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and D.K. TKPK. "Photocatalytic Degradation of 4-Chlorophenol by Titanium Dioxide: Role of Annealing Temperature and Morphology." and Journal of Applied Science Environment Management. 2020;24(1):5-12.
Langat MK, Djuidje EFK, Ndunda BM, Isyaka SM, Dolan NS, Ettridge GD, Whitmore H, Lopez I, Alqahtani AM, Atiku I, Lobe JS, Mas-Claret E, Crouch NR, Midiwo JO, Mulholland DA, Kamdem AFW. "The phytochemical investigation of five African Croton species: Croton oligandrus, Croton megalocarpus, Croton menyharthii, Croton rivularis and Croton megalobotrys." Phytochemistry Letters. 2020;40:148-155. AbstractPhytochemistry Letters

The chemistry of five African Croton taxa, Croton oligandrus Pierre ex Hutch., Croton megalocarpus Hutch., Croton menyharthii Pax, Croton rivularis Mull.Arg. and Croton megalobotrys Mull.Arg. is described. The undescribed ent-19-hydroxyisopimara-8(9),15-dien-7-one and ent-isopimara-7(8),15-dien-16,19-diol were isolated from the fruits of C. oligandrus, ent-isopimara-7(8),15-dien-19-yl octadecanoate was obtained from both the fruits and leaves, and ent-19-hydroxyisopimara-8(9),15-dien-7-one was isolated from the leaves of this species. The undescribed 3,4,15,16-diepoxy-8α-hydroxycleroda-13(16),14-dien-12S,17-olide and (5S,9R,10S)-7,13-ent-abietadien-2-one were isolated from the leaves and roots of C. megalocarpus respectively. Compounds isolated from C. menyharthii, C. rivularis and C. megalobotrys have been reported from other sources. The structures of the compounds were determined using …

O. A’G, T. M, W. OM, F. N’ang’a, G. O’P, M. MD, D. M, M. A, S G. "Phytochemicals in leaves and roots of selected Kenyan orange fleshed Sweet potato (OFSP) varieties. International Journal of Food Science." International Journal of Food Science . 2020;2020(1-2):1-11.
Awori MN, Mehta NP, Kebba N, Mutie JM. "Possible impairment of surgical decision making and confounded outcome in Fontan surgery by Nakata Index." African Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 2020. AbstractWebsite

Since cardiac structuring dimensions inform surgical decisions making, Z-score systematic error impairs surgical decision making and confounds outcome measurement, hence a similar error may affect the Nakata index. In this study, PubMed was searched using the terms: “pulmonary,” “artery,” “size,” “Nakata,” “Fontan,” and “outcome”. Studies that did not describe the outcome of the Fontan procedure and the size of the branch pulmonary arteries were excluded. Outcome measures of interest, in relation to BPA size, included: Operative mortality, Fontan “take-down”, length of ICU stay, pleural effusions and functional capacity. The results revealed that of 116 papers retrieved, 9 were included representing 1,042 patients who underwent the Fontan procedure. Six out of 9 papers representing 645 (61.9%) patients reported that BPA size had no relationship with the outcome of the Fontan procedure; while 2 out of 9 papers representing 366 (35.1%) patients found that BPA size did affect the outcome. One paper representing 31 (3%) patients was unable to find any relationship. All the papers that concluded that there was no relationship labelled normal sized BPAs as small because of a systematic error introduced by the Nakata index. Papers that found a relationship did not use the Nakata index. Thus, Nakata index systematic error may impair surgical decision making and confound outcome measurement in Fontan surgery. In addition, continued use of the Fontan index may have similar implications for other congenital heart lesions.

BeboraLillyCaroline, OdongoMahacla. Practical Bacteriology and Mycology Manual for Veterinary Students. Mauritius: Lap Lambert Academic Publishing; 2020.
Atilaw Y, Muiva-Mutisya L, Bogaerts J, Duffy S, Valkonen A, Heydenreich M, Avery VM, Rissanen K, Erdélyi M, Yenesew A. "Prenylated Flavonoids from the Roots of Tephrosia rhodesica." Journal of natural products. 2020;83(8):2390-2398. AbstractJournal of Natural Products

Five new compounds—rhodimer (1), rhodiflavan A (2), rhodiflavan B (3), rhodiflavan C (4), and rhodacarpin (5)—along with 16 known secondary metabolites, were isolated from the CH2Cl2–CH3OH (1:1) extract of the roots of Tephrosia rhodesica. They were identified by NMR spectroscopic, mass spectrometric, X-ray crystallographic, and ECD spectroscopic analyses. The crude extract and the isolated compounds 2–5, 9, 15, and 21 showed activity (100% at 10 μg and IC50 = 5–15 μM) against the chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) strain of Plasmodium falciparum.

Umuhoza T, Bulimo WD, Oyugi J, Schnabel D, Mancuso JD. "Prevalence and factors influencing the distribution of influenza viruses in Kenya: Seven-year hospital-based surveillance of influenza-like illness (2007-2013)." PLoS One. 2020;15(8):e0237857. Abstractumuhoza_et_al_2020.pdfWebsite

BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses remain a global threat with the potential to trigger outbreaks and pandemics. Globally, seasonal influenza viruses' mortality range from 291 243-645 832 annually, of which 17% occurs in Sub-Saharan Africa. We sought to estimate the overall prevalence of influenza infections in Kenya, identifying factors influencing the distribution of these infections, and describe trends in occurrence from 2007 to 2013. METHODS: Surveillance was conducted at eight district hospital sites countrywide. Participants who met the case definition for influenza-like illness were enrolled in the surveillance program. The nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from all participants. We tested all specimens for influenza viruses with quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay. Bivariate and multivariate log-binomial regression was performed with a statistically significant level of p<0.005. An administrative map of Kenya was used to locate the geographical distribution of surveillance sites in counties. We visualized the monthly trend of influenza viruses with a graph and chart using exponential smoothing at a damping factor of 0.5 over the study period (2007-2013). RESULTS: A total of 17446 participants enrolled in the program. The overall prevalence of influenza viruses was 19% (n = 3230), of which 76% (n = 2449) were type A, 21% (n = 669) type B and 3% (n = 112) A/ B coinfection. Of those with type A, 59% (n = 1451) were not subtyped. Seasonal influenza A/H3N2 was found in 48% (n = 475), influenza A/H1N1/pdm 2009 in 43% (n = 434), and seasonal influenza A/ H1N1 in 9% (n = 88) participants. Both genders were represented, whereas a large proportion of participants 55% were

Muyodi MM, Bhatt KM, KAYIMA JK. "PREVALENCE OF AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE IN OSTEOARTHRITIS PATIENTS AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL." EAOJ. 2020;14(2):72-80. Abstractprevalence_of_and_factors_associated_with_ckd_in_osteoarthritis.pdf

Background: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a global health problem with an increase in prevalence especially
in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It has a high morbidity and mortality. CKD and osteoarthritis (OA) are related as
they both increase with age and are associated with comorbidities e.g. hypertension, obesity etc. However,
there is limited evidence on the prevalence and associated risk factors of CKD among OA patients.
Objective: To assess the prevalence and factors associated with CKD in OA patients attending Rheumatology
and Orthopaedic clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: A hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study.
Methods: The study was conducted between November 2019 and January 2020 involving patients aged 18
years and above; being followed up in the rheumatology and orthopaedic clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital
with a diagnosis of knee, hip, spine and hand osteoarthritis based on the American College of Rheumatology
criteria. Chronic kidney disease was defined as an eGFR of less than or equal to 60 ml/min/1.73m2
proteinuria of 30 mg/dl detected on urinary dipstick for three months or more. Descriptive statistics were
used to describe the participants. Association between participants’ characteristics and CKD prevalence were
assessed using chi-square and factors associated with CKD among OA patients using bivariate and multivariable
logistic regressions.
Results: The overall prevalence of CKD among patients with osteoarthritis was 61.9% (56.4–66.3) as per eGFR
using Cockrauft Gault (CG). Most were in CKD stage 3 at 59.2% with 45.5% in G3a and 13.7% in G3b. One point
one percent were in stage 1, 38.3% in stage 2 and 1.4% were in CKD stage 4 and 5. Only 12.1% of the respondents
had persistent proteinuria and thus most of the patients had low and moderate risk for CKD progression at
38% and 38.2% respectively. Only 12.1% and 11.6% had high and very high risk for CKD progression. The CKD
prevalence increased with age, being highest among older adults (65+ years). The prevalence was higher
among men than women (65.9%, 95% CI: 54.7–75.5 vs. 60.2%, 95% CI: 54.4–65.7). The factors associated with
CKD in OA were old age, hypertension and poor and fair self-rated health which increased the odds of CKD
while moderate physical activity, overweight/obesity and use of more than one medication (NSAID/ACEI/ARB)
reduced the odds of CKD.
Conclusion: This study provides evidence that osteoarthritis is associated with a high prevalence of CKD.
However, most of the patients are asymptomatic and in low and moderate risk category based on Kidney
Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) nomenclature. Osteoarthritis patients should be considered a
high-risk group for chronic kidney disease given their older age, chronic use of NSAIDs and high prevalence of
comorbidities e.g. hypertension, overweight/obesity which are known risk factors for CKD. Screening for CKD
in OA patients should therefore be done routinely as is the case in other high risk groups e.g. diabetes.

Mbindyo C, Gitao C, Mulei C. "Prevalence, Etiology, and Risk Factors of Mastitis in Dairy Cattle in Embu and Kajiado Counties, Kenya." Veterinary Medicine International. 2020;Volume 2020 |Article ID 8831172 | 12 pages ( pages.
Mwangi IK(2020). "Proposing a Conceptual Model of Planning Methodology in Public Domain." Africa Habitat Review . 2020;Vol. 14, No.3,(ISSB 2519-7851).
"Proverbs and Enculturation: The Gender Convergence of Kiswahili and Ekegusii Proverbs ." Mwanga wa Lugha, Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika, Chuo Kikuu cha Moi. 2020;Juzuu 5, (Na.1, April 2020, ):19-36.
Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Proximate analysis of fruits and vegetables wastes from Nairobi County, Kenya." Research Journal of Food Science and Nutrition. 2020;5(1):9-15. Abstract

Proximate analysis of twenty fruits and vegetable waste from Nairobi County was evaluated. They were obtained from Kangemi and Wakulima markets. Standard procedures were used for the analysis of crude fat, protein,fiber, carbohydrates, moisture, ash, nitrogen-free extract and energy. The results obtained revealed that moisture content was in the range of 82.8 to 95.86% apart from sweet potato and banana which was 62.05 and 74.30% respectively. Protein range was between 0.57 to 3.49% with high-fat content being recorded in avocado at 9.03%. The ash content was highest
in comfrey at 3.46% and lowest in mango at 0.44%. The carbohydrate level obtained by the difference method was lowest in courgette at 1.99% with crude fiber ranging from 0.69 to 2.73%. The total calculated energy ranged from 1.94 to 39.98 Kcal/100g. The macro-nutrient concentrations were 3.59 and 1.53% for potassium and calcium respectively. Lead, iron and zinc were detected at 15.1±3.6, 3742±235 and 176±11 ppm respectively. There is the presence of proximate properties in the edible portion of wasted fruits and vegetable and therefore, this study recommends proper fruits and vegetable handling during harvest, transportation, storage and marketing. Besides, the unavoidable waste should be used as biomass in energy production to deal with landfilling issues in the market places.

