Publications

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2018
Robinson A, Busula AO, Voets MA, Beshir KB, Caulfield JC, Powers SJ, Niels O Verhulst, Winskill P, Muwanguzi J, Birkett MA, Renate C Smallegange, Masiga DK, Mukabana RW, Sauerwe RW. "Plasmodium-associated changes in human odor attract mosquitoes." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2018;115(18):E4209-E4218.
Dzupire NC, Ngare P, Odongo L. "A Poisson-Gamma Model for Zero Inflated Rainfall Data." Journal of Probability and Statistics. 2018;2018(1012647). AbstractA Poisson-Gamma Model for Zero Inflated Rainfall Data

Rainfall modeling is significant for prediction and forecasting purposes in agriculture, weather derivatives, hydrology, and risk and disaster preparedness. Normally two models are used to model the rainfall process as a chain dependent process representing the occurrence and intensity of rainfall. Such two models help in understanding the physical features and dynamics of rainfall process. However rainfall data is zero inflated and exhibits overdispersion which is always underestimated by such models. In this study we have modeled the two processes simultaneously as a compound Poisson process. The rainfall events are modeled as a Poisson process while the intensity of each rainfall event is Gamma distributed. We minimize overdispersion by introducing the dispersion parameter in the model implemented through Tweedie distributions. Simulated rainfall data from the model shows a resemblance of the actual rainfall data in terms of seasonal variation, means, variance, and magnitude. The model also provides mechanisms for small but important properties of the rainfall process. The model developed can be used in forecasting and predicting rainfall amounts and occurrences which is important in weather derivatives, agriculture, hydrology, and prediction of drought and flood occurrences.

Aduma MM, Ouma G, Said MY, Wayumba GO, Omondi PA, Njino LW. "Potential Impacts of Temperature Projections on Selected Large Herbivores in Savanna Ecosystem of Kenya." American Journal of Climate Change. 2018;7(1):5-26. Abstractpotential_impacts_of_temperature_projections_on_selected_large_herbivores_in_savanna_ecosystem_of_kenya.pdfAmerican Journal of Climate Change

Due to global land surface warming, severe temperature events are expected to occur more frequently and more extremely causing changes in biodiversity and altering movement and survival of large herbivores. There are increasing observations of escalating wildlife range losses worldwide. In this study, we investigated 15 large wild herbivores (4 migratory, 1 dispersing and 10 residents) and their potential range changes in relation to projected temperatures changes based on three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5. Previous studies of Kenyan savannah have shown that increases in temperature can reduce the densities of wildlife significantly and after certain thresholds the species can be lost in those landscapes. The range maps of the 15 species were developed from aerial censuses that have been conducted in the arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya. We analysed temperature changes for the three RCPs for the periods 2030s, 2050s and 2070s. And based on the temperature threshold for each of the 15 species we analysed which wildlife range areas will be lost. Our results project that for the RCP 2.6, 3 out of the 15 species are projected to lose more than 50% of their range by the year 2030s, and 5 out 15 by 2050s and 4 of 15 by 2070s. The second climate scenario of RCP 4.5 projects that by 2030s, 3 species will lose more than 50% of their range, and in 2050s and 2070s 5 species. The RCP 8.5 which is the extreme scenario of temperature changes projects 5 species to lose their range by 50% in 2030s, 7 species by 2050s and 10 species by 2070s. The extent of range loss was different among species but was severe for buffalo, Thomson’s gazelle, waterbuck, and wildebeest which are also water dependent species.
However, the elephant, gerenuk, hartebeest, lesser kudu, and oryx are expected to retain most of their range in all the RCPs scenarios. These range contractions raise serious concerns about the future of wildlife in Kenyan savannah based on projected climate changes. And therefore, it is imperative the wildlife sector develops climate policies and plans that take into account the projected climate scenarios.

Ongeso A, Omoni G. "Predisposing factors that lead to HIV seropositivity during pregnancy among women in Kakamega and Nairobi county Hospitals." International Journal for Science and Technology.. 2018;3 No 1(ISSN: 2415-6566). Abstract

In Kenya, there is limited empirical data on determinants of seropositivity in late pregnancy due to low uptake of HIV retesting in late pregnancy despite there being a policy directive to do so. Study objective was to determine the predisposing factors that lead to HIV seropositivity during pregnancy among women in Kakamega and Nairobi county Hospitals. A ten month longitudinal study was conducted employing both qualitative and quantitative design whereby 1,156 HIV positive and negative women were recruited in early pregnancy and followed up through pregnancy; they were interviewed, and retested.
Results showed that having multiple sex partners was associated with seropositivity. Cultural belief of men not having sex spouses in pregnancy encouraged extra marital affairs leading to seropositivity. In conclusion HIV seropositivity in pregnancy was mainly due to the risky sexual behavior. There is therefore need for behavior change to reverse retrogressive cultural beliefs and practices.

Key words Human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Initial testing HIV Seropositivity HIV seroconversion Retesting

and Odundo Paul Amollo GKLNB. "Preparation and Management of Teaching Practice Process at University of Nairobi, Kenya: Appropriateness of Methods and Resource. ." International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research . 2018;5(17).
Leasher JL, Braithwaite T, Furtado JM, Flaxman SR, Lansingh VC, Silva JC, S R, Taylor HR, Bourne RRA, Vision Loss Expert Group of the Global Burden of Disease Study. "Prevalence and causes of vision loss in Latin America and the Caribbean in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections." The British journal of ophthalmology. 2018. AbstractWebsite

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment for distance and near in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) in 2015 and to forecast trends to 2020.

METHODS: A meta-analysis from a global systematic review of 283 cross-sectional, population-representative studies from published and unpublished sources from 1980 to 2014 in the Global Vision Database included 17 published and 6 unpublished studies from LAC.

RESULTS: In 2015, across LAC, age-standardised prevalence was 0.38% in all ages and 1.56% in those over age 50 for blindness; 2.06% in all ages and 7.86% in those over age 50 for moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI); 1.89% in all ages and 6.93% in those over age 50 for mild vision impairment and 39.59% in all ages and 45.27% in those over 50 for near vision impairment (NVI). In 2015, 117.86 million persons were vision impaired; of those 2.34 million blind, 12.46 million with MSVI, 11.34 million mildly impaired and 91.72 million had NVI. Cataract is the most common cause of blindness. Undercorrected refractive-error is the most common cause of vision impairment.

CONCLUSIONS: These prevalence estimates indicate that one in five persons across LAC had some degree of vision loss in 2015. We predict that from 2015 to 2020, the absolute numbers of persons with vision loss will increase by 12% to 132.33 million, while the all-age age-standardised prevalence will decrease for blindness by 15% and for other distance vision impairment by 8%. All countries need epidemiologic research to establish accurate national estimates and trends. Universal eye health services must be included in universal health coverage reforms to address disparities, fragmentation and segmentation of healthcare.

Odongo DO, Tiampati CM, Mulinge E, Mbae CK, Bishop RP, Zeyhle E, Magambo J, Wasserman M, Kern P, Romig T. "Prevalence and genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus in sheep in Narok County, Kenya." Parasitology research. 2018;117(7):2065-2073.
Nyirakanani C, Chibvongodze R, Habtu M, Masika M, Mukoko D, Njunwa KJ. "Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic malaria among under-five children in Huye District, Southern Rwanda." Tanzania Journal of Health Research. 2018;20(1). AbstractWebsite

Background: Enhanced malaria control has resulted in its reduction in some areas of Sub Saharan Africa including Rwanda. However, asymptomatic hosts serve as a reservoir for the malaria parasite for communities. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of malaria parasites and risk factors associated with malaria infection among children underfive years in Huye district, Rwanda.

Methods: This community-based cross sectional study was conducted from May to June 2016 among underfive years children. Asymptomatic children underfive years of age were randomly selected from 13 villages. Thick and thin blood smears were prepared from each child for malaria parasite diagnosis. Interviews with parents or guardians were conducted to collect data on malaria associated risk factors. Observations were made of the presence of mosquito breeding sites near and around the homestead.

Results: A total of 222 children were included in the study. Nearly a third (28.8%) of the children were within the age of 25-36 months. The majority (54%) of the children were females. Most of the parents/guardians were married (95.9%), nearly all (99.5%) had attended primary school and most (97.3%) were peasants. The overall Plasmodium falciparum prevalence in children was 12.2%. Children aged 1 to 12 months were 3.5 times more likely to have malaria parasites than children aged 13 to 59 months [AOR=3.56; 95%CI=1.18-10.71; p=0.024]. Children who were not sleeping under insecticide treated nets were 15 times more likely to be infected with malaria parasites compared to those who were sleeping under nets [AOR=15.27; 95%CI=4.42-52.82; p<0.001].

Conclusion: Malaria parasite prevalence in under-five year children in Huye District, Rwanda is moderate. The asymptomatic infections in the community forms a reservoir for transmission in the area. Young age of the child and not sleeping under mosquito net were associated with malaria parasite infection. The continuing use of mosquito nets needs to be emphasized.

