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2020
Yoshizaki M, Ramke J, Furtado JM, Burn H, Gichuhi S, Gordon I, Aghaji A, Marques AP, Dean WH, Congdon N, Buchan J, Burton MJ. "Interventions to improve the quality of cataract services: protocol for a global scoping review." BMJ Open. 2020;10(8):e036413. AbstractWebsite

Cataract is the leading cause of blindness globally and a major cause of vision impairment. Cataract surgery is an efficacious intervention that usually restores vision. Although it is one of the most commonly conducted surgical interventions worldwide, good quality services (from being detected with operable cataract to undergoing surgery and receiving postoperative care) are not universally accessible. Poor quality understandably reduces the willingness of people with operable cataract to undergo surgery. Therefore, it is critical to improve the quality of care to subsequently reduce vision loss from cataract. This scoping review aims to summarise the nature and extent of the published literature on interventions to improve the quality of services for primary age-related cataract globally.

Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Mwesigye J, Ayebazibwe B, Onyango J, Bazira J, Newton R, Gichuhi S, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Epidemiology of Microbial Keratitis in Uganda: A Cohort Study." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2020;27(2):121-131. AbstractWebsite

: To describe the epidemiology of Microbial Keratitis (MK) in Uganda.: We prospectively recruited patients presenting with MK at two main eye units in Southern Uganda between December 2016 and March 2018. We collected information on clinical history and presentation, microbiology and 3-month outcomes. Poor vision was defined as vision < 6/60).: 313 individuals were enrolled. Median age was 47 years (range 18-96) and 174 (56%) were male. Median presentation time was 17 days from onset (IQR 8-32). Trauma was reported by 29% and use of Traditional Eye Medicine by 60%. Majority presented with severe infections (median infiltrate size 5.2 mm); 47% were blind in the affected eye (vision < 3/60). Microbiology was available from 270 cases: 62% were fungal, 7% mixed (bacterial and fungal), 7% bacterial and 24% no organism detected. At 3 months, 30% of the participants were blind in the affected eye, while 9% had lost their eye from the infection. Delayed presentation (overall = .007) and prior use of Traditional Eye Medicine (aOR 1.58 [95% CI 1.04-2.42], = .033) were responsible for poor presentation. Predictors of poor vision at 3 months were: baseline vision (aOR 2.98 [95%CI 2.12-4.19], < .0001), infiltrate size (aOR 1.19 [95%CI 1.03-1.36], < .020) and perforation at presentation (aOR 9.93 [95% CI 3.70-26.6], < .0001).: The most important outcome predictor was the state of the eye at presentation, facilitated by prior use of Traditional Eye Medicine and delayed presentation. In order to improve outcomes, we need effective early interventions.

Birech Z, Mwangi PW, Sehmi PK, Nyaga NM. "Application of Raman spectroscopy in comparative study of antiobesity influence of oxytocin and freeze-dried extracts of Uvariodendron anisatum Verdeck (Annonaceae) in Sprague Dawley rats." Journal of Raman SpectroscopyJournal of Raman Spectroscopy. 2020;51(3):398-405. AbstractWebsite

Abstract Obesity is a condition affecting a substantial number of people in the world. Obese people have increased risks of developing chronic metabolic diseases such as type II diabetes, hypertension, and cancer, among others. Predicting potential development together with rapid diagnosis of the condition followed by early interventions is therefore necessary. This work investigated, first, utility of Raman spectroscopy in performing comparative antiobesity influence studies of oxytocin and a freeze-dried extract of a local herbal plant exhibiting oxytocin-like properties called Uvariodendron anisatum Verdeck (Annonaceae) (UAV) on diet induced obesity in Sprague Dawley rat models. Second, we looked for obesity biomarker Raman spectral bands. The blood extracted from the rats were applied onto conductive silver paste smeared glass slides and excited using a 785-nm laser. Raman spectra of blood from oxytocin- and UAV-treated rats displayed similar profiles with low doses of UAV (100 mg/kg of body weight) being more similar to oxytocin than high doses (200 mg/kg of body weight) as revealed by cosine similarity value of 0.997. Their profiles were also different from blood of obese and nonobese (normal controls) animals. A prominent peak in spectra of treated rats centred at 401 cm?1 can be oxytocin's biomarker band in blood. Comparison of average intensity trend of fructose bands at around 638 and 812 cm?1 between prepared fructose solution and blood of treated rats revealed elevated levels of fructose in blood of rats intraperitoneally injected oxytocin and UAV extracts. The result implied upregulation of fructose in oxytocin- and UAV-treated animals. Principal component analysis confirmed that Raman spectral profiles from blood of obese rats were different from those of nonobese rats with bands ascribed to fructose (638, 812, and 1,217 cm?1) and branched chain amino acids (BCAAs; 478, 1,318, and 1,443 cm?1), being utilized in the segregation of the spectral data sets. It also showed that spectra from oxytocin-treated and UAV-treated rat's blood were similar implying identical influence of the drugs on the animals. The study showed potential of Raman spectroscopy as tool for quick obesity (or metabolic syndrome) screening with intensity of Raman bands associated with fructose and BCAAs as biomarkers. Besides, the same bands may be used in comparative efficacy studies of antiobesity drugs. The results reported here are rare in literature.

Githaiga JI, Angeyo HK, Kaduki KA, Bulimo WD. "Chemometrics-Enabled Raman Spectrometric Qualitative Determination and Assessment of Biochemical Alterations during Early Prostate Cancer Proliferation in Model Tissue." Journal of Spectroscopy. 2020;2020:8879985. AbstractWebsite

The use of Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate chemometrics for disease diagnosis has attracted great attention from researchers in recent years. This is because it is a noninvasive and nondestructive detection approach with enhanced sensitivity. However, a major challenge when analyzing spectra from biological samples has been the detection of subtle biochemical alterations buried in background and fluorescence noise. This work reports a qualitative chemometrics-assisted investigation of subtle biochemical alterations associated with prostate malignancy in model biological tissue (metastatic androgen insensitive (PC3) and immortalized normal (PNT1a) prostate cell lines). Raman spectra were acquired from PC3 and PNT1a cells at various stages of growth, and their biochemical alterations were determined from difference spectra between the two cell lines (for prominent alterations) and principal component analysis (PCA) (for subtle alterations). The Raman difference spectra were computed by subtracting the normalized mean spectral intensities of PNT1a cells from the normalized mean spectral intensities of PC3 cells. These difference spectra revealed prominent biochemical alterations associated with the malignant PC3 cells at 566 ± 0.70 cm−1, 630 cm−1, 1370 ± 0.86 cm−1, and 1618 ± 1.73 cm−1 bands. The band intensity ratios at 566 ± 0.70 cm−1 and 630 cm−1 suggested that prostate malignancy can be associated with an increase in relative amounts of nucleic acids and lipids, respectively, whereas those at 1370 ± 0.86 cm−1 and 1618 ± 1.73 cm−1 suggested that prostate malignancy can be associated with a decrease in relative amounts of saccharides and tryptophan, respectively. In the analysis using PCA, intermediate-order and high-order principal components (PCs) were used to extract the subtle biochemical fingerprints associated with the cell lines. This revealed subtle biochemical differences at 1076 cm−1, (1232, 1234 cm−1), (1276, 1278 cm−1), (1330, 1333 cm−1), (1434, 1442 cm−1), and (1471, 1479 cm−1). The band intensity ratios at 1076 cm−1 and 1232 cm−1 suggested that prostate malignancy can be associated with an increase in subtle amounts of nucleic acids and amide III components, respectively. The method reported here has demonstrated that subtle biochemical alterations can be extracted from Raman spectra of normal and malignant cell lines. The identified subtle bands could play an important role in quantitative monitoring of early biomarker alterations associated with prostate cancer proliferation.

