to fluid restriction is also suggested.

P. K, D. M, J. VL, G. G, J. M, S. M, L. H. "Factors associated with leg cleanliness of smallholder dairy herds in Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2019;1(1):11-26.
Aciita PM, Wanjohi J. "Factors influencing augmentation of water treatment projects by county governments in Kenya: A case of Meru Water and Sewerage Services, Meru County." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2019;3(4):82-103. AbstractInternational Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management

Description
Provision of water services is squarely a devolved function and counties have the bigger role of ensuring their residents have access to clean and safe water. In this regard many strategies have been put in place to ensure water available is adequate. These efforts have faced a myriad of challenges which has greatly affected service delivery. Water is one of the most important natural resource and the availability of safe water is critical not just for health reasons, but also for social and economic development. The purpose of the study was to establish the factors influencing implementation of augmentation of water treatment projects by county government in Kenya; a case of Meru Water and Sewerage Services. The specific objectives of this research project were to determine the influence of financial resources, leadership, staff competency and political factors on the augmentation of water treatment projects by county governments in Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive research design and the target population was 135 management and heads of sections which included county executive committee members (CECM), Chief officers, county directors, MEWASS management/technical staff and Members of County Assemblies (MCA’s). The study adopted a census which allowed all the 135 respondents to participate in the study, however only 109 respondents returned their questionnaires representing an approximate response rate 81%. Data was collected using a questionnaire. To test reliability of this questionnaire Split half method was applied in Isiolo water and Sewerage Company.
Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages and …

Majau DK, Wanjohi J. FACTORS INFLUENCING EMPLOYEE JOB PERFORMANCE IN COUNTY GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTAL PROJECTS: A CASE OF MERU COUNTY GOVERNMENT, KENYA.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2019. Abstract

Description
This chapter presents summary of findings, discussion of the key findings, conclusions drawn from the findings, and recommendations.

Gerrard CM, Wanjohi JM. "Factors influencing the implementation of prisons health projects in Kenya: A case of prisons in Meru region." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2019;3(3):185-209. AbstractInternational Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management

Description
The prisons departments have been working with Non-Governmental Medical Organizations to implement health projects within the prison’s facilities in Kenya in order to improve the health of prisoners. However, successful implementation of health projects is a common problem in the Kenya Prisons Service not only with an immeasurable cost to society who benefits from these projects within the prisons but also with debilitating effects on the inmates. The purpose of this study was to determine factors influencing the implementation of prisons health projects in Kenya, Meru region Prisons. The study sought to achieve the following objectives; to evaluate the extent to which technical capacity, stakeholders’ involvement, source of funding and prisons leadership influences implementation of prisons health projects in the Kenya, Meru Region Prisons. The study was grounded on resource base view theory, agency theory, stakeholder’s theory and strategic leadership theory. The study adopted a descriptive research design with the target population comprising of Kenya Prison Staff. Primary data was obtained using self-administered questionnaires while secondary data was obtained using data collection sheet. Data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 23.0) which is the most recent version. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages were estimated for all the quantitative variables and information presented inform of tables. The qualitative data from the open-ended questions was analysed using conceptual content analysis and presented in prose. Inferential data analysis was done using multiple …

Kirimi H, Wanjohi J. "Factors influencing use of alternative dispute resolution in construction projects: Case of Imenti North Sub County, Meru County." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2019;3(4):572-602. AbstractInternational Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management

Description
Regarded as a frequent occurrence, disputes in construction projects occasioned by substandard communication of impractical clients’ expectations, defective works and delays in architectural designs significantly contribute to adverse effects on project results. Despite these and the numerous demerits linked to litigation majority of clients, contractors and construction consultants in Kenya still opt for it as opposed to Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) approaches to resolve disputes in construction projects. The purpose of this study was to establish the factors influencing use of alternative dispute resolution in construction projects in Imenti North Sub-County, Meru County, Kenya. In particular it examined the influence of: lack of awareness, preservation of business relationships, cost minimization and communication and documentation issues on the use of ADR in construction projects disputes. The research was guided by two theories; Theory of Planned Behavior and Transaction Cost Economics Theory and will be support by the Stair-Step Model of Dispute Resolution. The research embraced use of descriptive survey research design. Target population is of 255 respondents. The sample size was of 45 (n= 45), Contractors, 12 (n= 12) Consultants (Architectures, Quantity Surveyors and Structural Engineers) and Construction Projects Clients 75 (n= 75) that was singled out to take part in the investigation. Stratified sampling and Simple random sampling were made use of to pick the sampled subjects. Questionnaires were used to collect primary data in the study locale. Data was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by employing SPSS …

