Publications

Found 44467 results

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2018
Mulwa M, Samuel Ngigi. Financial Inclusion through Mobile Money. The M-ASCA Model in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018.
Hirpa FA, Dyer E, Hope R, Olago DO, Dadson SJ. "Finding sustainable water futures in data-sparse regions under climate change: Insights from the Turkwel River basin, Kenya." Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies. 2018;19:124-135. Abstract1-s2.0-s2214581818302155-main.pdfWebsite

Study region

the Turkwel river basin, Kenya experiences a high level of water scarcity due to its arid climate, high rainfall variability and rapidly growing water demand.
Study focus

Climate change, variability and rapid growth in water demand pose significant challenges to current and future water resources planning and allocation worldwide. In this paper a novel decision-scaling approach was applied to model the response of the Turkwel river basin’s water resources system to growing demand and climate stressors. A climate response surface was constructed by combining a water resource system model, climate data, and a range of water demand scenarios.
New hydrological insights

The results show that climate variability and increased water demand are each important drivers of water scarcity in the basin. Increases in water demand due to expanded irrigation strongly influences on the resilience of the basin’s water resource system to droughts caused by the global climate variability. The climate response surface offers a visual and flexible tool for decision-makers to understand the ways in which the system responds to climate variability and development scenarios. Policy decisions to accelerate water-dependent development and poverty reduction in arid and semi-arid lands that are characterised by rapid demographic, political and economic change in the short- to medium term have to promote low-regrets approaches that incorporate longer-term climate uncertainty.

Kanyinga K. Fiscal Stability Conference. Lagos, Nigeria; 2018.
Okoth S, Marthe De Boevre, Arnau Vidal, José Diana Di Mavungu, Sofie Landschoot, Martina Kyallo, Joyce Njuguna, Jagger Harvey, Saeger SD. "Genetic and toxigenic variability within Aspergillus flavus population isolated from maize in two diverse environments in Kenya." Frontiers in microbiology. 2018;9(Frontiers in microbiology):57.
Kivisi Mbali, Mutembei Henry MJ. "Governance Aspects on Adoption of Biogas Technology in." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(3):81-86.mutembei-mbali-governance-2018.pdf
Gateri M.W., R. Nyankanga, Ambuko J, Muriuki AW. "Growth, Yield and Quality of Onion (Allium cepa L.) as Influenced by Nitrogen and Time of Topdressing. ." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science . 2018;23(32)( DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/42135):1-13.Growth, Yield and Quality of Onion (Allium cepa L.) as Influenced by Nitrogen and Time of Topdressing. .pdf
Okoth UA. "Head teacher characteristics that influence curriculum implementation . ." European Scientific Journal (ESJ). . 2018;14(19):75-89.
Kahiga RM. "Health, well-being and welfare in childhood in Kenya." Bloomsbury Education and Childhood Studies.. 2018.
Mbuthia, GW; Olungah CO;, Ondicho, TG; Nyamogoba HN. "High level of delays in Tuberclosis diagnosis and the associated factors in a pastoralist community in West Pokot County, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2018;95(2):1203-1213.
Casmir EN, Ondicho TG, Ongolly FK. "HIV and AIDS in Kenya: Forty Years Later." Journal of African Interdisciplinary Studies (JAIS). 2018;2(5):91-100.hiv__aids_in_kenya_fourty_years_later.pdf
Ongeso A. "Human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion in late pregnancy: Effects on pregnancy and childbirth in Kenya." International Journal of Social Science and Technology. 2018;3-3(ISSN: 2415-6566):10-16. Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion in late pregnancy: Effects on pregnancy and childbirth in Kenya

Background: In Kenya, there is limited empirical data on effects of seroconversion in pregnancy and child birth due to low uptake of HIV retesting despite there being a policy directive to do so.
Objectives: To determine the effect of seroconversion in late pregnancy regarding pregnancy and childbirth among women seeking delivery services in Kakamega County Hospital and Pumwani Maternity Hospital.
Methodology: A ten month quasi experimental longitudinal study design was employed whereby 1,156 respondents consecutively sampled.
Results: HIV seroconverters had a higher chance of developing premature rupture of membranes, hemorrhage and puerperal sepsis than HIV negative women. The incidence of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV among exposed newborns was 0.09%. There was a statistically significant relationship between PEP administration, infant morbidity and mortality.
Conclusion: HIV seroconversion was associated with complications during delivery. Recommendations: There’s need to intensify retesting in late pregnancy as well as skilled birth attendance among the women seroconverting in late pregnancy.

Ongeso A. "Human immunodeficiency Virus seroconversion: Rate and Retesting uptake. A case of Kakamega and Nairobi Counties, Kenya." International Journal of Advanced Research. 2018;6:4(2320-5407):599-608. Abstract

Human immunodeficiency Virus seroconversion: Rate and Retesting uptake. A case of Kakamega and Nairobi Counties, Kenya
Background: There is limited empirical data on the prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) seroconversion in late pregnancy due to the fact that majority of the women start seeking antenatal care late in pregnancy therefore rarely retest. This leaves a gap in the Elimination of Mother to Child Transmission (eMTCT) strategy thus contributing to high maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality rates in Kenya.
Objectives: To establish the rate of HIV retesting uptake in late pregnancy and HIV seroconversion rate among women attending Antenatal Clinics in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kakamega County Hospital.
Methodology: A longitudinal study design was employed; 1,117 women confirmed as HIV negative in early pregnancy were followed up for three months and retested to ascertain their serostatus. Sample size was obtained through Census and consecutive sampling to recruit individual respondents. Clearance to conduct the study was sought from Ethics Review Committee, Pumwani and Kakamega County Hospitals and the respondents. Researcher administered questionnaires and HIV testing was done for data collection. Descriptive data involved calculation of measures of central tendency. Findings were presented in tables, graphs and narrative.
Results: HIV retesting uptake was 1,073 (96%) and the rate of HIV serocopositivity among initially HIV negative pregnant women that retested was 8 (0.75%).
Conclusion: HIV retesting uptake is very impressive and the rate of HIV seroconversion is very low. Kenya has made good progress towards eMTCT of HIV.

Bulinda DM. Human Resource Planning and organizational performance in Education. Lambert Academic Publishing; 2018.
Siderius C, Gannon KE, Ndiyoi M, Opere A, Batisani N, Olago D, Pardoe J, Conway D. "Hydrological response and complex impact pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in Eastern and Southern Africa." Earth's Future. 2018;6(1):2-22. Abstract

The 2015/2016 El Niño has been classified as one of the three most severe on record. El Niño teleconnections are commonly associated with droughts in southern Africa and high precipitation in eastern Africa. Despite their relatively frequent occurrence, evidence for their hydrological effects and impacts beyond agriculture is limited. We examine the hydrological response and impact pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in eastern and southern Africa, focusing on Botswana, Kenya, and Zambia. We use in situ and remotely sensed time series of precipitation, river flow, and lake levels complemented by qualitative insights from interviews with key organizations in each country about awareness, impacts, and responses. Our results show that drought conditions prevailed in large parts of southern Africa, reducing runoff and contributing to unusually low lake levels in Botswana and Zambia. Key informants characterized this El Niño through record high temperatures and water supply disruption in Botswana and through hydroelectric load shedding in Zambia. Warnings of flood risk in Kenya were pronounced, but the El Niño teleconnection did not materialize as expected in 2015/2016. Extreme precipitation was limited and caused localized impacts. The hydrological impacts in southern Africa were severe and complex, strongly exacerbated by dry antecedent conditions, recent changes in exposure and sensitivity and management decisions. Improved understanding of hydrological responses and the complexity of differing impact pathways can support design of more adaptive, region‐specific management strategies.