Habib A, Odhiambo A, Othieno-Abinya N, Maina JMD. "Prevalence of Deep Venous Thrombosis in Cancer Patients Admitted to the Medical Wards at the Kenyatta National Hospital." International Journal of Creative Research and Studies. 2018;2(2):50-56. Abstract

ABSTRACT
The objectives of this study were to establish the prevalence of DVT in cancer patients at KNH medical and oncology wards, to describe patient characteristics of those with DVT vs those without and compare rates of DVT in different types of cancer. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out at the Kenyatta National Hospital general medical wards and oncology wards. Patients were interviewed and examined. Patients’ records were perused for information relevant to the study. Patients with history and physical examination findings suggestive of a thrombotic event were screened by compression sonography to confirm a DVT. A total of 266 patients with a diagnosis of cancer were studied, 29 (10.9%) had DVT. Among the patients who were found to have DVT, 13 (44.8%) had gynaecological cancers, 3 (10.3%) breast cancer, 3(10.3%) prostate cancer, 3(10.3%) gastric cancer, 2(6.9%) patients had lymphoma and a patient (3.4%) each in the multiple myeloma, adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and pancreatic cancer groups. Some significant patient characteristics in the patients who had a DVT were female sex (P value 0.014), presence of comorbidities (P 0.004) and ECOG scores of 3 and 4 (P 0.04, 0.001). Some common risk factors known for DVT were analysed and some were found to be significant in our patient group. Of the significant risk factors,
presence of comorbid condition, female sex and higher ECOG scores were noted. Keywords: DVT, VTE, ECOG, Comorbidities, Kenyatta National Hospital
Venous thromboembolic events in cancer are quite common and are a leading cause of morbidity, delays in care and death. As cancer is a heterogeneous disease, the risk of DVT depends on cancer types and stages, treatment
measures, and patient-related factors

Wambui A, ODHIAMBO A, Achieng L, Otieno CF, Bhatt SM. "Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Adult Human 
Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Persons at District Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya." IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS). 2018;17(3):70-75.vitamin_d_deficiency_in_hiv.pdf
Kalai JM, Kingi PM. "Principals’ influence on Participatory Discipline Management in Secondary Schools, Kenya,." The Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of educational and Social Science Research. 2018;5(2):168-175.
Wachege PN, Mulunda JB. "Problems between Migrant Ethnic Groups and Indigenous Agikuyu Community in Ruaka, Kiambu County." IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2018;23(1):76-87.wachege_and_bukokhes_2018_article.pdf
"Profile of amblyopia at Sabatia Eye Hospital." Journal of Eastern central and southern college of Ophthalmology. 2018;22(1):24-30.profile_of_amblyopia_in_sabatia.pdf
Oluoch KR, Okanya PW, HATTI-KAUL RAJNI, MATTIASSON BO, Mulaa FJ. "Protease-, Pectinase- and Amylase- Producing Bacteria from a Kenyan Soda Lake." The Open Biotechnology Journal. 2018;12:33-45.
Shihembetsa DLU. "Provision of Low-Income Housing through National Cooperative Housing Union (NACHU) in Kenya: An appraisal of the Project Delivery Structures." International Journal of Creative Research and Studies (IJCRS). . 2018;Volume-2, (, Issue-8, August 2018):(66-80).
x James Karenge GGWM &. "Public Policy Marketing Practices and Performance of Poverty Reduction Projects in the Agricultural Sector in Central Kenya." International Journal of Arts and Humanities . 2018;4(2).
Ndwigah S, Stergachis A, Abuga K, Mugo H, Kibwage I. "The quality of anti-malarial medicines in Embu County, Kenya." Malaria Journal. 2018;17:330. Abstract

Background:
Malaria is a major health problem in sub-Saharan Africa where over 90% of the world’s malaria cases occur. Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization as first-line and second-line treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. However, there are a growing number of reports of sub-standard and falsified anti-malarial medicines in sub-Saharan Africa.

Methods:
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Embu County, Kenya on the quality of anti-malarial medicines available in public and private facilities. Sampling of anti-malarial medicines from public and private hospitals, health centers and pharmacies was conducted between May and June 2014. Quality control tests were performed at the Drug Analysis and Research Unit, University of Nairobi, using ultraviolet spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. A test for microbial load was also conducted for suspension formulations.

Results:
A total of 39 samples were collected from public and private facilities across the Embu County. A visual inspection of the medicines showed no signs of sub-standard or falsification. All ACT passed identification, assay and dissolution tests. Of 11 suspension samples collected, none failed the microbial load test although one sample had 50 colony forming units (cfu). No oral artemisinin monotherapy medicines were encountered during the survey. Amodiaquine and chloroquine monotherapy products accounted for 5% of the collected samples, despite their ban in Kenya. Two herbal anti-malarial formulations were collected during the survey. Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) was also found to be available use for malaria treatment, not in accordance with malaria treatment guidelines.

Conclusion:
All the anti-malarial drugs analysed in this study passed the quality control tests. This is encouraging given the high malaria burden in Kenya. Regulatory actions are required to counter SP and herbal products for malaria treatment.

Muhati GL, Olago D, Olaka L. "Quantification of carbon stocks in Mount Marsabit Forest Reserve, a sub-humid montane forest in northern Kenya under anthropogenic disturbance." Global Ecology and Conservation. 2018;14. AbstractWebsite

The quantification of carbon stocks is vital for decision making in forest management, carbon stock change assessment and scientific applications. We applied the land degradation surveillance framework (LDSF) method with a sentinel site of (10 km × 10 km) to assess carbon stock levels and tree diversity in the Marsabit Forest Reserve (MFR). The above ground (ABG) carbon stock was estimated at 12.42 t/ha, while soil organic carbon (SOC) was 12.51 t/ha, with SOC densities increasing with increasing depth. The mean ABG carbon and SOC densities were higher in the least disturbed strata than the disturbed strata. The estimated ABG carbon and SOC stocks were significantly lower than the range observed in a typical dry tropical forest. Twenty-one tree species were recorded belonging to twelve families with the disturbed areas recording nine tree species while the least disturbed recording twelve species. Rubiaceae and Rutaceae were the richest families with four species each while Boraginaceae, Capparaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Tiliaceae, Violaceae, and Ochnaceae the least frequent with one species each. The most common tree species were, Croton megalocarpus, Drypetes gerrardii, Ochna insculpta, Strychnos henningsii and Vangueria madagascariensis. The forest recorded a basal diameter of 14.09 ± 12.15 cm, basal area of 0.016 m 2/ha with a mean height of 8.69 m. The basal size class distribution declined monotonically indicative of a stable population. Livestock grazing, selective logging, and firewood collection were the primary forms of anthropogenic activities recorded in the MFR despite the moratorium imposed on consumptive utilisation of forest products by the Marsabit County security committee. The Pearson correlation coefficient returned an inverse relationship between forest disturbance with SOC and ABG carbon in the disturbed strata suggesting that anthropogenic activities reduced carbon stocks in the MFR. Concerted efforts to mitigate anthropogenic impacts on the MFR could significantly increase its terrestrial carbon sequestration potential and the provision of critical ecosystem goods and services.

Muhati GL, Olago D, Olaka L. "Quantification of carbon stocks in Mount Marsabit Forest Reserve, a sub-humid montane forest in northern Kenya under anthropogenic disturbance." Global Ecology and Conservation. 2018;14. AbstractFull Text

The quantification of carbon stocks is vital for decision making in forest management, carbon stock change assessment and scientific applications. We applied the land degradation surveillance framework (LDSF) method with a sentinel site of (10 km × 10 km) to assess carbon stock levels and tree diversity in the Marsabit Forest Reserve (MFR). The above ground (ABG) carbon stock was estimated at 12.42 t/ha, while soil organic carbon (SOC) was 12.51 t/ha, with SOC densities increasing with increasing depth. The mean ABG carbon and SOC densities were higher in the least disturbed strata than the disturbed strata. The estimated ABG carbon and SOC stocks were significantly lower than the range observed in a typical dry tropical forest. Twenty-one tree species were recorded belonging to twelve families with the disturbed areas recording nine tree species while the least disturbed recording twelve species. Rubiaceae and Rutaceae were the richest families with four species each while Boraginaceae, Capparaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Tiliaceae, Violaceae, and Ochnaceae the least frequent with one species each. The most common tree species were, Croton megalocarpus, Drypetes gerrardii, Ochna insculpta, Strychnos henningsii and Vangueria madagascariensis. The forest recorded a basal diameter of 14.09 ± 12.15 cm, basal area of 0.016 m 2/ha with a mean height of 8.69 m. The basal size class distribution declined monotonically indicative of a stable population. Livestock grazing, selective logging, and firewood collection were the primary forms of anthropogenic activities recorded in the MFR despite the moratorium imposed on consumptive utilisation of forest products by the Marsabit County security committee. The Pearson correlation coefficient returned an inverse relationship between forest disturbance with SOC and ABG carbon in the disturbed strata suggesting that anthropogenic activities reduced carbon stocks in the MFR. Concerted efforts to mitigate anthropogenic impacts on the MFR could significantly increase its terrestrial carbon sequestration potential and the provision of critical ecosystem goods and services.