Miriam, W, Musonye. "The Fanon Factor in Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o’s Children’s Fiction." Research in African Literatures. 2019;50(3):51-69.
Orono S, Gitao C, Mpatswenumugambo J, Chepkwony M, Mutisya C, Okoth E, Bronsvoort M, Russell C, Nene V, Cook A. "Field validation of clinical and laboratory diagnosis of wildebeest associated malignant catarrhal fever in cattle." BMC Veterinary research . 2019;(doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-1818-8).orono_et_al-2019-bmc_veterinary_research.pdf
Njiraine D. "Financial Incentive as a Yardstick for Employee Performance: the Case of University of Nairobi." European Journal of Business and Management. 2019;8(9):78-87.
Waris A. Financing Africa. Bamenda: Langaa; 2019. Abstract

Financing Africa's development requires ingenuity, discipline, and an understanding of fiscal
systems–the entirety of government revenues and expenditures, including taxation and debt.
This book makes fascinating what might seem at first glance complex. It describes diverse …

Mulei IR, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Cheng, Xu Ø, Evensen, Mutoloki. "First detection and isolation of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus from farmed rainbow trout in Nyeri County, Kenya." Journal of Fish Diseases . 2019;DOI 10.1111.
Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Nyaga PN, Xu C, Mulei IR, Evensen, Mutoloki S. "First detection and isolation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus from farmed rainbow trout in Nyeri County, Kenya. ." Journal of Fish Diseases. 2019;2019:1-8.
Kyany'a C, Eyase F, Odundo E, Kipkirui E, Kipkemoi N, Kirera R, Philip C, Ndonye J, Kirui M, Ombogo A, Koech M, Koech M, Bulimo W. "First report of Entamoeba moshkovskii in human stool samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic participants in Kenya." Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines. 2019;5:23.kyanya_et_al_2020.pdf
Kivai JM, KAYIMA JK, Were AO, Qureshi Z. "Foetal outcome in women with Pregnacy related Acute Kidney Injury in a referral facilty in Kenya ." IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences. 2019;18(11):52-56.Website
Gari la Maria. . Nairobi: Longhorn Publishers; 2019.
IJMwaniki. "Geometric Brownian Motion assumption and the generalized hyperbolic distribution on modeling returns." Journal of advances in applied mathematics. 2019;4 (3):103-111. AbstractWebsite

Generalized hyperbolic distribution and some of its subclasses like normal, hyperbolic and variance gamma distributions are used to fit daily log returns of eight listed companies in Nairobi Securities Exchange and Montréal Exchange. EM-based maximum likelihood estimation procedure is used to estimate parameters of the model. Kernel densities and empirical distribution of data are compared. The goodness of fit statistics of proposed distributions are used to measure how well model fits the data. Empirical results show that Generalized hyperbolic Distribution seems to improve partially, the geometric Brownian assumption on modeling returns of the underlying process, both in a developed and emerging market. Both markets seem to have different stochastic time

Kyomuhimbo HD. Green Synthesis, Characterization And Antimicrobial Evaluation Of Silver And Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles From Extracts Of Bidens Pilosa. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2019. Abstract