Olago D, Siderius C, Gannon KE, Ndiyoi M, Opere A, Batisani N, Pardoe J, Conway D. "Hydrological response and complex impact pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in Eastern and Southern Africa." Earth's Future. 2018;6(1):2-22. AbstractFull Text

The 2015/2016 El Niño has been classified as one of the three most severe on record. El Niño teleconnections are commonly associated with droughts in southern Africa and high precipitation in eastern Africa. Despite their relatively frequent occurrence, evidence for their hydrological effects and impacts beyond agriculture is limited. We examine the hydrological response and impact pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in eastern and southern Africa, focusing on Botswana, Kenya, and Zambia. We use in situ and remotely sensed time series of precipitation, river flow, and lake levels complemented by qualitative insights from interviews with key organizations in each country about awareness, impacts, and responses. Our results show that drought conditions prevailed in large parts of southern Africa, reducing runoff and contributing to unusually low lake levels in Botswana and Zambia. Key informants characterized this El Niño through record high temperatures and water supply disruption in Botswana and through hydroelectric load shedding in Zambia. Warnings of flood risk in Kenya were pronounced, but the El Niño teleconnection did not materialize as expected in 2015/2016. Extreme precipitation was limited and caused localized impacts. The hydrological impacts in southern Africa were severe and complex, strongly exacerbated by dry antecedent conditions, recent changes in exposure and sensitivity and management decisions. Improved understanding of hydrological responses and the complexity of differing impact pathways can support design of more adaptive, region‐specific management strategies.

Awori MN. I AM-healing health and happiness. USA: Kindle direct publish; 2018.
Joag V, Obila O, Gajer P, Scott M, Dizzell S, Humphrys M, Shahabi K, Huibner S, Shannon B, Tharao W, MW MUREITHI, Julius Oyugi,, J.N Kiiru, et al. Impact of bacterial vaginosis treatment on ex vivo HIV susceptibility in the female genital tract.Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.; 2018.
Wanjala. G, Mwashigadi L.J.. "Impact of Socio-Psychological Work Environment on Teachers’ Job Commitment in Public Primary Schools in Mwatate Sub-County, Kenya." In International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences . 2018;5(5):19-28.this__abstractijhsse.pdf
AC Guzha, Rufino MC, Okoth S, S Jacobs, Nóbrega RLB. "Impacts of land use and land cover change on surface runoff, discharge and low flows: Evidence from East Africa." Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies. 2018;15:49-67.
Matiang’i M, Kibwage I, Ngatia P, Omoni G, Kiarie J, Bosire K, Inyama H, Muiruri F. "Improving access to Higher education for front-line health professionals in Kenya through Blended eLearning ." African Journal of Midwifery and Women’s health. 2018;12(2).
Udomkun P, Wossen T, Nabahungu NL, Mutegi C, Vanlauwe B, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay. "Incidence and farmers’ knowledge of aflatoxin contamination and control in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo." Food Science & Nutrition. 2018.
Mutiso SK, Mulwa, J.K. "Influence of the Grade Achieved in Agriculture at Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education Examination on Performance in Farming in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development (IJIRD). 2018;Vol 7(Issue 7):412-442.
AWUOR OGACHOALEX, JOHN ONYATTA, Marina M, Domtau DL, OKOTH OBILAJORIM. "INFLUENCE OF ANNEALING TEMPERATURE ON SOME OPTICAL AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF Cu2ZnSnS4 DEPOSITED BY CZT CO-ELECTRODEPOSITION COUPLED WITH CHEMICAL BATH TECHNIQUE ." World Scientific. 2018;Volume 25(Issue 03).
and Mbuva, P.M.; Rambo OCM; T. "Influence of Control Environment on Performance of SME Projects in Machakos County, Kenya. ." International of Economics, Commerce and Management. 2018;6(9).
Mulwa PK, Muriithi EM. "INFLUENCE OF FACEBOOK AS A PEDAGOGICAL INTERACTION TOOL ON LEARNING OUTCOME AMONG LEARNERS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KENYA." International Journal of Education and Research . 2018;6(4):19-30. Abstractinfluence_of_facebook_as_a_pedagogical_interaction_tool_on_learning_outcome_among_learners_in_secondary_schools_in_kenya.pdfInternational Journal of Education and Research

There is high infiltration of Online Social Networking Platforms in learning institutions in Kenya
yet there is dearth of information on how these platforms affect learning outcome. This paper was a
systematic desk literature review. The purpose was to establish how leveraging on pedagogical
interactions through Facebook affect learning outcome. The reviewers focused on the development
of Facebook, its use in education and how its pedagogical interactions affect learning outcome.
Articles published in high impact journals including “grey literature” were desk reviewed. The
review showed that Facebook has been used by learners mostly for social interactions and not for
pedagogical interactions and its use can boast learning outcome. The researcher recommends that
learners, teachers and policy makers should accept Facebook as a pedagogical interaction tool.
Keywords: Pedagogical interaction, Facebook, Learning outcome.

Mulwa PK, Muriithi EM. "INFLUENCE OF FACEBOOK AS A PEDAGOGICAL INTERACTION TOOL ON LEARNING OUTCOME AMONG LEARNERS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KENYA." International Journal of Education and Research. 2018;6(4):19-30. Abstractmulwa-muriithi_facebook.pdfInternational Journal of Education and Research

There is high infiltration of Online Social Networking Platforms in learning institutions in Kenya yet there is dearth of information on how these platforms affect learning outcome. This paper was a systematic desk literature review. The purpose was to establish how leveraging on pedagogical interactions through Facebook affect learning outcome. The reviewers focused on the development of Facebook, its use in education and how its pedagogical interactions affect learning outcome.Articles published in high impact journals including “grey literature” were desk reviewed. The review showed that Facebook has been used by learners mostly for social interactions and not for pedagogical interactions and its use can boast learning outcome. The researcher recommends that learners, teachers and policy makers should accept Facebook as a pedagogical interaction tool.

Otieno, M. D. NOAJV & W. "The influence of family on talent dentification for players in rugby clubs in Kenya. ." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge.. 2018;3(9):99-109.
Kamau NP, M. DMM. "Influence of Managerial Skills on Growth of Projects in Kenya: A Case of Uwezo Funded Youth Projects in Thika Town." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications,. 2018;8(9):575-585.kamau_publication.pdf
Otieno, M. D. NOAJV & W. "Influence of peers on talent identification for players in rugby clubs in Kenya. ." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(10):52-62.
Ekabu, P.K. KNJM & G. "Influence of promotional prospects on turnover intention of public secondary school teachers in Meru County, Kenya ." European Scientific Journal European Scientific Journal. 2018;14(25):17-36.
Irungu JGRM & K. "Influence of Quality Service Delivery on Performance of Pharmaceutical Retail Businesses in Nairobi City County, Kenya." Kenya. International Journal of Social Science and Business . 2018;3(1).
Muriithi EM, Mulwa PK. "Influence of Teacher Characteristics in Use of Project Method in Teaching Physics in Kenyan Secondary Schools." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 2018;7(3):129-134. Abstractinfluence_of_teacher_characteristics_in_use_of_project_method_in_teaching_physics_in_kenyan_secondary_schools.pdfInternational Journal of Innovative Research & Development

Physics is one of the science subjects offered in Kenyan secondary schools. Several methods are employed by the teachers in teaching physics. Project method has been cited as a key method because it is leaner-centered and very effective in enabling learners to acquire scientific knowledge and skills. The choice and use of project method is determined by several factors like nature of content to be learned, availability of teaching resources, time available for teaching, learner and teacher characteristics among others. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between teacher’s characteristics and the level of usage of project method in the teaching of physics. Stratified random sampling was used to select 84 teachers from the former eight provinces of the Republic of Kenya. Data relating to teacher characteristics and their level usage of project method was collected using a questionnaire. SPSS computer package was used to analyze the data. Level of usage of project method was determined by analyzing the mean score from the responses given by the teachers on the frequency of using the method. Hypotheses were tested at 95% level of confidence. Relationship between teacher characteristics and level of usage of project method was analyzed using Chi square. The key findings of the study were that teachers with pedagogical skills have high level of use of project method in teaching physics than those without, whereas age and gender did not influence level of use of the method. In view of the findings, the researcher recommends that physics be taught by qualified teachers with pedagogical skills and frequent in-servicing of physics teachers to be undertaken irrespective of their age and gender.

