Publications

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2021
Mulinge, PM, DM O. "Challenges Facing Amisom in its Bid to Restore Peace in Somalia. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR).". 2021;10(5). Abstract

Abstract: Civil conflict in Somalia is considered one of the major and worst crisis in Africa’s recent history. Due to this, Somalia had
operated with an unstable functioning government for now over twenty years. This state of affairs has led to majority of the civilian
population acquiring arms illegally for their protection. The study sought to explore the key challenges facing AMISOM in its bid to
restore peace in Somalia. The study was based on the theory of conflict transformation. The study utilized primary data, which was
collected using structured questionnaires and interview schedules. The unit of analysis constituted a sample size of 100 respondents
drawn from the military, police, and civilian components of AMISOM and Somali civilian population working within Halane Base
Camp, with a combined target population of 24,643. Quantitative data was descriptively analyzed using the percentages and qualitative
data was analyzed using themes emerging from the data. The study found out thatclan dynamics in the conflict torn Somalia remains
the biggest hindrance to the achievement of peace and stability. This is coupled by the weak government structures that underpin
inadequacy of support to AMISOM operations. The study recommends that there isneed for AMISOM to increase involvement with
civilians as they stand important in peace building initiatives, intelligence, mediation and prevention of conflict.

Akaranga SI, I.O.Otieno, Kayeli EC. "The Challenges of Christian Marriage in Africa." Impact Journal of Transformation. 2021;4(1):46-55.impact_journal_of_transforrmation_vol_4_no_1_46_55.pdf
Edith Wairimu, Mburu J, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Ndambi A. "Characterization of dairy innovations in selected milksheds in Kenya using a categorical principal component analysis." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2021;53(2):1-12.
Otieno SP. Children of the Sky . Kabura J, ed. Talent Empire; 2021.
Akach JA, Osanjo L, Mwituria SM. "Co-Designing Eco-community Based Tourism." Design for All. 2021;16(3):3-33.
Hassanali J, Pokhariyal G, Mwasina P. "Comparative analysis of selected linear measurements of human and baboon brains." European Journal of Anatomy. 2021;11(1):9-16. AbstractWebsite

The morphometric parameters of the brains of several mammals and primates show differences that are likely to be associated with cognitive and other functions necessary for survival as well as evolution. Seven human and eight baboon formalin-fixed brains were used to show comparative aspects. The whole brains were weighed, 3 from humans and 3 from baboons were separated into components -cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem- and their weights were recorded. The linear measurements of the cerebrum were occipito-frontal (O-F), fronto-temporal (F-T) temporo-occipital (T-O), height of temporal lobe (HTL), inter: frontal pole (F-F), occipital pole (O-O), parietal (P-P), temporal pole (T-T), and occipital lobe (OL-OL) from superior, lateral and inferior aspects. The proportions of brain weight relative to body weight and those of the brain components were mostly higher in the humans. The length, height and width of the human brains were higher than in the baboons. F-F was six times O-O in humans while other parameters were nearly double in humans as compared to baboons. The ratio of P-P to F-F was nearly 20 times in baboons as compared to 6 times in humans. The overall increase in human brain length, width and size of lobes could be related to increased body size, functional complexity, upright posture, and evolution. The lateral expansion in the size of the frontal, temporal and occipital lobes may be due to the complex circuitry associated with cognitive functions and life style. Several approaches have been proposed to determine factors related to increases in brain size, function and intelligence. Morphometry could be one tool to "explain" specific increases in brain areas

O OGUMOE, N. KC, J. KIMENJU, MW O. "Comparison of the efficiency of solar-powered prototype vapour compression cooler with evaporative charcoal cooler in maintaining quality of French beans ." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation,. 2021;2(Special issue).
Mutende R;, Akala W;, Imonje RK. "Connecting Theory and Practice: Pre-service Science Teachers’ Adoption and Implementation of the Demonstration Method." International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. 2021;20(5):189-210.
Ikua MD, Wambua BN, Omoke KJ. "Constraints and Opportunities for Greenhouse Farming Technology as an Adaptation Strategy to Climate Variability by Smallholder Farmers of Nyandarua County of Kenya." East Africa Journal of Science,Technology & Innovation. 2021;2(Special ). Abstract

Nyandarua County of Kenya has been for a long time, manifested itself as one of the major food baskets in the country. This is because of its high and sustainable output in crop farming i.e., maize, Irish potatoes, wheat, and other horticultural crops like vegetables and fruits. However, this scenario has recently changed because the usual high crop output has not been forthcoming due to recent changes in climatic patterns where rainfall has become very unreliable and temperatures very extreme. In an attempt to adapt to this climate variability and its associated negative impacts on crop farming, smallholder farmers have tried to apply the greenhouse farming technology for them to be able to maintain and or improve the various crop output amid the climatic changes. The study aims to examine and assess the socio-economic determinants and constraints associated with this attempt of adaptation strategy. Using the primary data of 300 respondents (Smallholder farmers) in the County, the study adopted a logistic regression analysis model to associate the demographic, socio-economic, and constraints encountered by the smallholder farmers with the adoption of the greenhouse farming technology. The study results indicate that this adaptation strategy was reported by 25 out the 300 smallholder farmers (5.83%). The study results further suggest that financial constraints (27%) and lack of information (22.3%) are the major constraints preventing smallholder farmers from effectively adopting this adaptation strategy. However, the probability results of logistic regression analysis (68%) indicate that if properly adopted, the method can provide a solution to the currently reduced food shortages and increase food security among the smallholder farmers of Nyandarua County of Kenya.

Ipara BO, Otieno DJ, Nyikal R, Makokha SN. "The contribution of extensive chicken production systems and practices to Newcastle disease outbreaks in Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2021;53(164).
Buyinza D, Derese S, Ndakala A, Heydenreich M, Yenesew A, Koch A, Oriko R. "A coumestan and a coumaronochromone from Millettia lasiantha." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2021;97:104277. AbstractView Website

Description
The manuscript describes the phytochemical investigation of the roots, leaves and stem bark of Millettia lasiantha resulting in the isolation of twelve compounds including two new isomeric isoflavones lascoumestan and lascoumaronochromone. The structures of the new compounds were determined using different spectroscopic techniques.

Ong’ech D, Olago D, Simeon D, Opondo M, Ouma G. "COVID-19 Impacts on Water Burden among Households in Turkana." Kenya Policy Briefs. 2021;2(1):57-58.
Omosa LK, Mbogo GM, Korir E, Omole R, Ean-JeongSeo, Yenesew A, Heydenreich M, Midiwo JO, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of fagaramide derivative and canthin-6-one from Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) species against multidrug resistant leukemia cells." Natural product research. 2021;35(4):579-586. AbstractView Website

Description
In our continuous search for cytotoxic compounds from the genus Zanthoxylum, chromatographic separation of the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of Z. chalybeum yielded one new alkamide; 4-(isoprenyloxy)-3-methoxy-3,4-deoxymethylenedioxyfagaramide (1) and a known one; fagaramide (2). Similarly, from the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of the stem bark of Z. parachanthum four known compounds; canthin-6-one (3), dihydrochelerythrine (4), lupeol (5) and sesamin (6) were isolated. Characterization of the structures of these compounds was achieved using spectroscopic techniques (NMR and MS). Using resazurin reduction assay 1, 3 and 6 displayed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values below 50 μM against the drug sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cell lines. It is interesting to note that 3 was more active than the standard drug, doxorubicin against CEM/ADR5000 leukemia …

Derese S. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones from Millettia dura." Natural Product Research. 2021;35(16):2744-2747.
Muasya, Juliet N. "Decolonizing Religious Education to Enhance Sustainable Development in Africa: Evidence from Literature." East African Journal of Educational Studies. 2021;3(1):77-86.
Onyango G, Ondiek JO. "Digitalization and Integration of Sustainable Development Goals (SGDs) in Public Organizations in Kenya.". 2021. Abstract

This study mapped the role of ICT, digital platforms, the internet connectivity and skills of the personnel vis-à-vis implementation processes of SDGs in public organizations in Kenya. Findings show cross-cutting institutionalization and internalization deficits as a result of limited mastery of ICT skills and training of the personnel, insufficient ICT platforms, mainly, computers, poor internet connectivity and poor investment in digital platforms by the government institutions. An organizational culture that predisposes institutions to change resistance also constrained integration of SDG goals in public organizations. The article concludes by providing critical policy recommendations for addressing these problems.

FW N, Ouyang K AA, J O'o, GW A, D Z. "Does Keloid Histology Influence Recurrence?" Am J Dermatol. doi. 2021;10(PMID: 33464754.). AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Keloids are fibroproliferative disorders characterized by high recurrence rates, with few factors known to influence the same. We conducted a study to determine whether keloid histology influences recurrence. This was a prospective longitudinal study to determine whether histopathological parameters of keloid influence recurrence. Patients with keloids managed by surgical excision were followed up at Kenyatta National Hospital between August 2018 and July 2020. The excised keloids were processed for histology using hematoxylin,/eosin, Masson, and trichrome stains. The slides were analyzed for inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, and capillary density using the hot spot technique and correlated to keloid recurrence. Postoperative follow-up was for a minimum of 1 year. A total of 90 patients with 104 keloids were recruited in the study. Overall keloid recurrence rate was 28.6%. There was a correlation between the absolute count of more than 50 per High power field of lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and macrophages with recurrence of the disease. The sensitivity and specificity for the above parameters were lymphocytes 48% and 81%, macrophages 57% and 83%, mast cells 32% and 33%, and fibroblasts 41% and 91%, respectively. There was no correlation between mast cells and vascularity status with recurrence. Routine histology should, therefore, be performed to determine these parameters. Close monitoring and second-line therapy should be considered for patients with elevated macrophages and/or lymphocytes so as to reduce the risk of recurrence.