Mwangi N, Bascaran C, Ng'ang'a M, Ramke J, Kipturgo M, Gichuhi S, Kim M, Macleod D, Moorman C, Muraguri D, Gakuo E, Muthami L, Foster A. "Feasibility of a cluster randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of peer-led health education interventions to increase uptake of retinal examination for diabetic retinopathy in Kirinyaga, Kenya: a pilot trial." Pilot Feasibility Stud. 2020;6:102. AbstractWebsite

Background: People living with diabetes can reduce their risk of vision loss from diabetic retinopathy by attending screening, which enables early detection and timely treatment. The aim of this pilot trial was to assess the feasibility of a full-scale cluster randomized controlled trial of an intervention to increase uptake of retinal examination in this population, as delivered within existing community-based diabetes support groups (DSGs).

Methods: All 16 DSGs in Kirinyaga county were invited to participate in the study. The first two groups recruited took part in the pilot trial. DSG members who met the eligibility criteria were recruited before the groups that were randomized to the two arms. In the intervention group, two peer educators were trained to deliver monthly DSG-based eye health education and individual telephone reminders to attend screening. The control group continued with usual DSG practice which is monthly meetings without eye health education. The recruitment team and outcome assessors were masked to the allocation. We documented the study processes to ascertain the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of the intervention. Feasibility was assessed in terms of clarity of study procedures, recruitment and retention rates, level of acceptability, and rates of uptake of eye examination. We set the target feasibility criteria for continuation to the main study to be recruitment of 50 participants in the trial, 80% monthly follow-up rates for individuals, and no attrition of clusters.

Results: Of the 122 DSG members who were assessed for eligibility, 104 were recruited and followed up: 51 (intervention) and 53 (control) arm. The study procedures were well understood and easy to apply. We learnt the DSG meeting days were the best opportunities for recruitment. The study had a high acceptance rate (100% for clusters, 95% for participants) and high follow-up and retention rate (100% of those recruited). All clusters and participants were analysed. We observed that the rate of incidence of eye exam was about 6 times higher in the intervention arm as compared to the control arm. No adverse unexpected events were reported in either arm.

Conclusions: The study is feasible and acceptable in the study population. The results support the development of a full-scale cluster RCT, as the success criteria for the pilot were met.

Gichuhi S, Arunga S. "HIV and the eye." Community Eye Health. 2020;33(108):76-78. AbstractWebsite

This article summarizes the presentation of ocular HIV in East Africa.
The main ocular effects of HIV are related to immune-suppression and impaired tumour-surveillance. HIV compromises cell-mediated immunity increasing the risk of infection with bacteria (e.g. tuberculosis and syphilis); fungi (e.g. candida and cryptococcus); parasites (e.g. toxoplasmosis); and viruses (e.g. herpes zoster, human papilloma virus, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus).
Patients with lower CD4 counts are more likely to have ocular manifestations1, however use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has modified the epidemiology of ocular manifestations, and variations in the predominant subtype of HIV may also lead to geographical differences in ocular disease.

Birech Z, Ondieki AM, Opati RII, Mwangi PW. "Low cost Raman sample substrates from conductive silver paint smear for Raman spectroscopic screening of metabolic diseases in whole blood.". 2020;108:103063. AbstractWebsite

This work reports on a low cost, simple to prepare and chemically stable Raman substrates based on conductive silver paint smear. The substrates were characterized Raman spectroscopically and were found to be chemically stable within the first seven days when kept at room temperature as the spectroscopic profiles were unchanged. The substrates also suppressed the background signals emanating from glass centered around 750 cm−1 and 1370 cm−1 seen with 785 nm excitation and had negligible influence on Raman spectral profiles of rat’s blood samples applied onto them. The Raman spectral profiles of blood samples applied onto the substrates were found to be enhanced by a factor of 1.7 compared to those of thick blood smears on a clean microscope glass slide. The increased local field between the gaps formed by adjacent micron-sized silver solids in the paint smear were attributed to the observed intense signals observed from the blood samples applied onto them. The substrates were tried on Raman spectroscopic differentiation between blood from obese and normal; diabetic and normal Sprague Dawley rats. The prominent bands associated with fructose (638 and 812 cm−1), glucose (1127 cm−1) and branched chain amino acids (1033, 1217 and 1318 cm−1) were observed to vary in terms of intensity between the un-healthy (obese and diabetic) and healthy (normal) rats. The results reported here on the use of the easy to prepare, low cost Raman substrates have the potential of making surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy accessible to less resourced laboratories in developing countries. The substrates can be applied in rapid Raman spectroscopic screening of various metabolic diseases.

Mwangi N, Bascaran C, Ramke J, Kipturgo M, Kim M, Ng'ang'a M, Gichuhi S, Mutie D, Moorman C, Muthami L, Foster A. "Peer-support to increase uptake of screening for diabetic retinopathy: process evaluation of the DURE cluster randomized trial." Trop Med Health. 2020;48:1. AbstractWebsite

Background: There is limited evidence on how implementation of peer support interventions influences effectiveness, particularly for individuals with diabetes. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial to compare the effectiveness of a peer-led health education package versus usual care to increase uptake of screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR).

Methods: Our process evaluation used a mixed-method design to investigate the recruitment and retention, reach, dose, fidelity, acceptability, and context of implementation, and was guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). We reviewed trial documents, conducted semi-structured interviews with key informants (n = 10) and conducted four focus group discussions with participants in both arms of the trial. Three analysts undertook CFIR theory-driven content analysis of the qualitative data. Quantitative data was analyzed to provide descriptive statistics relevant to the objectives of the process evaluation.

Results: The trial had positive implementation outcomes, 100% retention of clusters and 96% retention for participants, 83% adherence to delivery of content of group talks (fidelity), and 78% attendance (reach) to at least 50% (3/6) of the group talks (dose). The data revealed that intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, individual characteristics, and process (all the constructs of CFIR) influenced the implementation. There were more facilitators than barriers to the implementation. Facilitators included the relative advantage of the intervention compared with current practice (intervention characteristics); awareness of the growing prioritization of diabetes in the national health policy framework (outer setting); tension for change due to the realization of the vulnerability to vision loss from DR (inner setting); a strong collective sense of accountability of peer supporters to implement the intervention (individual characteristics); and regular feedback on the progress with implementation (process). Potential barriers included the need to queue at the eye clinic (intervention characteristic), travel inconveniences (inner setting), and socio-political disruption (outer setting).