Kaniu MI, Angeyo HK, Darby IG, Muia LM. "Rapid in-situ radiometric assessment of the Mrima-Kiruku high background radiation anomaly complex of Kenya." J. Environ. Radioact.. 2018;188:47-57. Abstract

n/a

C.M. MM; GR;WO; HG &. "Relationship between Age Diversity and Employee Performance of Public Universities in Western Kenya. ." International Journal of Academic Research in Business & Social Sciences . 2018;8(11).
Ogilo Fredrick, Omwoyo Jeremiah ZO3. "The Relationship between Liquidity Risk and Failure of Commercial Banks in Kenya." Universal Journal of Accounting and Finance . 2018;6(1)(2018):7-13.
Asingo PO. "Relative Deprivation, Protests and Voting in Kenya." Commonwealth and Comparative Politics . 2018;56(1):65-83.Relative Deprivation
and Ganira Khavugwi Lilian, Odundo Paul Amollo GJMJNC. "Relevance of Social Studies Curriculum Content for Enhancing Responsibility among Preschool Children in Nairobi County, Kenya." Journal of Education and Training. 2018.
Nemerimana M, Chege M, Odhiambo EA. "Risk Factors Associated with Severity of Nongenetic Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation) among Children Aged 2–18 Years Attending Kenyatta National Hospital." Neurology Research International. 2018. Abstract

Many of the nongenetic causal risk factors of intellectual disability (ID) can be prevented if they are identified early.
There is paucity on information regarding potential risk factors associated with this condition in Kenya.This study aimed to establish
risk factors associated with severity of nongenetic intellectual disability (ID) among children presenting with this condition at
Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted over the period between March
and June 2017 in pediatric and child/youth mental health departments of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Kenya. It included
children aged 2–18 years diagnosed with ID without underlying known genetic cause. Results. Of 97 patients with nongenetic
ID, 24% had mild ID, 40% moderate, 23% severe-profound, and 10% unspecified ID. The mean age of children was 5.6 (±3.6)
years. Male children were predominant (62%). Three independent factors including “labor complications” [AOR = 9.45, 95% CI =
1.23–113.29,

Wanjeri JK, Kinoti M, Olewe THAM. "Risk factors for burn injuries and fire safety awareness among patients hospitalized at a public hospital in Nairobi, Kenya: A case control study." Burns. 2018;Jan 29(pii: S0305-4179(17)):Burns. 2018 30611-3. doi: 10.1016/j.burns.2017.11.007.
Mutekhele B; Rambo, C.M; Ongati NO; RO. "Routine Program Monitoring and Performance of Educational Building Infrastructural Projects: A Case of Bungoma County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Advanced Studies (IJIRAS). 2018;5(9).
EK G, GO O, A G, KM B, B M, FO O, RG C. "Sarcocystosis: a rare polymyositis mimic." Afr J Rheumatol . 2018;6(1):18-19.sarcocystosis.pdf
Onyambu1* CK, Tharamba2 NM. "Screening for congenital fetal anomalies in low risk pregnancy: the Kenyatta National Hospital experience." BMC pregnancy and child birth. 2018;18(180):1-9.
M.E Y, Kimani PM, Kimani, P.M; Kimani JM, Muthomi JW. "Screening Upland Rice Genotypes for Grain Yield and Grain Quality in Kenya." Research journali’s Journal of Agriculture. 2018;5(7):1-15.
Birithia R, Subramanian S, Muthomi JW, Narla RD. "Seasonal dynamics and alternate hosts of thrips transmitted Iris yellow spot virus in Kenya." African Crop Science Journal . 2018;26(3):365-376.
Mumia BI, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Nyongesa MW, Olubayo FM. "Seed Potato Production Practices and Quality of Farm Saved Seed Potato in Kiambu and Nyandarua Counties in Kenya." World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2018;6(1):20-30.
Amadi JA, Olago DO, Ong’amo GO, Oriaso SO, Nanyingi M, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "Sensitivity of vegetation to climate variability and its implications for malaria risk in Baringo, Kenya." PloS one. 2018;13(7):e0199357.
Oyiro P, Mwanda W, Odhiambo A, Ogutu E, Otieno CF, Abdalla F. "Serum Ferritin Levels In Patients with Sickle Cell Anaemia at the Kenyatta National Hospital." IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS). 2018;17(3):31-40.serum_ferritin_sickle_cell_knh.pdf
Wanjohi LM, Moturi CA. "Smartphones Supporting Monitoring Functions: Experiences from Sweet Potato Vine Distribution in sub-Saharan Africa.". In: Digital Technologies for Agricultural and Rural Development in the Global South. Oxfordshire: CAB International; 2018.
Muia D, Kamau A, Paul Kamau, Baiya H, Ndung'u J. "Social Capital as a Coping Mechanism for Women Small Scale Traders in the Informal Economy in Nairobi, Kenya ." Journal of Social Welfare and Human Rights . 2018;6(1):13-20.
P Gottesfeld, Were FH, Adogame L, Gharbid S, D. San, Nota MM, Kuepouo G. "Soil Contamination from Lead Battery Manufacturing and Recycling in Seven African Countries." Environmental Research. 2018;161:609-614. Abstract

Lead battery recycling is a growing hazardous industry throughout Africa. We investigated potential
soil con-
tamination inside and outside formal sector recycling plants in seven countries. We collected 118
soil samples at 15 recycling plants and one battery manufacturing site and analyzed them for total
lead. Lead levels in soils ranged from < 40–140,000 mg/kg. Overall mean lead concentrations were
~23,200 mg/kg but, average lead levels were 22-fold greater for soil samples from inside plant
sites than from those collected outside these facilities. Arithmetic mean lead concentrations in
soil samples from communities surrounding these plants were
~2600 mg/kg. As the lead battery industry in Africa continues to expand, it is expected that the
number and size of lead battery recycling plants will grow to meet the forecasted demand. There is
an immediate need to address ongoing exposures in surrounding communities, emissions from this
industry and to regulate site closure financing procedures to ensure that we do not leave behind a
legacy of lead contamination that will impact
millions in communities throughout Africa.

Rotich HK, Onwonga R, Mbau JS, Koech OK. "Soil Organic Carbon Content and Stocks in Relation to Grazing Management in Semi-Arid Grasslands of Kenya." . Journal of Rangeland Science. 2018;8(2).
Laban U. Shihembetsa K’AOA. "Stakeholder analysis for slum upgrading in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Global Research in Education and Social Science. . 2018;Volume-12(1): (1-18, 2018. ISSN: 2454-1834).
Hadullo K, Oboko R, Omwenga E. "Status of e-learning Quality in Kenya: Case of Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Postgraduate Students." The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning. 2018;19(1). AbstractFull text Link

There is a substantial increase in the use of learning management systems (LMSs) to support e-learning in higher education institutions, particularly in developing countries. This has been done with some measures of success and failure as well. There is evidence from literature that the provision of e-learning faces several quality issues relating to course design, content support, social support, administrative support, course assessment, learner characteristics, instructor characteristics, and institutional factors. It is clear that developing countries still remain behind in the great revolution of e-learning in Higher Education. Accordingly, further investigation into e-learning use in Kenya is required in order to fill in this gap of research, and extend the body of existing literature by highlighting major quality determinants in the application of e-learning for teaching and learning in developing countries. By using a case study of Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), the study establishes the status of e-learning system quality in Kenya based on these determinants and then concludes with a discussion and recommendation of the constructs and indicators that are required to support qualify teaching and learning practices

Kiuru CW, Oyieke FA, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, Mwangangi J, Kamau L, Muhia-Matoke D. "Status of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in Kwale County, Coastal Kenya." Malaria journal. 2018;17(1):3.
Kiuru CW, Oyieke FA, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, Mwangangi J, Kamau L, Muhia-Matoke D. "Status of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in Kwale County, Coastal Kenya." Malaria journal. 2018;17(1):3.
Wilson Karibe, Catherine Kunyanga JI. "Storability and Physico-Chemical Quality of Ready to Eat Bovine Tripe Rolls under Different Storage Conditions." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2018;7(8):370-382.
Ondiek TO, ODOCK SO. "Supply chain quality management practices, complementary firm assets, competitive advantage and firm performance." International Journal of Managerial Studies. 2018;6(2):18-28.
Cheruiyot I.K, Kipkorir V, Henry B.M, Munguti J, Cirocchi R, Odula P.O, Wong L.M, B O, J.A W. "Surgical anatomy of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve: a systematic review and meta-analysis." angenbecks Archives of Surgery. 2018;10.1007/:s00423-018-1723-9.
Makunda CS. "Sustainable Housing Through Sustainable Planning Practices: Challenges and Opportunities for Formal Housing Provision in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Lifelong Learning and Education in Healthy and Sustainable Cities. World Sustainability Series . Cham: Springer; 2018.
Josyline K, Philip N, Lucy I, Paul N, Johnstone I, Osero B, Libendi D, Christopher A. "Synergistic effects of lambacyhalothrin incorporated into 1,4-dichlorobenzene for the control of sand fly and mosquito vectors in Baringo and Kirinyaga Counties, Kenya." Asian Journal of Biological and Life Sciences. 2018;7(1):21-27.
Kingi PM. "Teachers’ Participation in Management of Financial resources and Motivation." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2018;7(4):1331-1338.
Kingi PM. "Teachers’ Participation in Management of Financial resources and Motivation." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2018;7(4):1331-1338.
Tumuhaise V, Ekesi S, Maniania NK, Tonnang HEZ, Tanga CM, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Srinivasan R, Mohamed SA. "Temperature-dependent growth and virulence, and mass production potential of two candidate isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin for managing Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on cowpea." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):73-83.
Tumuhaise V, Ekesi S, Maniania NK, Tonnang HEZ, Tanga CM, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Srinivasan R, Mohamed SA. "Temperature-dependent growth and virulence, and mass production potential of two candidate isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin for managing Maruca vitrata …." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):73-83.
Nzogong RT, Nganou BK, Tedonkeu AT, Awouafack MD, Tene M, Ito T, Tane P, Morita H. "Three New Abietane-Type Diterpenoids from Plectranthus africanus and Their Antibacterial Activities." Planta medica. 2018;84(01):59-64.
S. Awino, Modisa M. ATJOAP. "Time SeriesAnalysis Of Impulsive Noise In Power Line Communication (PLC) Networks." Trans. SAIEE. 2018;Vol.107 (4) (4):237-243.
Ngaina JN, Muthama NJ, Mwalichi IJ, Owuor OA. "Towards Mapping Suitable Areas for Weather Modification in East Africa Community." Journal of Climatology & Weather Forecasting. 2018;6(1). AbstractOMICS International

In order to map suitable areas for weather modification in East Africa Community (EAC), investigations were performed to determine spatio-temporal variability and relationship of aerosol, clouds and precipitation during March- April-May (MAM) and October-November-December (OND). Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) and Multivariate Regression Analysis (MRA) were used. Identification of near homogeneous zones of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Fine Mode Fraction (FMF), Cloud Top and 3B42 Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) yielded 13 (14), 20 (18), 11 (10) and 16 (17) significant Principal Components (PCs) for MAM (OND) with explained variance greater than 57%. Aerosols and clouds had positive relationship with precipitation in areas with strong factor loadings. MRA indicated independence of variables used and normality in the model residuals. Backward trajectory analysis indicated differences in origins of transported particles in the atmosphere with strong vertical mixing inlands with mixed aerosols resulting due to mountain blocking systems accounted for enhanced rainfall. Enhanced rainfall was attributed to highly varied AOD and unaffected FMF in the atmosphere. Locations east and west EAC with mean temperatures greater than -10°C were unsuitable for cloud seeding while central EAC region along the great rift-valley and coastal Tanzania exhibited optimal temperatures suitable for cloud seeding. Successful precipitation enhancement will increase available fresh water sources and thus alleviate existing and projected water stress.