Othoo CO, Dulo SO, Olago DO, Ayah R. "Proximity Density Assessment and Characterization of Water and Sanitation Facilities in the Informal Settlements of Kisumu City: Implications for Public Health Planning." Journal of UOEH. 2020;42(3):237-249. AbstractProximity Density Assessment and Characterization of Water and Sanitation Facilities in the Informal Settlements of Kisumu City: Implications for Public Health Planningjstage.jst.go

Access to water and sanitation remain a challenge in many developing countries, especially in pro-poor
urban informal settlements where socioeconomic livelihoods are generally low. The aim of this study was to characterise the water and sanitation facilities in the informal settlements of Kisumu City and to evaluate their effect on
community hygiene and health. The study focussed on the five urban informal settlements of Nyalenda A, Nyalenda
B, Manyatta A, Manyatta B and Obunga, and the three Peri-urban informal settlements of Kogony, Usoma and
Otonglo. Using descriptive techniques, the researcher surveyed 114 water sources and all sanitation facilities within
0-15m and 15-30m radii of the water sources. The findings revealed dominance of shallow wells and traditional pit
latrines as the primary water sources and sanitation facilities, respectively. Out of the water sources studied, 87.7%
(100) were shallow wells (mean depth 1.5 m), 9.6% (11) springs and 2.6% (3) boreholes. Most of these shallow
wells (83%) were within the urban informal settlements where uses range from washing and cleaning, cooking, and
even drinking (13.5%), despite the majority being unprotected. The analysis of the density of sanitation facilities
near the water points showed that 32.3% existed within a 15m radius of the nearest water sources, in violation of
the recommended safe distance of 30m. With an increased density of toilets near critical water sources and other
sanitary practices, public health is highly compromised.

Keywords : density, health, informal settlements, water-source, Sanitation technology.

S W, A K, S K, I M. "A Qualitative Analysis on the Clinical Experiences of Undergraduate Nursing Students in Kenya." Saudi Journal of Nursing and Health Care. 2020:293-238.
Mutala TM, Onyambu CK, Aywak AA. "Radiology practice in sub-Saharan Africa during the COVID-19 outbreak: points to consider." Pan African Medical Journal. 2020;37(28):doi: 10.11604/pamj.2020.37.28.23081.
Opiyo R, Muketha S, Omollo W, Mwaniki D. "Responsive Infrastructure and Service Provision Initiatives Framing Smart Environment Attainment in Nairobi.". In: Smart Environment for Smart Cities. Singapore; 2020.
Gathumbi JK, Kemboi DC, Antonissen G, Ochieng PE, Croubels S, Kangethe EK, Okoth S, Faas J, Lindahl JF. "A Review of the Impact of Mycotoxins on Dairy Cattle Health: Challenges for Food Safety and Dairy Production in Sub-Saharan Africa." Toxins 2020. 2020;12(4).
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "A River from Rivulets? A Study of Sheng vis-à-vis Indigenous Kenyan Languages and Modern Technology - Expected." Asian Journal of African Studies (AJAS), Hankuk University. 2020.
Ang'u C, Muthama NJ, Oludhe C, Chitedze I. "The role of diversity, reserve margin and system structure on retail electricity tariffs in Kenya." Heliyon. 2020;6(8):1-11.
J.O'Connell P, Brown M, Chan TM, Granado RC-D, J.Davies S, Eiam-Ong S, H.Hassan M, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Levin A, E.Martin D, Muller E, Ossareh S, Tchokhonelidze I, Trask M, Twahir A, J.O.Were A, Yang C-W, Zemchenkov A, N.Harden P. "The role of kidney transplantation as a component of integrated care for chronic kidney disease." Science Direct. 2020.Website
Nyapela MA. "The Role of Knowledge Management in Life-Saving Initiatives: Case of COVID-19 Pandemic." The Role of Knowledge Management in Life-Saving Initiatives: Case of COVID-19 Pandemic . 2020.
Kithuka, J.M., Irandu EM, Moronge JM. "The role of periodic markets in provision of manufactured goods and creation of income in rural areas: a case study of selected markets in Mukaa Sub County; Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2020;7(5 ):65-79.
Kanoti, Olago, D. O., Akech, Nyamai, C.M., Dulo, Ayah, Taylor, D. "Sanitation challenges, groundwater perspectives and their intertwined relationships in Kisumu." Kenya Policy Briefs . 2020;1(1).
Kanoti J, Olago D, Nyamaoi C, Dulo SI, Ayah R, Taylor R. "Sanitation challenges, groundwater perspectives and their intertwined relationships in Kisumu, Kenya." Kenya Policy Briefs. 2020;1(1):15-16. AbstractSanitation challenges, groundwater perspectives and their intertwined relationships in Kisumu,

Groundwater is the preferred alternative water source during times of shortages and in areas not served by piped water supplies. Pit latrines are the main sanitation facilities in Kisumu where sewerage extends over less than 20 per cent of the city. Pit latrines contribute to microbial contamination of shallow groundwater in Kisumu.

Chaurasiya ND, Midiwo J, Pandey P, Bwire RN, Doerksen RJ, Muhammad I, Tekwani BL. "Selective Interactions of O-Methylated Flavonoid Natural Products with Human Monoamine Oxidase-A and-B." Molecules. 2020;25(22):5358. AbstractMolecules

A set of structurally related O-methylated flavonoid natural products isolated from Senecio roseiflorus (1), Polygonum senegalense (2 and 3), Bhaphia macrocalyx (4), Gardenia ternifolia (5), and Psiadia punctulata (6) plant species were characterized for their interaction with human monoamine oxidases (MAO-A and-B) in vitro. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 showed selective inhibition of MAO-A, while 4 and 6 showed selective inhibition of MAO-B. Compound 3 showed~ 2-fold selectivity towards inhibition of MAO-A. Binding of compounds 1–3 and 5 with MAO-A, and compounds 3 and 6 with MAO-B was reversible and not time-independent. The analysis of enzyme-inhibition kinetics suggested a reversible-competitive mechanism for inhibition of MAO-A by 1 and 3, while a partially-reversible mixed-type inhibition by 5. Similarly, enzyme inhibition-kinetics analysis with compounds 3, 4, and 6, suggested a competitive reversible inhibition of MAO-B. The molecular docking study suggested that 1 selectively interacts with the active-site of human MAO-A near N5 of FAD. The calculated binding free energies of the O-methylated flavonoids (1 and 4–6) and chalcones (2 and 3) to MAO-A matched closely with the trend in the experimental IC 50′ s. Analysis of the binding free-energies suggested better interaction of 4 and 6 with MAO-B than with MAO-A. The natural O-methylated flavonoid (1) with highly potent inhibition (IC 50 33 nM; Ki 37.9 nM) and> 292 fold selectivity against human MAO-A (vs. MAO-B) provides a new drug lead for the treatment of neurological disorders. View Full-Text

Leo S. "Semiotic Survey of Kivumba Superstitions." International Journal of Innovative Research And Knowledge (IJIRK). 2020;5(5).
E.S. K, G. G, J. VL, P. K, T.O. A, D. G, J. M, D. M. "Sero-prevalence and risk factors of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (type 1) in Meru County, Kenya." Preventive Veterinary Medicine . 2020;175:104863.
Kipyego ES, Gitau G, Vanleeuwen J, Kimeli P, Abuom TA, Gakuya D, Muraya J, Makau D. "Sero-prevalence and risk factors of Infectious rhinotracheatis virus( type1) in Meru county, Kenya." Preventive Veterinary Medicine . 2020;104863.(175).
Awili H, Gitao C, Muchemi G. "Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Adolescent Blood Donors within Selected Counties of Western Keny." Hindawi BioMed Research International. 2020;Volume 2020, Article ID 8578172,: 6 pages.
Fardolo EK, Bulimo W, Aluora PO, Gachara G. "Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus among Voluntary Blood Donors in Nairobi County, Kenya: A Pilot Study." Journal of Biosciences and Medicines. 2020;8:78-85. Abstractjbm_2020121415213791.pdf


Kamau S, Barrios E, K.Karanja N, O.Ayuke F, Lehmann J. "Short-term casting activity of earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus (Oligochaeta: Glossoscolecidae) after biochar additions." Soil Biology and Biochemistry . 2020;143.
Kamau S, Barrios E, K.Karanja N, O.Ayuke F, Lehmann J. "Short-term casting activity of earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus (Oligochaeta: Glossoscolecidae) after biochar additions." Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 2020;143:107736.
omari HK, Makokha M, Masoud A, Abdalla S. Simplified Arabic Language. Nairobi: Chance Publishers Ltd; 2020.
Mbugua M, Nzuma JM, Muange E, Kunyanga C. "Social Networks and Household Food Consumption Smoothing in the Presence of Idiosyncratic Shocks: Insights from Rural Kenya." Development in Practice. 2020;DOI: 10.1080/09614524.2020.1715344.
Ocharo RM, Mukami KL. "Social Predictors of Food Insecurity: The Case of Yatta Constituency, Machakos County, Kenya. ." Current Research Journal of Social Sciences.. 2020;3(1):86-95.
M.Ichami S, J.Stoorvogel KDSJ, Hoffland E, N.Karuku G, J.Stoorvogel J. "Soil spatial variation to guide the development of fertilizer use recommendations for smallholder farms in western Kenya." Geoderma Regional. 2020;22.
Bulinda BM, Inyega HN, Inyega JO. The source book on labour relations. LAP LAMPARD Academic Publishing. ISBN: 978-620-2-67531-4; 2020.
Harris DCH, Davies SJ, Finkelstein FO, Jha V, Bello AK, Brown M, Caskey FJ, Donner J-A, Liew A, Muller E, Naicker S, O’Connell PJ, Filho RP, Vachharajani T, behalf of the Groups OSPW. "Strategic plan for integrated care of patients with kidney failure." International Society of Nephrology. 2020;98(5):1067-1070.Website
Muthini, D., Nzuma, M.J., Qaim, M. "Subsistence Production, Markets, and Dietary Diversity in the Kenyan Small Farm Sector." Food Policy. 2020;DOI: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2020.101956.
Nyamweya NN, Abuga KO. "A Survey of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers in Nairobi: Packaging, Labelling and Regulatory Compliance." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 23 (2020). 2020;23(2):72-76. Abstract

Alcohol based hand sanitizers are currently recommended for routine use in curbing the spread of the COVID-19 global pandemic. The present survey examined hand sanitizers marketed in Nairobi County with regards to product appearance, packaging, labelling and declared composition. Seventy-six samples were collected from five sites within the Nairobi metropolis - Central Business District, Kibera, Kilimani/Karen, Ngong and Thika. A wide range of non-conformities were observed for the criteria applied. Many samples had incomplete or missing label information, ingredient lists, cautionary warnings, Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS) standardization marks and permit numbers. Glycerin, fragrances and carbomers were the most common added ingredients. Poor formulation indicators such as haziness and phase separation were encountered in some products. The median price of the products was KES 250 (USD 2.36) per 100 ml although there was considerable variation in pricing of samples. None of the samples evaluated fully met all the standards for the parameters evaluated. Strict adherence to regulatory standards by producers of hand sanitizers is required to ensure that only compliant products are available on the market.