There has been rampant outbreak of infectious diseases and various antibiotics have been introduced to treat these infections; however, they are turning out to be less effective due to their abuse leading to emergence of antimicrobial resistant infections. Various antiseptics have been used but their active ingredients are becoming ineffective to most resistant strains of bacteria. However, nanotization of antimicrobial agents has shown improvement of their disinfecting efficacy since nanoparticles have proved to have effective antimicrobial activity, even to resistant strains of microbes. In this study, nanotization of chemical constituents of Bidens pilosa was carried out because traditionally this plant is proven to have antimicrobial activity. In this study, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), zinc oxide-silver nanoparticles (ZnO-AgNPs) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) using the seed, leaf and root extracts of Bidens pilosa with Silver nitrate and Zinc nitrate solutions, is reported. Extracts of Bidens pilosa contain a variety of bio-molecules such as polyphenols and water soluble heterocyclic compounds which reduce metal ions and stabilize nanoparticles. The plant (Bidens pilosa) was harvested; its seeds, leaves and roots were plucked, washed, dried under shed and crushed. The powders were dissolved in water to form extracts. The extracts were used to make AgNPs, ZnONPs and ZnO-AgNPs. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared, Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Atomic Force Microscopy. The antimicrobial activity of the nanoparticles was determined using agar well diffusion method. The most active nanoparticles were used as active ingredients in the formulation an antiseptic. The antimicrobial activity of the antiseptic was determined. The UV-Visible spectra showed a complete reduction of Ag+ ions to Ag0 with Plasmon resonance bands at around 410nm which is characteristic of AgNPs and formation of ZnONPs with a Plasmon resonance bands around 370nm. The synthesized nanoparticles had an average size of 2-20nm and were sphere-shaped without significant agglomeration as revealed from the SEM and TEM analysis. The synthesized AgNPs, ZnONPs and ZnO-AgNPs exhibited face–centered cubic crystals as demonstrated from XRD studies. FT-IR and Raman spectra of the seed, leaf and root extracts of Bidens pilosa, AgNPs, ZnONPs and ZnO-AgNPs revealed presence of vii functional groups C-O, O-H, =C–H, aromatic C-H bending, O-H, C=O, C=C aromatic and thiol groups attached to them. This indicated that these functional groups capped and stabilized the nanoparticles. Anti-Microbial activity of synthesized AgNPs, ZnONPs and ZnO-AgNPs against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and a fungus Candida albicans were studied. Clear zones of inhibition were observed for the nanoparticles against the microorganisms. The ZnO-AgNPs obtained from the root extract of composition 0.8 Ag/0.2 ZnO had the highest antimicrobial activity. The ZnO-AgNPs obtained using root extracts of composition 0.8 Ag/0.2 ZnO were found to be effective as an active ingredient to make a hand sanitizing antiseptic against E. coli, and S. aureus bacteria and the fungus C. albicans.

Ferrer N, Folch A, Lane M, Olago D, Odida J, Custodio E. "Groundwater hydrodynamics of an Eastern Africa coastal aquifer during the recent La Niña 2016-17 drought." Science of The Total Environment. 2019;661:575-597. AbstractWebsite

In 2016–17 much of East Africa was affected by a severe drought which has been attributed to Indian Ocean Dipole and El Niño Southern Oscillation conditions. Extreme events such as this have immediate and knock-on effects on water availability for household, agricultural and industrial use. Groundwater resources can provide a buffer in times of drought, but may themselves be stressed by reduced recharge and increased usage, posing significant challenges to groundwater resource management. In the context of East Africa, groundwater management is also hampered by a lack of information on aquifer characteristics. With the aim of addressing this knowledge gap, this study shows the hydrogeological behaviour before and during La Niña 2016/17 drought in southern coastal Kenya on a groundwater system which sits within a geological structure which is representative of an important portion of the East African coast. Diverse hydrochemical and isotopic campaigns, as well as groundwater head variation measurements, were carried out to study the groundwater hydrodynamics and thus characterize the aquifer system under climatic conditions before and during the La Niña event. This information is complemented with an estimation of changes in local recharge since 2012 using local data sets. The main consequence of the drought was a 69% reduction of recharge compared to an average climatic year. There was reduced recharge during the first rainy season (April–June) and no recharge during the second wet season (October–December). There was a concurrent increase in seawater intrusion even during the wet season.