Mwinami T, Junga JO, Oduma JA, Chesire D, Musina J, Kioko E, Ayiemba W, Harper DM. "EFFECT OF FOREST FRAGMENTATION ON AVIAN SPECIES COMPOSITION, DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION WITHIN AN UPLAND TROPICAL FOREST ECOSYSTEM:.". 2021.
Shiwani, D.I., Kalai, J.M., Gatumu JC, Akala WJ. "Effect of Head Teachers’ Acquisition of Teaching and Learning Resources on Implementation of Inclusive Education in Public Primary Schools in Nairobi City County. ." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice (JPAHAP). 2021;2(1):90-108.
Lengai GMW, Muthomi JW, Mbega ER. "Effect of plant extracts on important fungal pathogens and germination of tomato seed." International Journal of Biosciences (IJB). 2021;18(4):77-92.
Onyango SO, Abong GO, Okoth MW, Kilalo DC, Mwang’ombe AW. "Effect of Pre-treatment and Processing on Nutritional Composition of Cassava Roots, Millet, and Cowpea Leaves Flours." Nutrition and Sustainable Diets, a section of the journal Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems. 2021;5(625735):1-8.
Sura M, Osoti A, Gachuno O, Musoke R, Kagema F, Gwako G, Ondieki D, Ndavi PM, Ogutu O. "Effect of umbilical cord milking versus delayed cord clamping on preterm neonates in Kenya: A randomized controlled trial." PloS one. 2021;16(1):e0246109.
Mandeep S, Osoti A, Gachuno O, Musoke R, Kagema F, Gwako G, Ondieki D, Ndavi PM. "Effect of umbilical cord milking versus delayed cord clamping on preterm neonates in Kenya: A randomized controlled trial.". 2021.
JW G, J O’o, P G. "Endometriosis Diagnosis correlation of Laparoscopic visualization and histopathology confirmation in low Resource setting." Open J Obs Gyne. 2021;11(7):845-852. Abstractojog_2021071515313873.pdfWebsite

Abstract

Background: Endometriosis is enigmatic clinical entity which is described as the location of the endometrial tissue external of the uterine cavity. Endometriosis constitutes a serious health issue due to its high affliction of 10% of reproductive women. With limited resources in Africa, it is essential to assess whether diagnosis of endometriosis by laparoscopic visualization can be used as a substitute for histology. Objective: To correlate the diagnosis of endometriosis by laparoscopic visualization and the histological confirmation of the biopsy taken. Methods: A prospective cross sectional study with a sample size of 443 was undertaken in the diagnosis of endometriosis among Africans in Nairobi, Kenya from March 2019 to March 2021. Women undergoing laparoscopy were screened for endometriosis by visualization and a biopsy was taken for histopathology. Diagnosis of endometriosis by visualization was correlated with histological confirmed endometriosis. Results: Women with a diagnosis of endometriosis through laparoscopic visualization were found to be 77 (17.4%) and 30 (6.8%) had positive histology for endometriosis. Laparoscopic visualization diagnosis had a low positive predictive value of 39%. Conclusion: Laparoscopic visualization diagnosis had a low positive predictive value of 39% and this did not correlate with histopathologic diagnosis. It is essential to perform biopsy with histopathology for the confirmation of endometriosis.

S.I.Akaranga, Situma JW. "The Ethical dimensions of Entrepreneurial Practice in three traditions." East African Journal of Traditions, Culture and Religion. 2021;3(1):23-34.east_african_journal_of_traditions_culture_and_religion_vol_3_no_1__23_34.pdf
Mushori J, Charles Mallans Rambo, Wafula CM, Matu J. "Evaluating Contractors’ Safety Record and Its Influence on Performance of Road Infrastructural Projects." World Journal of Engineering and Technology. 2021;2021(9):203-228 .
A A Fabuyide, Cornish LA, Apata AO, Rading GO, Muobeni TN, Witcomb MJ, Jain PK, Borode JO. "Experimental Liquidus Surface Projection and Isothermal Section at 1000C of the V-Ni-C System, J of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion.". 2021.
Okello, J.J., Nzuma, M.J., Otieno DJ, Kidoido, M., Tanga, C.M. "Farmers’ Perceptions of Commercial Insect-Based Feed for Sustainable Livestock Production in Kenya." Sustainability. 2021;13:53-59.
NM M, GO O. "Fibromyalgia: Reviewing the epidemiology and gender-based differences in Africa." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2021;7(1):3-7. Abstractfibromyalgia.pdf

Abstract
Objectives: Fibromyalgia is a
complex disorder which presents with
chronic widespread musculoskeletal
pain, together with other symptoms
like fatigue, sleep disturbances and
cognitive disturbance. The cause remains
unclear but it is postulated that there
are abnormalities in neurohormonal
profile and central sensitization to pain
as the main mechanism. It is known to
occur more commonly in females than
males. This study set out to look at these
differences in terms of epidemiology and
gender differences.
Data source: We conducted online and
public library searches using the English
language.
Data extraction: We reviewed several
papers and research work focusing on
epidemiology and differences in gender
presentation. The period of the search was
between the years 1990 up to 2020.
Conclusion: Fibromyalgia is a commonly
occurring rheumatologic condition.
Gender differences exist with regard to
epidemiology, clinical presentation and
health seeking behaviors. Population
based studies would be of use to establish
the prevalence in Africa. More studies
would be necessary to explain the gender
differences noted in the many aspects
of the disease including response to
treatment.
Key words: Fibromyalgia, Fibromyalgia
in women, Gender differences and impact

NM M, GO O. "Fibromyalgia: Reviewing the epidemiology and gender-based differences in Africa." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2021;7(1):3-7. Abstractfibromyalgia.pdf

Objectives: Fibromyalgia is a
complex disorder which presents with
chronic widespread musculoskeletal
pain, together with other symptoms
like fatigue, sleep disturbances and
cognitive disturbance. The cause remains
unclear but it is postulated that there
are abnormalities in neurohormonal
profile and central sensitization to pain
as the main mechanism. It is known to
occur more commonly in females than
males. This study set out to look at these
differences in terms of epidemiology and
gender differences.
Data source: We conducted online and
public library searches using the English
language.
Data extraction: We reviewed several
papers and research work focusing on
epidemiology and differences in gender
presentation. The period of the search was
between the years 1990 up to 2020.
Conclusion: Fibromyalgia is a commonly
occurring rheumatologic condition.
Gender differences exist with regard to
epidemiology, clinical presentation and
health seeking behaviors. Population
based studies would be of use to establish
the prevalence in Africa. More studies
would be necessary to explain the gender
differences noted in the many aspects
of the disease including response to
treatment.
Key words: Fibromyalgia, Fibromyalgia
in women, Gender differences and impact
of fibromyalgia

Cheserek JJ, Ngugi K, Muthomi JW, Omondi CO, Ezekiel NK. "Green bean biochemical attributes of Arabusta coffee hybrids from Kenya using HPLC and soxhlet extraction methods." Australian Journal of Crop Science . 2021;15(2):201-208 .
S Gachau, E Njeru Njagi, N Owuor, P Mwaniki, M Quartagno, Sarguta R, English M, Ayieko P. "Handling missing data in a composite outcome with partially observed components: Simulation study based on clustered paediatric routine data." Journal of Applied Statistics. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Gachau, S; Njeru Njagi, E; Owuor, N; Mwaniki, P; Quartagno, M; Sarguta, R; English, M; Gachau, S; Njeru Njagi, E; Owuor, N; Mwaniki, P; Quartagno, M; Sarguta, R; English, M; Ayieko, P; - view fewer (2021) Handling missing data in a composite outcome with partially observed components: Simulation study based on clustered paediatric routine data. Journal of Applied Statistics (In press) … This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.

S Gachau, E Njeru Njagi, N Owuor, P Mwaniki, M Quartagno, Sarguta R, English M, Ayieko P. "Handling missing data in a composite outcome with partially observed components: Simulation study based on clustered paediatric routine data." Journal of Applied Statistics. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Gachau, S; Njeru Njagi, E; Owuor, N; Mwaniki, P; Quartagno, M; Sarguta, R; English, M; Gachau, S; Njeru Njagi, E; Owuor, N; Mwaniki, P; Quartagno, M; Sarguta, R; English, M; Ayieko, P; - view fewer (2021) Handling missing data in a composite outcome with partially observed components: Simulation study based on clustered paediatric routine data. Journal of Applied Statistics (In press) … This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.

S Gachau, E Njeru Njagi, N Owuor, P Mwaniki, M Quartagno, Sarguta R, English M, Ayieko P. "Handling missing data in a composite outcome with partially observed components: Simulation study based on clustered paediatric routine data." Journal of Applied Statistics. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Gachau, S; Njeru Njagi, E; Owuor, N; Mwaniki, P; Quartagno, M; Sarguta, R; English, M; Gachau, S; Njeru Njagi, E; Owuor, N; Mwaniki, P; Quartagno, M; Sarguta, R; English, M; Ayieko, P; - view fewer (2021) Handling missing data in a composite outcome with partially observed components: Simulation study based on clustered paediatric routine data. Journal of Applied Statistics (In press) … This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.

Otiang E, Thumbi SM, Campbell ZA, Njagi LW, Nyaga PN, Palmer GH. "Impact of routine Newcastle disease vaccination on chicken flock size in smallholder farms in western Kenya." PLoS. 2021;16(3).
Ali RT, Kunyanga CN, Ngugi K. "In-Vitro protein digestibility, physico-chemical properties and nutritional quality of sorghum-green gram cookies supplemented with mango powder." International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2021;5(39).
Nyamweya NN, Lumb PN, Mujyarugamba JC, Abuga KO. "Inactive Ingredients used in Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers marketed in the Nairobi Metropolitan Area." PJK. 2021;25(1):17-20. Abstract

Background: Alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHS) have become widely used products since the advent of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus based COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to ethanol or isopropanol (the active ingredients of ABHS) and water, these products are formulated with a number of ingredients to optimize delivery, efficacy and safety as well as to provide consumer appeal. Despite the widespread use of ABHS, there is very limited information in the literature on the non-alcohol ingredients used in these products.
Objectives: The aim of this work was to determine the inactive ingredients used in ABHS marketed in metropolitan Nairobi.
Methodology: ABHS products were randomly obtained from several locations at retail outlets within the Nairobi metropolitan region. The ingredients used in each ABHS were obtained from the product labels.
Results: The most common inactive ingredients based on percentage frequency of listing on product labels were glycerin (50%), fragrances (36%), carbomer (26%), triethanolamine (18%) and propylene glycol (17%). It was observed that some products incorporated additional antimicrobial agents and preservatives in the formulation. The fragrances and some of the preservatives used in the ABHS products are potential allergens. Incomplete or inadequate ingredient naming was noted for several products.
Conclusions: There is a need for ABHS manufacturers to fully disclose all raw materials used in ABHS products using standardized ingredient nomenclature. ABHS users need to be aware of potential allergens present in respective marketed products.

Li WM, Li Z, Luvembe AMO, Yang C. "Influence maximization algorithm based on Gaussian propagation model." Information Sciences. 2021;568:Pages 386-402. AbstractScience Direct

The influence of each entity in a network is a crucial index of the network information dissemination. Greedy influence maximization algorithms suffer from time efficiency and scalability issues. In contrast, heuristic influence maximization algorithms improve efficiency, but they cannot guarantee accurate results. Considering this, this paper proposes a Gaussian propagation model based on the social networks. Multi-dimensional space modeling is constructed by offset, motif, and degree dimensions for propagation simulation. This space’s circumstances are controlled by some influence diffusion parameters. An influence maximization algorithm is proposed under this model, and this paper uses an improved CELF algorithm to accelerate the influence maximization algorithm. Further, the paper evaluates the effectiveness of the influence maximization algorithm based on the Gaussian propagation model supported by theoretical proofs. Extensive experiments are conducted to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of a series of influence maximization algorithms. The results of the experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm shows significant improvement in both effectiveness and efficiency.