Onyango LSMOU. "Transformation of Formal Urban Housing in Kenya: Rationale and Process." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge.. 2018;Volume-3(August-2018 (8-19). ISSN:2213-135).
Gitau W, Camberlin P, Ogallo L, Bosire E. "Trends of Intraseasonal Descriptors of Wet and Dry Spells over Equatorial Eastern Africa." International Journal of Climatology. 2018;38(3):1189-1200. AbstractRoyal Meteorological Society

Many African countries whose economies are largely based on weather/climate sensitive sectors are vulnerable to long‐term changes in weather and climate. This study is aimed at assessing whether the recent decades have observed any significant trend in the intraseasonal descriptors (ISDs) of wet and dry spells at local and sub‐regional levels at seasonal and monthly timescales over equatorial eastern Africa (EEA). Daily rainfall observations over 36 stations and spanning a period of 51 years (1962–2012) were used.

The study has expanded on previous results that showed contrasting trends on seasonal totals between the two rainfall seasons by demonstrating that this also affects the ISDs. At the local level, it was observed that during the long rainfall season, a given ISD would have a significant trend over several neighbouring locations, which was not the case during the short rainfall season. Secondly, for the short rainfall season, a given location would have significant trend in several ISDs. Finally, when a given ISD had a significant trend at seasonal timescale during the long rainfall season, the same ISD would have significant trends in the second and third months of the season and rarely in the first month. Such a feature was not observed for the short rainfall season. Binomial probability distribution assessment confirmed that the significant trends in the various ISDs during the long rainfall season did not occur by mere chance.

Muthuwatta L, Sood A, McCartney M, Silva NS, Opere A. "Understanding the Impacts of Climate Change in the Tana River Basin, Kenya." Proceedings of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences. 2018;379:37-42. Abstractunderstanding_the_impacts_of_climate_change_in_the_tana_river_basin_kenya.pdfProceedings of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences

In the Tana River Basin in Kenya, six Regional Circulation Models (RCMs) simulating two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) (i.e., 4.5 and 8.5) were used as input to the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to determine the possible implications for the hydrology and water resources of the basin. Four hydrological characteristics – water yield, groundwater recharge, base flow and flow regulation – were determined and mapped throughout the basin for three 30-year time periods: 2020–2049, 2040–2069 and 2070–2099. Results were compared with a baseline period, 1983–2011. All four hydrological characteristics show steady increases under both RCPs for the entire basin but with considerable spatial heterogeneity and greater increases under RCP 8.5 than RCP 4.5. The results have important implications for the way water resources in the basin are managed. It is imperative that water managers and policy makers take into account the additional challenges imposed by climate change in operating built infrastructure.

Ooko JO, Onyatta JO, Yusuf AO, Guto PM. "Use of Accelerated Tests to Estimate Rate of Corrosion of Roofing Sheets." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research. 2018;37(3):1-8.
Ooko JO, J.O. O, A.O. Y, P.M. G. "Use of accelerated tests to estimate corrosion rates of roofing sheets." International Journal of Sciences. 2018;37(3):1-8.publication_juspher_onyatta_yusuf_guto.pdf
M SM, AA A, CK O, IM M, TM M. "Utility of Sonohysterography in Evaluation of Patients with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding." Obstet Gynecol Rep. 2018;2(2):1-7.Website
Mohamed SM1, Anyona AA2, Onyambu CK2*, IM2 M, TM2 M. "Utility of sonohysterography in evaluation of patients with abnormal uterine bleeding." Obstetrics and Gynecology Reports. 2018;2(2):1-7.ogr-2-127-1.pdf
Ondicho TG. "Violence against women in Kenya: a public health problem." International Journal of Development and |Sustainability. 2018;7(6):2030-2047.ijds-v7n6-19.pdf
Mwangi HN, Onyango, Omosa LK, Mulaa F. "Virtual Screening and Validation of Potential Lead Compound from the Malaria Box against Plasmodium Falciparum S7 and S19 Proteins." Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2018;2(2).
Mwangi HN, Onyango S, Omosa LK, Mulaa F. "Virtual Screening and Validation of Potential Lead Compound from the Malaria Box against Plasmodium Falciparum S7 and S19 Proteins." Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2018;2(2).
Foster C, Graham M, Mann L, Waema T, Friederici N. "Who controls the digital? Value chains and the challenges of connectivity for East African firms." Economic Geography. 2018;94(1):68-86. AbstractFull text link

In recent years, Internet connectivity has greatly improved across the African continent. This article examines the consequences that this shift has had for East African firms that are part of global value chains (GVCs). Prior work yielded contradictory expectations: firms might benefit from connectivity through increased efficiencies and improved access to markets, although they might also be further marginalized through increasing control of lead firms. Drawing on extensive qualitative research in Kenya and Rwanda,including 264 interviews, we examine 3 sectors (tea, tourism, and business process outsourcing) exploring overarching, cross-cutting themes. The findings support more pessimistic expectations: small African producers are only thinly digitally integrated in GVCs. Moreover, shifting modes of value chain governance, supported by lead firms and facilitated by digital information platforms and data standards are leading to new challenges for firms looking to digitally integrate. Nevertheless, we also find examples in these sectors of opportunities where small firms are able to cater to emerging niche customers, and local or regional markets. Overall, the study shows that improving connectivity does not inherently benefit African firms in GVCs without support for complementary capacity and competitive advantages.

Odundo Paul Amolloh, Wanjiru KG, Lilian GK. "Work-based Learning, Procedural Knowledge and Teacher Trainee Preparedness towards Teaching Practice at the University of Nairobi, Kenya. ." The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. . 2018;17(3):96-110.
m, m. "’The Relevance of Odera Oruka’s Parental Earth Ethics as an Eco-Philosophy .". In: Odera Oruka in the Twenty-first Century Kenyan Philosophical Studies, II. Washington, D.C: The Council for Research in Values and Philosophy; 2018.
Kunyanga C. "“This is how Agriculture can drive Vision 2030”." The Standard (2018).
Amadi JA, Olago DO, Ong’amo GO, Oriaso SO, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "“We don’t want our clothes to smell smoke”: changing malaria control practices and opportunities for integrated community-based management in Baringo, Kenya." BMC public health. 2018;18(1):609. AbstractFull Text

Background

The decline in global malaria cases is attributed to intensified utilization of primary vector control interventions and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). These strategies are inadequate in many rural areas, thus adopting locally appropriate integrated malaria control strategies is imperative in these heterogeneous settings. This study aimed at investigating trends and local knowledge on malaria and to develop a framework for malaria control for communities in Baringo, Kenya.

Methods

Clinical malaria cases obtained from four health facilities in the riverine and lowland zones were used to analyse malaria trends for the 2005–2014 period. A mixed method approach integrating eight focus group discussions, 12 key informant interviews, 300 survey questionnaires and two stakeholders’ consultative forums were used to assess local knowledge on malaria risk and develop a framework for malaria reduction.

Results

Malaria cases increased significantly during the 2005–2014 period (tau = 0.352; p < 0.001) in the riverine zone. March, April, May, June and October showed significant increases compared to other months. Misconceptions about the cause and mode of malaria transmission existed. Gender-segregated outdoor occupation such as social drinking, farm activities, herding, and circumcision events increased the risk of mosquito bites. A positive relationship occurred between education level and opinion on exposure to malaria risk after dusk (χ2 = 2.70, p < 0.05). There was over-reliance on bed nets, yet only 68% (204/300) of respondents owned at least one net. Complementary malaria control measures were under-utilized, with 90% of respondents denying having used either sprays, repellents or burnt cow dung or plant leaves over the last one year before the study was conducted. Baraza, radios, and mobile phone messages were identified as effective media for malaria information exchange. Supplementary strategies identified included unblocking canals, clearing Prosopis bushes, and use of community volunteers and school clubs to promote social behaviour change.

Conclusions

The knowledge gap on malaria transmission should be addressed to minimize the impacts and enhance uptake of appropriate malaria management mechanisms. Implementing community-based framework can support significant reductions in malaria prevalence by minimizing both indoor and outdoor malaria transmissions.