Muriithi EM, Mulwa PK. "Influence of teacher characteristics in use of project method in teaching physics in Kenyan secondary schools." International Journal of Innovative Research and development (IJIRD. 2018;7(3):129-134.
Riungu, W.K. BDM. "Influence of teaching and learning resources on enrolment of early childhood education in Imenti North Sub-county ." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(10):144-155.
Mbusa HK, Ngugi K, Olubayo FM, Kivuva BM, Muthomi JW, Nzuve FM. "The Inheritance of Yield Components and Beta Carotene Content in Sweet Potato." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(2):71-81.
Gachara HN, Munjuri MG. "INNOVATION CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED BY SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN NAIROBI, KENYA." International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management. 2018;6(6):717-738.innovation_challenges.pdf
Wanjala. G, Mwashigadi L.J., MATULA P.D. "Institutional Factors Influencing Teachers’ Job Commitment in Public Primary Schools in Mwatate Sub-County, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research . 2018;6(4):1-18 .abstarct1.pdf
Muthomi JW, Wafula GO, Nderitu JH, Chemining’wa GN. "Integration of Seed Dressing, Bio-pesticides and Intercropping to Reduce Pesticide Use in Snap Bean Production." International Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. 2018;5(1):12-20.
Wachege PN, Syengo SN. "An Investigation of Blending Inculturation and Liberation Approaches Towards New Evangelization in Contemporary Africa." International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences. 2018;8(7):74-88.wacheg__nduto_article.pdf
Karibe Wilson, Kunyanga Catherine IJ. "Isolation and Characterization of Probiotic Microorganisms from the Bovine Tripe." Asian Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2018;3(2):58-65.
Mweri JG. "Kenya Sign Language (KSL) Phonology: Articulatory Properties and Phonological Processes." Linguistics and Literature Studies. 2018;6(4):69-182.
Gecaga W, Mwango G, Mutala T. "Knowledge on ionizing radiation among non-radiologist clinicians at Kenyatta National Hospital- Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2018;95(1):1108-1115.
SWALEH AMIRI. Kosa la Nani? Na Hadithi Nyingine . Nairobi: Vide-Muwa; 2018.
Kahi, H.C, M, M. Nyangito P, C.K.K. Gachene P. Land Use Change in Upper River Kibwezi Riparian Ecosystem From 1985 to 2015.; 2018.
Mackatiani, Caleb Imbova NMKGDJ &. "Learning Achievement: Illusions of Teacher-Centered Approaches in Primary Schools in Kenya." The International Institute for Science, Technology and Education. 2018;9(18):46-54.
Kimeu M. "The Learning Resource Centre: Green building design in Nairobi”." Africa Habitat Review Journa. 2018;Volume 12 (Issue 12):ISSN: 2519-7851.
Mugambi MM. "Linking Constructivism Theory to Classroom Practice." International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE). 2018;5(9):96-104.constructivism_paper.pdf
Wairire G. "Living but Leaving: Therapy in Light and Right of Life and Death in Traditional-Cum-Contemporary Societies." International Journal of Psychological Studies. 2018;10(4):79-94.
Ouma JO, Olang LO, Ouma GO, Oludhe C, Ogallo L, Artan G. "Magnitudes of Climate Variability and Changes over the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands of Kenya between 1961 and 2013 Period." American Journal of Climate Change. 2018;7(1):27-39. Abstractmagnitudes_of_climate_variability_and_changes_over_the_arid_and_semi-arid_lands_of_kenya_between_1961_and_2013_period.pdfAmerican Journal of Climate Change

The magnitude and trend of temperature and rainfall extremes as indicators of climate variability and change were investigated in the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs) of Kenya using in-situ measurements and gridded climate proxy datasets, and analysed using the Gaussian-Kernel analysis and the Mann-Kendall statistics. The results show that the maximum and minimum temperatures have been increasing, with warmer temperatures being experienced mostly at night time. The average change in the mean maximum and minimum seasonal surface air temperature for the region were 0.74˚C and 0.60˚C, respectively between the 1961-1990 and 1991-2013 periods. Decreasing but statistically insignificant trends in the seasonal rainfall were noted in the area, but with mixed patterns in variability. The March-April-May rainfall season indicated the highest decrease in the seasonal rainfall amounts. The southern parts of the region had a decreasing trend in rainfall that was greater
than that of the northern areas. The results of this study are expected to support sustainable pastoralism system prevalent with the local communities in the ASALs.

Ondiba IM, Oyieke FA, Ong’amo GO, Olumula MM, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "Malaria vector abundance is associated with house structures in Baringo County, Kenya." PloS one. 2018;13(6):e0198970.
Ondiba IM, Oyieke FA, Ong’amo GO, Olumula MM, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "Malaria vector abundance is associated with house structures in Baringo County, Kenya." PloS one. 2018;13(6):e0198970.
S P, Simiyu BN, JY S, K T, FI W, KG DL, GES D, LV I. "Management of Mandibular Lateral Incisors with Vertucci Type II Canal Configuration." Journal of the Endodontic Society of the Philippines . 2018;11:19-23.
Dr. Laban U. Shihembetsa GKK. "MANAGING FLOODING IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS OF NAIROBI: A CASE STUDY OF SOUTH C." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge (IJIRK). . 2018;Vol-3, (Issue-9, September-2018 ):(27-43). ISSN-2213-1356.
Amadi JA, Ong'amo GO, Olago DO, Oriaso SO, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "Mapping potential Anopheles gambiae s.l. larval distribution using remotely sensed climatic and environmental variables in Baringo, Kenya." Medical and veterinary entomology. 2018.
JA A, GO O'amo, DO O, SO O, IK N, BBA E. "Mapping potential Anopheles gambiae s.l. larval distribution using remotely sensed climatic and environmental variables in Baringo, Kenya." Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 2018;1(1):417-426. AbstractWebsite

Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) is responsible for the transmission of the devastating Plasmodium falciparum (Haemosporida: Plasmodiidae) strain of malaria in Africa. This study investigated the relationship between climate and environmental conditions and An. gambiae s.l. larvae abundance and modelled the larval distribution of this species in Baringo County, Kenya. Mosquito larvae were collected using a 350-mL dipper and a pipette once per month from December 2015 to December 2016. A random forest algorithm was used to generate vegetation cover classes. A negative binomial regression was used to model the association between remotely sensed climate (rainfall and temperature) and environmental (vegetation cover, vegetation health, topographic wetness and slope) factors and An. gambiae s.l. for December 2015. Anopheles gambiae s.l. was significantly more frequent in the riverine zone (P < 0.05, r = 0.59) compared with the lowland zone. Rainfall (b = 6.22, P < 0.001), slope (b = - 4.81, P = 0.012) and vegetation health (b = - 5.60, P = 0.038) significantly influenced the distribution of An. gambiae s.l. larvae. High An. gambiae s.l. abundance was associated with cropland and wetland environments. Effective malaria control will require zone-specific interventions such as a focused dry season vector control strategy in the riverine zone.