Conclusions: The intervention was implemented with high retention, reach, fidelity, and dose. The CFIR provided a valuable framework for evaluating contextual factors that influenced implementation and helped to understand what adaptations may be needed during scale up.

Kivata MW, Mbuchi M, Eyase F, Bulimo WD, Kyanya CK, Oundo V, Mbinda WM, Sang W, Andagalu B, Soge OO, McClelland RS, Distelhorst J. "Plasmid mediated penicillin and tetracycline resistance among Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Kenya.". 2020;20(1):703. Abstractkivata_et_al-2020-bmc_infectious_diseases.pdfkivata_et_al-2020-bmc_infectious_diseases.pdfWebsite

Treatment of gonorrhea is complicated by the development of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) to the antibiotics recommended for treatment. Knowledge on types of plasmids and the antibiotic resistance genes they harbor is useful in monitoring the emergence and spread of bacterial antibiotic resistance. In Kenya, studies on gonococcal antimicrobial resistance are few and data on plasmid mediated drug resistance is limited. The present study characterizes plasmid mediated resistance in N. gonorrhoeae isolates recovered from Kenya between 2013 and 2018.

Gitao, C.G. Reviewer, Transboundary and Emerging diseases. Trsansboundary and Emerging Diseases; 2020.tbed_reviewer_certificate_1_1.pdf
Mbugua SN, Sibuyi NRS, Njenga LW, Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO, Meyer M, Lalancette RA, Onani MO. ") New Palladium(II) and Platinum(II) Complexes Based on Pyrrole Schiff Bases: Synthesis, Characterization, X‑ray Structure, and Anticancer Activit." ACS Omega . 2020;XXXX(XXXX):XXXX. Abstract

: New palladium (Pd)II and platinum (Pt)II complexes (C1−C5) from the Schiff base ligands, R-(phenyl)methanamine (L1), R-(pyridin-2-yl)methanamine (L2), and R-(furan2-yl)methanamine (L3) (R-(E)-N-((1H-pyrrol-2-yl) methylene)) are herein reported. The complexes (C1−C5) were characterized by FTIR, 1H and13C NMR, UV−vis, and microanalyses. Single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis was performed for the two ligands (L1−L2) and a Pt complex. Both L1 and L2 belong to P21/n monoclinic and P-1 triclinic space systems, respectively. The complex C5 belongs to the P21/c monoclinic space group. The investigated molar conductivity of the complexes in DMSO gave the range 4.0−8.8 μS/cm, suggesting neutrality, with log P values ≥ 1.2692 ± 0.004, suggesting lipophilicity. The anticancer activity and mechanism of the complexes were investigated against various human cancerous (Caco-2, HeLa, HepG2, MCF-7, and PC-3) and noncancerous (MCF-12A) cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Apopercentage assays, respectively. C5 demonstrated strong DNA-binding affinity for calf thymus DNA (CTDNA) with a binding constant of 8.049 × 104 M−1. C3 reduced cell viability of all the six cell lines, which included five cancerous cell lines, by more than 80%. The C5 complex also demonstrated remarkably high selectivity with no cytotoxic activity toward the noncancerous breast cell line but reduced the viability of the five cancerous cell lines, which included one breast cancer cell line, by more than 60%. Further studies are required to evaluate the selective toxicity of these two complexes and to fully understand their mechanism of action.

W K, A A, A K. ". Trends and factors associated with long-acting reversible contraception in Kenya." F1000Research. 2020. AbstractWebsite

Background: Kenya has 12 million female adolescents and youths aged 10-34 years whose reproductive behavior will determine the growth and size of its population for the next decade. The anticipated momentum of births can be slowed by the use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) methods as they are more effective, need no user adherence, and hence have no risk of incorrect or inconsistent use. However, in spite of the many health and social benefits, LARC is underutilized because of myths and misconceptions. Kenya is in the ultimate decade towards Vision 2030 and investing in LARC can save costs of health care and accelerate the achievement of the development goal. The objective of this study was to establish factors associated with LARC use, with a view of establishing the potential for increasing demand.

Muia BM, Mbaria JM, Kanja LW, Gitahi N, Okumu PO, Okumu MO. "Acute and sub-acute toxicity study of the root extracts of Fagaropsis hildebrandtii in mice and evaluation of their antimicrobial effects." F1000Research,. 2020;8(1444).
Obiero K, Lawrence T, Ives J, Smith S, Njaya F, Kayanda R, Waidbacher H, Olago D, Miriti E, Hecky RE. "Advancing Africa’s great lakes research and academic potential: Answering the call for harmonized, long-term, collaborative networks and partnerships." Journal of Great Lakes Research. 2020. Abstractdio.org

Abstract
The African Great Lakes (AGL) have rich fisheries and are renowned “biodiversity hotspots”. Consequently the AGLand the ecosystem services they provide, underpin the welfare and livelihoods of over 50 million people across 10 countries. Despite the recognized importance of the AGL, these vital ecosystems and their livelihood support systems are threatened by numerous anthropogenic stressors at local, regional, and global scales. Past and continued efforts to address critical challenges on these lakes are often short-term, parochial, disparate, and uncoordinated resulting in a lack of comprehensive and comparable scientific data and inadequate resources to influence evidence-based policy. Over the past two decades, several international workshops, conferences and scientific publications have identified the need for collaboration, knowledge sharing, and harmonization of research and management as key elements to enhance conservation efforts in the AGL. In this commentary, we introduce the African Center for Aquatic Research and Education (ACARE), which aims to strengthen research and provide the scientific evidence needed to make informed decisions related to sustainable fisheries and aquatic resource management in the AGL. To do this, ACARE will administer a highly collaborative network of experts with three long-term goals: (1) strengthen global and regional research partnerships; (2) establish transboundary and inter-jurisdictional lake advisory groups; and (3) build capacity of freshwater scientists through experiential education and public engagement.

Keywords
African Great Lakes Collaborative networks Transboundary lake advisory groups, educationResearch partnerships

Nunow A, Nzioka JM, Kinama JM. "Analysis of gender parity in climate change adaptation actions within Kajiado and Kiambu counties, Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2020;1(2).
Collaborators TWHOACTIONT. "Antenatal Dexamethasone for Early Preterm Birth in Low-Resource Countries." New England Medical Journal. 2020;382(17). AbstractWebsite

Abstract

Background: The safety and efficacy of antenatal glucocorticoids in women in low-resource countries who are at risk for preterm birth are uncertain.

Methods: We conducted a multicountry, randomized trial involving pregnant women between 26 weeks 0 days and 33 weeks 6 days of gestation who were at risk for preterm birth. The participants were assigned to intramuscular dexamethasone or identical placebo. The primary outcomes were neonatal death alone, stillbirth or neonatal death, and possible maternal bacterial infection; neonatal death alone and stillbirth or neonatal death were evaluated with superiority analyses, and possible maternal bacterial infection was evaluated with a noninferiority analysis with the use of a prespecified margin of 1.25 on the relative scale.