Xu Y, Seward P, Gaye C, Lin L, Olago DO. "Groundwater in Sub-Saharan Africa." Hydrogeology Journal. 2019;27(3):815-822. AbstractWebsite

Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA; Fig. 1) refers to an area encompassing the countries in Africa that are fully, or partially, located south of the Sahara. The remaining African countries are generally referred to as belonging in North Africa. Although the socio-economic and hydrogeological conditions in SSA are diverse, they are sufficiently distinct (in general) from the conditions in North Africa to warrant being assessed separately—for example, high-yielding, high-storage, sedimentary aquifers are more common in North Africa than in SSA, while low-yielding, low-storage, basement aquifers are more widespread in SSA than in North Africa. The use of fossil groundwater is more typical in North Africa, while the use or renewable groundwater is more typical in SSA. Other hydrological characteristics associated with SSA include: groundwater resources that are generally under-utilized; lack of research and development that often prevents the optimal use of groundwater rather than over-development; and a heavy reliance by the rural and urban poor on shallow unconfined or semi-confined groundwater for potable water supplies, other domestic uses, and subsistence agriculture. Because of distinguishing characteristics such as these, there are good reasons for treating the hydrogeology of SSA as a whole, and separate from North Africa.

HM M, OL O, LC A. Guide to Clinical and Practical Laboratory Procedures in Theriogenology. Ibadan: Scholarship Books; 2019.
Ndinya FO, Kayima JK, Magabe PC, McLigeyo SO, Were AJ, Odinya GO. "Haemodialysis vascular access function in dialysis patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital." African Journal of Nephrology. 2019;22(1):72-76. Abstract

Background: The number of patients requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) worldwide has been on the rise.
Vascular access is the lifeline for these patients when haemodialysis (HD) is the treatment of choice. Access-related
morbidity is a leading cause of hospitalization so that the function and patency of access are essential for the optimal
management of patients. There is a need to recognize when a vascular access is dysfunctional because intervention
must maintain function as well as preserve future vascular access sites.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that evaluated the haemodialysis vascular access function in patients
undergoing chronic haemodialysis at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Peak access blood flow rates,
urea reduction ratio (URR) and Kt/V were analysed in 150 patients.
Results: The temporary (non-tunnelled) central venous dialysis catheters had poor function, with only 48%
achieving a mean blood flow rate > 300 mL/min. The comparable rate for arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) was 88%
and for tunnelled dialysis catheters 82%. One-quarter of the patients had a URR < 65%. Higher mean blood flow
rates were associated with higher URR (P = 0.004) and Kt/V (P = 0.009) values. AVF stenosis was present in 12.5%
and thrombosis in 3% of patients. Aneurysms were the commonest AVF complication (47%) but were not
haemodynamically significant.
Conclusions: Tunnelled haemodialysis catheters offered adequate blood flows and achieved adequate delivered
dialysis, comparable to arteriovenous fistulae. Non-tunnelled catheters delivered poor blood flow rates and dialysis
dose. Greater blood flow rates were associated with a higher delivered dialysis dose. There is a need for routine
surveillance and affordable interventional procedures to prevent loss of vascular access.

Health Research Ethics Training Manual. Springer Publishers; 2019.
Bebora LC, Gathumbi PK, Muchemi GM, Gakuya FM, Manyibe TN, Kariuki EK, Ngatia TA, Maina EW. "Hematologic Values of Healthy and Sick Free-ranging Lesser Flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor) in Kenya." Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2019;55(1):123-128.abstract.pdf
Nyariki TM, Gathumbi PK, Bebora LC, Muchemi GM, Ngatia TA. "Hematologic Values of Healthy and Sick Free-Ranging Lesser Flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor) in Kenya." Journal of Wildlife Diseases.. 2019;55(1):123-128.
Macharia FK, Mwangi PW, Yenesew A, Bukachi F, Nyaga NM, Wafula DK. "Hepatoprotective effects of Erythrina abyssinica Lam Ex Dc against Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Sprague Dawley Rats." BioRxiv. 2019:577-607. Abstract

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome recognized as the most prevalent chronic liver disease across all age groups. NFLD is strongly associated with obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Extensive research efforts are geared, through pharmacological approach, towards preventing or reversing this. Erythrina abyssinica Lam ex DC is an indigenous tree used widely used in traditional medicine, including for the treatment of liver related diseases, and has been shown to possess hypoglycemic, anti-oxidant, antimicrobial and anti-plasmodia effects. The present study is aimed at establishing the effects of E. abyssinica on the development of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease induced by a high-fat and high-sugar diet in rats, in-vivo model. Methods: Forty rats (40) were randomly divided into five groups: positive control (pioglitazone), Negative control (high fat/high sugar diet), low test dose (200 mg/kg), high test dose (400 mg/kg) and normal group (standard chow pellets and fresh water). The inhibitory effect of the stem bark extract of E. abyssinica on the development of NAFLD was evaluated by chronic administration the herb extracts to rats on a high-fat/high-sugar diet. Biochemical indices of hepatic function including serum lipid profile, serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels were then determined. Histological analysis of liver samples was carried out to quantify the degree of steato-hepatitis. Liver weights were taken and used to determine the hepatic index. The data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA, and Tukey9s post-hoc tests