Cecilia OM, John W, Gubbels P, Mokaya PO. Surviving COVID-19: The neglected remedy. A mini Barefoot Guide. South Africa: Alliance for Food Sovereignty In Africa ; 2020.
Joseph SK, Ralwala AO. "Sustainable construction literacy: A study of the Kenyan interior design market segment of the construction industry." Africa Habitat Review. 2020;14(3):1999-2009. AbstractWebsite

Due to the widespread calls for the construction industry to adopt sustainable approaches, the various stakeholders are now engaging in the sustainability agenda more than before. This study investigated how the Kenyan construction industry is engaging the sustainability agenda. Specifically, this study sought to establish sustainable construction (SC) literacy levels, key sustainability considerations and SC literacy avenues in the interior design market segment of the Kenyan construction industry. Key project stakeholders in the interior design market segment of the Kenyan construction industry were the target population. A total of 60 (12 architects/interior designers, 12 electrical engineers, 12 mechanical engineers,12 quantity surveyors and 12 contractors) structured questionnaires were distributed, out of which 46 (10 architects/interior designers, 9 electrical engineers, 9 mechanical engineers, 8 quantity surveyors and 10 contractors) were received back. Collected data was analysed using frequencies, percentages, mean item scores (MIS) and standard deviations (SD). The study revealed an average level of sustainability literacy with a composite mean score of 3.7102 and mismatch between SC literacy levels and key sustainability considerations in interior design projects. Additionally, the respondents rated standard SC approaches, legislation, policies and construction trade associations as the least effective contributors to their current SC literacy levels. On the other hand, informal learning, construction professional associations influence, collaboration amongst firms, and formal learning were largely attributed to the respondent’s SC literacy levels. The implication of the findings was that there is need to fine-tune SC literacy drives to the peculiarities of the various industry market segments to ensure their effectiveness in informing practice. Additionally, there is the need to leverage standard SC approaches, legislation, policies and construction trade associations as avenues to improve the overall sustainability literacy levels.

Joseph SK, Ralwala AO. "Sustainable construction transition: A Kenyan interior design market segment perspective." Africa Habitat Review. 2020;14(3):2035-2044. AbstractWebsite

Construction industry has been identified as key to the sustainability agenda. Efforts towards improved sustainability compliance in the construction industry involve a socio-technical transformation. Such transitions are said to be purposive, of a wider perspective, multi-dimensional in nature and are influenced by numerous factors. This paper focused on establishing sustainable construction (SC) uptake levels, including identification of key SC drivers and barriers with specific reference to the interior design market segment of the Kenyan construction industry. The study employed a quantitative research approach. For quantitative attributes, the study employed structured questionnaires to collect data from actively practicing architects/interior designers, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers, quantity surveyors and contractors drawn from the interior design market segment of Kenyan construction industry in Nairobi City County. Data analysis employed the descriptive statistics of distribution (frequencies), proportions (percentages), central tendency (mean) and dispersion (standard deviation). Generally, the respondents ranked the overall uptake of the three dimensions of sustainability (economic, environmental and social) as average- ranking as social, environment and economic in a decreasing order of uptake levels. The study findings ranked sustainability driver categories as organization related drivers, stakeholder related drivers, economic related drivers and management related drivers; in order of decreasing influence. Lastly, barrier categories were ranked as economic related barriers, professional/capacity related barriers, technology related barriers and societal/cultural related barriers, in order of decreasing influence. With the average sustainable construction practices uptake in the Kenyan construction industry, there is an implied call to action to leverage known sustainability drivers, while at the same time suppressing the known barriers. This implies significant room for improvement and an appropriate starting point for key construction project stakeholders as above identified.

Warinda Enock, Dickson M. Nyariki, Stephen Wambua, Reuben M. Muasya, Hanjra. MA. "Sustainable development in East Africa: impact evaluation of regional agricultural development projects in Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda." Natural Resources Forum. 2020;44:3-39.
Derese S. "Synergistic anti-inflammatory activities of a new flavone and other flavonoids from Tephrosia hildebrandtii vatke." Natural Products Research. 2020. AbstractWebsite

Synergistic anti-inflammatory activities of a new flavone and other flavonoids from Tephrosia hildebrandtii vatke
Owor, R. O., Bedane, K. G., Openda, Y. I., Zühlke, S., Derese, S., Ong’amo, G., Ndakala, A., & Spiteller, M.
A new flavone, named hildeflavone (1) along with 7 other known flavonoids were isolated from the aerial parts of Tephrosia hildebrandtii Vatke. Their characterisation was based on NMR and MS data analysis. The anti-inflammatory properties of the crude extract, isolated compounds and combination of the compounds were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Treatment of the LPS-stimulated PBMCs with the isolated flavonoids at a concentration of 100 µM significantly reduced the production of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-6), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). It was also found that the combination of a flavone and flavanones exhibited remarkable synergistic anti-inflammatory effects on the production of the cytokines.

Owor RO, Bedane KG, Openda YI, Zühlke S, Derese S, Ong’amo G, Ong’amo G, Ndakala A, Spiteller M. "Synergistic anti-inflammatory activities of a new flavone and other flavonoids from Tephrosia hildebrandtii vatke." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-4. AbstractNatural Product Research

A new flavone, named hildeflavone (1) along with 7 other known flavonoids were isolated from the aerial parts of Tephrosia hildebrandtii Vatke. Their characterisation was based on NMR and MS data analysis. The anti-inflammatory properties of the crude extract, isolated compounds and combination of the compounds were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Treatment of the LPS-stimulated PBMCs with the isolated flavonoids at a concentration of 100 µM significantly reduced the production of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-6), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). It was also found that the combination of a flavone and flavanones exhibited remarkable synergistic anti-inflammatory effects on the production of the cytokines.

Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Midiwo JO, Byamukama R, Kamau RW, Kumarihamy M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis of a pyrrolidine derivative of a carvotacetone and monoterpenes for anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and anti-cryptococcal properties." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-8. AbstractNatural Product Research

Monoterpene derivatives are of great biological relevance in the pharmaceutical industry. In the present study, pyrrolidine derivative of a carvotacetone, 3-O-benzylcarvotacetone (1), and selected monoterpenes (3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (3) and cis-piperitol (5)) were prepared to provide (R)-1-(4-(benzyloxy)-5-isopropyl-2-methylcyclohexa-1,3-dien-1-yl)-pyrrolidine (2), 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-3,6-dioxocyclohexa-1,4-dien-1-yl acetate (4), cis-3-hydroxypiperitone (6) and carvacrol (7). Structure of 2 was determined based on NMR and HRMS spectral data. Compound 4 exhibited activity against fungi Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of < 0.8 µg/mL. In addition, this compound 4 had an IC50 value of 14.97 µg/mL against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Previous to the current study, both compound 6 and 7 had been reported to have anti-microbial and anti …

Mbugua SN, Njenga LW, Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO, Meyer M, NS, Lalancette RA, Onani MO, Onani MO. "Synthesis, Characterization, And DNA-Binding Kinetics Of New Pd(II) And Pt(II) Thiosemicarbazone Complexes: Spectral, Structural, And Anticancer Evaluation." Journal of Chemistry . 2020;2020:1-17. Abstract

In a bid to come up with potential anticancer agents, a class of thiosemicarbazone ligands bearing substituted thiophene were synthesized followed by complexation with various Pd(II) and Pt(II) metal precursors. The ligands
(E)-1-((thiophen-2-yl) methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L1),
(E)-1-((4-bromothiophen-2-yl)methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L2),
and (E)-1-((5-bromothiophen-2-yl)methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L3) were synthesized by condensation reactions and obtained in good yields. Complexation of L1 andL2 with Pd(cod)Cl2 gave C1(C6H7Cl2N3PdS2) and C2(C6H6BrCl2N3PdS2),respectively. Complexation of L1 with K2PtCl4 gave C3(C6H7Cl2N3PtS2),while L3 with K2PtCl2[(PPh)3]2 gave C4(C24H21BrClN3PPtS2).The structures and coordination for all compounds were established by FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, UV-Vis, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies for ligand L1. Tuning of the spectral and anticancer activity of the compounds was investigated by changing the position of the bromide substituent, metal center, and the σ or π-donor/acceptor strength of the groups surrounding the metal center. The compounds had low to moderate anticancer potency with their spectral and structural properties correlating with the corresponding anticancer activity profiles. DNA binding modes were studied by spectroscopy and were comparable to known DNA intercalators. Structure-activity profiles were evident especially between C1and C2 differing by the presence of a Br in position 5 of thiophene ring, which caused a remarkable increase in IC50 values,from14.71±0.016(C1)to43.08±0.001(C2)in Caco-2 cells, 1.973±0.048 (C1) to 59.56±0.010 (C2) in MCF-7 cells, 16.65±0.051 (C1) to 72.25±0.003 (C2) in HeLa cells, 14.64±0.037 (C1) to 94.34±0.003 (C2) in HepG2, and 14.05±0.042 (C1) to>100(C2) in PC-3 cells.

Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Byamukama R, Midiwo JO, Kamau RW, Wang M, Kumarihamy M, Zhao J, Heydreich M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis, structural assignments and antiinfective activities of 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone and 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-9. AbstractJournal Abstract

In an attempt to synthesize carvotacetone analogues, new 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone (10) and previously reported 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (11) were synthesized from piperitone (7). In this work, we describe the synthesis of 10 and other analogues from 7. Luche reduction of 7 to cis-piperitol (8), followed by benzylation yielded 3-O-benzyl-piperitol (9). Riley oxidation of 9 afforded corresponding ketone 10, 11 and 3-benzyloxy-4-isopropylcyclohex-1-enecarbaldehyde (12). Structures of these compounds were determined based on NMR, IR and LC-MS spectral data. Compound 11, exhibited antiplasmodial activities against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 0.697 and 0.653 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, compound 11 was active against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 3.11 µg/mL, compared to reference …

Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Byamukama R, Midiwo JO, Kamau RW, Wang M, Kumarihamy M, Zhao J, Heydreich M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis, structural assignments and antiinfective activities of 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone and 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-9. AbstractNatural Product Research

In an attempt to synthesize carvotacetone analogues, new 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone (10) and previously reported 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (11) were synthesized from piperitone (7). In this work, we describe the synthesis of 10 and other analogues from 7. Luche reduction of 7 to cis-piperitol (8), followed by benzylation yielded 3-O-benzyl-piperitol (9). Riley oxidation of 9 afforded corresponding ketone 10, 11 and 3-benzyloxy-4-isopropylcyclohex-1-enecarbaldehyde (12). Structures of these compounds were determined based on NMR, IR and LC-MS spectral data. Compound 11, exhibited antiplasmodial activities against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 0.697 and 0.653 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, compound 11 was active against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 3.11 µg/mL, compared to reference …

Barasa L. "Teacher Quality and Mathematics Performance in Primary Schools in Kenya." African Journal of Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education. 2020;24(1):53-64.
"Teaching Canadian Literature in the University of Nairobi." Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies. 2020:1-17.
Ntwiga DB. "Technical Efficiency in the Kenyan Banking Sector: Influence of Fintech and Banks Collaboration." Journal of Finance and Economics. 2020;8(1):13-20. AbstractWebsite

Efficient banks increase financial stability, intermediation and value to the shareholders. As Fintech innovations continue to alter the financial landscape in Kenya, banks will leverage on Fintech to enhance efficiency. This study investigates if Fintech and bank collaboration has an influence on efficiency in the banking sector. A two step data envelopment analysis is applied with input-orientation based on three intermediation dimension models. Efficiency scores are decomposed into technical, pure technical and scale efficiencies. Financial statement data from 2009-2018 for five banks with Fintech collaborations form the analysis. The study period is segmented into Pre-Fintech, 2009-2014 and Post Fintech, 2015-2018. Descriptive statistics summarize the data with Panel regression model testing the selected financial variables influence on efficiency of banks in the Pre-Post Fintech period. In the ten year period, technical inefficiency based on the three models for the Pre-Post Fintech period is failure to operate at the most productive scale, poor input utilization and managerial inefficiencies. For the Panel regression, loan intensity in model M1, return on asset in model M2, and cost of intermediation in model M3 had a significant and positive influence on technical efficiency. Fintech and banks collaboration has had a positive influence on efficiency in the Kenyan banking sector.