o Malonza, J. RART. "Mapping Socio-Cultural Influences in Contemporary Urban Public Open Space. The Case of Biryogo, Kigali City. ." International Journal of Creative Research and Studies,. 2018;2(9-september 2018).
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Obuchi SM. "Masuala Ibuka katika Nadharia ya Sintaksia na Pendekezo la Mwelekeo Mpya.". In: Isimu na Fasihi ya Lugha za Kiafrika. Eldoret: Moi University Press; 2018.
Stephen F Omondi, Odee DW, Ongamo GO, Kanya JI, Khasa DP. "Mating patterns of the gum arabic tree (Acacia senegal synonym Senegalia senegal) in two different habitats." New Forests. 2018;49(1):53-65.
Cham DT, Fombong AT, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Nguku E, Raina SK. "Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae), an Opportunist Parasitoid of Honey Bees in Cameroon." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):254-258.
Cham DT, Fombong AT, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Nguku E, Raina SK. "Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae), an Opportunist Parasitoid of Honey Bees in Cameroon." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):254-258.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Ndung’u M. "Metaphorical Extension of Kiswahili Tense: An Application of Conceptual Metaphor Theory." Mwanga wa Lugha. 2018;2 (2):55-75.
and Abok O. Elisha, Okoth W. Michael. KCANOB. "Microbiological Quality and Contamination Level of Water Sources in Isiolo County in Kenya." Journal of Environmental and Public Health. 2018;2018:1-10.
Karibe, Wilson G. KCIJNK. "Microbiological Status of Ready to Eat (RTE) Bovine Tripe Rolls under Different Storage Conditions. ." Journal of Food Science and Quality Management;. 2018;78:7-16.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Lokidor EE, Obuchi SM. "Mifanyiko ya Kimofolojia ya Kosonanti za Nomino Mkopo za Kiturkana kutoka Kiswahili." Mwanga wa Lugha. 2018;2 (1):45-55.
Erastus Mulinge, Japhet Magambo DOSNEZCM, Dorothy Kagendo, Francis Addy DEMWPKTR. "Molecular characterization of Echinococcus species in dogs from four regions of Kenya." Veterinary parasitology. 2018;255:49-57.
and Kahiga, R. M. KNSRWE. Movement activities. Grade One. Teacher’s guide..; 2018.
and Kahiga, R. M. NKWR. Movement activities. Grade Three. Teacher’s guide.. Kenya Literature Bureau.; 2018.
and and Kahiga, R. M. KNSRWE. Movement activities. Grade Two. Teacher’s guide.. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau.; 2018.
Ifeoluwa Adekoya, Adewale Obadina, Cynthia Chilaka Adaku, Marthe De Boevre, Okoth S, Saeger SD, Njobeh P. "Mycobiota and co-occurrence of mycotoxins in South African maize-based opaque beer." International journal of food microbiology. 2018;270:22-30.
N M, S S, Onyango, M G, Murila F, Gichangi. National Guidelines For The Screening and Management of Retinopathy of Prematurity. Nairobi: Ministry of Health Kenya; 2018.
Awori M, Mutwiri R, Mutunga W, Jowi S, Peninan K, Mang’usu O. "Neonatal Ebstein’s Anomaly: Surgical Decision Making." Annals of African Surgery. 2018;15(1):40-43.ebsteins_anomaly-case_report-surgical_decision_making-awori-_2018.pdf
Mwangi M, Njoroge P, Chira R, Gichuki N. "Nest food provisioning in the Red-capped Lark Calandrella cinerea does not vary with parental sex differences and time of day." Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. 2018;38(2):7-15.
and Mochoge GKBNO. "Nitrogen Mineralization Potential (No) in Three Kenyan Soils, Nitisols, Ferralsols and Luvisols ." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(4).
and Mochoge GKBNO. "Nitrogen Mineralization Potential (No) in Three Kenyan Soils, Nitisols, Ferralsols and Luvisols ." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(4).
Nzimbi BM. "A note on some equivalences of operators and topology of invariant subspaces." Mathematics and Computer Science . 2018;3(5):102-112.
Githui S, Chege M, Wagoro MCA, Mwaura J. "Nurse’s Perception on Non-Disclosure of Intimate Partner Violence by Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Study." International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review. 2018;9(1):: NU 20198-20203 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15520/ijcrr/2018/9/01/403.
Githui S, Chege M, Wagoro MCA, Mwaura J. "Nurse’s Perception on Non-Disclosure of Intimate Partner Violence by Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Study ." International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review . 2018. Abstract

Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) constitute physical, sexual, social or psychological harm by a current or former partner or spouse. Many researchers have observed that intimate partner violence is directly associated with negative maternal and neonatal health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess nurse’s perception on non-disclosure of IPV by pregnant women. A mixed method was used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. A demographic questionnaire was used to collect demographic data and a Likert scale was used to collect quantitative data. A structured interview schedule was used to gather qualitative data. 125 nurses and midwives were voluntarily recruited for this study. The results of this study showed that 52% (n=65) of the respondents had worked for more than 12 years and a majority (62.6%, n=77) were community health nurses. The nurses perceived that non-disclosure of IPV by pregnant was because of various barriers. Majority (n=86, 69.9%) agreed that the reason why they did not disclose IPV was because the abused survivor would still stay with the abuser after disclosure, and 66.7% (n=82) agreed that stigmatizing attitudes towards the IPV survivors from the society prevented disclosure. About 65.3% of the respondents agreed that survivors are not aware of their rights in regard toIPV reporting and that survivor’s view IPV abuse as normal. The results from this study point to the need of addressing barriers that emanate from the survivors of IPV themselves if IPV screening is to be achieved.
Key words: Nurse, Perception, Non-disclosure, Intimate Partner Violence, Pregnant women, Screening

den Abong'o, DA WSOJBPJVNBBMVOWAFULAGAN-KKIOP. "Occurrence, abundance and distribution of benthic macro invertebrates in the Nyando River catchment, Kenya." African Journal of Aquatic Science. 2018.
Njagi L, Nzimbi BM, Moindi SK. "On analysis and synthesis operators and characterization of the synthesis matrix of a frame in terms of the frame operator." Advance Research in Mathematics and Statistics. 2018;5(12):1-10.
Njagi L, Nzimbi BM, Moindi SK. "On finite dimensional Hilbert space frames, dual and normalized frames and pseudo-inverse of the frame operator." Advance Research in Mathematics and Statistics. 2018;5(11):1-14.
Pokhariya GP, Kikechi CB, Simwa RO. "On Local Linear Regression Estimation of Finite Population Totals in Model Based Surveys." American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics. 2018;7((3)):92-101 . Abstracthttp://thescipub.com/journals/ajas

In this paper, nonparametric regression is employed which provides an estimation of unknown finite population
totals. A robust estimator of finite population totals in model based inference is constructed using the procedure of local linear
regression. In particular, robustness properties of the proposed estimator are derived and a brief comparison between the
performances of the derived estimator and some existing estimators is made in terms of bias, MSE and relative efficiency.
Results indicate that the local linear regression estimator is more efficient and performing better than the Horvitz-Thompson
and Dorfman estimators, regardless of whether the model is specified or mispecified. The local linear regression estimator also
outperforms the linear regression estimator in all the populations except when the population is linear. The confidence
intervals generated by the model based local linear regression method are much tighter than those generated by the design
based Horvitz-Thompson method. Generally the model based approach outperforms the design based approach regardless of
whether the underlying model is correctly specified or not but that effect decreases as the model variance increases.
Keywords: Nonparametric Regression, Finite Population Totals, Local Linear Regression, Robustness Properties,
Confidence Intervals, Model Based Surveys

Awori M, Mehta N, Mitema F, Kebba N. "Optimal Use of Z-Scores to Preserve the Pulmonary Valve Annulus During Repair of Tetralogy of Fallot." World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery. 2018;9(3):285-288.tet_z-score_of_tap_use_-awori-2018.pdf
AO 59. O, P W, LW G. "Oral Health status and oral health related quality of life of adults patients at Mathari Hospital Dental Unit." Academic Research journal ofmulti-displinary. 2018;5(4):117-130.
Gathungu JM. "Organization Development Interventions on Communication Skills of Commercial Bank Executives: A Case of KCB Bank Limited in Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Review. 2018;4(5).
vii. James Gathungu M. "Organization Development Interventions on Teamwork and Teambuilding Skills of Commercial Bank Executives: A Case of KCB Limited in Kenya." International Journal of Creative Research and Studies . 2018;2(10).
Bulinda DM. organizational behaviour in Educational management. Lambert Academic Publishing; 2018.
FO N, M B, Gachago MM, D K. Outcomes of Combined Cataract and Trabeculectomy Surgery In Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018.
Wachege PN, Rugendo FG. "The Parenting Environment in the Contemporary Agĩkũyũ Community of Kenya." International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences. 2018;8(8):138-151.prof_wachege_and_rugendo - 3rdarticle.pdf
Kante M, Chepken C, Oboko R. "Partial least square structural equation modelling’use in information systems: an updated guideline in exploratory settings." Kabarak Journal of Research & Innovation. 2018;6(1):49-67. AbstractFull website link

The purpose of many studies in the field of Information Systems (IS) research is to analyse causal relationship between variables. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) is a statistical technique for testing and estimating those causal relationship based on statistical data and qualitative causal assumption. Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) is the technique that is mostly used in IS research. It has been subject to many reviews either in confirmatory or exploratory settings. However, it has recently emerged that PLS occupies the middle ground of exploratory and confirmatory settings. Thus, this paper intends to propose an updated guideline for the use of PLS-SEM in Information Systems Research in exploratory settings maintaining interpretability. A systematic literature review of 40 empirical and methodological studies published between 2012 and 2016 in the leading journal of the field guide future empirical work.

Kante M, Chepken C, Oboko R. "Partial least square structural equation modelling’use in information systems: an updated guideline in exploratory settings." Kabarak Journal of Research & Innovation. 2018;6(1):49-67. AbstractFull website link

The purpose of many studies in the field of Information Systems (IS) research is to analyse causal relationship between variables. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) is a statistical technique for testing and estimating those causal relationship based on statistical data and qualitative causal assumption. Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) is the technique that is mostly used in IS research. It has been subject to many reviews either in confirmatory or exploratory settings. However, it has recently emerged that PLS occupies the middle ground of exploratory and confirmatory settings. Thus, this paper intends to propose an updated guideline for the use of PLS-SEM in Information Systems Research in exploratory settings maintaining interpretability. A systematic literature review of 40 empirical and methodological studies published between 2012 and 2016 in the leading journal of the field guide future empirical work.