Ndwigah SN. "Herbal medicines require regulation like conventional medicines." Pharmaceutical Journal of Kenya. 2019;24:20.
"Historically Grounded Symbolism and the Thematic Lacuna in Translation: The Translation of Treasure Island into Kiswahili as Kisiwa Chenye Hazina, ." Mwanga wa Lugha, Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika, Chuo Kikuu cha Moi. 2019;Juzuu 3, (Na.1, April 2019, ):Pages 163-194, .
R. TRBO &. "Housing clusters and typologies in the slums: a case of Korogocho slum Nairobi, Kenya. ." (http://ijcrs.org/issue-details/171. 2019;Vol. 3(No. 2):171.
Ferrer N, Folch A, Lane M, Olago D, Katuva J, et al. "How does water-reliant industry affect groundwater systems in coastal Kenya?" Science of the Total Environment. 2019;694:133634. AbstractWebsite

Abstract

The industrialization process taking place in Africa has led to an overall increase in groundwater abstraction in most countries in the continent. However, the lack of hydrogeological data, as in many developing countries, makes it difficult to properly manage groundwater systems. This study presents a real case study in which a combination of different hydrogeological tools together with different sources of information allow the assessment of how increased competition for water may be affecting groundwater systems by analysing the sustainability of new abstraction regimes under different real climatic condition (before, during and after La Niña 2016). The area where this approach has been applied is Kwale County (in Coastal Kenya) in a hydrogeological context representative of an important part of the east coast of the continent, where new mining and agriculture activities co-exist with tourism and local communities. The results show that the lack of aquifer systems data can be overcome, at least partly, by integrating different sources of information. Most of the time, water-reliant users collect specific hydrogeological information that can contribute to defining the overall hydrogeological system, since their own main purpose is to exploit the aquifer with the maximum productivity. Therefore, local community water usage, together with different stakeholder's knowledge and good corporate water management act as a catalyst for providing critical data, and allows the generation of credible models for future groundwater management and resource allocation. Furthermore, complementary but simple information sources such as in situ interviews, Google Earth, Trip Advisor and easy-to use analytical methods that can be applied in the African context as in many developing countries, and enables groundwater abstraction to be estimated and the sustainability of the aquifer system to be defined, allowing potential future risks to be assessed.

Gitao, C.G., Orono, S, Cook, A. How to Diagnose Malignant Catarrhal fever and views from Pastoralists. Saarbrucken: Lap Lambert Academic Publishing; 2019.978-620-0-10122-8_coverpreview_2.pdf
Dr. Kamenju J. https://mukuyu.wordpress.com.; 2019.
Obiero JPO, Marenya MO, Nkuna TR. "Hydrologic response modelling in Lutanandwa river catchment, Limpopo, South Africa, using Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model." Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and the Environment (JEAE). 2019;Volume 5.(No1. 2019):1-13.
Yohannis MA. ICTS As A Bridge Between Climate Information And Livelihood Strategies Among Rural Women In Kitui County, Kenya.; 2019. Abstract