Wangai MM, Inyega JO, Mugambi M, Kalai JM. "INFLUENCE OF ISO 9001 STANDARDS ON QUALITY OF ACADEMIC PROGRAMMES IN UNIVERSITIES IN KENYA: A CASE OF BACHELOR OF EDUCATION PROGRAMME OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice. 2021;2(2):34-48.
Musyoki, J.M., Kalai JM, Okoth UA, Okumbe JA. "Influence of Principals’ Inspirational motivation on Students‟ Performance at Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education in Public Secondary Schools, Kenya." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice (JPAHAP) . 2021;2(1):109-132.
Wangai MM, Inyega J, Mugambi M, Kalai J. "Influence of Total Quality Management and Knowledge Management on Quality of University Academic Programmes: A Literature Review." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice. 2021;2(1):1-14.
Wangai, M.M., Inyega, H. N., Mugambi MM, Kalai JM. "Influence of Total Quality Management and Knowledge Management on Quality of University Academic Programmes: A Literature Review." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice (JPAHAP). 2021;2(1):1-14.
Kamau SJ, Rambo CM, Mbugua JM. "Influences of Community Participation on School Infrastructure Policy Implementation and Performance of Construction Projects. ." Open Journal of Social Sciences. 2021;2021(9):173-187.
Karamshetty V, DeVries H, Wassenhove LVN, Dewilde S, Minnaard W, Ongarora D, Abuga K, Yadav P. "Inventory Management Practices in Private Healthcare Facilities in Nairobi County." Prod. Oper. Manag.. 2021. Abstract

Universal health coverage (UHC) is an integral part of the United Nations sustainable development goals. The private sector plays a prominent role in achieving UHC, being the primary source of essential medicines for many people. However, many private healthcare facilities in low‐ and middle‐income countries (LMICs) have insu_cient stocks of essential medicines. At the same time, these same facilities carry excessive quantities of certain drugs, leading to obsolescence. This suggests poor inventory control. To propose potential remedies it is vital to fully understand the underlying causes. In semi‐structured interviews with managers of private healthcare facilities in Nairobi, we asked them about their 1) inventory control systems, 2) inventory control skills, 3) time/human resource constraints, 4) budget constraints, 5) motivations for inventory control, and 6) suppliers. Our results suggest that the problems are driven by resource limitations (budget and time/human resources), managerial issues (relating to skills and systems), and market mechanisms that limit overage and underage costs. Unavailability at the supplier level and motivations for inventory control are relatively minor issues. We posit that the key causes are interlinked and stem from wider issues in the market and regulatory environment. Our results challenge prevalent beliefs about medicine supply chains in LMICs and lead to alternative hypotheses. Testing these hypotheses could improve our understanding of inventory management in private healthcare facilities and aid progress in achieving UHC.

Moturi CA, Kosgei AK. "Is Kenya ready to Leverage Blockchain Technology in Horticulture Traceability?" Kenya Policy Briefs. 2021;2(1):59-60.
Ongeri BO. "Issues of Public Debt Management in countries-A Kenyan experience." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology . 2021;8(2).
Gatere AW. "The Language of Love." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2021;1(1):33-35.the_language_of_love.pdf
I C, P S, B N, M M, JA O’o. "Laparoscopic surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic: detection of SARS-COV-2 in abdominal tissues, fluids, and surgical smoke." Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2021;406(4):1007-1014. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Background: There are still concerns over the safety of laparoscopic surgery in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients due to the potential risk of viral transmission through surgical smoke/laparoscopic pneumoperitoneum.

Methods: We performed a systematic review of currently available literature to determine the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) in abdominal tissues or fluids and in surgical smoke.

Results: A total of 19 studies (15 case reports and 4 case series) comprising 29 COVID-19 patients were included. The viral RNA was positively identified in 11 patients (37.9%). The samples that tested positive include the peritoneal fluid, bile, ascitic fluid, peritoneal dialysate, duodenal wall, and appendix. Similar samples, together with the omentum and abdominal subcutaneous fat, tested negative in the other patients. Only one study investigated SARS-COV-2 RNA in surgical smoke generated during laparoscopy, reporting negative findings.

Conclusions: There are conflicting results regarding the presence of SARS-COV-2 in abdominal tissues and fluids. No currently available evidence supports the hypothesis that SARS-COV-2 can be aerosolized and transmitted through surgical smoke. Larger studies are urgently needed to corroborate these findings.

"Learning to Positively Manage your Relationship with your Spouse." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2021;1(2):40-43.
Moturi C, Karuga E, Orwa D. "Leveraging Big Data Analytics." International Journal of Big Data Management. 2021;DOI: 10.1504/IJBDM.2021.10036720. AbstractWebsite

This paper sought to study the extent to which telecoms within Kenya have adopted Big Data analytics to gain richer and deeper insights into their business dynamics in order to facilitate evidence decision making. A descriptive research design was employed and data was collected from ten leading telecoms using semi-structured questionnaires. The study found that Big Data could stimulate the economic growth, advance the productivity and competitiveness of the telecoms, as well as generate enormous benefits for customers. The factors with the highest significant effect on the adoption of Big Data analytics were identified. The practical implication of this paper is an increased understanding on what elements can promote Big Data adoption by large telecom companies. The study is beneficial to telecoms companies and any other organisations that would be looking at adopting data driven decision making to sustain competitiveness within the present uncertain setting.

Mulei, I., Mbuthia, P.G., Waruiru, R.M., Nyaga, P. N., Mutoloki, Evensen. "Management practices, farmers’ knowledge of diseased fish and their occurrence in fish farms in Nyeri County, Kenya." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2021.
Ong’ang’a MA, Indangasi H, Kitata M. "Manipulation of Narrative Paradigm in Ngugi wa Thiong’o’s Wrestling with the Devil." Hybrid Journal of Literary and Cultural Studies. . 2021;3(1).
Rahman M, Ahmed R, Moitra M, Damschroder L, Brownson R, Chorpita B, Idele P, Gohar F, Huang KY, Saxena S, Lai J, Peterson SS, Harper G, McKay M, Amugune B, Esho T, Ronen K, Othieno C, Kumar M. "Mental Distress and Human RightsViolations During COVID-19: A RapidReview of the Evidence InformingRights, Mental Health Needs, andPublic Policy Around VulnerablePopulations." Front. Psychiatry . 2021;11:603875.
Irene Wakio Mwakesi, Wahome RG, Ichang’i DW. "Mining Impacts on Society: A Case Study of Taita Taveta County, Kenya." Journal of Environmental Protection. 2021;11(11):986-997.
Irene Wakio Mwakesi, Wahome RG, Ichang’i DW. "Mining Impacts on Society: A Case Study of Taita Taveta County, Kenya." Journal of Environmental Protection. 2021;11(11):986-997.
Makau CM, Towett PK, Abelson KSP, Kanui TI. "Modulation of nociception by amitriptyline hydrochloride in the Speke’s hinge‐back tortoise (Kiniskys spekii)." Veterinary Medicine and Science. 2021;early view. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Background: There are limited studies on the utilization of analgesics in testudines.
Management of pain in reptiles is by use of analgesics generally used in other vertebrate species. Evidently, some analgesics considered to be generally effective in
reptiles are not effective in certain reptile species.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of amitriptyline hydrochloride on nociceptive behaviour in Speke's hinge-back tortoise.
Methods: Twenty-four adult Speke-hinged tortoises weighing 500–700 g were used.
The effects of amitriptyline hydrochloride on nociception were evaluated using the
formalin, capsaicin and hot plate nociceptive tests. Amitriptyline was administered
intracoelomically at doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg.
Results: The higher doses of amitriptyline hydrochloride caused an increase in nociceptive behaviour (time spent in hindlimb withdrawal) on the formalin and capsaicin
nociceptive tests, suggesting a potentiating effect. However, the doses used had no
significant change in nociceptive behaviour on withdrawal response in the hot plate
test.
Conclusions: The study showed that amitriptyline hydrochloride which is widely used
in management of neuropathic pain potentiates nociceptive effects in the formalin
and capsaicin nociceptive tests in the Speke's hinge-back tortoise. The hot plate test,
which previously has not been reported in these animals, gave results not in line
with the other tests and therefore more testing and validation of the test is required.
Amitriptyline modulates chemical and thermal pain differently

"Mr Hassler: The Hassle and Pain of being a Male Bachelor." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2021;1(1):36-41.
FW N, K O, A A, J O, GW A. "Multiple Cytokines Elevated in Patients with Keloids: Is It an Indication of Auto-Inflammatory Disease?" J. Inflam Res. 2021;14(7):2465-2470. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Background: Inflammation seems to play a major role in the pathophysiology of keloids. However, the role of cytokines in keloid pathophysiology has not been fully evaluated with only a few cytokines studied. We undertook this study to compare various cytokines in patients with keloids and a control group of patients without keloids nor family history of keloids so as to determine which cytokines are elevated and could thus be critical in keloid formation.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of patients with keloids and a control group of those without. Patients in both groups were matched for age, sex and body mass index. Their plasma was analyzed for both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines using the Bio-flex ElisaTM method. Comparisons of cytokines means in both groups were done using Student's t-test.

Results: A total of 84 participants with 42 participants in each group were followed during the study. Male to female ratio was 1:2. Age ranges were similar with a mean of 29.6 years. A total of 28 cytokines were assayed. Statistically significant differences were noted in 15 of the 28 cytokines assayed with 11 being elevated more in keloid patients with only four in the non-keloid forming group. Among elevated cytokines in keloid patients were granulocyte colony-stimulating factors, granulocyte-monocyte-colony-stimulating factors, interleukins 4, 6 and 13.

Conclusion: Patients with keloids have significantly higher cytokines compared with non-keloid forming patients. This finding suggests that keloid formation could be influenced by multiple inflammatory cytokines, an indication that the patient's immune system could play a role in keloid formation akin to auto-inflammatory disease.