Keywords

Local knowledgeMalaria trendsCommunity-based strategiesFramework

Kang’ethe EK, H Korhonen, KA Marimba, G Nduhiu, JK Mungatu, Okoth SA, V Joutsjoki, LW Wamae, Shalo P. "肯尼亚地区对玉米中霉菌毒素引起的健康风险的管理和降低." Food Quality and Safety. 2018;1(4):268-274.
Kibugi R. "Common but differentiated responsibilities in a North-South context: assessment of the evolving practice under climate change treaties.". In: Elgar Encyclopedia of Environmental Law. Edward Elgar Publishing Limited; 2018:. Abstract
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Ouko C, Mulwa R, Kibugi R, Owuor M, Zaehringer J, Oguge N. "Community Perceptions of Ecosystem Services and the Management of Mt. Marsabit Forest in Northern Kenya." Environments. 2018;5(11):121. Abstract
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Omollo EO, Wasonga OV, Elhadi MY, Mnene WN. "Determinants of pastoral and agro-pastoral households." Pastoralism. 2018;8:9. Abstract
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Kalambuka Angeyo H. "Developing Kenya." International Journal of Nuclear Security. 2018;4:2. Abstract
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Bhatt B, Kalambuka HAA, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A. "LIBS Development Methodology for Forensic Nuclear Materials Analysis." Analytical Methods. 2018. Abstract
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Zipporah M, Robinson M, Julius M, Arti K. "Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Mn2VIn (001) films: An ab initio study." AIP Advances. 2018;8:055701. Abstract
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Zipporah M, Robinson M, Julius M, Arti K. "Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Mn2VIn (001) films: An ab initio study." AIP Advances. 2018;8:055701. Abstract
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Zipporah M, Robinson M, Julius M, Arti K. "Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Mn2VIn (001) films: An ab initio study." AIP Advances. 2018;8:055701. Abstract
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Zipporah M, Robinson M, Julius M, Arti K. "Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Mn2VIn (001) films: An ab initio study." AIP Advances. 2018;8:055701. Abstract
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Bulle Hallo Dabasso, Oliver Vivian Wasonga PIBK. "Stratified cattle production in pastoral areas of Kenya: Existing forms, driving factors and management practices." Applied Animal Husbandry & Rural Development. 2018;11. Abstract
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Muthui ZW, Musembi RJ, Mwabora JM, Skomski R, Kashyap A. "Structural, Electronic and Magnetic Properties of the Heusler Alloy Mn 2 VIn: A Combined DFT and Experimental Study." IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 2018;54:1-5. Abstract
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Muthui ZW, Musembi RJ, Mwabora JM, Skomski R, Kashyap A. "Structural, Electronic and Magnetic Properties of the Heusler Alloy Mn 2 VIn: A Combined DFT and Experimental Study." IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 2018;54:1-5. Abstract
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Muthui ZW, Musembi RJ, Mwabora JM, Skomski R, Kashyap A. "Structural, Electronic and Magnetic Properties of the Heusler Alloy Mn 2 VIn: A Combined DFT and Experimental Study." IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 2018;54:1-5. Abstract
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2017
Kanyinga K. "Presidential petition exposed counsel as largely poorly prepared for task." Sunday Nation, September 10, 2018.
Peter Akuon HX. "Gain of Spatial Diversity with Conjoint Signals.". In: IEEE Africon. Cape Town, South Africa; 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Election or no election, the country is more polarised than ever before." Sunday Nation, October 21, 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Uhuru and Raila should sit together, alone, and resolve to unite Kenya." Sunday Nation, October 8, 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Avert tendency of ending up with battered economy after every poll." Sunday Nation, November 18, 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Lessons from nominations." Sunday Nation, May 20, 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Nominations have ‘orphaned’ central and Nyanza regions." Sunday Nation, May 6, 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Vision forestalls war and keeps economy steady." Sunday Nation, March 25, 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Strengthening devolution will require a totally new mindset." Sunday Nation, March 11, 2017.
I M, A A, S M, C B, J W, E M, Onyango N, Nyagol J. Assessment of MNCH services provided by private health care providers in Kibra Sub-county of Nairobi County. . Nairobi: Kibra Private Health Care Providers Study Report; Ministry of Health Report, Kenya; 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Election risks plunging us deeper into tribal division." Sunday Nation, June 17, 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Tribal alliances will continue to affect electoral process." Sunday Nation, June 3, 2017.
Nyunja C, Maina J, Amimo J, Kibegwa F, Harper D, Junga J. "{Stock Structure Delineation of the African Catfish (Clarius gariepinus) in Selected Populations in Kenya Using Mitochondrial DNA (Dloop) Variability}." Journal of Aquaculture Research {&} Development. 2017;08. AbstractWebsite

This study genetically characterized five populations of the African catfish (Clarius gariepinus) in Kenya. Samples were obtained from five sites in the country–Athi River hatchery, Kisii Fingerling Production Centre (FPC), Jewlett hatchery, Sagana Hatchery Station and Lake Baringo. DNA was extracted from tissue samples, followed by amplification and sequencing of the dloop region. Haplotype diversities, phylogenetic structure and variation at the dloop region of mitochondrial DNA were assessed. Mitochondrial DNA analyses indicated that the sampled species showed genetic diversity between its populations. The genetic results were congruent indicating the differences in diversities and haplotype similarities of catfish samples from different sites. The Sagana, Kisii FPC, Jewlett and Baringo population cluster overlapped indicating possibly shared source of brood stock. The Athi river population was in a different cluster and its distinctiveness is attributed to imported brood stock. Both Athi River hatchery and Lake Baringo populations were highly variable and has great potential for production.

Kanyinga K. "Marginalisation’ no longer a presidential campaign issue." Sunday Nation, July 16, 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Marginalisation in Kenya: Origins, trends, and policy solutions.". In: Commission on Allocation of Revenue (CRA), Kenya. Nairobi; 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Manifestos rich on promises, vague on delivery strategies." Sunday Nation, July 1, 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Road to August election is bumpy." Sunday Nation, January 28, 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Why government and NGOs aren’t friends." Sunday Nation, January 15, 2017.
Kanyinga K. "A new political settlement is required in Kenya going to 2022." Sunday Nation, January 1, 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Election is about Kenya, not voter mapping." Sunday Nation, February 25, 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Good leadership in counties is an important condition for development." Sunday Nation, December 17, 2017.
Kanyinga K. "An open letter to governors: How to get quick wins in first three months." Sunday Nation, August 27, 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Voter rationality shaped poll outcome." Sunday Nation, August 13, 2017.
Olago D, Verschuren D, Daele MV, Wolff C, Waldmann N. "ICDP project DeepCHALLA: reconstructing East African climate change and environmental history over the past 250,000 years.". In: 19th EGU General Assembly, EGU2017. Vienna, Austria; 2017. Abstract

Sediments on the bottom of Lake Challa, a 92-meter deep crater lake on the border of Kenya and Tanzania near Mt. Kilimanjaro, contain a uniquely long and continuous record of past climate and environmental change. The near-equatorial location and exceptional quality of this natural archive provide great opportunities to study tropical climate variability at both short (inter-annual to decadal) and long (glacial-interglacial) time scales; and the influence of this climate variability on the region's freshwater resources, the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, and the history of the East African landscape in which modern humans (our species, Homo sapiens) evolved and have lived ever since. Supported in part by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Programme (ICDP), the DeepCHALLA project has now recovered the sediment record of Lake Challa down to 214.8 meter below the lake floor, with almost certain 100% cover of the uppermost 121.3 meter (ca.150,000 year BP to present) and estimated 85% cover over the lower part of the sequence, down to the lowermost distinct reflector in the available seismic stratigraphy. This reflector represents a 2 meter thick layer of volcanic sand and silt deposited ca.250,000 years ago, and overlies still older silty lacustrine clays deposited during early lake development. Down-hole logging produced continuous profiles of in-situ sediment composition that confer an absolute depth scale to both the recovered cores and their three-dimensional representation in seismic stratigraphy. As readily observed through the transparent core liners, Lake Challa sediments are finely laminated throughout most of the recovered sequence. Combined with the great time span, the exquisite temporal resolution of these sediments promises to greatly increase our understanding of tropical climate and ecosystem dynamics, and create a long-awaited equatorial counterpart to the high-latitude climate records extracted from the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica.

Kanyinga K. "Agriculture can help uproot poverty." Sunday Nation, April 22, 2017.
Gureya D, Barreto J. "Profiling for Asymmetric NUMA Systems.". In: 11th EuroSys Doctoral Workshop (EuroDW'17). Belgrade, Serbia; 2017. Abstract

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Upadhyaya R. "The Politics of High Level of Adoption of Global Banking Standars in Kenya: "A Case of Alignment of Donor, Government and Banking Sector Interests".". In: Second Annual Workshop - LICs Navigating Global Banking Standards. Blavatnik School of Government, University of Oxford; 2017.
Ngaruiya N, Orwa D, Waiganjo P. "Towards a Deployment Model for eMonitoring of Geriatric Persons in Rural Developing Countries: Case of Kenya.". In: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317291029. Vol. 1. Namibia; 2017. Abstract

The United Nations and the African Union considers a person aged 65
years and above as a geriatric person. The graying population over the past decades
is showing an exponential growth rate compared to the declining fertility rate. This
population in the developing countries is not boastful of active ageing (successful,
independent ageing) as they are challenged by various health issues and
psychosomatic conditions. They require constant care and in some cases, specialized
care in familiar environments (their homes with relatives) or nursing homes (called
Nyumba za Wazee in Kenya). The researchers with support from literature believe
that technology can offer this specialized care (E-monitoring). This would be offered
in the comfort of their homes through continuous assessment of the geriatric person
relaying information to both the formal and informal caregivers. The objective of this
paper is to explore, summarize and analyse the various technologies in gerontology,
acceptance and adoption models, with the aim of identifying a suitable deployment
model that could be adopted in the context of a developing country.