Kante M, Chepken C, Oboko R. "Partial least square structural equation modelling’use in information systems: an updated guideline in exploratory settings." Kabarak Journal of Research & Innovation. 2018;6(1):49-67. AbstractFull website link

The purpose of many studies in the field of Information Systems (IS) research is to analyse causal relationship between variables. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) is a statistical technique for testing and estimating those causal relationship based on statistical data and qualitative causal assumption. Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) is the technique that is mostly used in IS research. It has been subject to many reviews either in confirmatory or exploratory settings. However, it has recently emerged that PLS occupies the middle ground of exploratory and confirmatory settings. Thus, this paper intends to propose an updated guideline for the use of PLS-SEM in Information Systems Research in exploratory settings maintaining interpretability. A systematic literature review of 40 empirical and methodological studies published between 2012 and 2016 in the leading journal of the field guide future empirical work.

Muhati GL, Olaka L, Olago D. "Participatory scenario development process in addressing potential impacts of anthropogenic activities on the ecosystem services of MT. Marsabit forest, Kenya." Global Ecology and Conservation. 2018;14:e00402. AbstractFull Text

The Marsabit Forest Reserve (MFR), a green island in an arid environmental setting, generates multiple ecosystem goods and services (ES) to the local community critical for their livelihoods. The forest has been experiencing substantial land conversion for town expansion, agriculture production and settlements threatening long-term ES provision. Sustaining the forest ES under increasing anthropogenic pressures is one of the great challenges of the Marsabit forest community. We used focus group discussions in the thirteen locations around the forest and individual key informant's interviews in the identification of drivers of change and their potential impacts on ES in MFR. We used the scenario development process (SDP) in coming up with four divergent but plausible exploratory scenarios. The study established that the main ES provided by the forest was, water, fuelwood, forage (dry season grazing resource), medicinal plants and timber for construction. Stakeholders identified population pressure, unsustainable utilisation of forest resources, institutional barriers to effective resource management, land use and climate change as the main drivers impacting ES provision in the forest. Land use change and climate change were considered the most significant drivers yet the most uncertain in the future impacting ES provision in the MFR. The SDP identified four alternative future scenarios for the MFR by the year 2043 with the Marsabit we want scenario identified as the most desirable future for the sustainable supply of ES with adequate adaptation to observed changes. Stakeholders came up with a joint action plan implementation matrix for the identified scenario while mitigating the negative aspects of the alternative scenarios. The results support the need for participatory land use planning that takes into to account the growing threat of climate change to natural forest systems.

Muhatia GL, Olago PD, Olaka DL. "Participatory scenario development process in addressing potential impacts of anthropogenic activities on the ecosystem services of Mt. Marsabit forest, Kenya." Global Ecology and Conservation. 2018;14(1):e00402. Abstract1-s2.0-s2351989418300581-main.pdfWebsite

Abstract

The Marsabit Forest Reserve (MFR), a green island in an arid environmental setting, generates multiple ecosystem goods and services (ES) to the local community critical for their livelihoods. The forest has been experiencing substantial land conversion for town expansion, agriculture production and settlements threatening long-term ES provision. Sustaining the forest ES under increasing anthropogenic pressures is one of the great challenges of the Marsabit forest community. We used focus group discussions in the thirteen locations around the forest and individual key informant's interviews in the identification of drivers of change and their potential impacts on ES in MFR. We used the scenario development process (SDP) in coming up with four divergent but plausible exploratory scenarios. The study established that the main ES provided by the forest was, water, fuelwood, forage (dry season grazing resource), medicinal plants and timber for construction. Stakeholders identified population pressure, unsustainable utilisation of forest resources, institutional barriers to effective resource management, land use and climate change as the main drivers impacting ES provision in the forest. Land use change and climate change were considered the most significant drivers yet the most uncertain in the future impacting ES provision in the MFR. The SDP identified four alternative future scenarios for the MFR by the year 2044 with the Marsabit we want scenario identified as the most desirable future for the sustainable supply of ES with adequate adaptation to observed changes. Stakeholders came up with a joint action plan implementation matrix for the identified scenario while mitigating the negative aspects of the alternative scenarios. The results support the need for participatory land use planning that takes into to account the growing threat of climate change to natural forest systems.

Muhati GL, Olago D, Olaka L. "Past and projected rainfall and temperature trends in a sub-humid Montane Forest in Northern Kenya based on the CMIP5 model ensemble." Global Ecology and Conservation. 2018;16:e00469. Abstract1-s2.0-s2351989418301562-main.pdfWebsite

Abstract

This study presents past and projected temporal changes in mean temperature and rainfall around the Marsabit Forest Reserve (MFR), a sub-humid montane forest in Kenya. Rainfall data for the period 1961–2014 and temperature data for the period 1972–2011 were acquired from the Marsabit meteorological station. Future projections (2006–2100) were based on data from five models that participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5. Climate simulations for the 2071–2100 period were compared to the 1961–1990 IPCC baseline period to establish significant change. The MFR recorded a mean rainfall of 784 mm which declined annually at a rate of 6 mm over the period of the study. The long rains (March–May) recorded a mean of 379 mm and decreased annually by 10 mm while the short rains (October–December) recorded a mean of 269 mm and decreased annually by 2 mm between 1961 and 2014, with no statistically significant trend (p > 0.05).

The model ensemble reproduced the MFR bimodal rainfall pattern, but overestimated the short rains at 333 mm, compared to the actual mean of 269 mm, and underestimated the long rains at 331 mm, compared to the actual mean of 379 mm. The model ensemble simulated a historical mean rainfall of 651 mm compared to the actual mean of 784 mm. Annual rainfall is projected to increase under both scenarios with higher increases during the OND season compared to the MAM season and under RCP8.5 than under RCP4.5. The mean rainfall in the baseline year was 859 mm while the mean rainfall in the projection period for the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios is expected to be 1022 (+19%) and 1105 (+28.7%) mm, respectively; significant enough to be characterized as climate change.

Temperatures are projected to increase at a rate of 0.2 °C and 0.5 °C per decade under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. Between 2071 and 2100, the MFR is projected to have warmed by between 1.2–1.7 °C and 3.2–4.8 °C under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. Extreme rainfall events are projected to increase under the RCP4.5 scenario (severe wetting 13.1%, severe drying 3%) and the RCP8.5 scenario (severe wetting 20.1%, severe drying 3%) compared to the baseline period (severe wetting 6.1%). Our results conform to the ‘East African climate paradox’, where the observed rainfall trends were declining compared to the scenario simulations projecting a wetting anomaly as local temperatures rise. Further studies to better understand the cause of the poor rainfall simulation in the general circulation models (GCMs) in the MFR and the larger East African region will be necessary.

Ouma DO, Cyril NO, Mutave RJ. "Pathological Findings on Dental Panoramic Tomograms of Edentulous Patients Seen at a University Hospital." Journal of Oral Health and Craniofacial Science. 2018;3:025-028.
Wetendea E, Olago D, Ogarac W. "Perceptions of climate change variability and adaptation strategies on smallholder dairy farming systems: Insights from Siaya Sub-County of Western Kenya." Environmental Development. 2018;27:14-25. AbstractWebsite

Climate change and variability is bound to impact Smallholder Dairy Farming Systems as a result of overreliance on rainfed fodder production; yet climate models project increased frequencies of droughts that have a bearing on the Length of Growing Period. Similarly higher environmental temperatures are partly attributed to biome-range shifts, implying a likelihood of emerging and re-emergence of livestock and fodder diseases and pests. Nonetheless not much is documented of perceptions and adaptation strategies employed by Smallholder Dairy Farming Systems geared towards resilience to climatie shocks. By employing a mixed method approach that included household surveys, focused group discussions and statistical data analysis using SPSS package, this study aimed to bridge some of the existing gaps in adaptation strategies on Smallholder Dairy Farming Systems in Siaya Sub-County of Western Kenya. Survey results obtained from 100 households and Focused Group Discussions revealed that the climate of the study location was perceived to have changed, with droughts singled out as the most frequent. These perceptions were consistent with long-term climate data analysis which affirmed that all seasons, i.e. MAM, JJA, and DJF with the exception of SON showed longterm drying trends. Similarly, environmental temperature showed upward trends in both maximum and minimum temperatures that were perceived to be the cause of proliferation of noxious weeds previously associated with hotter areas of the Sub-County. Typologies of adaptation strategies used in the study showed that adaptation options were limited since these were viewed through a narrow lens of disease control by regular spraying and maize stovers as supplementary livestock feed during fodder dearth periods. This study recommends that besides awareness creation of adverse impacts of climate change and variability, facilitation for ease of access to technologies that ameliorate its adverse effects ought to be put in place. Additionally, empirical studies on consequences of biome range shifts on pasture and fodder productivity, and future possible impacts of diseases on Bos taurus breeds associated with climate change and variability should be undertaken.