Ochora DO, Kakudidi E, Namukobe J, Heydenreich M, Coghi P, Yang LJ, Mwakio EW, Andagalu B, Roth A, Akala HM, Wong VKW, Yenesew A. "A new benzophenone, and the antiplasmodial activities of the constituents of Securidaca longipedunculata fresen (Polygalaceae)." Natural Product Research. 2021:1-9. AbstractView Website

Description
Extracts from Securidaca longipedunculata showed antiplasmodial activities against reference clones and clinical isolates using SYBR Green I method. A new benzophenone, 2,3,4,5-tetramethoxybenzophenone (1) was isolated and characterized along with seven known compounds: 4-hydroxy-2,3-dimethoxybenzophenone (2); 3-hydroxy-5-methoxybiphenyl (3), methyl-2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoate (4), benzyl-2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoate (5), 2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoic acid (6), 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzophenone (7) and 2-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxybenzophenone (8). Compounds 1 and 2 showed ex vivo antiplasmodial activities (IC50 28.8 μM and 18.6 μM, respectively); while 5 and 8 showed in vivo activities (IC50 19.7 μM and 14.5 μM, respectively) against D6 strain. In a cytotoxicity assay, all the extracts (with an exception of the MeOH extract of the leaves) and pure compounds were not toxic to the …

Osoro EM, Wandiga SO, Madadi VO, Abong’o DA. "Occurrence and Distribution of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Sediments from Nairobi River Basin, Kenya, East Africa." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2021;8(1):274-286. Print ISSN: 2395-1990 | Online ISSN : 2394-4099. doi : https://doi.org/10.32628/IJSRSET218148.
Odote C, Hassan R, Mbarak H. "Over promising while Under Delivering: Implementation of Kenya’s Community Land Act." AJLP &GS. 2021;Vol 4 (2):292-307.
FZ Chagpar, Pokhariyal GP, Moindi SK. "P1-Curvature tensor in the space time of general relativity." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2021;6(1):148-152. AbstractWebsite

The P1 - curvature tensor defined from W3 - curvature tensor has been studied in the spacetime of general
relativity. The Bianchi like differential identity is satisfied by P1 - tensor if and only if the Ricci tensor is
of Codazzi type. It is shown that Einstein like field equations can be expressed with the help of the
contracted part of P1 - tensor, which is conserved if the energy momentum tensor is Codazzi type.
Considering P1 -flat space time satisfying Einstein’s field equations with cosmological term, the
existence of Killing vector field ξ is shown if and only if the Lie derivative of the energy-momentum
tensor vanishes with respect to ξ, as well as admitting a conformal Killing vector field is established if
and only if the energy-momentum tensor has the symmetry inheritance property. Finally for a P1 - flat
perfect fluid spacetime satisfying Einstein’s equations with cosmological term, some results are obtained

FZ Chagpar, Pokhariyal GP, Moindi SK. "P1-Curvature tensor in the space time of general relativity." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2021;6(1):148-152. AbstractWebsite

The P1 - curvature tensor defined from W3 - curvature tensor has been studied in the spacetime of general
relativity. The Bianchi like differential identity is satisfied by P1 - tensor if and only if the Ricci tensor is
of Codazzi type. It is shown that Einstein like field equations can be expressed with the help of the
contracted part of P1 - tensor, which is conserved if the energy momentum tensor is Codazzi type.
Considering P1 -flat space time satisfying Einstein’s field equations with cosmological term, the
existence of Killing vector field ξ is shown if and only if the Lie derivative of the energy-momentum
tensor vanishes with respect to ξ, as well as admitting a conformal Killing vector field is established if
and only if the energy-momentum tensor has the symmetry inheritance property. Finally for a P1 - flat
perfect fluid spacetime satisfying Einstein’s equations with cosmological term, some results are obtained

JW G, J O’o, P G. "Pattern and Clinical Presentation of Endometriosis Among the Indigenous Africans." J Gynecol Obstet . 2021;9(9):92-99. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Background: Endometriosis is enigmatic clinical entity which is described as the existence of the endometrial tissue external of the uterine cavity. Endometriosis constitutes a serious health issue due to its high affliction of 10% in reproductive age women and its clinical manifestation of infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Despite of years of research, the causative factor and understanding of ambidextrous endometriosis pathology remains elusive, perplex and disconnected. Worldwide, there is clear documentation of prevalence of endometriosis in the development countries, however, the prevalence of endometriosis in most of black Africa is unknown. The current perspective is that indigenous African are rarely affected by endometriosis. Objective: To determine the prevalence, pattern and clinical presentation of endometriosis in indigenous African women with the primary outcome measure being the prevalence of laparoscopic visually diagnosed, histologically confirmed endometriosis and clinical presentation. Methodology: This was a prospective analytical cross-selection study in 2 hospitals in Nairobi city, Kenya. The sample size was 443 women and the duration of the study was from March 2018 to March 2021. The inclusion criteria was women aged at least 18 years up to 49 years undergoing laparoscopic surgery and willing to take part in the study. The patient’s history, clinical and laparoscopic findings and histological diagnosis were recorded and analysed using Social SPSS version 22.0. Results: The mean age of the 443 patients recruited was 33 years. The prevalence of histological confirmed endometriosis in indigenous Africans was 6.8%. Laparoscopic visualization diagnosis had a positive predictive value of 39%. Dysmenorrhoea, chronic pelvic pain scale 8-10 and dyspareunia were significant symptoms of endometriosis P<0.001. Nulliparous patients significantly had a risk of having endometriosis p<0.001. The patients with menarche at 13 years and below had a significant risk of having endometriosis p=0.001. Physical findings on clinical examination of adnexal tenderness and findings of nodules in the pouch of Douglas were significant in relation to endometriosis p<0.001. The most common site of the histological endometriosis implants were on the Pouch of Douglas (30%) and the most common form of endometriosis was superficial (43%). Conclusion: The prevalence of endometriosis in Indigenous Africa is 6.8%. Laparoscopic visualization diagnosis had low a positive predictive value of 39%. Nulliparity, menarche at the age of 13 and below, dysmenorrhoea, chronic pelvic pain scale 8-10 and dyspareunia were significantly associated with endometriosis. The most common site for endometriosis is the of Pouch of Douglas whilst the most common form of endometriosis was superficial.

Karuma AN, JW N, PT G. "Pedology, A disappearing skill in Eastern Africa? A Review." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2021;24(2):65.
Kamau SJ, Rambo CM, Mbugua JM. "Perception of Head Teachers and District Education Officers (DEOs) on School Infrastructure Policy Governance in Somaliland." Universal Journal of Management . 2021;9(1):20-27.
Simon Patrick Baenyi, Junga JO, et.al. "Phenotypic traits,reproductive and milk performance of indigenous goats of south Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo." Journal of Dairy, Veterinary and Animal Research. 2021;(Submitted).
Inyega JO, Arshad-Ayaz A, Naseem MA, Mahaya EW, Elsayed D. "Post-independence basic education in Kenya: an historical analysis of curriculum reforms." FIRE: Forum for International Research in Education. 2021;7(1):1-24.
Mwaura MN, Mukoya-Wangia S, Origa JO, Mbatia OLE, Chimoita EL. "Potential for Sustainable Urban and Peri-Urban Agricultural Practices in Nairobi County." Journal of Agricultural Extension. 2021;25(1):Nairobi Cou https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jae.v25i1.4.potential_for_sustainable_urban_and_peri-urban_agricultural_practices_in_nairobi_county.pdf
Mutende R, Imonje RK, Akala W;. "Pre-service Science Teachers’ Integration of Constructivist Ideas in the Lecture Method." ; International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research . 2021;20(6):277-298.
M.Cecilia O, Justine NM, Johanna W, Mats S, Piikki K. "Precision Agriculture for Resource Use Efficiency in Smallholder Farming Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review." Sustainability Journal. 2021;13:1158.
M.Justine N, Cecilia OM, Johanna W, Mats S. "Precision agriculture research in sub‐Saharan Africa countries: a systematic map." Precision Agriculture Journal. 2021.
Livoi A, Mwang’ombe AW, E.Nyaboga, Kilalo D, Obutho E. "Prevalence and Distribution of Cassava Bacterial Blight in the Kenyan Coast." Agricultural Science. 2021;3(1):7-14.
Livoi A, Mwang’ombe AW, E.Nyaboga, Kilalo D, Obutho E. "Prevalence and Distribution of Cassava Bacterial Blight in the Kenyan Coast." Agricultural Science. 2021;3(1):7-14.
Muyodi MM, Oyoo GO, KAYIMA JK, Bhatt KM. "PREVALENCE OF AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE IN OSTEOARTHRITIS PATIENTS AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL." EAOJ. 2021;14(2):72-80. Abstract

Background: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a global health problem with an increase in prevalence especially
in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It has a high morbidity and mortality. CKD and osteoarthritis (OA) are related as
they both increase with age and are associated with comorbidities e.g. hypertension, obesity etc. However,
there is limited evidence on the prevalence and associated risk factors of CKD among OA patients.
Objective: To assess the prevalence and factors associated with CKD in OA patients attending Rheumatology
and Orthopaedic clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: A hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study.
Methods: The study was conducted between November 2019 and January 2020 involving patients aged 18
years and above; being followed up in the rheumatology and orthopaedic clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital
with a diagnosis of knee, hip, spine and hand osteoarthritis based on the American College of Rheumatology
criteria. Chronic kidney disease was defined as an eGFR of less than or equal to 60 ml/min/1.73m2 and/or
proteinuria of 30 mg/dl detected on urinary dipstick for three months or more. Descriptive statistics were
used to describe the participants. Association between participants’ characteristics and CKD prevalence were
assessed using chi-square and factors associated with CKD among OA patients using bivariate and multivariable
logistic regressions.
Results: The overall prevalence of CKD among patients with osteoarthritis was 61.9% (56.4–66.3) as per eGFR
using Cockrauft Gault (CG). Most were in CKD stage 3 at 59.2% with 45.5% in G3a and 13.7% in G3b. One point
one percent were in stage 1, 38.3% in stage 2 and 1.4% were in CKD stage 4 and 5. Only 12.1% of the respondents
had persistent proteinuria and thus most of the patients had low and moderate risk for CKD progression at
38% and 38.2% respectively. Only 12.1% and 11.6% had high and very high risk for CKD progression. The CKD
prevalence increased with age, being highest among older adults (65+ years). The prevalence was higher
among men than women (65.9%, 95% CI: 54.7–75.5 vs. 60.2%, 95% CI: 54.4–65.7). The factors associated with
CKD in OA were old age, hypertension and poor and fair self-rated health which increased the odds of CKD
while moderate physical activity

S A, GO O, E A, J K. "Profiles of vitamin D among patients with rheumatoid arthritis at the Kenyatta National Hospital." Af r ic a n J o u r n a l o f R h e u mat o l o g y. 2021;9(1):23-27. Abstractprofiles_of_vitamin_d_among_patients_with_ra_at_knh.pdf