Mutuma WK. "The role of national courts in furthering the development of international humanitarian law.". In: Conference Paper, ICRC, 5th Regional Implementation Seminar for Researchers. Nairobi; 2017.
Kante M, Chepken C, Oboko R. "Methods for translating ICTs’ survey questionnaire into French and Bambara.". In: Egerton University, 11th international conference. Njoro, Kenya; 2017. Abstract

Researchers have used many instruments to gather data on the use of Information and
Communication Technology to disseminate information on agricultural inputs towards farmers.
These instruments are in English and based on some theories. The Technology Acceptance Model
(TAM), the Diffusion of Innovation Theory (DOI) and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of
Technology (UTAUT) are the three most popular contemporary technology acceptance models. For
other speaking languages especially French and Bambara, there is a need to translate. The increasing
need for non-English data collection instruments and other survey materials has clearly given recent
figures. Despite the availability of tools for translation, the DOI’s instrument has been barely
translated into French and Bambara. In this paper, we used an adaptation method to translate the
DOI’s instrument into French and Bambara. We produced a method for translating English survey
questionnaire into French and Bambara. The method specifies and describes five steps, which are
prepare, translate, pretest, revise and document.
Keywords: ICT, Agriculture, Translation, French, Bambara

Kirui G, Gakuya DW, Abuom TO. "Challenges in food animal practice in the urban areas- Nairobi City and its environs.". In: The Kenya Veterinary Association, Commonwealth Veterinary Association and university Nairobi, Faculty of Veterianry Medicine Joint Scientific Conference. Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2017.
"10th Anniversary workshop of the Understanding Development Issues in Nurse Educator (UDINE-C) network and the health educators East Midlands celebrations conference,.". In: 10th Anniversary workshop of the Understanding Development Issues in Nurse Educator (UDINE-C) network and the health educators East Midlands celebrations conference,. Lincoln, UK; 2017.
Mugambi JNK. "Why Water: Lenten Meditation for 2017 World Water Day.". In: ”, Ecumenical Water Network. Geneva; 2017.
Lokken EM, Balkus JE, Kiarie J, Hughes JP, Jaoko W, Totten PA, McClelland SR, Manhart LE. "Recent bacterial vaginosis is associated with acquisition of Mycoplasma genitalium." Am. J. Epidemiol.. 2017. Abstract

We assessed the association between recent bacterial vaginosis (BV) and incident Mycoplasma genitalium, a sexually transmitted bacterium associated with adverse female reproductive health outcomes. Female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya completed a monthly sexual behavior interview and clinical examination. During February 2005-February 2006, vaginal fluid specimens collected from women every other month were tested for M. genitalium by nucleic acid amplification testing. Vaginal microbiota was assessed monthly and categorized by Nugent score (0-3 normal, 4-6 intermediate microbiota, 7-10 BV). A discrete time failure analysis for multiple events using logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of incident M. genitalium infection at follow-up visits in women with BV versus normal microbiota at the preceding visit. Among the 280 women, 54.3% were HIV positive. At baseline, 16.1% had prevalent M. genitalium infections and 40.4% had prevalent BV. There were 59 incident M. genitalium infections among 50 women for an incidence rate of 34.6 per 100 person-years. Following adjustment for age, HIV status, and time, prior BV was associated with a 3.5-fold increase in odds of incident M. genitalium (adjusted odds ratio = 3.49; 95% confidence interval: 1.86, 6.56). This strong association suggests that BV may enhance susceptibility to M. genitalium infection.

Otange BO, Birech Z, Okonda J, Rop R. "Conductive silver paste smeared glass substrates for label-free Raman spectroscopic detection of HIV-1 and HIV-1 p24 antigen in blood plasma." Anal Bioanal Chem. 2017;409(12):3253-3259. Abstract

We report on application of conductive silver paste smeared glass slides as Raman spectroscopy sample substrates for label-free detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen in blood plasma. We also show that the same substrates can be applied in Raman spectroscopic screening of blood plasma for presence of HIV. The characteristic Raman spectrum of HIV-1 p24 antigen displayed prominent bands that were assigned to ribonucleic acids (RNA) and proteins that constitute the antigen. This spectrum can be used as reference during Raman spectroscopic screening for HIV in plasma within the first few days after exposure (<7 days). The Raman spectra obtained from HIV+ plasma displayed unique peaks centered at wavenumbers 928, 990, 1270, 1397, and 1446 cm(-1) attributed to the Raman active vibrations in the virion carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Other bands similar to those reported in literature were also seen and assignments made. The attachment of the HIV virions to silver nanoparticles via gp120 glycoprotein knobs was thought to be responsible for the enhanced Raman signals of proteins associated with the virus. The principal component analysis (PCA) applied on the combined spectral data showed that HIV- and HIV+ spectra had differing spectral patterns. This indicated the great power of Raman spectroscopy in HIV detection when plasma samples are deposited onto silver paste smeared glass substrates. The Raman peaks responsible for the segregation of the spectral data in PCA were mainly those assigned to the viral proteins (645, 725, 813, 1270, and 1658 cm(-1)). Excellent results were obtained from Artificial Neural Network (ANN) applied on the HIV+ Raman spectral data around the prominent peak centered at 1270 cm(-1) with R (coefficient of correlation) and R (2) (coefficient of determination) values of 0.9958 and 0.9895, respectively. The method has the potential of being used as quick blood screening for HIV before blood transfusion with the Raman peaks assigned to the virion proteins acting as reference. Graphical Abstract The HIV type 1 virus particle gets attached to the silver nanoparticle contained in the conductive silver paste smear onto a glass slide. This results in strong Raman signals associated with the components of the virion. The signals are collected, dispersed in a spectrometer and displayed on a computer screen. Method can be used as a label-free and rapid HIV screening in blood plasma.

Vlasova AN, Amimo JO, Saif LJ. "Porcine Rotaviruses: Epidemiology, Immune Responses and Control Strategies." Viruses. 2017;9(3). Abstract

Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in young animals and children worldwide. Immunocompetent adults of different species become resistant to clinical disease due to post-infection immunity, immune system maturation and gut physiological changes. Of the 9 RV genogroups (A-I), RV A, B, and C (RVA, RVB, and RVC, respectively) are associated with diarrhea in piglets. Although discovered decades ago, porcine genogroup E RVs (RVE) are uncommon and their pathogenesis is not studied well. The presence of porcine RV H (RVH), a newly defined distinct genogroup, was recently confirmed in diarrheic pigs in Japan, Brazil, and the US. The complex epidemiology, pathogenicity and high genetic diversity of porcine RVAs are widely recognized and well-studied. More recent data show a significant genetic diversity based on the VP7 gene analysis of RVB and C strains in pigs. In this review, we will summarize previous and recent research to provide insights on historic and current prevalence and genetic diversity of porcine RVs in different geographic regions and production systems. We will also provide a brief overview of immune responses to porcine RVs, available control strategies and zoonotic potential of different RV genotypes. An improved understanding of the above parameters may lead to the development of more optimal strategies to manage RV diarrheal disease in swine and humans.

Buttolph J, Inwani I, Agot K, Cleland CM, Cherutich P, Kiarie JN, Osoti A, Celum CL, Baeten JM, Ruth Nduati, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Hallett TB, Alsallaq R, Kurth AE. "Gender-Specific Combination HIV Prevention for Youth in High-Burden Settings: The MP3 Youth Observational Pilot Study Protocol." JMIR Res Protoc. 2017;6(3):e22. Abstract

Nearly three decades into the epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains the region most heavily affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with nearly 70% of the 34 million people living with HIV globally residing in the region. In SSA, female and male youth (15 to 24 years) are at a disproportionately high risk of HIV infection compared to adults. As such, there is a need to target HIV prevention strategies to youth and to tailor them to a gender-specific context. This protocol describes the process for the multi-staged approach in the design of the MP3 Youth pilot study, a gender-specific, combination, HIV prevention intervention for youth in Kenya.

Balkus JE, Srinivasan S, Anzala O, Kimani J, Andac C, Schwebke J, Fredricks DN, McClelland SR. "Impact of Periodic Presumptive Treatment for Bacterial Vaginosis on the Vaginal Microbiome among Women Participating in the Preventing Vaginal Infections Trial." J. Infect. Dis.. 2017;215(5):723-731. Abstract

Evidence suggests that specific vaginal bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) may increase the risk of adverse health outcomes in women. Among women participating in a randomized, double-blinded trial, we assessed the effect of periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) on detection of select vaginal bacteria.

Bork KA, Cames C, Newell M-L, Read JS, Ayassou K, Musyoka F, Mbatia G, Cournil A. "Formula-Feeding of HIV-Exposed Uninfected African Children Is Associated with Faster Growth in Length during the First 6 Months of Life in the Kesho Bora Study." J. Nutr.. 2017;147(3):453-461. Abstract

Background: Early feeding patterns may affect the growth of HIV-exposed children and thus their subsequent health and cognition.Objective: We assessed the association of infant feeding (IF) mode with length-for-age z score (LAZ) and stunting from age 2 d to 18 mo in HIV-exposed African children within a controlled randomized trial, which evaluated triple antiretrovirals initiated during pregnancy and continued for 6 mo postpartum to prevent HIV transmission.Methods: HIV-infected pregnant women with CD4(+) counts of 200-500 cells/mm(3) from Burkina Faso, Kenya, and South Africa were advised to exclusively breastfeed for up to 6 mo or to formula-feed from birth. Factors associated with LAZ were investigated in all uninfected children by using mixed-effects linear models; those associated with stunting (LAZ <-2) at 6 or 12 mo were assessed in multiple logistic regression after exclusion of children stunted at age 2 d. Independent variables were IF mode: formula feeding (FF), exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) <3 mo, or EBF ≥3 mo (reference); sex; trial arm; maternal characteristics; and site.Results: Among 728 children, FF was associated with a greater increase in LAZ from 2 d to 6 mo (+0.07 z score/mo, P < 0.001). Between 6 and 18 mo, FF and EBF <3 mo were both associated with greater mean LAZ than was EBF ≥3 mo (+0.52 z scores and +0.43 z scores, respectively, P < 0.001). Among children not stunted at 2 d, FF was independently associated with a reduced risk of stunting at 6 mo (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.81; P = 0.021), whereas EBF <3 mo was not (OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.22, 1.10; P = 0.09).Conclusions: In this observational study of HIV-exposed uninfected infants, growth in length in the first 6 mo of life was faster in formula-fed infants than in exclusively breastfed infants. The plausibility of residual confounding and reverse causality is discussed. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN71468401.