Results: A total of 2852 women (and their 3070 fetuses) from 29 secondary- and tertiary-level hospitals across Bangladesh, India, Kenya, Nigeria, and Pakistan underwent randomization. The trial was stopped for benefit at the second interim analysis. Neonatal death occurred in 278 of 1417 infants (19.6%) in the dexamethasone group and in 331 of 1406 infants (23.5%) in the placebo group (relative risk, 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 0.97; P=0.03). Stillbirth or neonatal death occurred in 393 of 1532 fetuses and infants (25.7%) and in 444 of 1519 fetuses and infants (29.2%), respectively (relative risk, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.99; P=0.04); the incidence of possible maternal bacterial infection was 4.8% and 6.3%, respectively (relative risk, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.03). There was no significant between-group difference in the incidence of adverse events.

Conclusions: Among women in low-resource countries who were at risk for early preterm birth, the use of dexamethasone resulted in significantly lower risks of neonatal death alone and stillbirth or neonatal death than the use of placebo, without an increase in the incidence of possible maternal bacterial infection.

Derese S. "Anti-inflammatory Flavanones and Flavones from Tephrosia linearis." Journal of natural products. 2020. AbstractWebsite

Anti-inflammatory Flavanones and Flavones from Tephrosia linearis
Richard Oriko Owor, Kibrom Gebreheiwot Bedane, Sebastian Zühlke, Solomon Derese, George Otieno Ong’amo, Albert Ndakala, Michael Spiteller
Abstract
Phytochemical analysis of a methanol–dichloromethane (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosialinearis led to the isolation of 18 compounds. Seven of these, namely, lineaflavones A–D (1–4), 6-methoxygeraldone (5), 8″-acetylobovatin (6), and 5-hydroxy-7-methoxysaniculamin A (7) are new compounds. The compounds were characterized based on their NMR and HRMSn data. The anti-inflammatory effects of the crude extract and isolated compounds were evaluated by measuring the levels of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-2, and IL-6), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The crude extract inhibited the release of all cytokines except IL-1β, which slightly increased in comparison to the LPS control. All the tested compounds suppressed the production of IL-2, GM-CSF, and TNF-α. Whereas compounds 1, 2, 4–8, 10–15, 17, and 18 decreased production of IL-6, compounds 1, 2, 4, 7, 10, 13–15, and 17 inhibited the release of IL-1β. It is worth noting that most of the compounds tested showed a superior reduction in cytokines release compared to the reference drug ibuprofen.

Owor RO, Bedane KG, Zühlke S, Derese S, Ong’amo GO, Ndakala A, Spiteller M. "Anti-inflammatory Flavanones and Flavones from Tephrosia linearis." Journal of Natural Products. 2020;83(4):996-1004. AbstractJournal of Natural Products

Description
Phytochemical analysis of a methanol–dichloromethane (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosialinearis led to the isolation of 18 compounds. Seven of these, namely, lineaflavones A–D (1–4), 6-methoxygeraldone (5), 8″-acetylobovatin (6), and 5-hydroxy-7-methoxysaniculamin A (7) are new compounds. The compounds were characterized based on their NMR and HRMSn data. The anti-inflammatory effects of the crude extract and isolated compounds were evaluated by measuring the levels of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-2, and IL-6), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The crude extract inhibited the release of all cytokines except IL-1β, which slightly increased in comparison to the LPS control. All the tested compounds suppressed the production of IL-2, GM-CSF, and …

Babiaka SB, Nia R, Abuga KO, Mbah JA, Nziko VN, Paper DH, Ntie-Kang F. "Antioxidant potential of flavonoid glycosides from Manniophyton fulvum Müll. (Euphorbiaceae): Identification and molecular modeling." Scientic African. 2020;8(e00423):1-7. Abstract

Chemical investigation of the leaves of Manniophyton fulvum led to the isolation of seven flavonoid glycosides: myricetin-3-O-β-Dd-rhamnoside (1), kaempferol-3-O-β-d-rhamnoside (2), quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside (3), quercetin-3-O-β-d-rhamnoside (4), quercetin-3-O-β-d-galactoside (5), rutin (6) and quercetin (7). The structures of the compounds were established by spectroscopic analyses as well as by comparison with published data. Some of the compounds showed strong antioxidant activity which validates the traditional use of the plant. An attempted correlation between the computed HOMO-LUMO energies and the measured antioxidant activities was established. We have also estimated the cardiotoxicity of the compounds by calculating the predicted logarithm of the human Ether-`a-go-go Related Gene (loghERG) using the QikProp program. These purified flavonoids are new potential lead compounds for the development of antioxidant drugs.

Chepkirui C, Ochieng PJ, Sarkar B, Hussain A, Pal C, Yang LJ, Coghi P, Akala HM, Derese S, Ndakala A, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "Antiplasmodial and antileishmanial flavonoids from Mundulea sericea." Fitoterapia. 2020;149:104796. AbstractFitoterapia

Abstract
Five known compounds (1–5) were isolated from the extract of Mundulea sericea leaves. Similar investigation of the roots of this plant afforded an additional three known compounds (6–8). The structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. The absolute configuration of 1 was established using ECD spectroscopy. In an antiplasmodial activity assay, compound 1 showed good activity with an IC50 of 2.0 μM against chloroquine-resistant W2, and 6.6 μM against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Some of the compounds were also tested for antileishmanial activity. Dehydrolupinifolinol (2) and sericetin (5) were active against drug-sensitive Leishmania donovani (MHOM/IN/83/AG83) with IC50 values of 9.0 and 5.0 μM, respectively. In a cytotoxicity assay, lupinifolin (3) showed significant activity on BEAS-2B (IC50 4.9 μM) and HePG2 (IC50 10.8 μM) human cell lines. All the other compounds showed low cytotoxicity (IC50 > 30 μM) against human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549), human liver cancer cells (HepG2), lung/bronchus cells (epithelial virus transformed) (BEAS-2B) and immortal human hepatocytes (LO2)

Graphical abstract
Unlabelled Image

Chepkirui C, Ochieng PJ, Sarkar B, Hussain A, Pal C, Yang LJ, Coghi P, Akala HM, Derese S, Ndakala A, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "Antiplasmodial and antileishmanial flavonoids from Mundulea sericea." Fitoterapia. 2020;149:104796. AbstractFitoterapia

Description
A new flavanonol, 3-hydroxyerythrisenegalone (1), and four known compounds (2–5) were isolated from the extract of Mundulea sericea leaves. Investigation of the roots of this plant afforded an additional three known compounds (6–8). The structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. The absolute configuration of 1 was established using ECD spectroscopy. In an antiplasmodial activity assay, compound 1 showed good activity with an IC50 of 2.0 μM against chloroquine-resistant W2, and 6.6 μM against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Some of the compounds were also tested for antileishmanial activity. Dehydrolupinifolinol (2) and sericetin (5) were active against drug-sensitive Leishmania donovani (MHOM/IN/83/AG83) with IC50 values of 9.0 and 5.0 μM, respectively. In a cytotoxicity assay, erythrisenegalone (3) showed significant …