"Time to tumour detection in familial retinoblastoma patients: a retrospective study." JOECSA- Journal of Ophthalmology for Eastern, Central and southern Africa. 2020;24:12-17.joecsa-time_to_tumour_detection-_july_2020.pdf
W1 G, Ongondi M2, GO1 O. "Treatment Approaches for Multiple Myeloma: A Review." Journal of Kenya Association of Physicians. 2020;3(1):29-34.
Chiorean GE, Nandakumar G, Fadelu T, Temin S, Alarcon-Rozas AE, Bejarano S, Croitoru A-E, Grover S, Lohar PV, Odhiambo A, Park SH, Garcia ER, Teh C, Rose A, Zaki B, Chamberlin MD. "Treatment of Patients With Late-Stage Colorectal Cancer: ASCO Resource-Stratified GuidelineTreatment of Patients With Late-Stage Colorectal Cancer: ASCO Resource-Stratified Guideline." Journal of Global Oncology. 2020;6(2020):414-438.
W K, A A, A K. "Trends and determinants of contraceptive method choice among women aged 15-24 years in Kenya." F1000Research . 2020;9(197). AbstractWebsite

Studies show a gap in addressing the reproductive health goals of younger women whose inconsistent use of contraception is high in spite of their great need for it. The women aged 15-24 present high potential for unintended pregnancy and increase the challenge for retention of users which is key in maintaining and pushing up the current gains in contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR)

V O, Otieno A, A K. "Trends in fertility preference implementation among selected Eastern African countries." F1000Research 2020. 2020;9(79). AbstractWebsite

There has been continuous debate among scholars regarding fertility transition in Africa. Two conclusions emerge: slow pace of decline because of weak facilitating social programs and high demand for large families amidst weak family planning programs. Accelerated fertility decline is expected to occur if there is both substantial decline in desired fertility and increased level of preference implementation. Despite these conclusions, there are also emergent exceptions in Africa, even among the Eastern African countries. Our motivation for the study of this region therefore lies in this context. First, the East African countries share some similarities in policy framework. Secondly, Rwanda and Kenya appear as exceptional in the drive towards accelerating further fertility decline. Fertility change therefore in any one country may have implications in the neighbouring country due to the commonalities especially in language, cultural traits, diffusion and spread new models of behaviour.

Tubadilishe Jinna . London: Oxford University Press ; 2020.
Nchiozem-Ngnitedema V-A, Omosa LK, Derese S, Tane P, Heydenreich M, Spiteller M, Ean-JeongSeo, Efferth T. "Two new flavonoids from Dracaena usambarensis Engl." Phytochemistry Letter. 2020;36:80-85.alex_et_al_2020.pdf
Derese S. "Two new flavonoids from Dracaena usambarensis Engl." Phytochemistry Letters. 2020;36:80-85. AbstractWebsite

Two new flavonoids from Dracaena usambarensis Engl.
Vaderament-A.Nchiozem-Ngnitedem, Leonidah Kerubo Omosa, Solomon Derese, PierreTane, Matthias Heydenreich, Michael Spiteller, Ean-Jeong Seo, Thomas Efferth

Investigations of the root extract of Dracaena usambarensis Engl. for anticancer principles led to the characterization of one new homoisoflavonoid, (3S)-3,4ʹ,5,6-tetrahydroxy-7-methoxyhomoisoflavanone (1) and a new retrodihydrochalcone, 4ʹ,4-dihydroxy-2,3-dimethoxydihydrochalcone (2) along with six previously reported compounds, including two homoisoflavonoids, 7-O-methyl-8-demethoxy-3-hydroxy-3,9-dihydropunctatin (3) and loureiriol (4); a phenolic amide, 3-(4ʹʹʹ-hydroxyphenyl)-N-[2ʹ-(4ʹʹ-hydroxyphenyl)-2ʹ-methoxyethyl]acrylamide (5); a spirostane, 25S-spirosta-1,4-dien-3-one (6) and two steroids, stigmasterol (7) and stigmasterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8). The structures of 1-8 were determined using spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques. The absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 3 were achieved using circular dichroism spectroscopy. Using the resazurin reduction assay and doxorubicin as reference anticancer drug, 1 showed moderate cytotoxicity against drug sensitive CCRF-CEM but was inactive against all the other tested drug sensitive, resistance phenotypes and normal cells. The crude extract and 2-8 were inactive in the preliminary screening against CCRF-CEM and drug resistant CEM/ADR5000 cell lines. Interestingly, the activity of the standard drug, doxorubicin was comparable to those of inactive compounds against CEM/ADR5000 cells. Future studies should focus on structure modifications of 1-3, in order to obtain more potent analogues.

Ongarora SO, Michira JN, TIMAMMY RAYYA, wa Mutiso K. "Uchanganuzi wa Toni katika Ushairi wa Kithaka wa Mberia ." Jarida la Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika . 2020;Volume 5(1):195-212.
Ongarora S, Michira JN, Timmamy R, wa Mutiso K. "Uchanganuzi wa Toni Katika Ushairi wa Kithaka wa Mberia." Mwanga wa Lugha. 2020;Vol. 4 (No. 2):195-211.
Galvin KA, Trevor Even, Robin S. Reid, Jesse Njoka, Joana Roque de Pinho, Philip Thornton, Saylor K. "Understanding Climate from the Ground Up: Knowledge of Environmental Changes in the East African Savannas." Changing Climate, Changing Worlds. 2020:221-242.
Vogel JP, Comrie‐Thomson L, Pingray V, Gadama L, Galadanci H, Goudar S, Rose Laisser, Lavender T, Lissauer D, Misra S, Pujar Y, Qureshi ZP, Amole T, Berrueta M, Dankishiya F, Gwako G, Homer CSE, Jobanputra J, Meja S, Nigri C, Mohaptra V, Osoti A, Roberti J, Solomon D, Suleiman M, Robbers G, Sutherland S, Vernekar S, Althabe F, Bonet M, Oladapo OT. "Usability, acceptability, and feasibility of the World Health Organization Labour Care Guide: A mixed‐methods, multicountry evaluation." Wiley Online Library . 2020. AbstractWebsite

The World Health Organization’s (WHO) Labour Care Guide (LCG) is a “next‐generation” partograph based on WHO’s latest intrapartum care recommendations. It aims to optimize clinical care provided to women and their experience of care. We evaluated the LCG’s usability, feasibility, and acceptability among maternity care practitioners in clinical settings.

Mixed‐methods evaluation with doctors, midwives, and nurses in 12 health facilities across Argentina, India, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, and Tanzania. Purposively sampled and trained practitioners applied the LCG in low‐risk women during labor and rated experiences, satisfaction, and usability. Practitioners were invited to focus group discussions (FGDs) to share experiences and perceptions of the LCG, which were subjected to framework analysis.

One hundred and thirty‐six practitioners applied the LCG in managing labor and birth of 1,226 low‐risk women. The majority of women had a spontaneous vaginal birth (91.6%); two cases of intrapartum stillbirths (1.63 per 1000 births) occurred. Practitioner satisfaction with the LCG was high, and median usability score was 67.5%. Practitioners described the LCG as supporting precise and meticulous monitoring during labor, encouraging critical thinking in labor management, and improving the provision of woman‐centered care.

The LCG is feasible and acceptable to use across different clinical settings and can promote woman‐centered care, though some design improvements would benefit usability. Implementing the LCG needs to be accompanied by training and supportive supervision, and strategies to promote an enabling environment (including updated policies on supportive care interventions, and ensuring essential equipment is available).

Njeri GL, Zaja JO, TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Usawiri wa Familia ya Kisasa katika Fasihi ya Watoto Nchini Kenya." Jarida la Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika . 2020;Volume 5(1):185-194.
Gatere Lucy Njeri, Omboga Zaja and Rayya Timmamy. "Usawiri wa Familia ya Kisasa katika Fasihi ya Watoto Nchini Kenya, ." Mwanga wa Lugha, Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika, Chuo Kikuu cha Moi. 2020;Juzuu 5,(Na.1, April 2020,):185-196.
Atsango EW, Muiru WM, Mwang’ombe A, Gaoqiong L. "Use Of Amino Oligosacharins And Alternaria Fine Protein In The Management Of Crown Gall Disease On Roses." Researchjournali’s Journal of Agriculture. 2020;Vol. 7,( No. 1 January).use_of_amino_oligosacharins_and_alternaria_fine_protein.pdf
A N, GO O, C O. "The use of musculoskeletal ultrasound of the wrist and hand in the assessment of treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis patients." Afr J Rheumatol. 2020;8(1):3-7. Abstract

Objective: Rheumatoid arthritis is a
debilitating disease with accrual of joint damage during each flare of the disease that progresses to considerable functional disability. Early treatment is
thus aimed to achieve remission status so as to reduce the progression of joint
damage. Currently the disease activity parameter DAS28 (amongst others)
is used to define a remission status and thus demonstrate the efficacy
of a treatment regimen, however musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) is
proving to be superior at determining the amount of inflammation within joints by grading synovial hypertrophy and neo-vascularization of the
inflamed synovium. This article is thus intended to shed light on the usefulness of musculoskeletal ultrasound
both greyscale and Doppler in the determination of treatment response
in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Design: This article will elaborate
the importance and effectiveness of musculoskeletal ultrasound. Thus it will involve a discussion on the need for an effective tool to detect inflammatory activity, the ability of ultrasound to detect and grade the disease activity i.e.
being sensitive to change, the various scoring systems currently used, and
lastly a comparison of musculoskeletal ultrasound to other modalities and
clinical and serological evaluation. Data source and extraction:
Published studies, reviews and guidelines regarding the use of
musculoskeletal ultrasound of the wrist/hand in assessing treatment
response in rheumatoid arthritis patients were sourced through the
internet and library searches and the relevant data extracted. Conclusion:
status of the patient or a high initial ESR with significant serological and clinical
improvement, which will again not be portrayed in the DAS28 results. There may also be variability when assessing joints that are swollen or tender in between different examiners4. Moreover, there is a subset of
patients who still have disease progression despite achieving clinical remission status5.
  Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and radiographic evaluation have also been used as adjuncts to clinical exam but both have their drawb

Gichuhi L, Kalai J, Mutegi R, Okoth U, Njagi L. "Use of Social Media Platforms and Content Delivery in Higher Education." journal of Education and Leadership Studies. 2020;1(2):25-39.use_of_social_media_platforms_and_content_delivery_in_higher_education.pdf
M T, N G, A M. "Utilization of extension services and performance of hybrid sweet potato projects IN Kenya. a case of Njoro Sub-county, Nakuru County." Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development. 2020;(1144).
Kedogo JL, Eyase F, Bulimo W, Asudi G, Kimani F, Muhia DM, Aluvaala E. "Validation of a Biomeme Smartphone-Based DNA Real-Time PCR Assay for Diagnosis of Human Malaria at the Point of Care ." African Journal of Health Sciences. 2020;33(3):31-44.202032-article_text-506081-1-10-20201207.pdf
Ouko I, Obimbo MM, Kigera J, Ogeng’o JA. "Valve distribution of the popliteal vein: A structural basis for deep venous thrombosis?". 2020. AbstractWebsite


To describe the relationship between number and distribution of valves.