Wall KM, Rida W, Haddad LB, Kamali A, Karita E, Lakhi S, Kilembe W, Allen S, Inambao M, Yang AH, Latka MH, Anzala O, Sanders EJ, Bekker L-G, Edward VA, Price MA. "Pregnancy and HIV Disease Progression in an Early Infection Cohort from Five African Countries." Epidemiology. 2017;28(2):224-232. Abstract

Understanding associations between pregnancy and HIV disease progression is critical to provide appropriate counseling and care to HIV-positive women.

Gichuhi S, Kabiru J, Zindamoyen AM'bongo, Rono H, Ollando E, Wachira J, Munene R, Onyuma T, Sagoo MS, Macleod D, Weiss HA, Burton MJ. "Delay along the care-seeking journey of patients with ocular surface squamous neoplasia in Kenya." BMC Health Serv Res. 2017;17(1):485. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:

In Africa, accessing eye health services is a major challenge. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is a substantial ocular health problem in Africa related to solar UV light exposure and HIV infection among other risk factors. The disease causes visual loss and even death in advanced cases. This study was conducted to assess referral pathway and treatment delay for patients with OSSN in Kenya.
METHODS:

Adults with conjunctival lesions presenting to four eye centres were asked about their occupations, when they noticed the growth, health facilities visited in seeking care, cost of consultation, surgery, medicines and histopathology and dates at each step. The time-to-presentation was divided into quartiles and correlates analysed using ordinal logistic regression.
RESULTS:

We evaluated 158 first-time presenters with OSSN. Most were women (102 [65%]), living with HIV (78/110 tested [71%]), with low to medium income (127 [80%]). Most of the HIV patients (49/78 [63%]) were in antiretroviral care programs. About half (88/158, [56%]) presented directly to the study centres while the rest were referred. Indirect presenters sought care earlier than direct presenters (median 2.0 months vs 5.5 months) and travelled a shorter distance to the first health facility (median 20 km vs 30 km) but had surgery later (median 12.5 months vs 5.5 months). Visits beyond the first health facility for indirect presenters markedly increased delay (median 7.3, 29.0, 37.9, and 32.0 months for 1-4 facilities, respectively). Delay was associated with number of health facilities visited (adjusted ordered OR = 9.12; 95%CI 2.83-29.4, p < 0.001) and being female (adjusted ordered OR = 2.42; 95%CI 1.32-4.44, p = 0.004). At the time of presentation at the study centres for surgery the median tumour diameter in both directly and indirectly presenting patients was 6 mm (p = 0.52) and the histological spectrum of OSSN was similar between the groups (p = 0.87).
CONCLUSIONS:

Referral delays definitive treatment for OSSN. Women were more likely to experience delay. Despite regular contact with the health system for those with known HIV infection, delays occurred. Early detection and referral of OSSN in the HIV service might reduce delays, but reassuringly delay did not give rise to a larger proportion with more advanced grade of OSSN.

Nyombayire J, Anzala O, Gazzard B, Karita E, Bergin P, Hayes P, Kopycinski J, Omosa-Manyonyi G, Jackson A, Bizimana J, Farah B, Sayeed E, Parks CL, Inoue M, Hironaka T, Hara H, Shu T, Matano T, Dally L, Barin B, Park H, Gilmour J, Lombardo A, Excler J-L, Fast P, Laufer DS, Cox JH. "First-in-Human Evaluation of the Safety and Immunogenicity of an Intranasally Administered Replication-Competent Sendai Virus-Vectored HIV Type 1 Gag Vaccine: Induction of Potent T-Cell or Antibody Responses in Prime-Boost Regimens." J. Infect. Dis.. 2017;215(1):95-104. Abstract

 We report the first-in-human safety and immunogenicity assessment of a prototype intranasally administered, replication-competent Sendai virus (SeV)-vectored, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine.

Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kamau FN, Ndwigah SN, Lachenmeier DW. "A Robust Liquid Chromatographic Method for Confirmation of Drug Stability of Azithromycin in Bulk Samples, Tablets and Suspensions." Pharmaceutics. 2017;9(1). Abstract

A simple, isocratic and robust RP-HPLC method for the analysis of azithromycin was developed, validated and applied for the analysis of bulk samples, tablets and suspensions. The optimum chromatographic conditions for separation were established as a mobile phase comprised of acetonitrile-0.1 M KH₂PO₄ pH 6.5-0.1 M tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide pH 6.5-water (25:15:1:59 v/v/v/v) delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The stationary phase consisted of reverse-phase XTerra(®) (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm particle size) maintained at a temperature of 43 °C with a UV detection at 215 nm. The method was found to be linear in the range 50%-150% (r² = 0.997). The limits of detection and quantification were found to be 0.02% (20 µg) and 0.078% (78 µg), respectively, with a 100.7% recovery of azithromycin. Degradation products of azithromycin in acidic and oxidative environments at 37 °C were resolved from the active pharmaceutical ingredient and thus the method is fit for the purpose of drug stability confirmation.

Newman LP, Njoroge A, Magaret A, Chohan BH, Gitomea VW, Wald A, Gorstein J, Overbaugh J, Dalton Wamalwa, Maleche-Obimbo E, Ruth Nduati, Farquhar C. "Sustained Responses to Measles Revaccination at 24 Months in HIV-Infected Children on Antiretroviral Therapy in Kenya." Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.. 2017. Abstract

There are limited data on whether HIV-infected children in resource-limited countries who are receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) are able to produce sustained, protective levels of measles antibody after multiple measles vaccinations.

Goyette MS, Wilson KS, Deya R, Masese LN, Shafi J, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Jaoko W, McClelland SR. "Brief Report: Association Between Menopause and Unprotected Sex in High-Risk HIV-Positive Women in Mombasa, Kenya." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2017;74(5):488-492. Abstract

Many HIV-positive women now live well beyond menopause. Postmenopausal women are no longer at risk for pregnancy, and some studies suggest that they may use condoms less often than premenopausal women. This study tests the hypothesis that, in HIV-positive women who report trading sex for cash or in-kind payment, unprotected sex is more common at postmenopausal visits compared with premenopausal visits.

Ronen K, Dingens AS, Graham SM, Jaoko W, Mandaliya K, McClelland SR, Overbaugh J. "Comprehensive Characterization of Humoral Correlates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Superinfection Acquisition in High-risk Kenyan Women." EBioMedicine. 2017;18:216-224. Abstract

HIV-1 superinfection, in which an infected individual acquires a second HIV-1 infection from a different partner, is one of the only settings in which HIV acquisition occurs in the context of a pre-existing immune response to natural HIV infection. There is evidence that initial infection provides some protection from superinfection, particularly after 6months of initial infection, when development of broad immunity occurs. Comparison of the immune response of superinfected individuals at the time of superinfection acquisition to that of individuals who remain singly infected despite continued exposure can shed light on immune correlates of HIV acquisition to inform prophylactic vaccine design. We evaluated a panel of humoral immune responses in the largest published group of superinfected individuals (n=21), compared to a set of 3:1 matched singly infected controls from the same cohort. The immune functions studied included plasma neutralization, plasma and cervical antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and plasma IgG and IgA binding to a panel of 18 envelope antigens, including correlates of HIV acquisition in the RV144 vaccine trial, IgG binding to V1V2 and IgA binding to gp140. Association between each immune function and HIV superinfection was evaluated using conditional logistic regression. No significant associations were detected between any of the immune functions and superinfection acquisition. This study constitutes the most comprehensive and detailed characterization of multiple immune correlates of superinfection to date. The results suggest that immune responses not commonly measured in current HIV studies may be important in protection from HIV infection, and these or a more robust humoral response than that seen in naturally infected women may be needed for a protective vaccine.

Nordstrom MPC, Westercamp N, Jaoko W, Okeyo T, Bailey RC. "Medical Male Circumcision Is Associated With Improvements in Pain During Intercourse and Sexual Satisfaction in Kenya." J Sex Med. 2017;14(4):601-612. Abstract

Two cohort studies using data from randomized controlled trials in Africa offer the best evidence to date on the effects of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) on male sexual function and satisfaction, suggesting no significant impairments in sexual function or satisfaction and some improvements in sexual function after male circumcision.

Birech Z, Mwangi PW, Bukachi F, Mandela KM. "Application of Raman spectroscopy in type 2 diabetes screening in blood using leucine and isoleucine amino-acids as biomarkers and in comparative anti-diabetic drugs efficacy studies." PLoS ONE. 2017;12(9):e0185130. Abstractapplication_of_raman_spectroscopy_in_type_2_journal.pone_.0185130.pdf

Diabetes is an irreversible condition characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. Currently, there are no predictive biomarkers for this disease and the existing ones such as hemoglobin A1c and fasting blood glucose are used only when diabetes symptoms are noticed. The objective of this work was first to explore the potential of leucine and isoleucine amino acids as diabetes type 2 biomarkers using their Raman spectroscopic signatures. Secondly, we wanted to explore whether Raman spectroscopy can be applied in comparative efficacy studies between commercially available anti-diabetic drug pioglitazone and the locally used anti-diabetic herbal extract Momordica spinosa (Gilg.)Chiov. Sprague Dawley (SD) rat's blood was used and were pipetted onto Raman substrates prepared from conductive silver paste smeared glass slides. Prominent Raman bands associated with glucose (926, 1302, 1125 cm-1), leucine (1106, 1248, 1302, 1395 cm-1) and isolecucine (1108, 1248, 1437 and 1585 cm-1) were observed. The Raman bands centered at 1125 cm-1, 1395 cm-1 and 1437 cm-1 associated respectively to glucose, leucine and isoleucine were chosen as biomarker Raman peaks for diabetes type 2. These Raman bands displayed decreased intensities in blood from diabetic SD rats administered antidiabetic drugs pioglitazone and herbal extract Momordica spinosa (Gilg.)Chiov. The intensity decrease indicated reduced concentration levels of the respective biomarker molecules: glucose (1125 cm-1), leucine (1395 cm-1) and isoleucine (1437 cm-1) in blood. The results displayed the power and potential of Raman spectroscopy in rapid (10 seconds) diabetes and pre-diabetes screening in blood (human or rat's) with not only glucose acting as a biomarker but also leucine and isoleucine amino-acids where intensities of respectively assigned bands act as references. It also showed that using Raman spectroscopic signatures of the chosen biomarkers, the method can be an alternative for performing comparative efficacy studies between known and new anti-diabetic drugs. Reports on use of Raman spectroscopy in type 2 diabetes mellitus screening with Raman bands associated with leucine and isoleucine molecules acting as reference is rare in literature. The use of Raman spectroscopy in pre-diabetes screening of blood for changes in levels of leucine and isoleucine amino acids is particularly interesting as once elevated levels are noticed, necessary interventions to prevent diabetes development can be initiated.