Robinson A, Busula AO, Voets MA, Beshir KB, Caulfield JC, Powers SJ, Niels O Verhulst, Winskill P, Muwanguzi J, Birkett MA, Renate C Smallegange, Masiga DK, Mukabana RW, Sauerwe RW. "Plasmodium-associated changes in human odor attract mosquitoes." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2018;115(18):E4209-E4218.
Dzupire NC, Ngare P, Odongo L. "A Poisson-Gamma Model for Zero Inflated Rainfall Data." Journal of Probability and Statistics. 2018;2018(1012647). AbstractA Poisson-Gamma Model for Zero Inflated Rainfall Data

Rainfall modeling is significant for prediction and forecasting purposes in agriculture, weather derivatives, hydrology, and risk and disaster preparedness. Normally two models are used to model the rainfall process as a chain dependent process representing the occurrence and intensity of rainfall. Such two models help in understanding the physical features and dynamics of rainfall process. However rainfall data is zero inflated and exhibits overdispersion which is always underestimated by such models. In this study we have modeled the two processes simultaneously as a compound Poisson process. The rainfall events are modeled as a Poisson process while the intensity of each rainfall event is Gamma distributed. We minimize overdispersion by introducing the dispersion parameter in the model implemented through Tweedie distributions. Simulated rainfall data from the model shows a resemblance of the actual rainfall data in terms of seasonal variation, means, variance, and magnitude. The model also provides mechanisms for small but important properties of the rainfall process. The model developed can be used in forecasting and predicting rainfall amounts and occurrences which is important in weather derivatives, agriculture, hydrology, and prediction of drought and flood occurrences.

and Timammy JHR. "Politeness among the Swahili of Mombasa: A family perspective." Mwanga wa Lugha - Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha nyingine za Kiafrika Chuo Kikuu cha Moi . 2018;2(2412-6993):35-53 .
Aduma MM, Ouma G, Said MY, Wayumba GO, Omondi PA, Njino LW. "Potential Impacts of Temperature Projections on Selected Large Herbivores in Savanna Ecosystem of Kenya." American Journal of Climate Change. 2018;7(1):5-26. Abstractpotential_impacts_of_temperature_projections_on_selected_large_herbivores_in_savanna_ecosystem_of_kenya.pdfAmerican Journal of Climate Change

Due to global land surface warming, severe temperature events are expected to occur more frequently and more extremely causing changes in biodiversity and altering movement and survival of large herbivores. There are increasing observations of escalating wildlife range losses worldwide. In this study, we investigated 15 large wild herbivores (4 migratory, 1 dispersing and 10 residents) and their potential range changes in relation to projected temperatures changes based on three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5. Previous studies of Kenyan savannah have shown that increases in temperature can reduce the densities of wildlife significantly and after certain thresholds the species can be lost in those landscapes. The range maps of the 15 species were developed from aerial censuses that have been conducted in the arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya. We analysed temperature changes for the three RCPs for the periods 2030s, 2050s and 2070s. And based on the temperature threshold for each of the 15 species we analysed which wildlife range areas will be lost. Our results project that for the RCP 2.6, 3 out of the 15 species are projected to lose more than 50% of their range by the year 2030s, and 5 out 15 by 2050s and 4 of 15 by 2070s. The second climate scenario of RCP 4.5 projects that by 2030s, 3 species will lose more than 50% of their range, and in 2050s and 2070s 5 species. The RCP 8.5 which is the extreme scenario of temperature changes projects 5 species to lose their range by 50% in 2030s, 7 species by 2050s and 10 species by 2070s. The extent of range loss was different among species but was severe for buffalo, Thomson’s gazelle, waterbuck, and wildebeest which are also water dependent species.
However, the elephant, gerenuk, hartebeest, lesser kudu, and oryx are expected to retain most of their range in all the RCPs scenarios. These range contractions raise serious concerns about the future of wildlife in Kenyan savannah based on projected climate changes. And therefore, it is imperative the wildlife sector develops climate policies and plans that take into account the projected climate scenarios.

Ongeso A, Omoni G. "Predisposing factors that lead to HIV seropositivity during pregnancy among women in Kakamega and Nairobi county Hospitals." International Journal for Science and Technology.. 2018;3 No 1(ISSN: 2415-6566). Abstract

In Kenya, there is limited empirical data on determinants of seropositivity in late pregnancy due to low uptake of HIV retesting in late pregnancy despite there being a policy directive to do so. Study objective was to determine the predisposing factors that lead to HIV seropositivity during pregnancy among women in Kakamega and Nairobi county Hospitals. A ten month longitudinal study was conducted employing both qualitative and quantitative design whereby 1,156 HIV positive and negative women were recruited in early pregnancy and followed up through pregnancy; they were interviewed, and retested.
Results showed that having multiple sex partners was associated with seropositivity. Cultural belief of men not having sex spouses in pregnancy encouraged extra marital affairs leading to seropositivity. In conclusion HIV seropositivity in pregnancy was mainly due to the risky sexual behavior. There is therefore need for behavior change to reverse retrogressive cultural beliefs and practices.

Key words Human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Initial testing HIV Seropositivity HIV seroconversion Retesting

and Odundo Paul Amollo GKLNB. "Preparation and Management of Teaching Practice Process at University of Nairobi, Kenya: Appropriateness of Methods and Resource. ." International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research . 2018;5(17).
Leasher JL, Braithwaite T, Furtado JM, Flaxman SR, Lansingh VC, Silva JC, S R, Taylor HR, Bourne RRA, Vision Loss Expert Group of the Global Burden of Disease Study. "Prevalence and causes of vision loss in Latin America and the Caribbean in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections." The British journal of ophthalmology. 2018. AbstractWebsite

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment for distance and near in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) in 2015 and to forecast trends to 2020.

METHODS: A meta-analysis from a global systematic review of 283 cross-sectional, population-representative studies from published and unpublished sources from 1980 to 2014 in the Global Vision Database included 17 published and 6 unpublished studies from LAC.

RESULTS: In 2015, across LAC, age-standardised prevalence was 0.38% in all ages and 1.56% in those over age 50 for blindness; 2.06% in all ages and 7.86% in those over age 50 for moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI); 1.89% in all ages and 6.93% in those over age 50 for mild vision impairment and 39.59% in all ages and 45.27% in those over 50 for near vision impairment (NVI). In 2015, 117.86 million persons were vision impaired; of those 2.34 million blind, 12.46 million with MSVI, 11.34 million mildly impaired and 91.72 million had NVI. Cataract is the most common cause of blindness. Undercorrected refractive-error is the most common cause of vision impairment.

CONCLUSIONS: These prevalence estimates indicate that one in five persons across LAC had some degree of vision loss in 2015. We predict that from 2015 to 2020, the absolute numbers of persons with vision loss will increase by 12% to 132.33 million, while the all-age age-standardised prevalence will decrease for blindness by 15% and for other distance vision impairment by 8%. All countries need epidemiologic research to establish accurate national estimates and trends. Universal eye health services must be included in universal health coverage reforms to address disparities, fragmentation and segmentation of healthcare.

Odongo DO, Tiampati CM, Mulinge E, Mbae CK, Bishop RP, Zeyhle E, Magambo J, Wasserman M, Kern P, Romig T. "Prevalence and genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus in sheep in Narok County, Kenya." Parasitology research. 2018;117(7):2065-2073.
LM. M, Ombui JN, FK M. "Prevalence and risk factors for campylobacter infection of chicken in peri-urban areas of Nairobi, Kenya. ." J. Dairy, Veterinary and Animal Research . 2018;7: (1)00184.((1)):00184.
Nyirakanani C, Chibvongodze R, Habtu M, Masika M, Mukoko D, Njunwa KJ. "Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic malaria among under-five children in Huye District, Southern Rwanda." Tanzania Journal of Health Research. 2018;20(1). AbstractWebsite

Background: Enhanced malaria control has resulted in its reduction in some areas of Sub Saharan Africa including Rwanda. However, asymptomatic hosts serve as a reservoir for the malaria parasite for communities. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of malaria parasites and risk factors associated with malaria infection among children underfive years in Huye district, Rwanda.