Andima M, Coghi P, Yang LJ, Wong VKW, Ngule CM, Heydenreich M, Ndakala AJ, Yenesew A, Derese S. "Antiproliferative Activity of Secondary Metabolites from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides Lam: In vitro and in silico Studies." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2020;10(1). AbstractPharmacognosy Communications

Description
Background: Plant derived compounds have provided proming leads in search for safer anticancer chemotherapies. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides is a common medicinal plant in Uganda whose bioactive composition has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative potential of compounds isolated from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and their probable in silico anticancer mechanisms of action. Methods: Column chromatography was used to isolate compounds from MeOH: CH2Cl2 (1: 1) extract of the stem bark extract of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses. MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. Using in silico docking, the interaction of the compounds with key target proteins in the p53 pathway was determined. Results: From the root bark of this plant five compounds were isolated, namely; dihydrochelerythrine (1), skimmianine (2), tridecan-2-one (3), sesamin (4) and hesperidin (5). Dihydrochelerythrine (1) inhibited proliferation of liver cancer (HCC) cells (IC50 21.2), breast cancer (BT549) cells,(IC50 21.2 μM). Similarly, sesamin (4) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against BT549 cancer cells (IC50 47.6 μM). Hesperidin (5) showed low inhibitory activity against A549 and HEp2 (Larynx) cells but was significantly toxic to normal liver and lung cells.
In silico docking studies showed that all the compounds strongly bind to cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2 and CDK6) and weakly bind to caspases 3 and 8 suggesting that they inhibit cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Conclusion: This study indicates …

Andima M, Coghi P, Yang LJ, Wong VKW, Ngule CM, Heydenreich M, Ndakala AJ, Yenesew A, Derese S. "Antiproliferative Activity of Secondary Metabolites from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides Lam: In vitro and in silico Studies." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2020;10(1). AbstractPharmacognosy Communications

Description
Background: Plant derived compounds have provided proming leads in search for safer anticancer chemotherapies. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides is a common medicinal plant in Uganda whose bioactive composition has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative potential of compounds isolated from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and their probable in silico anticancer mechanisms of action. Methods: Column chromatography was used to isolate compounds from MeOH: CH2Cl2 (1: 1) extract of the stem bark extract of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses. MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. Using in silico docking, the interaction of the compounds with key target proteins in the p53 pathway was determined. Results: From the root bark of this plant five compounds were isolated, namely; dihydrochelerythrine (1), skimmianine (2), tridecan-2-one (3), sesamin (4) and hesperidin (5). Dihydrochelerythrine (1) inhibited proliferation of liver cancer (HCC) cells (IC50 21.2), breast cancer (BT549) cells,(IC50 21.2 μM). Similarly, sesamin (4) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against BT549 cancer cells (IC50 47.6 μM). Hesperidin (5) showed low inhibitory activity against A549 and HEp2 (Larynx) cells but was significantly toxic to normal liver and lung cells.
In silico docking studies showed that all the compounds strongly bind to cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2 and CDK6) and weakly bind to caspases 3 and 8 suggesting that they inhibit cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Conclusion: This study indicates …

Mureithi PM, B.M. K, Onyango CM, Mathiu MP. "Antiulcerogenic Effects of Selected African Nightshades (Solanum nigrum Linn.) Genotypes on the Rat Stomach: A Morphologic and Morphometric Study." International Journal of Morphology. 2020;38(4):940-946.
Kaoga J, Olago D, Ouma G, Ouma G, Onono J. "Appraisal of Land Use Transformation using Remote Sensing in Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2020;46(2):177-186. Abstractenieindia.org

Kajiado County is predominantly inhabited by the Maasai nomadic pastoralists who rely on natural systems for their provisions and production needs. Traditionally, communal land management has been the norm in the area but that has evolved under the swift development context with the private holding of land becoming prevalent. The land-use transformation has curtailed the traditional seasonal movement of livestock and that has exposed the Maasai community to production risks which have contributed to the widespread food insecurity in the area. To address this gap, the study investigated land-use transformation in the area using Landsat 8, 4 and 5 datasets, where 1987, 2000 and 2015 epochs with a spatial resolution of 30*30m were sourced from www.glovis.usgs.org Remote sensing technology used to evaluate biophysical attributes showed changes in land-use patterns with the bare area, built-up area, cropland, forested land, grassland, riverine, shrubland, waterbody and wetland having undergone significant changes in their respective sizes. These land-use transformations have been compounded with the spread of invasive species to the point of threatening pastoralism. However, the successive governments have shown a marked disdain for resource use patterns. Thus, there is need for an all-inclusive land-use policies to inform adaptation and resilience planning in Kajiado County, Kenya.

Keywords

Natural Resource; Pastoralism; Biophysical Attributes, Land-Use Transformation; Remote Sensing; Masai Pastoralists

Kaoga J, Olago D, Ouma G, Ouma G, Onono J. "Appraisal of Land Use Transformation using Remote Sensing in Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2020;46(2):177-186. Abstractnieindia.org

Kajiado County is predominantly inhabited by the Maasai nomadic pastoralists who rely on natural systems for their provisions and production needs. Traditionally, communal land management has been the norm in the area but that has evolved under the swift development context with the private holding of land becoming prevalent. The land-use transformation has curtailed the traditional seasonal movement of livestock and that has exposed the Maasai community to production risks which have contributed to the widespread food insecurity in the area. To address this gap, the study investigated land-use transformation in the area using Landsat 8, 4 and 5 datasets, where 1987, 2000 and 2015 epochs with a spatial resolution of 30*30m were sourced from www.glovis.usgs.org Remote sensing technology used to evaluate biophysical attributes showed changes in land-use patterns with the bare area, built-up area, cropland, forested land, grassland, riverine, shrubland, waterbody and wetland having undergone significant changes in their respective sizes. These land-use transformations have been compounded with the spread of invasive species to the point of threatening pastoralism. However, the successive governments have shown a marked disdain for resource use patterns. Thus, there is need for an all-inclusive land-use policies to inform adaptation and resilience planning in Kajiado County, Kenya.