Background: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
is an autoimmune, chronic debilitating
condition of undetermined cause. It
affects numerous extra- articular organ
systems. Vitamin D is a steroid hormone
synthesized in the skin by the action of
ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. Active
vitamin D is important in the inhibition
of T cell proliferation and downregulation
of key inflammatory cytokines
responsible for the pathogenesis of RA.
There is growing evidence demonstrating
the association between vitamin D
insufficiency and higher incidence of RA
as well as increased severity of disease
and increased functional disability in RA
patients.
Objective: The purpose of this study
was to determine serum vitamin D levels
among patients with rheumatoid arthritis
at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH)
and its association with disease activity
and functional disability.
Design: This was a descriptive crosssectional
survey.
Methods: The study involved subjects
with RA at the Kenyatta National Hospital.
Consecutive sampling technique to
recruit patients with rheumatoid arthritis,
having met the 2010 American College
of Rheumatology/ European League
Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR)
classification criteria was selected. Ten
mls of peripheral blood was collected
from the recruited subjects to determine
serum vitamin D levels. Every participant
had their demographics, clinical history
and disease duration documented. Clinical
Disease Activity Index (CDAI) was used
to assess disease activity and severity. It
comprised of number of tender joint out
of 28 joints (T-28), number of swollen
joints out of 28 (S-28) global health
assessment score by both the physician
and the patient. level of disability was
determined by the standard Modified
Health Assessment Questionnaire
(MHAQ). Data analyzed was correlated
to determine their association with serum
vitamin D levels. SPSS version 21 was
used to analyze the data collected and this
entailed descriptive statistics, chi-square,
ANOVA and students’-test to compare
and correlate vitamin D levels with age,
duration of disease, CDAI score and
modified HAQ score in RA.
Results: Eighty one patients with a mean
age of 48.7 (SD 13.9), median of 48.0
(IQR 40.0-59.0) were evaluated. The
female to male ratio was 4:1. The mean
serum 25-VD concentration was 34.9ng/
ml (SD11.6). Thirty five participants
(43.2%) had insufficient vitamin D levels
(<30ng/ml), whereas 46 study participants
(56.8%) had sufficiency of vitamin D.
Majority of the patients 54 (67.5%) had
low disease activity. Fourteen subjects
17.5% had high disease activity and while
2.5% were on remission. Functional
disability was assessed using the modified
health assessment questionnaire. Thirty
eight participants (46.5%) demonstrated
no disability, 33.8% had mild disability
while 9% had severe disability.
Correlation between vitamin levels with
age, duration of disease, CDAI and HAQ
did not attain statistical significance.
Conclusion: Vitamin D insufficiency is
high among patients with rheumatoid
arthritis with no correlation with age,
duration of disease, functional disability
and disease activity.
Key words: Rheumatoid arthritis,
Vitamin D, Disease activity, Functional
disability, Cytokines
Introduction

S1 A, GO O, E3 A, J4 K. "Profiles of vitamin D among patients with rheumatoid arthritis at the Kenyatta National Hospital." Department of Clinical Medicine and Therapeutics, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi,. 2021;1(1):23-27.
Akah NP, Kunyanga CN, Okoth MW, Njue1 LG. "Pulse Production, Consumption and Utilization in Nigeria within Regional and Global Context." Sustainable Agriculture Research. 2021;10(2).60b6dcf18a312.pdf
Abuga K, Nyamweya N, King’ondu O. "Quality of alcohol-based hand sanitizers marketed in the Nairobi metropolitan area." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2021;24(1):29-37. Abstract

The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has propelled the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers to the fore as a SARS-CoV-2 control measure. To be effective these products must comply with relevant quality parameters such as alcohol concentration, methanol limits and purity. The current study was designed to determine the quality of alcohol-based hand sanitizer products in the Nairobi metropolitan area. For this purpose, 74 commercially marketed samples were collected and subjected to analysis by gas chromatography. Only three samples (4.1%) complied with the regulatory specifications for alcohol content, methanol limits and pH. Five samples (6.8%) complied with the specification for alcohol content but did not meet methanol or pH limits. A total of 44 (59.5%) samples had methanol levels that exceeded threshold limits. Eleven samples (14.9%) were found with methanol substitution (i.e., methanol, instead of ethanol or isopropanol, was the main alcohol component). The results show that users of alcohol-based hand sanitizers are being exposed to substandard and falsified products which in addition to being non-efficacious pose harm due to unacceptable levels of toxic impurities. Regular, routine post-market surveillance is needed to prevent such products from reaching the market.

Harmsen H, Wang’ondu VW, Mbau JS, Muthama NJ. "Randomized hotspot strategy is effective in countering bushmeat poaching by snaring." Biological Conservation. 2021;253.
Harmsen H, Wangondu V, Mbau JS, J M, J M. "Randomized hotspot strategy is effective in countering bushmeat poaching by snaring." Biological conservation. 2021;253(108909).
Kitata M. "Re-narrating the Eastern Africa Coast through music on YouTube: Vitali Maembe’s Little Town Bagamoyo." African Identities. 2021:1-16. Abstract

The Eastern Africa coast has been a complex contact theatre between overseas peoples and the local population. These interconnections have over time produced mixed identities and cultural adaptation processes, expression, and transmission which are foundations of present-day Eastern Africa histories. The musician – historian’s account reflects the coastal identities as not simply painful and isolated historical creations upon a place, but also a part of global processes of cultural productions and affirmation. Through YouTube video, the coastal musician retells the coast’s history thereby preserving memory and lessons leant. The creative artist unveils the history – in an effort to gain inspiration from a cultural and commercial identity formation process. This paper, through Vitali Maembe’s YouTube music video, Little Town Bagamoyo, seeks to highlight the narrative that music exposes in retelling East African coast

Olufemi Adelowo, Girish M. Mody, Mohammed Tikly, Omondi Oyoo, Samy Slimani. "Rheumatic diseases in Africa." Nature reviews. 2021;s41584(021):00603-4. Abstract

Abstract | Historically, rheumatic diseases have not received much attention in Africa, particularly
in sub- Saharan Africa, possibly owing to a focus on the overwhelming incidence of infectious
diseases and the decreased life span of the general population in this region. Global attention
and support, together with better health policies and planning, have improved outcomes for
many infectious diseases; thus, increasing attention is being turned to chronic non- communicable
diseases. Rheumatic diseases were previously considered to be rare among Africans but there is
now a growing interest in these conditions, particularly as the number of rheumatologists on the
continent increases. This interest has resulted in a growing number of publications from Africa
on the more commonly encountered rheumatic diseases, as well as case reports of rare diseases.
Despite the limited amount of available data, some aspects of the epidemiology, genetics and
clinical and laboratory features of rheumatic diseases in African populations are known, as is some
detail on the use of therapeutics. Similarities and differences in these conditions can be seen
across the multi- ethnic and genetically diverse African continent, and it is hoped that increased
awareness of rheumatic diseases in Africa will lead to earlier diagnosis and better outcomes
for patients.

Adelowo O, Mody GM, Tikly M, Oyoo O, Slimani S. "Rheumatic diseases in Africa." Af r ic a n J o u r n a l o f R h e u mat o l o g y. 2021;7(1):1-6. Abstracts41584-021-00603-4_1_2.pdf

Abstract
|
Historically, rheumatic diseases have not received much attention in Africa, particularly
in sub- Saharan Africa, possibly owing to a focus on the overwhelming incidence of infectious
diseases and the decreased life span of the general population in this region. Global attention
and support, together with better health policies and planning, have improved outcomes for
many infectious diseases; thus, increasing attention is being turned to chronic non- communicable
diseases. Rheumatic diseases were previously considered to be rare among Africans but there is
now a growing interest in these conditions, particularly as the number of rheumatologists on the
continent increases. This interest has resulted in a growing number of publications from Africa
on the more commonly encountered rheumatic diseases, as well as case reports of rare diseases.
Despite the limited amount of available data, some aspects of the epidemiology, genetics and
clinical and laboratory features of rheumatic diseases in African populations are known, as is some
detail on the use of therapeutics. Similarities and differences in these conditions can be seen
across the multi- ethnic and genetically diverse African continent, and it is hoped that increased
awareness of rheumatic diseases in Africa will lead to earlier diagnosis and better outcomes
for patients.

Kibet S, Nyangito, Moses M, MacOpiyo L, Kenfack D. "Savanna woody plants responses to mammalian herbivory and implications for management of livestock–wildlife landscape." Ecological Solutions and Evidence. 2021;2(3):e12083.
S.I.Akaranga, T.K.Musili, J.M.Karicha. "Secularization of Marriage Ritual Among the Ameru in Kenya." East African Journal of Traditions, Culture and Religion. 2021;3(2):52-59.
Aura C, Okronipa H, Olela P, Mojica L, Forella K, Otuo P, Bageant E, Obuya J, Onyango H, Ochieng J. "Small-scale fishing households facing COVID-19: The case of Lake Victoria, Kenya.". 2021.
Wairire G, Okemwa P, Akinyi M. "Society and Successful Transition: Female Genital Mutilation." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2021;1(1):19-24.
Ochukut SA, Oboko RO. "Strategies for Managing Cognitive Load and Enhancing Motivation in E-Learning." igi-global.com. 2021:17. Abstract

Cognitive load and motivation are two factors that have been established as mediators of learning. It has been established that learners who experience low cognitive loads and are highly motivated to succeed in learning. Since e-learning is becoming a very popular means of delivering learning, there needs to be established strategies to ensure that learners learn. This study sought to look at the various means that have been used in e-learning studies to manage cognitive load and enhance motivation through the analysis of literature. Use of metaphorical interfaces, hypertext, sequencing, and fading of learning content, use of transient information, and adaptation of the problem-solving support were the strategies that have been used in e-learning studies to manage cognitive load. Motivation has been enhanced through the use of motivational messages and adaptive navigational support and pedagogical agents.

SO Pambo, Moindi SK, Nzimbi BM. "A study of eta-Ricci soliton on W_5-semi symmetric LP sasakian manifolfds." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2021;5(5):25-29. AbstractWebsite

In this paper, we study ƞ-Ricci solitons on Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold satisfying
R(ξ,X)•W_5(Y,Z)U=0 and W_5(ξ,X)•R(Y,Z)U=0 conditions.
We prove that on a Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold (M,ξ,ƞ,g), the Ricci curvature tensor satisfying
any one of the given conditions, the existence of ƞ-Ricci soliton then implies that (M,g) is Einstein
manifold. We also conclude that in these cases, there is no Ricci soliton on M, with the potential vector
field ξ (the killing vector)

Joseph SK, Ralwala AO. "Sustainable construction assessment: A Kenyan interior design market segment perspective." Africa Habitat Review. 2021;15(1).
"Temporal Variations in Rainfall and Temperature and their Effects on the River Discharge in the Mara River Basin." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation,. 2021;2(1).
Akintayo RO, Akpabio AA, Kalla AA, Dey D, Migowa AN, Olaosebikan H, Bahiri R, Miedany YE, Hadef D, Oyoo O. "TheimpactofCOVID-19onrheumatologypractice acrossAfrica." Af r ic a n J o u r n a l o f R h e u mat o l o g y. 2021;9(1):1-6. Abstractthe_impact_of_covid-19_on_rheumatology_practice.pdf