Methods: This community-based cross sectional study was conducted from May to June 2016 among underfive years children. Asymptomatic children underfive years of age were randomly selected from 13 villages. Thick and thin blood smears were prepared from each child for malaria parasite diagnosis. Interviews with parents or guardians were conducted to collect data on malaria associated risk factors. Observations were made of the presence of mosquito breeding sites near and around the homestead.

Results: A total of 222 children were included in the study. Nearly a third (28.8%) of the children were within the age of 25-36 months. The majority (54%) of the children were females. Most of the parents/guardians were married (95.9%), nearly all (99.5%) had attended primary school and most (97.3%) were peasants. The overall Plasmodium falciparum prevalence in children was 12.2%. Children aged 1 to 12 months were 3.5 times more likely to have malaria parasites than children aged 13 to 59 months [AOR=3.56; 95%CI=1.18-10.71; p=0.024]. Children who were not sleeping under insecticide treated nets were 15 times more likely to be infected with malaria parasites compared to those who were sleeping under nets [AOR=15.27; 95%CI=4.42-52.82; p<0.001].

Conclusion: Malaria parasite prevalence in under-five year children in Huye District, Rwanda is moderate. The asymptomatic infections in the community forms a reservoir for transmission in the area. Young age of the child and not sleeping under mosquito net were associated with malaria parasite infection. The continuing use of mosquito nets needs to be emphasized.

Habib A, Odhiambo A, Othieno-Abinya N, Maina JMD. "Prevalence of Deep Venous Thrombosis in Cancer Patients Admitted to the Medical Wards at the Kenyatta National Hospital." International Journal of Creative Research and Studies. 2018;2(2):50-56. Abstract

ABSTRACT
The objectives of this study were to establish the prevalence of DVT in cancer patients at KNH medical and oncology wards, to describe patient characteristics of those with DVT vs those without and compare rates of DVT in different types of cancer. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out at the Kenyatta National Hospital general medical wards and oncology wards. Patients were interviewed and examined. Patients’ records were perused for information relevant to the study. Patients with history and physical examination findings suggestive of a thrombotic event were screened by compression sonography to confirm a DVT. A total of 266 patients with a diagnosis of cancer were studied, 29 (10.9%) had DVT. Among the patients who were found to have DVT, 13 (44.8%) had gynaecological cancers, 3 (10.3%) breast cancer, 3(10.3%) prostate cancer, 3(10.3%) gastric cancer, 2(6.9%) patients had lymphoma and a patient (3.4%) each in the multiple myeloma, adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and pancreatic cancer groups. Some significant patient characteristics in the patients who had a DVT were female sex (P value 0.014), presence of comorbidities (P 0.004) and ECOG scores of 3 and 4 (P 0.04, 0.001). Some common risk factors known for DVT were analysed and some were found to be significant in our patient group. Of the significant risk factors,
presence of comorbid condition, female sex and higher ECOG scores were noted. Keywords: DVT, VTE, ECOG, Comorbidities, Kenyatta National Hospital
Venous thromboembolic events in cancer are quite common and are a leading cause of morbidity, delays in care and death. As cancer is a heterogeneous disease, the risk of DVT depends on cancer types and stages, treatment
measures, and patient-related factors

Wambui A, ODHIAMBO A, Achieng L, Otieno CF, Bhatt SM. "Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Adult Human 
Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Persons at District Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya." IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS). 2018;17(3):70-75.vitamin_d_deficiency_in_hiv.pdf
Kalai JM, Kingi PM. "Principals’ influence on Participatory Discipline Management in Secondary Schools, Kenya,." The Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of educational and Social Science Research. 2018;5(2):168-175.
Wachege PN, Mulunda JB. "Problems between Migrant Ethnic Groups and Indigenous Agikuyu Community in Ruaka, Kiambu County." IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2018;23(1):76-87.wachege_and_bukokhes_2018_article.pdf
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Profesa Mohamed Hassan Abdulaziz: Mwanaisimu, Mwandishi na Mwalimu wa Walimu.". In: Isimu na Fasihi ya Lugha za Kiafrika. Eldoret: Moi University Press; 2018.
"Profile of amblyopia at Sabatia Eye Hospital." Journal of Eastern central and southern college of Ophthalmology. 2018;22(1):24-30.profile_of_amblyopia_in_sabatia.pdf
Oluoch KR, Okanya PW, HATTI-KAUL RAJNI, MATTIASSON BO, Mulaa FJ. "Protease-, Pectinase- and Amylase- Producing Bacteria from a Kenyan Soda Lake." The Open Biotechnology Journal. 2018;12:33-45.
Shihembetsa DLU. "Provision of Low-Income Housing through National Cooperative Housing Union (NACHU) in Kenya: An appraisal of the Project Delivery Structures." International Journal of Creative Research and Studies (IJCRS). . 2018;Volume-2, (, Issue-8, August 2018):(66-80).
x James Karenge GGWM &. "Public Policy Marketing Practices and Performance of Poverty Reduction Projects in the Agricultural Sector in Central Kenya." International Journal of Arts and Humanities . 2018;4(2).
Ndwigah S, Stergachis A, Abuga K, Mugo H, Kibwage I. "The quality of anti-malarial medicines in Embu County, Kenya." Malaria Journal. 2018;17:330. Abstract

Background:
Malaria is a major health problem in sub-Saharan Africa where over 90% of the world’s malaria cases occur. Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization as first-line and second-line treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. However, there are a growing number of reports of sub-standard and falsified anti-malarial medicines in sub-Saharan Africa.

Methods:
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Embu County, Kenya on the quality of anti-malarial medicines available in public and private facilities. Sampling of anti-malarial medicines from public and private hospitals, health centers and pharmacies was conducted between May and June 2014. Quality control tests were performed at the Drug Analysis and Research Unit, University of Nairobi, using ultraviolet spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. A test for microbial load was also conducted for suspension formulations.

Results:
A total of 39 samples were collected from public and private facilities across the Embu County. A visual inspection of the medicines showed no signs of sub-standard or falsification. All ACT passed identification, assay and dissolution tests. Of 11 suspension samples collected, none failed the microbial load test although one sample had 50 colony forming units (cfu). No oral artemisinin monotherapy medicines were encountered during the survey. Amodiaquine and chloroquine monotherapy products accounted for 5% of the collected samples, despite their ban in Kenya. Two herbal anti-malarial formulations were collected during the survey. Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) was also found to be available use for malaria treatment, not in accordance with malaria treatment guidelines.

Conclusion:
All the anti-malarial drugs analysed in this study passed the quality control tests. This is encouraging given the high malaria burden in Kenya. Regulatory actions are required to counter SP and herbal products for malaria treatment.

Muhati GL, Olago D, Olaka L. "Quantification of carbon stocks in Mount Marsabit Forest Reserve, a sub-humid montane forest in northern Kenya under anthropogenic disturbance." Global Ecology and Conservation. 2018;14. AbstractWebsite

The quantification of carbon stocks is vital for decision making in forest management, carbon stock change assessment and scientific applications. We applied the land degradation surveillance framework (LDSF) method with a sentinel site of (10 km × 10 km) to assess carbon stock levels and tree diversity in the Marsabit Forest Reserve (MFR). The above ground (ABG) carbon stock was estimated at 12.42 t/ha, while soil organic carbon (SOC) was 12.51 t/ha, with SOC densities increasing with increasing depth. The mean ABG carbon and SOC densities were higher in the least disturbed strata than the disturbed strata. The estimated ABG carbon and SOC stocks were significantly lower than the range observed in a typical dry tropical forest. Twenty-one tree species were recorded belonging to twelve families with the disturbed areas recording nine tree species while the least disturbed recording twelve species. Rubiaceae and Rutaceae were the richest families with four species each while Boraginaceae, Capparaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Tiliaceae, Violaceae, and Ochnaceae the least frequent with one species each. The most common tree species were, Croton megalocarpus, Drypetes gerrardii, Ochna insculpta, Strychnos henningsii and Vangueria madagascariensis. The forest recorded a basal diameter of 14.09 ± 12.15 cm, basal area of 0.016 m 2/ha with a mean height of 8.69 m. The basal size class distribution declined monotonically indicative of a stable population. Livestock grazing, selective logging, and firewood collection were the primary forms of anthropogenic activities recorded in the MFR despite the moratorium imposed on consumptive utilisation of forest products by the Marsabit County security committee. The Pearson correlation coefficient returned an inverse relationship between forest disturbance with SOC and ABG carbon in the disturbed strata suggesting that anthropogenic activities reduced carbon stocks in the MFR. Concerted efforts to mitigate anthropogenic impacts on the MFR could significantly increase its terrestrial carbon sequestration potential and the provision of critical ecosystem goods and services.