Sixty-six popliteal vein specimens were used for the study after routine dissection at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The extents of the popliteal vein were identified at the adductor hiatus and soleal arch, cut at these points and then longitudinally sliced open. The number and distribution of valves were then recorded. Data were presented using photomacrographs and tables.

The median number of valves was 1 (mean 0.8; range 0–2), with the lower part of the popliteal vein as the most consistent valve position. Most striking was the valve absence noted in 27 (41%) of the veins.

These findings suggest that a significant proportion of popliteal veins do not have valves thus providing a credible structural link that may predispose the popliteal vein to deep venous thrombosis in the study population.

Tembe K, Lagat S, Ambuko J, Chemining'wa G, Owino W. "Variation in Morphological and Agronomic Traits of Selected African Eggplant Accessions." Journal of Medicinally Active Plants . 2020;9(2):34-46.abstract
Chesaro MK, Maina SM, Makunda CS. "Waste Minimization Strategy for Sustainable Interior Design." Africa Habitat Review Journal. 2020;14(2):1831-1841.
Maxwell CO, Dulo SI, Olago DO, Odira PMA. "Water Availability Analysis of Multiple Source Groundwater Supply Systems in Water Stressed Urban Centers: Case of Lodwar municipality, Kenya." Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering. 2020;10(2).

Ensuring water security to urban population in fragile environments through interlinked systems of groundwater abstraction, storage and distribution of sufficient quantity is challenging especially to urban utilities situated in arid and semi-arid regions. The purpose of this research was to evaluate water delivery challenges for water utilities in fragile environment in Kenya. A systematic analysis of availability from each supply sub-components from source to consumer was carried out through water audit and network analysis by employing water flow measurement equipments and through pump performance analysis and by employing continuity equation and Bernoulli’s principle to sections of the network. Results showed that water availability within a utility in such environments is contributed by seasonal variations between wet and dry affecting quantity at source, optimal design of supply infrastructure
in this case better matching of solar power with the pump, using standard pipes and on optimal operational strategies employed to reduce losses within the network. Based on these findings, we conclude that with clear understanding of each subcomponent’s contributions to entire water supply system and optimizing their design and operations, more people will be made water secure in all seasons in the fragile environments.

Keywords: Borehole • Availability • Water supply infrastructure

Getrude PS. "Zoonotic Anaplasma and Ehrlichia Infections and their Potential Reservoirs: A Review." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2020;9(1):1-9.
“Kibui ER”, “Manga E”, “Michuki G”. "“New Wine in an Old Wineskin? Socio-Political Context and Participatory Budgeting in Kenya” ." Journal of East African Studies. 2020.
Mwangi WE. "Epidural Lidocaine and Medetomidine-Ketamine Anaesthesia in Feline Orthopaedic Surgery." International journal of veterinary sciences. 2020;9:164-167. Abstract
Gichure M, Kitala P, Kihurani D, Mande J, Munene N. "Sero-prevalence and risk factors of African Horse Sickness among donkeys in a highland area of Kenya." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2020;12:125-131. Abstract
Ntwiga DB. "Fintech and Banks Collaboration: Does it Influence Efficiency inthe Banking Sector?". In: Kenya Bankers Association 8th Banking Research Conference. Radisson Blu Hotel Nairobi Kenya; 2019. Abstract

The efficiency of the banking sector in Sub-Saharan Africa is low compared to rest of the world and Fintech is taunted to alter this scenario. Efficient banks increase financial stability, intermediation and value to the shareholders. As Fintech innovations continue to alter the landscape in the banking sector, banks in Kenya are forming collaborations that are envisioned to shape the evolution of credit allocation and delivery of services. The study investigates the influence of Fintech on a bank’s efficiency in credit allocation using thedata envelopment model with input-orientation based on the intermediationdimension. Efficiency scores are decomposed as technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency.Secondary data for the period 2009-2018 is extracted from thirteen banks sampled from the top fifteen banks in Kenya based on their market share. The banks are either locally owned or listed in Nairobi Securities Exchange, of which five have Fintech collaborationswith a Pre-Fintech and Post Fintechperiod. Panel regression model tested the effect of financial ratios on technical efficiency of the banks. Fintech collaborating banks are more technically efficient based on models M1, M2 and M3 in Pre-Fintech. In Post Fintech, the Fintech banks are more efficient based on models M2, M3 and M4 but with decreasing returns to scale which is due to the banks being overly large, thus non-optimal in their operations. The positive effect on technical efficiency is observed from the ratios, liquidity, loan intensity, return on assets and cost of income. Cost of intermediation and credit risk had a negative effect on technical efficiency. Therefore, Fintech and banks collaborations did not significantly influence efficiency in the banking sector.

Ondiba IM, Oyieke FA, Athinya DK, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "Larval species diversity, seasonal occurrence and larval habitat preference of mosquitoestransmitting Rift Valley fever and malariain Baringo County, Kenya.". In: C.B.P.S. Annual conference.; 2019.
M. KD, M. MI. "Strain level metagenomic analysis of Nairobi Market fermented camel milk.". In: University of Nairobi, AGRO2019 conference and Exhibition. FOA,CAVS-University of Nairobi; 2019.
Ogutu K. "High Court chose safe route in gay sex case." The Standard, May 28, 2019.
Oredo J, Njihia J, Iraki XN. "Institutional Pressures and Cloud Computing Adoption.". In: IST-Africa 2019 . Nairobi; 2019.
Sila MJ, Nyambura MI, Abong’o DA, Mwaura FB, Iwuoha E. "Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Eucalyptus Corymbia Leaf Extract at Optimized Conditions.". In: Nano Hybrids and Composites Vol. 25. Vol. 25. South Africa; 2019:. Abstract


This study reports the biosynthesis of narrow range diameter silver nanoparticles at optimum conditions using Eucalyptus corymbia as a reducing and stabilizing agent. Optimal conditions for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were found to be; an extraction temperature of 90°C, pH of 5.7 a Silver Nitrate concentration of 1mM and AgNO3 to plant extract ratio of 4:1. UV-Visible spectroscopy monitored the formation of colloidal AgNPs. The UV-Visible spectrum showed a peak around 425 nm corresponding to the Plasmon absorbance of the AgNPs. The size and shape characterization of the AgNPs was done using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques which revealed narrow range diameter (18-20 nm), almost monodispersed AgNPs, spherical in nature and with minimal agglomeration. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) results showed the presence of two peaks at 3.0 and 3.15 keV in the silver region. The Fourier Transform Infrared-Spectra (FTIR) of the plant extract and the AgNPs gave rise to vibrational peaks at 3260 and 1634 wavenumbers which are due to the presence of OH and –C=C-functional groups respectively.

Wasamba P. "Hasty varsity mergers could mess up things." The Standard, July 9, 2019:15.
‘Writing and Publishing: My Personal Experience’. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2019.
"Nafasi ya Kiswahili katika Elimu na Maendeleo.". In: CHAKAMA. Maasai Mara University; 2019.
MWANGI IK, Muketha SM. "Deriving Value Chain Model Applications in Planning From Skills Audit In Rwandan Urbanization Sector. Presented at 2019 Annual National Planners Convention.". In: Annual National Planners Convention. Organized by the Kenya Institute of Planners (KIP). Diana Reef Beach Resort and Spa, Kwale, Kenya; 2019.
Gichuyia LN. "INDOOR OVERHEATING RISK ANALYSIS OF OFFICE BUILDINGS IN NAI- ROBI IN A CHANGING CLIMATE.". In: Annual Eastern Africa Architecture Workshop and Exhibition. ADD Building - University of Nairobi; 2019.
Gichuyia LN. "LESSONS LEARNT FROM THERMAL DATA-LOGGING OF BUILDINGS IN NAIROBI OVER THE YEARS; HIGHLIGHT- ING THE DEMAND FUNCTIONS FOR DECI- SION-SUPPORT.". In: Annual Eastern Africa Architecture Workshop and Exhibition. ADD Building - University of Nairobi; 2019.
Dulo. "Onset and Cessation of Rainfall in East Africa.". In: NBCBN training Workshop. Dar es Salaam University; 2019.
Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Nyamori J, Gachago M, Rono H, Gichangi M, Mwangi A, Kefa R. "Is task-shifting of screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) from eye specialists to technicians accurate?". In: East African Community East African Health Research Commission 7th East African Health and Scientific Conference. Dar es Salaam; 2019.invitation_letter_7th_eahsc_pg1_jefitha_karimurio1.pdfuse_of_technology_to_taskshift__prof_jefitha_karimurio.pdf
Kanoti J, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dulo SI, Taylor R. "Characterisation of geogenic controls on groundwater quality in a volcano-sedimentary aquifer in Kenya using graphical and statistical methods.". In: 46th IAH Congress. Malaga, Spain; 2019. Abstractcontribution.pdf

Geogenic controls on groundwater quality are often dominant but remain inadequately characterized for many aquifer systems. The volcano-sedimentary aquifer of Kisumu (Kenya) is used widely to provide safe water to the informal settlements and acts as a strategic, supplementary supply to the city during interruptions in service from the main piped water supply network drawing from Lake Victoria. Little is known, however, of the geogenic controls on groundwater quality in the Kisumu aquifer. We characterize the origin and composition of solutes in groundwaters sampled from the Kisumu aquifer using a range of techniques. Classical graphical methods (i.e. Durov, Piper, Schoeller, Stiff and Ternary plots) were used as interpretative tools of the main hydrogeochemical processes whereas principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) methods were used to assess hydrochemical variations and water types. An agglomeration schedule with five cluster solutions and between-groups linkage method of clustering using the squared Euclidian distance was employed. Variables were standardized to z-scores so that each variable contributed equally to the clusters. The study identifies three main groundwater geochemical signatures in the Kisumu study area: cation exchange (Ca-Na, Ca-Mg) between aqueous and solid phases, the chemistry of recharge water, and groundwater mixing. The concentration of major ions in groundwater varies with geology and also seasonally. The dominant water facies is Na-Ca-HCO3 type; other hydrochemical facies include Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Na-HCO3. Hydrochemical plots suggest that dissolution of carbonates and halite are the other major chemical processes, in addition to cation exchange, that control the groundwater chemistry in the Kisumu aquifer. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the main cations and anions discriminated satisfactorily the various water types in the study area.