The study was motivated by the increasing challenges of climate variability and climate change, which create problems, such as food insecurity in Kitui County in Kenya. In the current digital age, ICTs are core to all sectors to facilitate access to and enhance efficiency across various services. Although the role of ICTs in improving life in Kenya is widely acknowledged, the focus of most ICT-related developments has been on human experiences at the level of disease and needs for communication and mobility. Less obvious is how such technological interventions may be used to address seemingly abstract yet grave concerns like climate change and its impact on the quality of human life. This study, therefore, investigated the various scenarios where ICTs were deployed in relaying relevant localized climate information to help rural women farmers in Kitui County to make relevant decisions to improve their farm productivity and their livelihoods by extension. The study incorporated an ICT system to the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (SLF) that consisted of Digital Capital and ICT Tools, thereby improving on the SLF. This modified SLF, mainstreamed ICT-driven climate information and provided the ideal means by which such information was leveraged to ensure enhanced sustainable livelihoods. Gender and Development (GAD) theory, Bourdieu’s ideas of social capital theory, and the Information Needs Assessment Model (INAM) further strengthened the SLF by addressing household power dynamics and climate information relevance in the rural communities. The research drew from emerging variables to demonstrate that regardless of the context in which the SLF was formulated, its versatility makes it the most appropriate tool for such studies in rural Kenya. The specific objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to assess the extent to which rural women access and use ICT tools in the utilization of climate information including weather, seasonal forecasts and agro-advisories; (2) to analyze the extent to which the use of ICT-based climate information by rural women influence maximize access and utilization of livelihood assets; and (3) to examine the livelihood strategies employed with the increasing availability and use of ICT-based climate information. The author adopted a mixed-methods approach for data collection and analysis that was guided by the SLF. Specific methods used, apart from on-desk review, were a household survey of 419 respondents, 14 key informant interviews, and two focus group discussions. The study merged theoretical and applied research outcomes to narrow the gap between the theory and practice of ICTs use while linking it to climate information and enhanced rural livelihood strategies. The outcome from the research findings highlighted the need for interventions to empower rural women in the use of ICT tools in exploiting the full potential of climate information, the need for tailoring modern scientific climate information to local needs, translated into simple formats and the local Kikamba language, the need for complementary services such as affordable credit, insurance, livelihood diversification opportunities and access to livelihood assets that can further strengthen their household resilience to climate variability. The results show that community radios combined with mobile phones are the most accessible and cost-effective ICT tools for rural women’s access to real-time, relevant climate and agro-advisory information. There is evidence that the women’s livelihood strategies have been enhanced which strengthened their livelihood assets, thereby improving their livelihoods under the wider rubric of the sustainable livelihood framework. The contribution to knowledge for this research was an enhanced SLF where the various responses and systematic analysis made the framework relevant in gaining insights into the link between climate information and livelihood strategies through ICTs among women in ii rural communities in Kitui. The modified framework and the research findings are also timely in light of the increasing realization of ICTs potential in contributing to climate change adaptation and mitigation. Also, the thesis builds on the growing body of literature that generated a rich repository that other researchers can use to advance knowledge, and the outcomes are eight peer-reviewed articles. The output of this study is replicable to other counties in Kenya because rural households depend on agriculture for their livelihood and this economic sector is not exempt to climate change and variability necessitating the need for local specific climate information. The recommendations to the research are that it can be extended to examine outcomes that will look at improved income, sustainable resource utilization, and food security, physical and emotional wellbeing. Further we provide policy recommendations and made suggestions to shape future climate change adaptation policies, plans, and strategies in Kenya that integrates gender equality into ICT and climate change to help farmers adapt to climate change/variability for sustainable development. Keywords: ICT Tools; Digital Capital; Climate Information; Enhanced Sustainable livelihood Framework; Livelihood Strategies

Ochieng, P., Oludhe, Dulo. "Impact of Climate Change and Hydropower Development on the Community Livelihoods in the Sondu Miriu River Basin." International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation . 2019;VI(III):13-20.
JM.Kivai, Kayima JK, Were AO, Q.Zahida. "Impact of Pregnancy Related Acute Kidney Injury on foetalsurvival: a single Centre Experience in Kenya." IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS). 2019;18(7):13-17. AbstractWebsite