Objectives. To identify the changes in rheumatology service delivery across the five regions of Africa from the
impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods. The COVID-19 African Rheumatology Study Group created an online survey consisting of 40 questions
relating to the current practices and experiences of rheumatologists across Africa. The CHERRIES checklist for
reporting results of internet e-surveys was adhered to.
Results. A total of 554 completed responses were received from 20 countries, which include six in Northern
Africa, six in West Africa, four in Southern Africa, three in East Africa and one in Central Africa. Consultant grade
rheumatologists constituted 436 (78.7%) of respondents with a mean of 14.56 10.3 years of experience. A total of
77 (13.9%) rheumatologists avoided starting a new biologic. Face-to-face clinics with the use of some personal
protective equipment continued to be held in only 293 (52.9%) rheumatologists’ practices. Teleconsultation modalities
found usage as follows: telephone in 335 (60.5%), WhatsApp in 241 (43.5%), emails in 90 (16.3%) and video
calls in 53 (9.6%). Physical examinations were mostly reduced in 295 (53.3%) or done with personal protective
equipment in 128 (23.1%) practices. Only 316 (57.0%) reported that the national rheumatology society in their
country had produced any recommendation around COVID-19 while only 73 (13.2%) confirmed the availability of a
national rheumatology COVID-19 registry in their country.
Conclusion. COVID-19 has shifted daily rheumatology practices across Africa to more virtual consultations and
regional disparities are more apparent in the availability of local protocols and registries.
Key words: COVID-19, Africa, rheumatology, DMARD, rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases, telem

Moturi C, Abdulrahim N, Orwa D. "Towards adequate cybersecurity risk management in SMEs." International Journal of Business Continuity and Risk Management. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are core to the growth of the African economy. Their continued dependency on technology is driving them deeper into risks. SMEs that are developing technology-based solutions need an effective way to manage cyber risks. This study sought to determine the key cybersecurity risks faced by SMEs in Kenya that develop technology-based solutions. Using a case study approach and based on the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) cybersecurity framework, an in-depth evaluation of the cybersecurity risk management practices within a selected SME was undertaken. The paper reports on the components identified as critical in the management of cyber risks within SMEs. An implementation strategy has been developed to provide a roadmap to assist in the management of cyber risks as part of their business risks. Insights provided will assist the Government and regulatory bodies assess the adequacy of current cybersecurity legislations and guidelines. This study has practical implications for SME managers in fostering a cybersecurity culture in this growing sector.

Mungai GN, Njenga HN, MATHU ELIUDM, Madadi VO. "Trace Elements in Carbonated Cold Springs of Eastern Mt. Kenya, Meru County." Journal of the Kenya Chemical Society. 2021;14(1):9-16.
Jekayinoluwa T, Tripathi JN, Dugdale B, Obiero G, E M, Dale J, L T. "Transgenic Expression of dsRNA Targeting the Pentalonia nigronervosa acetylcholinesterase Gene in Banana and Plantain Reduces Aphid Populations." Plants.. 2021;10 (4)(613):1-18.
Nzuma MJ, Kirui P. "Transmission of Global Wheat Prices to Domestic Markets in Kenya: A Cointegration Approach." African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics. 2021;16(1):80-93.
W G, M O, GO O. "Treatment Approaches for Multiple Myeloma: A Review." Journal of Kenya Association of Physicians. 2021;3(1):29-34. Abstract

Background: Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a
haematological cancer characterized by complications
of end-organ damage and subsequently high mortality.
Previously, there were few therapies available with
minimal survival benefit for most patients. Survival
was less than a year in many countries. The survival of
MM patients can range from 6 months to over 10 years,
with a median of 6 years, depending on stage of the
disease at diagnosis and prognostic factors. However,
with the advent of newer immune modulating agents
and novel therapies, there exists an opportunity to
improve the management of MM.
Objective: The purpose of this review is to discuss
the current chemotherapy and novel agents available
for treatment of Multiple Myeloma and highlight
emerging therapies in treatment of Multiple Myeloma,
some of which are now locally available in Kenya.
Data Sources: International Guidelines on Treatment
of Multiple Myeloma; Published articles from peerreviewed
journals; ESMO, NCCN guidelines on
Multiple Myeloma
Conclusion: New MM therapies have been shown to
improve progression-free survival and overall survival
of to upto 82% at four years. Some of these therapies
are now accessible locally through government
funding. In combination with a wholesome approach
which includes appropriate supportive care, there
exists an opportunity to improve the quality and
standard of care of MM patients in Kenya to replicate
the success of that in developed countries.
Key words: Multiple myeloma, Cancer

Ochieng JW, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Machuka E, Kabange D, et.al. "Typology,management and smallholders farmer preferred traits for selection of indigenous goats(Capra hircus) in three agro-ecological zones in the D.R Congo." Journal of Applied animal research. 2021;(Submitted).
Kenfack D, Arellano G, Kibet S, Kimuyu D, Musili D. "Understanding the monodominance of Acacia drepanolobium in East African savannas: insights from demographic data." Trees. 2021;35:1439-1450.
Muita R, Dougill A, Mutemi J, Aura S, Graham R, Awolala D, Nkiaka E, Hirons L, Opijah F. "Understanding the Role of User Needs and Perceptions Related to Sub-Seasonal and Seasonal Forecasts on Farmers’ Decisions in Kenya: A Systematic Review." Frontiers in Climate. 2021;3(1).
Eric A, Elizaphan M, Rhoda G, Robert O, John K. "University Students' Perception on the Usefulness of Learning Management System Features in Promoting Self-Regulated Learning in Online Learning." International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology. 2021;v17 (n1 ):45-64 . Abstract

Online learning has increasingly been adopted by most institutions of higher learning to facilitate teaching and learning as a continuum to the traditional face-to-face approach. Most of these institutions utilize Learning Management Systems which contain features that are intended to make students active participants not only by delivering learning resources to learners but also providing the environment for effective interaction in the learning process. Our examination of the literature reveals that there is limited empirical evidence that addresses how these features are being utilized by students in promoting Self-Regulated learning. To realize the usefulness of the features of Learning Management Systems in promoting Self-Regulated Learning, a structured survey was carried out among University students in Kenya. The findings reveal that the features of Learning Management Systems are underutilized by students. The qualitative results of the study illustrate that students face several challenges that obstruct them from being actively involved in online learning. There is lack of individualized feedback on students' learning habits, lack of instructor guidance, lack of interaction with course instructors, lack of peer interaction and lack of automation tools. This study provides insights for educators and researchers on the areas of focus that can be prioritized towards offering support to students in improving their Self-Regulated learning in online learning environments.

Okeyo MP;, Rambo CM, NYONJE RO. "Use of Civil Litigation Process and Alternative Dispute Resolution mechanisms in Resolution of Contractual Disputes in Road Construction Projects in Kenya. ." International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing. 2021:596-612.
Omwando KJ, Moturi CA. "Virtual banking adoption by SACCOs in the face of Covid-19 pandemic - a case study of Nairobi County, Kenya." The Strategic Journal of Business & Change Management. 2021;8(4):1-13. AbstractWebsite

The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic saw overwhelming effects on consumers’ buying behavior globally, with economic productive activities shifting from offline to online. As a result, many business leaders were left with no option other than adopt the use of Information Technology to ensure business operations continuity, enhance efficiency as well as sustainability. In Kenya, unlike most commercial banks, Saccos have largely been left behind in embracing new banking technologies such as agency banking, internet banking, or mobile banking. Therefore, the use of paperwork, physical and in-person meetings to conduct business has remained widespread amongst many Saccos in the country, before COVID 19 that forced Saccos to shift to virtual banking as an effective alternative, toward addressing their customers’ needs while ensuring safety. This study examined the adoption of Mobile Banking models and Virtual Banking technologies and innovations to establish the factors influencing their adoption by potential users. The study also explored the adoption of Virtual banking amongst Saccos in Kenya, investigating the electronic delivery channels used, and their suitability. The study objectives were accomplished through an exploratory and descriptive approach based on ways of improving access to credit through relationships between Sacco and their clientele in Kenya through the adoption of Virtual Banking. The data used was collected from SACCO-based respondents who included Sacco ICT officers, managers, and members using questionnaires. Data analysis was done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The study established that there was wide adoption of various Mobile Banking models and technologies to realize virtual banking adoption by Saccos. Most Saccos were found to favor the Joint venture model and the non-bank-driven model. The extent of adoption of virtual banking amongst bank clientele was found to be influenced by social, economic, and technological factors. The study recommended that Saccos should consider sharing information and technologies across various networks as this is likely to lead to much more gains in adopting technologies that would improve their sustainability as while fostering better customer experience.

Onyango AE, Okoth MW, Kunyanga CN. "Water Disinfection Techniques: A review." Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and the Environment. 2021;7(1):54-78.
Moturi CA, Okemwa VO, Orwa DO. "Why the Insurance Sector Needs Big Data Analytics Capability for Digital Transformation." International Journal of Big Data Management. 2021. Abstract

In order for organisations to generate competitive advantages from big data investments, they need to acquire a unique blend of technology, human skills, financial resources and a data-driven culture. Organisations need to measure their big data analytics capability in order to yield competitive performance. This study sought to examine the relationship between a firms big data analytics capability (BDAC) and competitive performance through mediating role of dynamic and operational capabilities. To test the proposed research model, we used survey data from 110 employees across 54 insurance companies in Kenya. Using partial least squares structural equation modelling, the results provide evidence that BDAC leads to superior firm performance. Various resources that form big data analytics (BDA) capability have been identified and an instrument to measure BDAC proposed. The findings from this study provides a roadmap strategy for implementing BDA projects.

"“Reflections on the Detective Novel as an Allegory of Contemporary Kenya.”." Journal of Language, Technology& Entrepreneurship in Africa. 2021;11(2):1-10.
Nyumba TO, Sang CC, Olago DO, Marchant R, Waruingi L, Githiora Y, Kago F, Mwangi M, Owira G, Barasa R, others. "Assessing the ecological impacts of transportation infrastructure development: A reconnaissance study of the Standard Gauge Railway in Kenya." PLoS one. 2021;16:e0246248. Abstract
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Nelson K, Muge E, Wamalwa B. "Cellulolytic Bacillus species isolated from the gut of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria." Scientific African. 2021;11:e00665. Abstract
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Ogonda LA, Saumonneau A, Dion M, Muge EK, Wamalwa BM, Mulaa FJ, Tellier C. "Characterization and engineering of two new GH9 and GH48 cellulases from a Bacillus pumilus isolated from Lake Bogoria." Biotechnology Letters. 2021;43:691-700. Abstract
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Bahati V, Bulimo W, Gachara G. "Comparative Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Virus among in-Mates and Low Risk Voluntary Blood Donors in Garissa, Kenya." Journal of Biosciences and Medicines. 2021;09:85-95. AbstractWebsite
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Murage MW, Muge EK, Mbatia BN, Mwaniki MW. "Development and Sensory Evaluation of Omega-3-Rich Nile Perch Fish Oil-Fortified Yogurt." International Journal of Food Science. 2021;2021. Abstract
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Sila JM, Guto PM, Michira IN, Mwaura FB, Muge EK. "Electrochemical Determination of Penicillin G in Cow Milk and pharmaceuticals in SDS/Acetate buffer." International Journal of Electrochemical Science. 2021;16. Abstract
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Awuor OL, Edward MK. "Harnessing the Potential of Underutilized Aquatic Bioresource for Food and Nutritional Security in Kenya.". In: Food Security and Safety. Springer; 2021:. Abstract
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Mwangi HN’u, Muge EK, Wagacha PW, Ndakala A, Mulaa FJ. "Methods for Identifying Microbial Natural Product Compounds that Target Kinetoplastid RNA Structural Motifs by Homology and De Novo Modeled 18S rRNA." International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021;22:4493. Abstract
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Ochieno DMW, Karoney EM, Muge EK, Nyaboga EN, Baraza DL, Shibairo SI, Naluyange V. "Rhizobium-linked nutritional and phytochemical changes under multitrophic functional contexts in sustainable food systems." Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems. 2021;4:283. Abstract
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Jekayinoluwa T, Tripathi JN, Dugdale B, Obiero G, Muge E, Dale J, Tripathi L. "Transgenic Expression of dsRNA Targeting the Pentalonia nigronervosa acetylcholinesterase Gene in Banana and Plantain Reduces Aphid Populations." Plants. 2021;10:613. Abstract
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2020
Ogutu K. "Media owes everyone accurate reporting of court decisions." The Standard, May 4, 2020.
Oredo J. "Personal Cloud Computing Adoption: Integrating IT Mindfulness with TAM.". In: IST-Africa 2020. Uganda; 2020.
Ndolo IJ. "Cyclones: Causes, Risks And Where They Occur." Daily Nation, July 4, 2020.
Simiyu MT, Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Birech Z, Mwebaze G. "Application of An Organic Plant-Derived Binder in the Fabrication of Diatomaceous Earth Waste- Based Membranes for Water Purification Systems.". In: Materials Research Society Advances. Cambridge; 2020. Abstract