MWANGI IK. "Making Devolution and Decentralization Work n Kiambu through Institutional Framework of Boards of Municipalities.". In: Training Workshop for Capacity Building for Boards of Municipalities. Organized by Kiambu County Government and Kenya Urban Support Programme (KUSP). Lake Naivasha Resort, Naivasha; 2019.
Muricho DN, Otieno DJ, Oluoch-Kosura, Jistrom M. "Building on local pastoralists’ knowledge for effective management of the arid and semi-arid areas.". In: 20th Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty. Washington DC, USA; 2019.
Ruto LC, Otieno DJ, Oluoch-Kosura W, Mureithi S, Nyberg G. "Emerging forms of land market participation and implications on pastoralists’ livelihoods in Kenya.". In: 20th Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty. Washington DC, USA; 2019.
Gitao, C.G., Toroitich, K, Khalif, Field, C, Wario, S. Mass Livestock Deaths In EL-HADI Of North-Horr Sub-County, MARSABIT COUNTY. Nairobi: RPLP; 2019.marsabit_camel_deaths-paper_-1.docx
omari HK, Kayeli E. "Comprehensive sex education in Kenya: Islamic perspective.". In: THE 2ND ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE MACHAKOS UNIVERSITY, KENYA. machakos university; 2019.
Oredo J. "Personal Cloud Computing Adoption: The Effect of Individual IT Mindfulness.". In:  African International Business Management (AIBUMA) Conference . Nairobi; 2019.
Gitao C. "Role of Academia and Researchers in the Agricultural sector in Kenya’.". In: Kenya Private Sector Agricultural sector. Intercontinental Hotel, Nairobi; 2019.
Akach JA. "Unearth tourism assets through co-design: Creative methods to engage the youth .". In: 2nd Annual Architecture and Engineering Conference. University of Nairobi; 2019.
Gichuyia LN. "THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE INDOOR OVERHEATING RISK LANDSCAPE OF NAIROB.". In: In Proceedings of the Annual Architecture and Engineering Conference - Business opportunities in Energy, Manufacturing, Infrastructural and Environmental Research. School of Engineering, University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2019.
Wasamba P. "Will public service commission Succeed in appointing VCs competatively." The Standard, February 22, 2019:14.
Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Gichuhi S, Onyango J, Ayebazibwe B, Newton R, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Risk Factors of Microbial Keratitis in Uganda: A Case Control Study." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2019:1-7. AbstractWebsite

Purpose: Microbial keratitis (MK), is a frequent cause of sight loss worldwide, particularly in low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors of MK in Uganda.
Methods: Using a nested case control, we recruited healthy community controls for patients presenting with MK at the two main eye units in Southern Uganda between December 2016 and March 2018. Controls were individually matched for age, gender and village of the cases on a 1:1 ratio. We collected information on demographics, occupation, HIV and Diabetes Mellitus status. In STATA version 14.1, multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios for risk factors of MK and a likelihood ratio test used to assess statistical significance of associations.
Results: Two hundred and fifteen case-control pairs were enrolled. The HIV positive patients among the cases was 9% versus 1% among the controls, = .0003. Diabetes 7% among the cases versus 1.4% among the controls, = .012. Eye trauma was 29% versus 0% among the cases and controls. In the multivariable model adjusted for age, sex and village, HIV (OR 83.5, 95%CI 2.01-3456, = .020), Diabetes (OR 9.38, 95% CI 1.48-59.3, = .017) and a farming occupation (OR 2.60, 95%CI 1.21-5.57, = .014) were associated with MK. Compared to a low socio-economic status, a middle status was less likely to be associated with MK (OR 0.29, 95%CI 0.09-0.89, < .0001).
Conclusion: MK was associated with HIV, Diabetes, being poor and farming as the main occupation. More studies are needed to explore how these factors predispose to MK.

Peter SG, Gakuya DW, Maingi N, Mulei CM. "Prevalence and risk factors associated with infections in smallholder dairy cattle in Nairobi City County, Kenya." Vet World. 2019;12(10):1599-1607. Abstract

Ehrlichiosis caused by is a tick-borne disease of great economic importance in cattle production worldwide. Despite its economic impact, limited knowledge is available on its epidemiology in Africa, including Kenya. Suspected cases of infections have been reported in the recent past to the University of Nairobi's Veterinary Hospital, prompting the need to investigate their possible re-emergence. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the prevalence of among smallholder dairy cattle in Nairobi City County and to assess potential risk factors. This knowledge may guide the development of appropriate control strategies of ehrlichiosis, subsequently reducing associated losses.

Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Gichuhi S, Onyango J, Newton R, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Delay Along the Care Seeking Journey of Patients with Microbial Keratitis in Uganda." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2019:1-10. AbstractWebsite

PURPOSE:To describe the care seeking journey and causes of delay among patients with Microbial Keratitis in Uganda.
METHODS:A prospective cohort of patients presenting with microbial keratitis at the two main eye units in Southern Uganda (2016-2018). We collected information on demographics, home address, clinical history, and presentation pathway including, order of facilities where patients went to seek care, treatment advice, cost of care, and use of Traditional Eye Medicine. Presentation time was noted. We compared "direct" presenters versus "indirect" presenters and analysed predictors of delay.
RESULTS: About 313 patients were enrolled. All were self-referred. Only 19% of the patients presented directly to the eye hospital. Majority (52%) visited one facility before presenting, 19% visited two facilities, 9% visited three facilities, and 2% visited four facilities. The cost of care increased with increase in the number of facilities visited. People in a large household, further distance from the eye hospital and those who used Traditional Eye Medicine were less likely to come directly to the eye hospital. Visiting another facility prior to the eye hospital and use of Traditional Eye Medicine aOR 1.58 (95%CI 1.03-2.43), p = .038 were associated with delayed presentation to the eye hospital.
CONCLUSION: This study provided information on patient journeys to seek care. Delay was largely attributable to having visited another health facility: a referral mechanism for microbial keratitis was non-existent. There is need to explore how these health system gaps can be strengthened.

Ampt FH, Lim MSC, Agius PA, Chersich MF, Manguro G, Gichuki CM, Stoové M, Temmerman M, Jaoko W, Hellard M, Gichangi P, Luchters S. "Use of long-acting reversible contraception in a cluster-random sample of female sex workers in Kenya." Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2019. Abstract

To assess correlates of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) use, and explore patterns of LARC use among female sex workers (FSWs) in Kenya.

Karthik S, Djukic T, Kim J-D, Zuber B, Makanya A, Odriozola A, Hlushchuk R, Filipovic N, Jin SW, Djonov V. "Publisher Correction: Synergistic interaction of sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis during zebrafish caudal vein plexus development." Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):4152. Abstract

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

Sabo MC, Richardson BA, Lavreys L, Martin HL, Jaoko W, Mandaliya K, Baeten JM, Overbaugh J, McClelland SR. "Does bacterial vaginosis modify the effect of hormonal contraception on HIV seroconversion." AIDS. 2019;33(7):1225-1230. Abstract

A recent study of HIV serodiscordant couples found that depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) were associated with increased HIV risk in the presence, but not in the absence, of bacterial vaginosis. We assessed whether bacterial vaginosis is an effect modifier of the association between hormonal contraception and HIV seroconversion in female sex workers (FSWs) in Mombasa, Kenya.

Mutwedu VB, Ayagirwe RBB, Bacigale SB, Mwema LM, Butseme S, Kashosi T, Mitima B, Manyawu GJ, Nyongesa AW. "Effect of dietary inclusion of small quantities of Mucuna pruriens seed meal on sexual behavior, semen characteristics, and biochemical parameters in rabbit bucks (Oryctolagus cuniculus)." Trop Anim Health Prod. 2019;51(5):1195-1202. Abstract

The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of Mucuna pruriens seed meal (MSM) on sexual behavior, semen, and biochemical parameters in rabbit bucks. Twenty-four 12-week-old rabbit bucks weighing 1002 to 1156 g were randomly allocated to three experimental diets containing 0, 1.5, and 3% of MSM in a 3-month trial. Sexual behavior parameters such as mounting latency, mounting frequency, successful mounting frequency, intromission latency, and post ejaculatory interval were monitored at the end of the experiment by mating with receptive females. Thereafter, rabbits were weighed, stunned, and humanely sacrificed and testes, epididymis, and vas deferens were harvested for evaluation of organ weights and semen characteristics. Results indicate that supplementing rabbit diet with MSM induced a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in mounting latency (69.7%) and intromission latency (19.7%), while it significantly (P < 0.05) increased successful mounting frequency (60%) as well as relative weight of testis (33.3%) and vas deferens (54.5%). There was a dose-dependent increase (P < 0.05) in sperm motility (35.7%) and concentration (65.9%), serum albumin (19.1%) and protein concentration (9.9%), and a decrease in sperm morphological alterations (68.3%), serum cholesterol (13.4%), and urea (11.6%) in treatment groups where MSM was supplemented at 3% compared to controls. From the findings, it appears MSM is a potential enhancer of male reproductive performance that can be recommended to rabbit farmers for improving reproductive performance and quality of semen, hence a boon to reproduction and production in rabbit farming industry.

Dimova I, Karthik S, Makanya A, Hlushchuk R, Semela D, Volarevic V, Djonov V. "SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling is involved in blood vessel growth and remodelling by intussusception." J. Cell. Mol. Med.. 2019;23(6):3916-3926. Abstract

The precise mechanisms of SDF-1 (CXCL12) in angiogenesis are not fully elucidated. Recently, we showed that Notch inhibition induces extensive intussusceptive angiogenesis by recruitment of mononuclear cells and it was associated with increased levels of SDF-1 and CXCR4. In the current study, we demonstrated SDF-1 expression in liver sinusoidal vessels of Notch1 knockout mice with regenerative hyperplasia by means of intussusception, but we did not detect any SDF-1 expression in wild-type mice with normal liver vessel structure. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling by AMD3100 perturbs intussusceptive vascular growth and abolishes mononuclear cell recruitment in the chicken area vasculosa. In contrast, treatment with recombinant SDF-1 protein increased microvascular density by 34% through augmentation of pillar number compared to controls. The number of extravasating mononuclear cells was four times higher after SDF-1 application and two times less after blocking this pathway. Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMDC) were recruited to vessels in response to elevated expression of SDF-1 in endothelial cells. They participated in formation and stabilization of pillars. The current study is the first report to implicate SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling in intussusceptive angiogenesis and further highlights the stabilizing role of BMDC in the formation of pillars during vascular remodelling.