Abstract: Background: Pregnancy related acute kidney injury (PRAKI) is a heterogenous obstetric
complication, which can occur at any stage during pregnancy and in postpartumperiod. It often impacts
negatively on foetaloutcomes.
Objective: To determine impact of PRAKI on foetal outcomes at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi.
Methods: We carried out a descriptive study on women with viable pregnancies, gestation age equal to, or
above 28 weeks and postpartum women within six weeks after delivery admitted in labour ward or the postnatal
wards at KNH. The study started afterit was approved by the KNH- University of Nairobi Ethics and
Research Committee.Patient management was at the discretion of attending clinician.Data was obtained
fromthe participants and their medical records. Followupwas until dischargeor for a maximum of two weeksfor
those who remained in the wards.
Results: Total participantswere 66 out of2068 admissions. Their mean age was 28years with peak age between
26-30 years.The prevalence of PRAKI was 3.2%. Sixty (91%) participants weredelivered andsix pregnancies
were ongoing past the follow-up period.The average gestation age at birth was 35 weeks. Forty-three (71.7%)
were life infants while 17(28.3%) were fresh still births. Comparing between participant women with PRAKI
and women without PRAKI, the ratio of fresh still births among participants was 1:4 and the ratio of fresh still
births among women without PRAKI was 1 in 23deliveries.
Conclusion: Wetherefore demonstrate that pregnancy related acute kidney injury was associated with a six (6)
fold increase in fresh still births at Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya.
Key Words: PRAKI, KNH, Preterm births,Fresh still births,Nairobi, Kenya

Kivai JM, KAYIMA JK, Were AO, Qureshi Z. "Impact of Pregnancy Related Acute Kidney Injury on foetalsurvival: a single Centre Experience in Kenya." IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences. 2019;18(7):13-17.Website
Okech C, Ndolo J, Nyandega I, Ang'u C. "Impact of rainfall variability on surface water resources in Homa Bay county, Kenya." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019;1(3):84-90.
Ali FA, Ongeri BO. "Impact of refugee influx in east African Community-An exploratory analysis." Global Journal of Contemporary Research in Accounting, Auditing and Business Ethics. 2019;GJCRA .
Wandiga SO, Bola OT. "Impact of Renewable Technology on Lignocellulosic Material of Palm Fruit Fibre: Strategy for Climate Change and Adaptation.". 2019:175-201. AbstractWebsite

This study aims to explore low temperature and pressure to extract the lignocellulosic content of palm fruit fibre and pyrolyse it for energy (bio-oil) and chemical feedstock productions as alternative technology to improper disposal causing environmental pollution as strategies for climate change and adaptation. Design/Methodology/Approach: Burning of refuse and agricultural residue releases harmful gases or carbon emission to the climate which causes global warming. Renewable technology can therefore be introduced to utilize agricultural residues to produce energy and chemical feedstock. Vacuum pyrolysis of the lignocellulosic material prepared from palm fruit fibre was performed by considering pyrolysis temperature of 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 °C and biomass particle size of 0.25, 0.30, 0.42 and 0.55 mm. The bio-oil produced at different process parameters was then characterized by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ultimate analysis. The response was efficiently used for modelling and optimization of the process parameters. The results showed that experimented and predicted data are in reasonable agreement with the values of coefficient of determination, R2 (0.8098) and Adj. R2 (0.700). Findings: It was found that the optimal conditions for pyrolytic product were temperature 300 °C, biomass particle size 0.55 mm and retention time between 14 and 18 min. Temperature and particle size had effect on the yielded gaseous products, liquid and char materials. And various chemical compounds were produced at different process parameters. Research Limitation/Implications: The contribution of renewable technology framework is a process of educating for climate stewardship, at this stage of practical and theoretical. It is good approach of converting residues to useful products as one of the ways of solving climate change problem with the relevant stakeholders that its true potential can be assessed. Social Implications: Educating the public for climate stewardship will be more effective if it adopts an approach which seeks a co-production of knowledge. Clean environment with less global warming will be attained. Originality/Value: This agricultural residue can be recommended for biofuel, biogas and used as chemical feedstock for industrial purpose. The char can also be used to increase soil organic components. These benefits can therefore be used for policy making on residue disposal and as strategy for climate change and adaptation or mitigation in Nigeria and other African countries.