Keywords

Natural Resource; Pastoralism; Biophysical Attributes, Land-Use Transformation; Remote Sensing; Masai Pastoralists

omari HK, Makokha, Abdalla S. Arabic for all. Nairobi: Chance Publishers; 2020.
Opanda S, Bulimo W, Gachara G, Ekuttan C, Amukoye E. "Assessing antigenic drift and phylogeny of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus in Kenya using HA1 sub-unit of the hemagglutinin gene." PLoS One. 2020;15(2):e0228029. Abstractpone.0228029.pdf

Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus emerged in North America in 2009 and has been established as a seasonal strain in humans. After an antigenic stasis of about six years, new antigenically distinct variants of the virus emerged globally in 2016 necessitating a change in the vaccine formulation for the first time in 2017. Herein, we analyzed thirty-eight HA sequences of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 strains isolated in Kenya during 2015-2018 seasons, to evaluate their antigenic and molecular properties based on the HA1 sub-unit. Our analyses revealed that the A (H1N1) pdm09 strains that circulated in Kenya during this period belonged to genetic clade 6B, subclade 6B.1 and 6B.2. The Kenyan 2015 and 2016 isolates differed from the vaccine strain A/California/07/2009 at nine and fourteen antigenic sites in the HA1 respectively. Further, those isolated in 2017 and 2018 correspondingly varied from A/Michigan/45/2015 vaccine strain at three and fifteen antigenic sites. The predicted vaccine efficacy of A/California/07/2009 against Kenyan 2015/2016 was estimated to be 32.4% while A/Michigan/45/2015 showed estimated vaccine efficacies of 39.6% - 41.8% and 32.4% - 42.1% against Kenyan 2017 and 2018 strains, respectively. Hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) assay using ferret post-infection reference antiserum showed that the titers for the Kenyan 2015/2016 isolates were 2-8-fold lower compared to the vaccine strain. Overall, our results suggest the A (H1N1) pdm09 viruses that circulated in Kenya during 2015/2016 influenza seasons were antigenic variants of the recommended vaccine strains, denoting sub-optimal vaccine efficacy. Additionally, data generated point to a swiftly evolving influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus in recent post pandemic era, underscoring the need for sustained surveillance coupled with molecular and antigenic analyses, to inform appropriate and timely influenza vaccine update.

Makori AO, Nyongesa AW, Odongo HO, Masai RJ. "Assessment of stress on serum estradiol and cortisol levels in female subordinate naked mole rats following isolation from natal colony." Journal of Biosciences and Medicines. 2020;8:9-17.
S.Senda T, Lance W. Robinson, K.K.Gachene C, Kironchi G, Doyo J. "An assessment of the implications of alternative scales of communal land tenure formalization in pastoral systems." Land use Policy. 2020;94.
Chebet EB, Kibet JK, Mbui D. "The assessment of water quality in river Molo water basin, Kenya." Applied Water Science. 2020;10(4):1-10. AbstractApplied Water Science

Description
The monitoring of water quality for both domestic and commercial use is absolutely essential for policy formulation that affects both public and environmental health. This study investigates the quality of water of river Molo system which lies in the Kenyan Rift Valley. The river is considered a vital source of water for the residents and industrial activities in Nakuru and Baringo Counties. Six water samples were collected during the dry season of December 2017. Various physicochemical parameters were determined in situ by use of a portable pH meter. These parameters included pH, temperature, electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids (TDS). Anions such as fluorides, sulfates, phosphates, nitrates, chlorides, carbonates and bicarbonates were determined using conventional methods such as titrimetry and (ultra-violet visible) UV–Vis techniques. The cations including sodium, potassium, calcium and …
Total citations
Cited by 1

Inyega J, Muchemi G. "Attitude towards undergraduate training in agriculture and veterinary sciences by secondary school students, teachers and parents in Kenya." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heautagogy in Academic Practice. 2020;1(1):8-18.
GO O, EK G, S N. "Audit on the management of early rheumatoid arthritis in Nairobi." Afr J Rheumatol. 2020;8(1):22-25. Abstractaudit_on_the_management_of_early_rheumatoid_arthitis_in_nairobi.pdf

Background
: Clinical audit for rheumatoid arthritis on patients over
the age of 18 years in Nairobi, Kenya within the first three months of referral to a specialist. Objective: The audit gives detailed
information on the following; access to care, quality of treatment and
care received by patients from their rheumatology team in these first 3 months and the early impact of arthritis on the patient’s life.
Design: This was a cross-sectional
survey. Results
: The audit included 100 patients referred to the Nairobi Arthritis
Clinic between January and April 2018. A majority (54%) had symptoms for
more than 6 months before being referred to a rheumatologist. Most of
the patients (83%) were seen within 3 weeks of referral. Disease Modifiying
Antirheumatic Drugs (DMARDs) were commenced in 90% within 6 weeks of
being seen at the clinic. Treatment to target was done in 98% of the patients
with a further 60% able to access the clinic within a day of flare of symptoms. Conclusion: The audit revealed the
need to improve on referral time to the rheumatologist. It was encouraging
to note that once they saw the rheumatologists the patients were
commenced on the proper treatment with the treat to target strategy. An area
that needs improvement is the time to access the rheumatologist in case of
side effect from the treatment or flare of the disease

OdongoMahacla, BeboraLillyCaroline, KagunyaDavid, KarabaW, MbuthisPG. Bacteriology and Mycology Handbook for Veterinary students.. Mauritius: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2020.
Orata D. Basic Statistical Thermodynamics. Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing; 2020. AbstractLap Lambert Academic Publishing

Basic Statistical Thermodynamics is a textbook suitable for senior undergraduate students and can be used also by posstgraduate students in Universities. This book is a culmination of over three decades of teaching at the University of Nairobi. The approach in the text is geared towards ensuring that, the student can use the book for self study. This has been achieved by showing in detail a step wise manner the derivation of the concepts and principles of statistical thermodynamics.

Mbugua JK, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) of Market Wastes from Nairobi Inoculated With Dagoretti Slaughterhouse Waste." Int J Sci Res Sci Eng & Technol.. 2020;7(4):81-90. Abstract

Background: Anaerobic degradation entails the conversion of substrate organic matter to biogas. A wide variety of substrate has been employed. The biochemical methane potential of twenty market wastes was investigated using rumen fluid inoculum.
Experimental: The proximate properties like carbohydrates, crude proteins, crude lipids, fibre, and moisture levels were determined using standard procedures. The physio-chemical analysis was done to investigate the ash, total solids and volatile matter content. The substrates biogas production capacity
based on elemental composition, COD, organic fraction composition was investigated. However, the BMP experiments were carried out at mesophillic conditions.
Results: The total biogas production was in the range of 1000 to 3500ml, with a methane composition of 56 – 60%. The biodegradability of the substrates ranges from 71 to 94%, subject to the lignin levels.
Conclusion: The BMP studies are vital in assessing the methane potential of the substrate without carrying out the experiments.
Keywords : Biogas, Methane, rumen fluid, market wastes.

Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM. Biogas Digester Automation.; 2020.
Bitange NM, Chemining’wa GN, Ambuko J, Owino W. "Can calcium sprays alleviate jelly seed in mango fruits?" Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics. 2020;Vol. 121 (1):35-42.abstract
Ogeng’o J, Ouko I, Wambui A, Amuti T. "A case Report on unusual elongation of the Sustentaculum tali." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2020;9(1):1678-1680.
Rop K, Mbui D, Karuku GN, Michira I, Njomo N. "Characterization of water hyacinth cellulose-g-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite polymer hydrogel composite for potential agricultural application." Results in Chemistry. 2020;2:100020. AbstractResults in Chemistry

Description
Polymer nano-composite was prepared by grafting partially neutralized acrylic acid onto swollen cellulose isolated from water hyacinth in the presence of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the free radical initiator. Water absorption tests showed an increase in swelling ratio of the copolymer with increased nano-HA content to value of 120 g/g at 2.5% w/v above which it declined. FTIR spectrum of nano-composite revealed grafting of the monomer (acrylic acid/ammonium acrylate) onto cellulose and nano-HA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nano-HA synthesized in the presence of Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) displayed rod-shaped agglomerates and nano-particle dispersion within the copolymer matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed the constituents of nano-composite to be …

Rop K, Mbui D, Karuku GN, Michira I, Njomo N. "Characterization of water hyacinth cellulose-g-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite polymer hydrogel composite for potential agricultural application." Results in Chemistry. 2020;2:100020. AbstractResults in Chemistry

Description
Polymer nano-composite was prepared by grafting partially neutralized acrylic acid onto swollen cellulose isolated from water hyacinth in the presence of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the free radical initiator. Water absorption tests showed an increase in swelling ratio of the copolymer with increased nano-HA content to value of 120 g/g at 2.5% w/v above which it declined. FTIR spectrum of nano-composite revealed grafting of the monomer (acrylic acid/ammonium acrylate) onto cellulose and nano-HA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nano-HA synthesized in the presence of Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) displayed rod-shaped agglomerates and nano-particle dispersion within the copolymer matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed the constituents of nano-composite to be …

Rop K, Mbui D, Karuku GN, Michira I, Njomo N. "Characterization of water hyacinth cellulose-g-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite polymer hydrogel composite for potential agricultural application." Results in Chemistry. 2020;2:100020. AbstractResults in Chemistry

Description
Polymer nano-composite was prepared by grafting partially neutralized acrylic acid onto swollen cellulose isolated from water hyacinth in the presence of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the free radical initiator. Water absorption tests showed an increase in swelling ratio of the copolymer with increased nano-HA content to value of 120 g/g at 2.5% w/v above which it declined. FTIR spectrum of nano-composite revealed grafting of the monomer (acrylic acid/ammonium acrylate) onto cellulose and nano-HA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nano-HA synthesized in the presence of Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) displayed rod-shaped agglomerates and nano-particle dispersion within the copolymer matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed the constituents of nano-composite to be …

Rop K, Mbui D, Karuku GN, Michira I, Njomo N. "Characterization of water hyacinth cellulose-g-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite polymer hydrogel composite for potential agricultural application." Results in Chemistry. 2020;2:100020. AbstractResults in Chemistry

Description
Polymer nano-composite was prepared by grafting partially neutralized acrylic acid onto swollen cellulose isolated from water hyacinth in the presence of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the free radical initiator. Water absorption tests showed an increase in swelling ratio of the copolymer with increased nano-HA content to value of 120 g/g at 2.5% w/v above which it declined. FTIR spectrum of nano-composite revealed grafting of the monomer (acrylic acid/ammonium acrylate) onto cellulose and nano-HA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nano-HA synthesized in the presence of Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) displayed rod-shaped agglomerates and nano-particle dispersion within the copolymer matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed the constituents of nano-composite to be …

Munene JM, Onyatta JO, Yusuf AO. "Characterization of Water Hyacinth Powder Using FTIR Spectroscopy and the Adsorption Behaviour of Pb2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Ni2+ and Cr2+ in Aqueous Solution ." Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research. 2020;6(1):47-55. AbstractAsian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research

Description
The adsorption behavior of selected metal ions on water hyacinth powder was investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Water hyacinth powder was used as an adsorbent due to its popularity, low cost and ease of availability. Water hyacinth stems were dried and ground to a powder. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted at room temperature by adding known concentrations of Pb 2+, Cd 2+, Cr 3+, Zn 2+ and Ni 2+ to 5 g of water hyacinth powder in different test tubes and allowed to stand for the same time respectively. Adsorption is one of the methods used to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions and wastewaters. FTIR analysis was performed to identify the functional groups in the water hyacinth powder using the KBr disc method. The study showed a strong broad absorption band in the region of 3300-3200cm-1 which is characteristic of OH stretching vibrations of the adsorbed water molecules at the surface of raw water hyacinth powder particles. Other peaks appeared at 1732cm-1 which corresponded to C= O stretching vibrations while the band at 1396cm-1 could be attributed to CH bonds. The functional groups identified were: CH; OH; C= O or CO. After adsorption there was a disappearance, reduction or a shift in the adsorption bands depending on the type of metal ion. Lead for example showed a strong absorption band in the region of 1732cm-1 which is characteristic of C= O stretching bond structure which is found in esters and carboxylic acids. The disappearance of the peaks indicated that the H atom present in the functional groups of the raw water hyacinth powder could have been substituted …

Chalo DM, Kakudidi E, Origa-Oryem H, Namukobe J, Franke K, Yenesew A, Wessjohann LA. "Chemical constituents of the roots of Ormocarpum sennoides subsp. zanzibaricum." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2020;93:104142. AbstractBiochemical Systematics and Ecology

Description
Phytochemical investigation of the roots of O. sennoides subsp. zanzibaricum Brenan & J.B. Gillett resulted in the isolation of three biflavonoids (trime-chamaejasmin, (+)- chamaejasmin, (+)-liquiritigeninyl-(I-3,II-3)-naringenin), one bi-4-phenyldihydrocoumarin (diphysin), one isoflavan (glabridin), one triterpenoid (3-O-acetyloleanoic acid) and a phytosterol (β-sitosterol). Compounds were identified by detailed MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses. Their absolute configurations were elucidated based on ECD spectra. The previously undescribed trime-chamaejasmin represents a bis-epi-chamaejasmenin C diastereomer. The chemophenetic significance is discussed in detail. The results contribute to the phytochemical characterization of the genus Ormocarpum and suggest a close chemophenetic relationship with other genera within the subfamily Papilionoideae. Furthermore, this report provides baseline …

Nyamweya NN, Kimani SN, Abuga KO. "Chewable Antacid Tablets: Are Disintegration Tests Relevant?" AAPS PharmSciTech . 2020;21:139. Abstract

A recently published FDA guidance on chewable tablets has addressed the quality attributes of this class of dosage forms. This study evaluated disintegration as a quality attribute for a number of commercially available chewable antacid tablets. Additionally, acid-neutralizing-capacity values were evaluated. A number of the products exhibited prolonged disintegration times—which were far longer than those of conventional immediate-release tablets. The mean disintegration times ranged from 6 to more than 60 min in distilled water and from 9 to over 60 min in 0.1 N HCl. The products with longer disintegration times had higher breaking force and tensile strength values. Despite the range in disintegration times, all products met the criteria for acid-neutralizing capacity. These results indicate a need for patients to be aware of the need to thoroughly chew antacid tablets upon administration. Given these considerations, disintegration testing would be a useful quality control test in evaluating these dosage forms as the implicit assumption by the manufacturer that patients will chew the product sufficiently may not be met in every case.