Lokken EM, Manguro GO, Abdallah A, Ngacha C, Shafi J, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Srinivasan S, Fiedler TL, Munch MM, Fredricks DN, McClelland SR, Balkus JE. "Association between vaginal washing and detection of by culture and quantitative PCR in HIV-seronegative Kenyan women: a cross-sectional analysis." Sex Transm Infect. 2019. Abstract

Vaginal washing has been associated with reductions in cultivable and an increased risk of both bacterial vaginosis (BV) and HIV infection. The effect of vaginal washing on the quantity of individual species is not well characterised. This analysis tested the hypothesis that vaginal washing would be associated with a lower likelihood of spp. detected by both culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR).

Marangu D, Gray D, Vanker A, Zampoli M. "Exogenous lipoid pneumonia in children: A systematic review." Paediatr Respir Rev. 2019. Abstract

To describe the clinical-radiological-pathological characteristics and treatment outcomes of children with suspected exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP).

Lokken EM, Richardson BA, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Mwinyikai K, Abdalla A, Jaoko W, Mandaliya K, Shafi J, Scott McClelland R. "A Prospective Cohort Study of the Association Between Body Mass Index and Incident Bacterial Vaginosis." Sex Transm Dis. 2019;46(1):31-36. Abstract

Some studies suggest that higher body mass index is associated with increased susceptibility to bacterial vaginosis (BV), but results are conflicting.

Perciani CT, Farah B, Kaul R, Ostrowski MA, Mahmud SM, Anzala O, Jaoko W, MacDonald KS. "Live attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine does not induce HIV target cell activation." J. Clin. Invest.. 2019;129(2):875-886. Abstract

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is under consideration as a promising recombinant viral vector to deliver foreign antigens including HIV. However, new vectors have come under increased scrutiny, since trials with adenovirus serotype 5-vectored (Ad5-vectored) HIV vaccine demonstrated increased HIV risk in individuals with pre-immunity to the vector that was thought to be associated with mucosal immune activation (IA). Therefore, given the prospect of developing an HIV/VZV chimeric vaccine, it is particularly important to define the impact of VZV vaccination on IA.

Perciani CT, Farah B, Kaul R, Ostrowski MA, Mahmud SM, Anzala O, Jaoko W, MacDonald KS. "Live attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine does not induce HIV target cell activation." J. Clin. Invest.. 2019;129(2):875-886. Abstract

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is under consideration as a promising recombinant viral vector to deliver foreign antigens including HIV. However, new vectors have come under increased scrutiny, since trials with adenovirus serotype 5-vectored (Ad5-vectored) HIV vaccine demonstrated increased HIV risk in individuals with pre-immunity to the vector that was thought to be associated with mucosal immune activation (IA). Therefore, given the prospect of developing an HIV/VZV chimeric vaccine, it is particularly important to define the impact of VZV vaccination on IA.

Karuga, SW, MJ G, Kelder EM, JCM M. "Morphological control of thin films: Application of electrospray technique.". In: European Aerosol Conference (EAC) 2019 . Gothenburg, Sweden; 2019.
Cheng C-Y, Wang N, Wong TY, Congdon N, He M, Wang YX, Braithwaite T, Casson RJ, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Flaxman SR, Jonas JB, Keeffe JE, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester AJ, Tahhan N, Taylor HR, Bourne RRA, of the of Study VLEGGBD. "Prevalence and causes of vision loss in East Asia in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections." Br J Ophthalmol. 2019. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment (VI) in East Asia in 2015 and to forecast the trend to 2020.
METHODS: Through a systematic literature review and meta-analysis, we estimated prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity <3/60 in the better eye), moderate-to-severe vision impairment (MSVI; 3/60≤presenting visual acuity <6/18), mild vision impairment (mild VI: 6/18≤presenting visual acuity <6/12) and uncorrected presbyopia for 1990, 2010, 2015 and 2020. A total of 44 population-based studies were included.
RESULTS: In 2015, age-standardised prevalence of blindness, MSVI, mild VI and uncorrected presbyopia was 0.37% (80% uncertainty interval (UI) 0.12%-0.68%), 3.06% (80% UI 1.35%-5.16%) and 2.65% (80% UI 0.92%-4.91%), 32.91% (80% UI 18.72%-48.47%), respectively, in East Asia. Cataract was the leading cause of blindness (43.6%), followed by uncorrected refractive error (12.9%), glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, corneal diseases, trachoma and diabetic retinopathy (DR). The leading cause for MSVI was uncorrected refractive error, followed by cataract, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, corneal disease, trachoma and DR. The burden of VI due to uncorrected refractive error, cataracts, glaucoma and DR has continued to rise over the decades reported.
CONCLUSIONS:Addressing the public healthcare barriers for cataract and uncorrected refractive error can help eliminate almost 57% of all blindness cases in this region. Therefore, public healthcare efforts should be focused on effective screening and effective patient education, with access to high-quality healthcare.

Rono H, Bastawrous A, Macleod D, Wanjala E, Gichuhi S, Burton M. "Peek Community Eye Health - mHealth system to increase access and efficiency of eye health services in Trans Nzoia County, Kenya: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial." Trials. 2019;20(1):502. AbstractWebsite

Globally, eye care provision is currently insufficient to meet the requirement for eye care services. Lack of access and awareness are key barriers to specialist services; in addition, specialist services are over-utilised by people with conditions that could be managed in the community or primary care. In combination, these lead to a large unmet need for eye health provision. We have developed a validated smartphone-based screening algorithm (Peek Community Screening App). The application (App) is part of the Peek Community Eye Health system (Peek CEH) that enables Community Volunteers (CV) to make referral decisions about patients with eye problems. It generates referrals, automated short messages service (SMS) notifications to patients or guardians and has a program dashboard for visualising service delivery. We hypothesise that a greater proportion of people with eye problems will be identified using the Peek CEH system and that there will be increased uptake of referrals, compared to those identified and referred using the current community screening approaches.

Kivata MW, Mbuchi M, Eyase FL, Bulimo WD, Kyanya CK, Oundo V, Muriithi SW, Andagalu B, Mbinda WM, Soge OO, McClelland SR, Sang W, Mancuso JD. "gyrA and parC mutations in fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Kenya." BMC Microbiol.. 2019;19(1):76. Abstractkivata_et_al-2019-bmc_microbiology.pdf

Phenotypic fluoroquinolone resistance was first reported in Western Kenya in 2009 and later in Coastal Kenya and Nairobi. Until recently gonococcal fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms in Kenya had not been elucidated. The aim of this paper is to analyze mutations in both gyrA and parC responsible for elevated fluoroquinolone Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) isolated from heterosexual individuals from different locations in Kenya between 2013 and 2017.

Katz MA, Marangu D, Attia EF, Bauwens J, Bont LJ, Bulatovic A, Crane J, Doroshenko A, Ebruke BE, Edwards KM, Fortuna L, Jagelaviciene A, Joshi J, Kemp J, Kovacs S, Lambach P, Lewis KDC, Ortiz JR, Simões EAF, Turner P, Tagbo BN, Vaishnavi V, Bonhoeffer J. "Acute wheeze in the pediatric population: Case definition & guidelines for data collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety data." Vaccine. 2019;37(2):392-399.
Chepkonga S. "Administrative Strategies for Using Social Media in Higher Education Institutions in Kenya.". In: International Conference on Research and Innovation in Education University of Nairobi.; 2019.
Kamau F, Strijdom H, Mwangi P, Blackhurst D, Imperial E, Salie R. "Antiretroviral drug-induced endothelial dysfunction is improved by dual PPARα/γ stimulation in obesity.". 2019;121:106577. AbstractWebsite

Obesity rates are rising in HIV-infected populations; however, the putative role of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the development of endothelial and cardiovascular derangements in the presence of pre-existing overweight/obesity is unclear. Although dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-alpha/gamma (PPARα/γ) stimulation mitigates HAART-induced metabolic dysfunction, vascular effects are unresolved. To investigate whether HAART induces vascular dysfunction in obesity and to explore the underlying mechanisms of PPARα/γ stimulation, male Wistar rats were placed on a high-calorie diet for 16 weeks. After 10 weeks, HAART (lopinavir/ritonavir, azidothymidine/lamivudine) with/without PPARα/γ agonist, Saroglitazar, was administered daily for six weeks. Excised thoracic aorta rings were subjected to isometric tension studies and Western blot measurements. HAART+Saroglitazar-treated obese animals recorded lower adiposity indices (4.3 ± 0.5%) vs. HAART only-treated obese rats (5.6 ± 0.3%; p < .01). Maximum acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation (Rmax), was lower in obese+HAART group (76.10 ± 3.58%) vs. obese control (101.40 ± 4.75%; p < .01). However, Rmax was improved in obese+ HAART+Saroglitazar (101.00 ± 3.12%) vs. obese+HAART rats (p < .001). The mean LogEC50 was improved in obese+HAART+Saroglitazar vs. obese+HAART group; p = .003. Improved endothelial function in obese+ HAART+Saroglitazar group was associated with upregulation of eNOS, PKB/Akt and downregulated p22-phox expression vs. obese+HAART group. Therefore, PPARα/γ stimulation attenuated HAART-induced endothelial dysfunction by upregulating vasoprotective eNOS, PKB/Akt signaling and downregulating pro-oxidative p22-phox expression.

Wangai FK, Masika MM, Lule GN, Karari EM, Maritim MC, Jaoko WG, Museve B, Kuria A. "Bridging antimicrobial resistance knowledge gaps: The East African perspective on a global problem." PLoS ONE. 2019;14(2):e0212131. Abstract

There is worldwide concern of rapidly increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR). However, there is paucity of resistance surveillance data and updated antibiograms in Africa in general. This study was undertaken in Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) -the largest public tertiary referral centre in East & Central Africa-to help bridge existing AMR knowledge and practice gaps.