This work reports on the use of diatomaceous earth (DE) waste and organic binder derived from Corchorus olitorius, locally known as “Mrenda” in the design of an efficient water filtration membranes. Charcoal powder was incorporated to enhance the porosity of the membrane. The firing was done at temperatures varying from 700.0 °C to 1150.0 °C. The DE waste samples comprised 79.0% silica (by mass) and 11.0% total flux content compared to porter's clay that had 50.0% silica, 28.8% AL2O3 and 7.0% total flux content. On the other hand, the “Mrenda” binder contained 6.5% total organic matter. The use of the plant- derived binder enhanced the mechanical strength of the greenware by 52.7% and the fired membranes by 152.2%. The fabricated DE waste-based membranes were 15.0% stronger than clay-based ceramic membranes prepared under similar conditions. A sintering temperature of 900.0 °C was optimal in producing porous membranes for filtering of 4.1 liters of water per hour. The pore diameter of the membranes fabricated from DE waste only ranged between 2.0 nm – 99.0 nm. On micro-organisms filtering efficacy, the DE waste-based membranes and those fabricated with 5.0% charcoal were 99.9% and 88.4% effective in the removal of E. coli and Rotavirus respectively.

MWANGI IK. "Historical Trilogy of the Kenya Institute of Planners.". In: Presentation at KIP Induction Training Workshop. Organized by Kenya Institute of Planners Held at Professional Centre, Nairobi; 2020.
"Diplopia.". In: Optometrist Webinar series, Kenya. Virtual Meeting; 2020.diplopia-__dr._njambi-_06082020.pdf
Oredo J. "Personal Cloud Computing Adoption: Integrating IT Mindfulness Trust and Risk.". In:  Americas Conference of Information Systems . USA; 2020.
"Nystagmus demystified.". In: Optometrist Webinar series, Kenya. Virtual Meeting; 2020.nystagmus_demystified-_dr._njambi_30072020.pdf
M E. "​Is the building you are in safe to occupy?" Daily Nation, March 24, 2020:10.
Peter SG, Aboge GO, Kariuki HW, Kanduma EG, Gakuya DW, Maingi N, Mulei CM, Mainga AO. "Molecular prevalence of emerging Anaplasma and Ehrlichia pathogens in apparently healthy dairy cattle in peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya." BMC Vet Res. 2020;16(1):364. Abstract

Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species are tick-borne pathogens of both veterinary and public health importance. The current status of these pathogens, including emerging species such as Ehrlichia minasensis and Anaplasma platys, infecting cattle in Kenya, remain unclear, mainly because of limitation in the diagnostic techniques. Therefore, we investigated the Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species infecting dairy cattle in Nairobi, Kenya using molecular methods.

Makanya AN, Kavoi BM, Kihurani DO. "Slight volume changes in the duck lung do not imply a fundamental change in the structure of the parenchyma." Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia. 2020. Abstract

Slight changes in lung volume have previously been reported in ducks. We studied the functional structure of the lung of the domestic duck using classical anatomical techniques as well as ultrasound monitoring to unravel the causes of such changes. Later dorsal and medioventral secondary bronchi were superficially positioned and covered with a thin transparent and collapsible membrane, internally lined with a cuboidal to squamous epithelium. The lung parenchyma was rigid, with atria well supported by septa containing smooth muscles, interparabronchial septa reinforced by collagen fibres, and blood capillaries supported by epithelial plates. On ultrasound monitoring, an outward and inward movement of the lung surface during inspiration and expiration, respectively, was evident at the region where the airways were covered by the thin membranes. The movements plausibly facilitated air movement in the lung just like the air sacs. We conclude that volume changes in the duck lung occur due to a slight morphological adaptation rather than a change in the archetypical design of the avian lung parenchyma.

Mulinge E, Odongo D, Magambo J, Njenga SM, Zeyhle E, Mbae C, Kagendo D, Addy F, Ebi D, Wassermann M, Kern P, Romig T. "Diversity of Taenia and Hydatigera (Cestoda: Taeniidae) in domestic dogs in Kenya." Parasitol Res. 2020;119(9):2863-2875. Abstract

Taenia species of domestic dogs can cause cysticercosis and coenurosis in a wide range of intermediate hosts including humans. Most taeniids of dogs are globally distributed, but some wildlife-transmitted species can be specific for certain regions. Generally, little information exists on the species composition and frequency in most regions of the world, which impairs risk assessment and control strategies. This study determined the range of taeniid species in dogs in four widely spaced areas of Kenya by genetic identification of eggs in faeces collected from the environment. Individual taeniid eggs were characterised by nested polymerase chain reaction of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and cytochrome C oxidase 1 genes, restriction fragment length polymorphism and partial sequencing. Overall 79/1621 (4.9%) faecal samples contained eggs of Taenia or Hydatigera (8.0% in Turkana, 4.8% in Isiolo, 3.8% in Maasai Mara and 1.3% in Meru). Taenia hydatigena and T. multiceps were the most frequent, found in 36 and 15 samples, respectively. Other eggs found in the faeces belonged to T. serialis (sensu lato), T. madoquae (the first record in domestic dogs), T. ovis, T. saginata and Hydatigera taeniaeformis. Polymorphism of nad1 sequences revealed 22 and 8 haplotypes of T. hydatigena and T. multiceps, respectively. The results show the involvement of dogs in both domestic and sylvatic transmission cycles. In addition to the species range, this study provides data on the intraspecific diversity of T. hydatigena and T. multiceps in Kenya, which will serve as baseline information for further studies into cysticercosis and coenurosis in livestock and humans in the region.

Omwenga I, Aboge GO, Mitema ES, Obiero G, Ngaywa C, Ngwili N, Wamwere G, Wainaina M, Bett B. "Antimicrobial Usage and Detection of Multidrug-Resistant , Including Methicillin-Resistant Strains in Raw Milk of Livestock from Northern Kenya." Microb Drug Resist. 2020. Abstract

The association of antimicrobial usage (AMU) with prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) , including methicillin-resistant (MRSA) in livestock raw milk consumed by pastoralists in Kenya remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between AMU and emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) , including MRSA in raw milk of livestock. AMU data were obtained using sales records from veterinary pharmacies. was isolated from 603 milk samples from various livestock species, including sheep, goat, cow, and camel reared in Isiolo and Marsabit counties in Kenya. Resistant phenotypes and genotypes were determined by disc diffusion and molecular methods, respectively. Correlation between AMU and occurrence of resistance was determined by Pearson's correlation coefficient () method. The consumption of various antimicrobial classes were as follows; 4,168 kg of oxytetracycline, 70 kg of sulfonamides, 49.7 kg of aminoglycosides, 46 kg of beta-lactams, 39.4 kg of macrolides, and 0.52 kg for trimethoprim. The isolates were mainly resistant to tetracycline (79%), ampicillin (58%), and oxacillin (33%), respectively. A few isolates (5-18%) were resistant to clindamycin, cephalexin, erythromycin, kanamycin, and ciprofloxacin. Most of the MDR- isolates were MRSA (94%). The genetic determinants found in the AMR isolates included K/M (96.5%/19%) for tetracycline, (79%) for penicillin, (53%) for aminoglycosides, A (41%) for oxacillin, and A/A (24%/7%) for macrolides. Oxytetracycline usage was correlated to K/M ( = 0.62/1) detection, penicillins to A/ ( = 0.86/0.98), aminoglycoside to ( 0.76/-13), and macrolide usages for detection of A/A ( = 0.94/0.77). AMU appeared to be associated with occurrence of MDR-SA and the M detection. Consumption of raw milk contaminated with MRSA could pose a serious public health risk in pastoral communities in northern Kenya.

Dean WH, Gichuhi S, Buchan JC, Makupa W, Mukome A, Otiti-Sengeri J, Arunga S, Mukherjee S, Kim MJ, Harrison-Williams L, Macleod D, Cook C, Burton MJ. "Intense Simulation-Based Surgical Education for Manual Small-Incision Cataract Surgery: The Ophthalmic Learning and Improvement Initiative in Cataract Surgery Randomized Clinical Trial in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zimbabwe." JAMA Ophthalmol. 2020. AbstractWebsite

Importance: Cataracts account for 40% of cases of blindness globally, with surgery the only treatment.

Objective: To determine whether adding simulation-based cataract surgical training to conventional training results in improved acquisition of surgical skills among trainees.

Design, setting, and participants: A multicenter, investigator-masked, parallel-group, randomized clinical educational-intervention trial was conducted at 5 university hospital training institutions in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zimbabwe from October 1, 2017, to September 30, 2019, with a follow-up of 15 months. Fifty-two trainee ophthalmologists were assessed for eligibility (required no prior cataract surgery as primary surgeon); 50 were recruited and randomized. Those assessing outcomes of surgical competency were masked to group assignment. Analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis.

Interventions: The intervention group received a 5-day simulation-based cataract surgical training course, in addition to standard surgical training. The control group received standard training only, without a placebo intervention; however, those in the control group received the intervention training after the initial 12-month follow-up period.

Main outcomes and measures: The primary outcome measure was overall surgical competency at 3 months, which was assessed with a validated competency assessment rubric. Secondary outcomes included surgical competence at 1 year and quantity and outcomes (including visual acuity and posterior capsule rupture) of cataract surgical procedures performed during a 1-year period.