Muhati GL, Olago D, Olaka L. "Quantification of carbon stocks in Mount Marsabit Forest Reserve, a sub-humid montane forest in northern Kenya under anthropogenic disturbance." Global Ecology and Conservation. 2018;14. AbstractFull Text

The quantification of carbon stocks is vital for decision making in forest management, carbon stock change assessment and scientific applications. We applied the land degradation surveillance framework (LDSF) method with a sentinel site of (10 km × 10 km) to assess carbon stock levels and tree diversity in the Marsabit Forest Reserve (MFR). The above ground (ABG) carbon stock was estimated at 12.42 t/ha, while soil organic carbon (SOC) was 12.51 t/ha, with SOC densities increasing with increasing depth. The mean ABG carbon and SOC densities were higher in the least disturbed strata than the disturbed strata. The estimated ABG carbon and SOC stocks were significantly lower than the range observed in a typical dry tropical forest. Twenty-one tree species were recorded belonging to twelve families with the disturbed areas recording nine tree species while the least disturbed recording twelve species. Rubiaceae and Rutaceae were the richest families with four species each while Boraginaceae, Capparaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Tiliaceae, Violaceae, and Ochnaceae the least frequent with one species each. The most common tree species were, Croton megalocarpus, Drypetes gerrardii, Ochna insculpta, Strychnos henningsii and Vangueria madagascariensis. The forest recorded a basal diameter of 14.09 ± 12.15 cm, basal area of 0.016 m 2/ha with a mean height of 8.69 m. The basal size class distribution declined monotonically indicative of a stable population. Livestock grazing, selective logging, and firewood collection were the primary forms of anthropogenic activities recorded in the MFR despite the moratorium imposed on consumptive utilisation of forest products by the Marsabit County security committee. The Pearson correlation coefficient returned an inverse relationship between forest disturbance with SOC and ABG carbon in the disturbed strata suggesting that anthropogenic activities reduced carbon stocks in the MFR. Concerted efforts to mitigate anthropogenic impacts on the MFR could significantly increase its terrestrial carbon sequestration potential and the provision of critical ecosystem goods and services.

Kaniu MI, Angeyo HK, Darby IG, Muia LM. "Rapid in-situ radiometric assessment of the Mrima-Kiruku high background radiation anomaly complex of Kenya." J. Environ. Radioact.. 2018;188:47-57. Abstract

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Bulinda DM. "Reflections on management ethics and managemen integrityin Higher education management ." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(10).
C.M. MM; GR;WO; HG &. "Relationship between Age Diversity and Employee Performance of Public Universities in Western Kenya. ." International Journal of Academic Research in Business & Social Sciences . 2018;8(11).
Kalai JM. "Relationship between administrative service quality and students’ satisfaction in public universities in Kenya. ." The Cradle of Knowledge: African Journal of educational and Social Science Research. 2018;6(1):20-30.
Ogilo Fredrick, Omwoyo Jeremiah ZO3. "The Relationship between Liquidity Risk and Failure of Commercial Banks in Kenya." Universal Journal of Accounting and Finance . 2018;6(1)(2018):7-13.
Kalai, J.M.& Kara AM. "Relationship between teaching quality and students’ satisfaction in public universities in Kenya." The Cradle of Knowledge: African Journal of educational and Social Science Research. 2018;6(1):63-78.
Asingo PO. "Relative Deprivation, Protests and Voting in Kenya." Commonwealth and Comparative Politics . 2018;56(1):65-83.Relative Deprivation
and Ganira Khavugwi Lilian, Odundo Paul Amollo GJMJNC. "Relevance of Social Studies Curriculum Content for Enhancing Responsibility among Preschool Children in Nairobi County, Kenya." Journal of Education and Training. 2018.
Muriithi GM, Olago DO, Ouma GO, Oriaso SO. "Reliability of Indigenous Traditional Knowledge and Conventional Weather Forecasting in the Face of Climate Change and Variability in Baringo County, Kenya." . International Journal of Recent Scientific Research. 2018;9(7):28136-28141. Abstract10674-a-2018.pdfWebsite

The research study evaluated the reliability of Indigenous Traditional Knowledge (ITK) and conventional weather forecasts in the face of climate change and variability in Baringo County, Kenya. Systematic sampling technique was applied in drawing a sample size of 454 pastoralists and agro-pastoralists interviewed. Majority (68%) of the respondents have not been aware of blend/mixture of ITK and scientific forecasting techniques. Majority (78% ,77 %,74%, 61%,73%,73% and 71%) of the respondents perceived that conventional weather forecast approach is reliable on predicting short-rains season, long-rain season, rainfall intensity, landslide, thunder storm, expected rainfall onset and cessation, and El-Nino respectively. The majority (71%, 69%, 75% and 64%) of the pastoralists and agro-pastoralists professed that ITK weather forecast approach is reliable on predicting floods, seasonal rain distribution, temperatures and La-Nina respectively. None of the two weather forecasts approaches could exhaustively forecast the climate/weather events alone. The integration of the two approaches is ultimate for effective reliability.

Mwinzi JM. "Religion Escalates Social and Ethical Diversity in Kenya." European Journal of Education Studies. 2018;4(1):323-343.
Nemerimana M, Chege M, Odhiambo EA. "Risk Factors Associated with Severity of Nongenetic Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation) among Children Aged 2–18 Years Attending Kenyatta National Hospital." Neurology Research International. 2018. Abstract

Many of the nongenetic causal risk factors of intellectual disability (ID) can be prevented if they are identified early.
There is paucity on information regarding potential risk factors associated with this condition in Kenya.This study aimed to establish
risk factors associated with severity of nongenetic intellectual disability (ID) among children presenting with this condition at
Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted over the period between March
and June 2017 in pediatric and child/youth mental health departments of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Kenya. It included
children aged 2–18 years diagnosed with ID without underlying known genetic cause. Results. Of 97 patients with nongenetic
ID, 24% had mild ID, 40% moderate, 23% severe-profound, and 10% unspecified ID. The mean age of children was 5.6 (±3.6)
years. Male children were predominant (62%). Three independent factors including “labor complications” [AOR = 9.45, 95% CI =
1.23–113.29,

Wanjeri JK, Kinoti M, Olewe THAM. "Risk factors for burn injuries and fire safety awareness among patients hospitalized at a public hospital in Nairobi, Kenya: A case control study." Burns. 2018;Jan 29(pii: S0305-4179(17)):Burns. 2018 30611-3. doi: 10.1016/j.burns.2017.11.007.
Mutekhele B; Rambo, C.M; Ongati NO; RO. "Routine Program Monitoring and Performance of Educational Building Infrastructural Projects: A Case of Bungoma County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Advanced Studies (IJIRAS). 2018;5(9).
EK G, GO O, A G, KM B, B M, FO O, RG C. "Sarcocystosis: a rare polymyositis mimic." Afr J Rheumatol . 2018;6(1):18-19.sarcocystosis.pdf
Mwangi, E.W.& Okoth UA. "School Based Factors Influencing Pupils’ Discipline in Complimentary Primary Schools in Makadara Sub-County, Nairobi, Kenya." The International Journal of Science & Technoledge. 2018;6(4):78-83 .
Onyambu1* CK, Tharamba2 NM. "Screening for congenital fetal anomalies in low risk pregnancy: the Kenyatta National Hospital experience." BMC pregnancy and child birth. 2018;18(180):1-9.
M.E Y, Kimani PM, Kimani, P.M; Kimani JM, Muthomi JW. "Screening Upland Rice Genotypes for Grain Yield and Grain Quality in Kenya." Research journali’s Journal of Agriculture. 2018;5(7):1-15.

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