Ntwiga DB. "Can FinTech Shape the Dynamics ofConsumer Credit Usage among theUn(der)banked?". In: Kenya Bankers Association Working Paper Series.; 2019. Abstract

We use the 2016 FinAccess Household survey data of 2015 from 8665 households and desktop reviews to examine how perceptions, behaviour, financial literacy and socio-economic characteristics of un(der) banked consumers can shape their dynamics towards credit usage. The challenges and opportunities for the market players are examined using desktop reviews and their role towards an increase in financial inclusion and credit usage through FinTech. The disruptive innovations have provided new possibilities, challenges and opportunities to boost financial and credit usage in the market. Consumer perceptions on cost, trust, source of financial advice, financial literacy and socio-economic characteristics influences credit usage. The business models being developed by the FinTech providers are taunted to change the landscape of lending to the un(der) banked

Kalai, J.M., Mulu C. "Determinants of Female Teachers' Progression to Governance Positions in Public Primary Schools in Mutitu Sub County , Kenya.". In: International Conference on Research and Innovation in Education University of Nairobi.; 2019.
Chege BM, Waweru MP, Frederick B, Nyaga NM. "The freeze-dried extracts of Rotheca myricoides (Hochst.) Steane & Mabb possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and hypoinsulinemic on type 2 diabetes rat model.". 2019;244:112077. AbstractWebsite

Ethnopharmacological relevanceRotheca myricoides (Hochst.) Steane & Mabb is a plant species used in traditional medicine for the management of diabetes in the lower eastern part of Kenya (Kitui, Machakos and Makueni Counties, Kenya) that is mainly inhabited by the Kamba community.
This study investigated the antihyperglycaemic, antidyslipidemic and antihyperinsulinemic activity of the freeze-dried extracts of Rotheca myricoides (Hochst.) Steane & Mabb (RME) in an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Type 2 diabetes was induced by dietary manipulation for 56 days via (high fat- high fructose diet) and intraperitoneal administration of streptozocin (30 mg/kg). Forty freshly-weaned Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned into the negative control (high fat/high fructose diet), low dose test (50mg/kg RME, high dose test (100mg/kg RME and positive control (Pioglitazone, 20mg/kg) groups. Fasting blood glucose and body weight were measured at weekly intervals. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed on days 28 and 56. Lipid profile, hepatic triglycerides, fasting serum insulin levels and serum uric acid were determined on day 56.
The RME possessed significant antihyperglycemic [FBG: 6.5 ± 0.11 mmol/l (negative control) vs. 4.62 ± 0.13 mmol/l (low dose test) vs. 5.25 ± 0.15 mmol/l in (high dose test) vs. 4.33 ± 0.09 mmol/l (positive control): p < 0.0001] and antihyperinsulinemic effects [1.84 ± 0.19 (negative control) vs. (0.69 ± 0.13 (low dose test) vs. (0.83 ± 0.17 (high dose test) vs. (0.69 ± 0.10 (positive control): F (3, 36) = 0.6421: p < 0.0001. The extracts also possessed significant antidyslipidemic effects [LDL levels: 3.52 ± 0.19 mmol/l (negative control) vs. 0.33 ± 0.14 mmol/l (low dose test) vs. 0.34 ± 0.20 mmol/l (high dose test) vs. 0.33 ± 0.01 mmol/l (positive control): p < 0.0001].RME significantly lowered plasma uric acid levels, as well as hepatic triglycerides and hepatic weights. Network pharmacology analysis indicated that the observed pharmacological effects are mediated via the modulation of Peroxisome proliferator-activated gamma receptor.
The freeze dried extracts of Rotheca myricoides possessed significant antihyperglycemic and antidyslidemic effects. In addition it lowered serum uric levels, as well as hepatic triglycerides and hepatic weight. These results appear to validate the traditional use of this plant species in the management of diabetes mellitus.

Arunga S, Wiafe G, Habtamu E, Onyango J, Gichuhi S, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu V, Burton M. "The impact of microbial keratitis on quality of life in Uganda." BMJ Open Ophthalmol. 2019;4(1):e000351. AbstractWebsite

Background: Microbial keratitis (MK) is a frequent cause of sight loss in sub-Saharan Africa. However, no studies have formally measured its impact on quality of life (QoL) in this context.
Methods: As part of a nested case-control design for risk factors of MK, we recruited patients presenting with MK at two eye units in Southern Uganda between December 2016 and March 2018 and unaffected individuals, individually matched for sex, age and location. QoL was measured using WHO Health-Related and Vision-Related QoL tools (at presentation and 3 months after start of treatment in cases). Mean QoL scores for both groups were compared. Factors associated with QoL among the cases were analysed in a linear regression model.
Results: 215 case-controls pairs were enrolled. The presentation QoL scores for the cases ranged from 20 to 65 points. The lowest QoL was visual symptom domain; mean 20.7 (95% CI 18.8 to 22.7) and the highest was psychosocial domain; mean 65.6 (95% CI 62.5 to 68.8). At 3 months, QoL scores for the patients ranged from 80 to 90 points while scores for the controls ranged from 90 to 100. The mean QoL scores of the cases were lower than controls across all domains. Determinants of QoL among the cases at 3 months included visual acuity at 3 months and history of eye loss.
Conclusion: MK severely reduces QoL in the acute phase. With treatment and healing, QoL subsequently improves. Despite this improvement, QoL of someone affected by MK (even with normal vision) remains lower than unaffected controls.

Hammadi R, Kúsz N, Mwangi PW, Kulmány Á, Zupkó I, Orvos P, Tálosi L, Hohmann J, Vasas A. "Isolation and Pharmacological Investigation of Compounds From Euphorbia matabelensis." Natural Product CommunicationsNatural Product Communications. 2019;14(7):1934578X19863509. AbstractWebsite

This work deals with the isolation and pharmacological investigations of compounds of Euphorbia matabelensis. After multiple separation process, including thin layer chromatography (TLC), vacuum liquid chromatography, preparative TLC, and high-performance liquid chromatography, 1 diterpene (ingenol) and 2 flavonoids (naringenin and eriodictyol) were obtained from the methanol extracts prepared from the stems and roots of the plant. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and MS measurements and comparison with literature data. All compounds were isolated for the first time from the plant. Eriodictyol was detected for the first time from a Euphorbia species. The compounds were tested for their antiproliferative (on HeLa, C33a, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines) and GIRK channel blocking activities. None of the compounds proved to be active in these test systems.

Ngaruiya N, Orwa D, Waiganjo P. "Situation Analysis and Technology Value Proposition for Geriatric Care for Philanthropic Social Homes in Kenya.". In: IST-Africa Week Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2019. Abstract

The growth of the graying population all over the world is showing a great need of incorporating ICT to ensure healthy living. Geriatric persons in philanthropic social homes (PSH) in developing countries are not favored in terms of infrastructure, housing, caregiving as well as privacy since they are in a controlled communal environment. These philanthropic homes, commonly known as `Nyumba za Wazee' in Kenya are slowly gaining reputation as more of the elderly are ostracized because of inheritance or even abandonment. The aim of this paper is to bring fourth the status quo of the geriatric persons living in PSH, the challenges they face, which have tremendous ramifications that leads to strong incentives to usage of low cost technology to alleviate the lives of the elderly towards healthy living in their higher ages. The researchers, through the social department and Board of management of these social homes, carried a research for a period of 3 months in two PSHs, in Nairobi County and Kiambu County. Interviews and storytelling were the two data collection techniques used. The findings from these two PSHs, categorized the challenges as; physical, and psychological challenges. This research argues that low affordable technology solutions will curb these challenges to ensure adequate care and provide decent standards of living for the elderly in PSH.

Dean W, Gichuhi S, Buchan J, Matende I, Graham R, Kim M, Arunga S, Makupa W, Cook C, Visser L, Burton M. "Survey of ophthalmologists-in-training in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa: A regional focus on ophthalmic surgical education." Wellcome Open Res. 2019;4:187. AbstractWebsite

There are 2.7 ophthalmologists per million population in sub-Saharan Africa, and a need to train more. We sought to analyse current surgical training practice and experience of ophthalmologists to inform planning of training in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa. This was a cross-sectional survey. Potential participants included all current trainee and recent graduate ophthalmologists in the Eastern, Central and Southern African region. A link to a web-based questionnaire was sent to all heads of eye departments and training programme directors of ophthalmology training institutions in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa, who forwarded to all their trainees and recent graduates. Main outcome measures were quantitative and qualitative survey responses. Responses were obtained from 124 (52%) trainees in the region. Overall level of satisfaction with ophthalmology training programmes was rated as 'somewhat satisfied' or 'very satisfied' by 72%. Most frequent intended career choice was general ophthalmology, with >75% planning to work in their home country post-graduation. A quarter stated a desire to mainly work in private practice. Only 28% of junior (first and second year) trainees felt surgically confident in manual small incision cataract surgery (SICS); this increased to 84% among senior trainees and recent graduates. The median number of cataract surgeries performed by junior trainees was zero. 57% of senior trainees were confident in performing an anterior vitrectomy. Only 29% of senior trainees and 64% of recent graduates were confident in trabeculectomy. The mean number of cataract procedures performed by senior trainees was 84 SICS (median 58) and 101 phacoemulsification (median 0). Satisfaction with post-graduate ophthalmology training in the region was fair. Most junior trainees experience limited cataract surgical training in the first two years. Focused efforts on certain aspects of surgical education should be made to ensure adequate opportunities are offered earlier on in ophthalmology training.

Ang'u C, Muthama NJ, Kong'ani LNS. "Towards Replacing Kerosene with Bioethanol in Developing Countries: A Review.". In: Conference on the Status of African Women. University of Nairobi; 2019.
Chege BM, Birech Z, Mwangi PW, Bukachi FO. "Utility of Raman spectroscopy in diabetes detection based on biomarker Raman bands and in antidiabetic efficacy studies of herbal extract Rotheca myricoides Hochst." Journal of Raman SpectroscopyJournal of Raman Spectroscopy. 2019;50(10):1358-1366. AbstractWebsite

Abstract Diabetes is a disease characterized by hyperglycaemia because of insufficient or nonproduction of insulin from the pancreas. Establishing prediabetic and diabetic condition often involves monitoring levels of glucose and some amino acids in blood using nonrapid and label-dependent methods. This work reports on a method with a potential of being used for quick label-free detection of diabetes mellitus type II based on Raman spectroscopy of blood applied onto a conductive silver-smeared glass slide. We show that Raman spectral profile from blood of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague Dawley rats emanates from overlap of signals from valine, leucine, isoleucine, creatine, glucose, and fructose. The Raman spectral bands associated with these biomolecules have the potential of being used in prediabetic detection and diabetes prediction. Characteristic intense peaks in diabetic rat's blood spectra were centred at wave numbers 537 cm?1 associated with valine's CO2? rocking vibration, 829 cm?1 assigned to CH2 rocking vibration in leucine and 917?960 cm?1 ascribed to C?C and C?N stretching and CH3 rocking vibrations in various biomolecules. The average intensities of these bands were sensitive to antidiabetic drug administration on the rats as their values approached those of nondiabetic rats and so could be used as diabetes biomarker bands. Statistical analyses together with evaluation of average intensities of these biomarker bands showed that the herbal extract Rotheca myricoides Hochst had greater antidiabetic effect at low dose (50 mg/kg of body weight) than at high dose (100 mg/kg of body weight). A similar result was seen with area under curve values and could act as an additional parameter in diabetes detection and prediction.

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“to answer questions that have been raised, to solve problems that have been posed or observed, to assess needs and set goals, to determine whether or not specific objectives have been met, to establish baselines against which future comparisons can be made, to analyze trends across time, and generally, to describe what exists, in what amount, and in what context.” (Isaac & Michael, 1997, p. 136)

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Owino B, Ogacho A, Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Odari V. "Effect of TiO2 Compact Layer on Photovoltaic Characteristics of TiO2/Nb2O5 Dye Sensitized Solar Cells.". In: 10th International Conference of the African Materials Research Society (AMRS2019). Arusha, Tanzania, ; 2019.
Sorensen, Olago, D. O., Dulo, Kanoti, Gaye, Faye, Pouye, Owor. "Real-time indication of faecally contaminated drinking water with fluorescence spectroscopy: towards understanding the causation.". In: 10th International Groundwater Quality Conference (GQ 2019). Liège, Belgium; 2019.
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Ojwang SO, Otieno DJ, Okello JJ, Muoki P, Nyikal RA. "Does nutrition education influence retention of vitamin A biofortified orange-fleshed sweet potato in farms? Evidence from Kenya.". In: 6th African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE) . Abuja, Nigeria; 2019.
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