Mutuku, J., Nzuma, M.J., Irungu P. "Impact of World Food Programmer’s (WFP) Purchase for Progress (P4P) Pilot Project on Farm Incomes in Kenya. Case of Uasin Gishu and Narok Counties." Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development. 2019;7(1):797-808.
Ojwang BO, Musau PM, Omondi HA. "Implementation of HVDC Technology with Technical Challenges for Economic Dispatch.". In: 2019 IEEE PES GTD Grand International Conference and Exposition Asia (GTD Asia). Bangkok, Thailand; 2019.implementation_of_hvdc_technology_with_technical_challenges_for_economic_dispatch.pdf
Chimoita EL. Improved Sorghum Variety: A Forgotten Gold in the Kenyan Drylands. CAVS University of Nairobi Kenya: ILRIAgricFose2030; 2019.
Musau PM, Ojwang BO, Kiprotich M. "Improving Frequency Stability for Renewable Energy Power Plants with Disturbances.". In: 2019 IEEE PES GTD Grand International Conference and Exposition Asia (GTD Asia). Bangkok, Thailand; 2019.improving_frequency_stability_for_renewable_energy_power_plants_with_disturbances.pdf
Onyango DW, Midiwo JO. "In vivo Evaluation of Anti-malarial Activity of Stem and Root Extracts of Erythrina abyssinica." European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2019;27(4): Page: 1-5. Abstract

Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the in vivo anti-malarial activity of stem and root extracts of E. abyssinica using the 4-day suppressive in vivo anti-malarial test.
Methodology: Female mice weighing approximately 20±2 g were intra-peritoneally injected with mice passaged Plasmodium berghei parasites. The extracts were then administered orally 2 h post-infection and, subsequently, daily for 4 days. On the 4 th day, blood smears were prepared from all the mice, stained with giemsa and parasitaemia as well as chemosuppression determined.
Results: Comparatively, the root extracts exhibited higher chemosuppression than stem extracts and the level of chemosuppression was dose dependent being the highest at 50 mg/kg and lowest at 12.5 mg/kg. Survival time in extract treated and chloroquine treated groups was 2 to 3 fold higher than the–ve control.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that the root extracts are more efficacious in suppressing the development of full blown malaria compared to stem extracts and may be a useful candidate in managing malaria in future.

Johnson MA, Garland CR, Jagoe K, Edwards R, Ndemere J, Weyant C, Patel A, Kithinji J, Wasirwa E, Nguyen T, Khoi DD, Kay E, Scott P, Nguyen R, Yagnaraman M, Mitchell J, Derby E, Chiang RA, Pennise D. "In-Home Emissions Performance of Cookstoves in Asia and Africa." Atmosphere. 2019;10(5):290. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
This paper presents results from eight field studies in Asia and Africa on the emissions performance of 16 stove/fuel combinations measured during normal cooking events in homes. Characterizing real-world emissions performance is important for understanding the climate and health implications of technologies being promoted as alternatives to displace baseline cooking stoves and fuels. Almost all of the stove interventions were measured to have substantial reductions in PM2.5 and CO emissions compared to their respective baseline technologies (reductions of 24–87% and 25–80%, for PM2.5 and CO emission rates, respectively), though comparison with performance guidance from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) suggests that further improvement for biomass stoves would help realize more health benefits. The emissions of LPG stoves were generally below the WHO interim PM2.5 emissions target (1.75 mg/min) though it was not clear how close they were to the most aspirational ISO (0.2 mg/min) or WHO (0.23 mg/min) targets as our limit of detection was 1.1 mg/min. Elemental and organic carbon emission factors and elemental-to-total carbon ratios (medians ranging from 0.11 to 0.42) were in line with previously reported field-based estimates for similar stove/fuel combinations. Two of the better performing forced draft stoves used with pellets—the Oorja (median ET/TC = 0.12) and Eco-Chula (median ET/TC = 0.42)—were at opposite ends of the range, indicating that important differences in combustion conditions can arise even between similar stove/fuel combinations. Field-based tests of stove performance also provide important feedback for laboratory test protocols. Comparison of these results to previously published water boiling test data from the laboratory reinforce the trend that stove performance is generally better during controlled laboratory conditions, with modified combustion efficiency (MCE) being consistently lower in the field for respective stove/fuel categories. New testing approaches, which operate stoves through a broader range of conditions, indicate potential for better MCE agreement than previous versions of water boiling tests. This improved agreement suggests that stove performance estimates from a new ISO laboratory testing protocol, including testing stoves across low, medium, and high firepower, may provide more representative estimates of real-world performance than previously used tests. More representative results from standardized laboratory testing should help push stove designs toward better real-world performance as well as provide a better indication of how the tested technologies will perform for the user. View Full-Text
Keywords: household energy; solid fuel; biomass; stove performance; emission factors; black carbon

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