Tamimi IFM, Patel NB. "Open field ethogram and olfactory preference in naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glabus). .". In: Society of Neuroscientists of Africa. Entebbe, Uganda; 2017.imaan_-_sona_poster__27_may_2017.pdf
Amimo JO, Otieno TF, Okoth E, Onono JO, Bett B. "Risk factors for rotavirus infection in pigs in Busia and Teso subcounties, Western Kenya." Trop Anim Health Prod. 2017;49(1):105-112 . Abstract

We analysed data that were previously collected for molecular characterisation of rotavirus (RV) groups A and C in pigs from Teso and Busia subcounties in Kenya to determine risk factors for its infection. The data included records from 239 randomly selected piglets aged between 1 and 6 months raised in free range and backyard production systems. RV infection was confirmed by screening of fresh faecal samples by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); selected positive samples were subsequently sequenced and used for phylogenetic analysis. In this analysis, RV infection status was used as outcome variable, while the metadata collected at the time of sampling were used as predictors. A Bayesian hierarchical model which used integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA) method was then fitted to the data. The model accounted for the spatial effect by using stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs). Of the 239 samples screened, 206 were available for the analysis. Descriptive analyses showed that 27.7 % (57/206) of the samples were positive for rotaviruses groups A and C, 18.5 % were positive for group A rotaviruses, 5.3 % were positive for group C rotaviruses, while 3.9 % had co-infections from both groups of rotaviruses. The spatial effect was insignificant, and a simple (non-spatial) model showed that piglets (≤4 months) and those pigs kept in free range systems had higher risk of exposure to rotavirus infection as compared to older pigs (>4 months) and those tethered or housed, respectively. Intervention measures that will target these high-risk groups of pigs will be beneficial to farmers.

Mitema A, Rafudeen S, Okoth S, Iyer R. "Heterokaryon incompatibility and phenotypic characterisation of Aspergillus flavus isolates in low and high risk zones in Kenya.". In: The 14th International Aspergillus Meeting Asperfest 14. Asilomar Conference Center, PG, CA, USA; 2017.
Steven Awino, Afullo A. "Analytic BER of OFDM Powerline Communication at different IAT of Impulsive Noise.". In: SAUPEC. StellenBosch, South Africa; 2017.
Odhiambo JA, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF. "Corms as an additional feature to identify Gladiolus spp.". In: XXI AETFAT congress.; 2017. Abstractuse_of_corms_as__additional_features_to_identify.ppt

Gladiolus is a genus that consists of underground corms and strikingly showy flowers. The corms are mostly rounded and symmetrical enveloped with fibrous tunics. Presently the main and sure way to identify these plants is by their use of showy flowers; however, this becomes a challenge in during the dry seasons when the plants don’t flower. This study investigated the use of corms as additional feature for identification of Gladiolus species found in Kenya; Gladiolus watsonoides, G. goetzenii, G. ukambanensis and G. newii. Physical and histological features of the corms were evaluated according to Rolls, 2011, to investigate any differences across the different species. Although the analysis of the cells of corms did not reveal any obvious differences, their outward morphologies including the colour, shape and texture of the tunics were different across the species investigated. Therefore, corms form an additional feature of taxonomic value for identification and collection of these plants in the absence of flowers.
Key words: Gladiolus, Corms, Identification

Musila FM, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF, Nguta JM. "Molecular Phylogeny of ten Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade.". In: XXI AETFAT congress. Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya; 2017. Abstractaetfat_2017-fredrick_m.ppt

Plectranthus is one important genus of flowering plants whose member species have a variety of uses in the horticultural and in the medical field. Plectranthus species are difficult to distinguish morphologically and many species have been given different names by different authors. Use of morphological characters is not sufficiently enough to delimit the genus successfully. Molecular, anatomical and biochemical markers are better in studying interspecific variation compared to gross morphological markers. So far no study on molecular phylogeny of the Kenyan Plectranthus species has been conducted. By comparing the same gene sequence across species within a genus, a phylogenetic tree can be constructed which can support or give new insights into the existing classification and rule out the confusion brought by synonymy. As a result, the current study used molecular characters to classify ten Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade within the Plectranthus genus. The molecular characters used in the study were DNA sequences of two chloroplast genes: MatK and Rbcl genes considered as universal molecular markers. Genomic DNA from the ten species was obtained followed by amplification and sequencing of the two genes in each species. From the results, a phylogenetic tree reconstructed using MatK genes groups P. caninus, P. otostegioides, P. barbatus and P. lanuginosus together and all the four species form a monophyletic group. These four species together with P.aegyptiacus form a larger monophyletic group. The same pattern can be observed in the phylogenetic tree created using the Rbcl genes. Again based on the MatK genes; P. pseudomarruboides, P. ornatus, P. montanous and P. amboinicus have been showed to be closely related and are monophyletic. Again these four species together with P.edulis form a larger monophyletc group. This close relationship of these species can also be observed in phylogenetic tree produced using the Rbcl genes. The present study has grouped the ten study Plectranthus species using molecular characters into phylogenies which are supported by previous studies and proved that molecular characters can aid in plant identification and phylogenetic studies.
Key words; Plectranthus, Molecular phylogeny, MatK gene, Rbcl gene.

Olali T. "" A Critical Exposition of Jihad Trope as a Religious Philosophy in the Epic of Rasi'l Ghuli (1850-1855).". In: African Literature Association. Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut; 2017.
Birkin F, Ramos M, Makunda C, Margerison J, Polesie T, Balanzo A. "Revising the ontological status of traditional modes of living: The concepts and their practical consequences in sustainability issues in China, Kenya, Colombia and Sweden.". In: The 23rd International Sustainable Development Research Society (ISDRS) Conference. Bogota, Colombia; 2017.
Kilekwang L, Patel NB. "Catha edulis Forsk (khat) induces conditioned place preference in mice.". In: Society of Neuroscientists of Africa.; 2017.cpp_poster.pdf
WAITA SEBASTIAN, Aduda B. "Structural and Optical Characterization of Polymer based TiO2 films for Photovoltaic Applications.". In: Solar World Congress, 2017. Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Kenya and the August 2017 elections: A review of Key Drivers.". In: Commonwealth Foundation International Observers . Kenya; 2017.
Ndohvu JB. " African Values and Children's Rights Instruments.". In: In Jackson Wafula Muyila (Ed),African Values and the Rights of the Child: Challenges and Prospects. Saarbrucken: Editions Universitaires Europeennes; 2017.
M KP. " Influence of Legal Framework in Enhancing Democratic Governance Process in Kenya." Journal of Public Policy & Governance . 2017;1(2):43-57.
Odada E, Zalasiewicz J, Williams M, Waters CN, Barnosky AD, et al. " Scale and diversity of the physical technosphere: A geological perspective." The Anthropocene Review. 2017;4(1):9-22. AbstractFull Text

We assess the scale and extent of the physical technosphere, defined here as the summed material output of the contemporary human enterprise. It includes active urban, agricultural and marine components, used to sustain energy and material flow for current human life, and a growing residue layer, currently only in small part recycled back into the active component. Preliminary estimates suggest a technosphere mass of approximately 30 trillion tonnes (Tt), which helps support a human biomass that, despite recent growth, is ~5 orders of magnitude smaller. The physical technosphere includes a large, rapidly growing diversity of complex objects that are potential trace fossils or ‘technofossils’. If assessed on palaeontological criteria, technofossil diversity already exceeds known estimates of biological diversity as measured by richness, far exceeds recognized fossil diversity, and may exceed total biological diversity through Earth’s history. The rapid transformation of much of Earth’s surface mass into the technosphere and its myriad components underscores the novelty of the current planetary transformation.

Cherotich, M.G., Kalai, J.M., Kebenei PJ, Rose A. "). Prospects of Deputy Principals’ professional preparation on administrative tasks in boarding public secondary schools inBomet County, Kenya." The Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of educational and Social Science Research. 2017;5(2):109-117.
Jimmy ML, Nzuve F, Flourence O, Manyasa E, Muthomi J. ". Genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance and trait correlations in selected sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) varieties." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2017;11(5):47-56.
Ngowi BV, Tonnang HEZ, Khamis F, Mwangi EM, Nyambo B, Ndegwa PN, Subramanian S. "14.5 Population dynamics of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and Its Parasitoids Along Altitudinal Gradients of the Eastern Afromontane." Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods. 2017:231.
Mburu MM, Collins K Mweresa, Philemon Omusula, Alexandra Hiscox, Takken W, Wolfgang R Mukabana. "2-Butanone as a carbon dioxide mimic in attractant blends for the Afrotropical malaria mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus." Malaria journal. 2017;16(1):351.
Ambale 1. CA, Sinei KA, Amugune BK, Oluka MN. "Accessibility of medicines used in the management of substance use disorders in selected hospitals in Nairobi." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(2):102-108.

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