Results: Among the 50 participants (26 women [52.0%]; mean [SD] age, 32.3 [4.6] years), 25 were randomized to the intervention group, and 25 were randomized to the control group, with 1 dropout. Forty-nine participants were included in the final intention-to-treat analysis. Baseline characteristics were balanced. The participants in the intervention group had higher scores at 3 months compared with the participants in the control group, after adjusting for baseline assessment rubric score. The participants in the intervention group were estimated to have scores 16.6 points (out of 40) higher (95% CI, 14.4-18.7; P < .001) at 3 months than the participants in the control group. The participants in the intervention group performed a mean of 21.5 cataract surgical procedures in the year after the training, while the participants in the control group performed a mean of 8.5 cataract surgical procedures (mean difference, 13.0; 95% CI, 3.9-22.2; P < .001). Posterior capsule rupture rates (an important complication) were 7.8% (42 of 537) for the intervention group and 26.6% (54 of 203) for the control group (difference, 18.8%; 95% CI, 12.3%-25.3%; P < .001).

Conclusions and relevance: This randomized clinical trial provides evidence that intense simulation-based cataract surgical education facilitates the rapid acquisition of surgical competence and maximizes patient safety.

Trial registration: Pan-African Clinical Trial Registry, number PACTR201803002159198.

Mwamuye MM, Odongo D, Kazungu Y, Kindoro F, Gwakisa P, Bishop RP, Nijhof AM, Obara I. "Variant analysis of the sporozoite surface antigen gene reveals that asymptomatic cattle from wildlife-livestock interface areas in northern Tanzania harbour buffalo-derived T. parva." Parasitol Res. 2020;119(11):3817-3828. Abstract

Buffalo-derived Theileria parva can 'break through' the immunity induced by the infection and treatment vaccination method (ITM) in cattle. However, no such 'breakthroughs' have been reported in northern Tanzania where there has been long and widespread ITM use in pastoralist cattle, and the Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is also present. We studied the exposure of vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle in northern Tanzania to buffalo-derived T. parva using p67 gene polymorphisms and compared this to its distribution in vaccinated cattle exposed to buffalo-derived T. parva in central Kenya, where vaccine 'breakthroughs' have been reported. Additionally, we analysed the CD8+ T cell target antigen Tp2 for positive selection. Our results showed that 10% of the p67 sequences from Tanzanian cattle (n = 39) had a buffalo type p67 (allele 4), an allele that is rare among East African isolates studied so far. The percentage of buffalo-derived p67 alleles observed in Kenyan cattle comprised 19% of the parasites (n = 36), with two different p67 alleles (2 and 3) of presumptive buffalo origin. The Tp2 protein was generally conserved with only three Tp2 variants from Tanzania (n = 33) and five from Kenya (n = 40). Two Tanzanian Tp2 variants and two Kenyan Tp2 variants were identical to variants present in the trivalent Muguga vaccine. Tp2 evolutionary analysis did not show evidence for positive selection within previously mapped epitope coding sites. The p67 data indicates that some ITM-vaccinated cattle are protected against disease induced by a buffalo-derived T. parva challenge in northern Tanzania and suggests that the parasite genotype may represent one factor explaining this.

Bishop RP, Kappmeyer LS, Onzere CK, Odongo DO, Githaka N, Sears KP, Knowles DP, Fry LM. "Equid infective Theileria cluster in distinct 18S rRNA gene clades comprising multiple taxa with unusually broad mammalian host ranges." Parasit Vectors. 2020;13(1):261. Abstract

Equine theileriosis, a tick-transmitted disease caused by the hemoprotozoan parasites Theileria equi and Theileria haneyi, affects equids throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is a significant regulatory concern in non-endemic countries, where testing for equine theileriosis is required prior to horse import to prevent parasite entry. Within endemic areas, infection causes significant morbidity and mortality, leading to economic losses. No vaccine for equine theileriosis is available, and current drug treatment protocols are inconsistent and associated with significant side effects. Recent work has revealed substantial genetic variability among equine theileriosis organisms, and analysis of ribosomal DNA from affected animals around the world indicates that the organisms can be grouped into five distinct clades. As these diverse parasites are capable of infecting a wide range of both tick and mammalian hosts, movement of different equine Theileria species between endemic countries, and eventually into non-endemic countries, is a significant concern. Furthermore, the substantial genetic variability of these organisms will likely render currently utilized importation diagnostic tests unable to detect all equine Theileria spp. To this end, more complete characterization of these diverse parasites is critical to the continued global control of equine theileriosis. This review discusses current knowledge of equine Theileria spp. in this context, and highlights new opportunities and challenges for workers in this field.

Naidoo K, Kempen JH, Gichuhi S, Braithwaite T, Casson RJ, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Flaxman SR, Jonas JB, Keeffe JE, Leasher J, Limburg H, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester AJ, Tahhan N, Taylor HR, Wong TY, Bourne RRA. "Prevalence and causes of vision loss in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections." Br J Ophthalmol. 2020. AbstractWebsite

Background: This study aimed to assess the prevalence and causes of vision loss in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in 2015, compared with prior years, and to estimate expected values for 2020.

Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the prevalence of blindness (presenting distance visual acuity <3/60 in the better eye), moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting distance visual acuity <6/18 but ≥3/60) and mild vision impairment (MVI; presenting distance visual acuity <6/12 and ≥6/18), and also near vision impairment (

Nanteza A, Obara I, Kasaija P, Mwega E, Kabi F, Salih DA, Njahira M, Joyce Njuguna, Odongo D, Bishop RP, Skilton RA, Ahmed J, Clausen P-H, Lubega GW. "Antigen gene and variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) diversity in Theileria parva parasites from Ankole cattle in south-western Uganda: Evidence for conservation in antigen gene sequences combined with extensive polymorphism at VNTR loci." Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020;67 Suppl 1:99-107. Abstract

Theileria parva is a tick-transmitted apicomplexan protozoan parasite that infects lymphocytes of cattle and African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer), causing a frequently fatal disease of cattle in eastern, central and southern Africa. A live vaccination procedure, known as infection and treatment method (ITM), the most frequently used version of which comprises the Muguga, Serengeti-transformed and Kiambu 5 stocks of T. parva, delivered as a trivalent cocktail, is generally effective. However, it does not always induce 100% protection against heterologous parasite challenge. Knowledge of the genetic diversity of T. parva in target cattle populations is therefore important prior to extensive vaccine deployment. This study investigated the extent of genetic diversity within T. parva field isolates derived from Ankole (Bos taurus) cattle in south-western Uganda using 14 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) satellite loci and the sequences of two antigen-encoding genes that are targets of CD8+T-cell responses induced by ITM, designated Tp1 and Tp2. The findings revealed a T. parva prevalence of 51% confirming endemicity of the parasite in south-western Uganda. Cattle-derived T. parva VNTR genotypes revealed a high degree of polymorphism. However, all of the T. parva Tp1 and Tp2 alleles identified in this study have been reported previously, indicating that they are widespread geographically in East Africa and highly conserved.

Silatsa BA, Simo G, Githaka N, Kamga R, Oumarou F, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Machuka E, Domelevo J-B, Odongo D, Bishop R, Kuiate J-R, Njiokou F, Djikeng A, Pelle R. "First detection of Theileria parva in cattle from Cameroon in the absence of the main tick vector Rhipicephalus appendiculatus." Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020;67 Suppl 1:68-78. Abstract

A major risk factor for the spread of livestock diseases and their vectors is the uncontrolled transboundary movement of live animals for trade and grazing. Such movements constrain effective control of tick-transmitted pathogens, including Theileria parva. Only limited studies have been undertaken to identify ticks and tick-borne diseases (TTBDs) affecting cattle in central African countries, including Cameroon. We hereby report the collection of baseline data on the prevalence of T. parva in Cameroon through a countrywide cross-sectional survey, conducted in 2016, involving collection of blood samples from cattle from 63 sites across the five agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of the country. ELISA-based surveillance of infected cattle was performed on 479 randomly selected samples and revealed specific antibodies to T. parva in 22.7% and T. mutans in 41.1% of cattle. Screening of 1,340 representative DNA samples for the presence of T. parva identified 25 (1.86%) positives using a p104 antigen gene-based nested PCR assay. The positives were distributed across agro-ecological zones I, II, III and V. None of the p104 positive cattle exhibited clinical symptoms of East Coast fever (ECF). Using reverse line blot (RLB), 58 (4.3%) and 1,139 (85%) of the samples reacted with the T. parva and T. mutans oligonucleotide probes, respectively. This represents the first report of T. parva from Cameroon. Surprisingly, no Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks, the main vector of T. parva, were identified in a parallel study involving comprehensive morphological and molecular survey of tick species present in the country. Only two of the 25 p104 positive cattle were PCR-positive for the CD8+ T-cell target schizont-expressed antigen gene Tp1. Cloning and sequencing of Tp1 amplicons revealed sequence identity with the reference T. parva Muguga. This new finding raises serious concerns of a potential spread of ECF into the central African region.

Bishop RP, Odongo DO, Spooner PR, Morzaria SP, Oura CAL, Skilton RA. "Multilocus genotyping of Theileria parva isolates associated with a live vaccination trial in Kenya provides evidence for transmission of immunizing parasites into local tick and cattle populations." Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020;67 Suppl 1:88-98. Abstract

The live infection and treatment (ITM) vaccination procedure using the trivalent Muguga cocktail is increasingly being used to control East Coast fever, with potential implications for Theileria parva population genetic structure in the field. Transmission of the Kiambu V T. parva component to unvaccinated cattle has previously been described in Uganda. We monitored the T. parva carrier state in vaccinated and control animals on a farm in West Kenya where an ITM stabilate derived from the Kenyan T. parva Marikebuni stock was evaluated for field efficacy. A nested PCR-based Marikebuni-specific marker identified a carrier state in nine of ten vaccinated animals, detectable for a period of two years. We used 22 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) markers to determine multilocus genotypes (MLGs) of 19 T. parva schizont-infected lymphocyte isolates derived from cattle and field ticks. Two isolates from unimmunized cattle were identical to the Marikebuni vaccination stock. Two cattle isolates were identical to a Muguga cocktail component Kiambu V. Seven isolates from ticks exhibited MLGs that were identical to the Serengeti/Muguga vaccine stocks. Six cattle and two tick-derived stocks exhibited unique MLGs. The data strongly suggest transmission of immunizing genotypes, from Marikebuni vaccine-induced carrier cattle to unimmunized cattle. It is possible that genotypes similar to those in the Muguga cocktail are present in the field in Western Kenya. An alternative hypothesis is that these parasites may have originated from vaccine trial sites in Eastern Uganda. If correct, this suggests that T. parva stocks used for immunization can potentially be disseminated 125 km beyond the immediate vaccination site. Regardless of their origin, the data provide evidence that genotypes similar to those in the Muguga cocktail are circulating in the field in East Africa, alleviating concerns about dissemination of 'alien' T. parva germplasm through live vaccination.

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