Owino JO, Olago D, Wandiga SO, Ndambi A. "A cluster analysis of variables essential for climate change adaptation of smallholder dairy farmers of Nandi County, Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2020;16(7):1007-1014. AbstractA cluster analysis of variables essential for climate change adaptation of smallholder dairy farmers of Nandi County, Kenyadoi.org

Smallholder dairy farmers occupy high potential areas of Kenya and are a source of manure, crops and milk. There is need to use other means of characterising smallholder dairy farmers as they mostly practice mixed farming. The objective of this paper is to use cluster analysis method to characterize the smallholder dairy farmers with added farmer and activity data variables. Clusters of 336 farmers in this study were derived using 28 key variables. This paper demonstrates how to conduct farmer assessments for climate change adaptation activities, climate smart technologies implementation using knowledge of key farmer variables and their distribution in the smallholder dairy farmers of Nandi County, Kenya. This paper demonstrates the importance of integrating agricultural information for smallholder dairy farmers to machine models to characterize the groups and observe the natural groupings. This allows for policy managers to know the key characteristics and how to use them in policy implementation especially in designing climate change adaptation programs factoring education and training of farmers as demonstrated in this paper that they are practicing many activities on their farms.

Key words: Cluster analysis, smallholder dairy farmers, farm utilisation, climate change adaptation.

KURIA JOSEPHNGEIK, MOGOI DONALD, GACHUHI SAMUELGUCHU. "Co-infection by dimorphic fungi in tuberculosis patients in Kenya." International Journal of Mycobacteriology. 2020;9:116-120.
Ongeri BO, Mutasa F. "Commercial banks’ performance and economic growth nexus: -An Empirical Analysis of Kenya’s Commercial Banks." International journal of scientific research and innovative technology . 2020;7(3):2313-3759.
Hassanali J., Pokhariyal G, P. M. "Comparative analysis of selected linear measurements of human and baboon brains." European Journal of anatomy. 2020;11 ((1)):9-16 . AbstractWebsite

The morphometric parameters of the brains of several mammals and primates show differences that are likely to be associated with cognitive and other functions necessary for survival as well as evolution. Seven human and eight baboon formalin-fixed brains were used to show comparative aspects. The whole brains were weighed, 3 from humans and 3 from baboons were separated into components -cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem- and their weights were recorded. The linear measurements of the cerebrum were occipito-frontal (O-F), fronto-temporal (F-T) temporo-occipital (T-O), height of temporal lobe (HTL), inter: frontal pole (F-F), occipital pole (O-O), parietal (P-P), temporal pole (T-T), and occipital lobe (OL-OL) from superior, lateral and inferior aspects. The proportions of brain weight relative to body weight and those of the brain components were mostly higher in the humans. The length, height and width of the human brains were higher than in the baboons. F-F was six times O-O in humans while other parameters were nearly double in humans as compared to baboons. The ratio of P-P to F-F was nearly 20 times in baboons as compared to 6 times in humans. The overall increase in human brain length, width and size of lobes could be related to increased body size, functional complexity, upright posture, and evolution. The lateral expansion in the size of the frontal, temporal and occipital lobes may be due to the complex circuitry associated with cognitive functions and life style. Several approaches have been proposed to determine factors related to increases in brain size, function and intelligence. Morphometry could be one tool to "explain" specific increases in brain areas.

Richard N. Onwonga, Ruth C. Sitienei, Joyce J. Lelei, Kamoni P. "Complementary Effects of Legume Integration and Fertilizer application on Soil Moisture and Long-Term Carbon Stocks in Maize Systems of Kabete Sub-County, Kenya." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2020.
Gawriluk TR, Simkin J, Hacker CK, Kimani JM, Kiama SG, Ezenwa VO, Seifert AW. "Complex Tissue Regeneration in Mammals Is Associated With Reduced Inflammatory Cytokines and an Influx of T Cells." Front. Immunol.. 2020;11(1695):1-19.
Akinyemi R, Sarfo F, Abd-Allah F, Ogun Y, Ogeng'o J. "Conceptual framework for establishing the African Stroke Organization .". 2020. AbstractWebsite

Abstract

Africa is the world's most genetically diverse, second largest, and second most populous continent, with over one billion people distributed across 54 countries. With a 23% lifetime risk of stroke, Africa has some of the highest rates of stroke worldwide and many occur in the prime of life with huge economic losses and grave implications for the individual, family, and the society in terms of mental capital, productivity, and socioeconomic progress. Tackling the escalating burden of stroke in Africa requires prioritized, multipronged, and inter-sectoral strategies tailored to the unique African epidemiological, cultural, socioeconomic, and lifestyle landscape. The African Stroke Organization (ASO) is a new pan-African coalition that brings together stroke researchers, clinicians, and other health-care professionals with participation of national and regional stroke societies and stroke support organizations. With a vision to reduce the rapidly increasing burden of stroke in Africa, the ASO has a four-pronged focus on (1) research, (2) capacity building, (3) development of stroke services, and (4) collaboration with all stakeholders. This will be delivered through advocacy, awareness, and empowerment initiatives to bring about people-focused changes in policy, clinical practice, and public education. In the spirit of the African philosophy of Ubuntu "I am because we are," the ASO will harness the power of diversity, inclusiveness, togetherness, and team work to build a strong, enduring, and impactful platform for tackling stroke in Africa.

Owino JO, Olago D, Wandiga SO, Ndambi A. "Constraints limiting the improvement of manure management as climate smart technology for smallholder dairy farmers." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2020;16(8):1155-1168. Abstractacademicjournals.org

The global quest for a sustainable bio-economy has brought to the fore importance of engaging agricultural systems in the production and in practice change. There have been issues limiting farmers from improving the practice of manure management as smart climate technology. The objective of this paper was to highlight the constraints, type, and valuation of manure types and information sources that smallholder dairy farmers find it useful to change Practices regarding manure management. In this present study, 336 smallholder dairy farmers were surveyed on various constraints the farmers faced and, on the type, and value of different manure types and information on manure management received by the farmers. The study used descriptive statistics for the variables and compared them using frequency tables. The key findings from this study would support information to stakeholders in inducing climate-smart manure management practices as a climate adaptation practice. The study highlights the type of information systems that determine areas for further investigation as drivers of practice change for smallholder dairy farmers. The paper focuses on these constraints and synthesizes them into factors that determine practice change on manure management by smallholder dairy farmers in order to improve manure management.

Key words: Manure management, agricultural information, smallholder dairy farmers, practice change,
information value.

Oluoch JO, Rambo CM, Pokhariyal GP. "Data Dissemination and Use and Provision of Curative and Preventive Tuberculosis Health Care Services in Public Health Institutions in Kisumu County, Kenya ." European Journal of Business and Management Research. 2020;5((1)). Abstractview

The study sought to determine how data dissemination and use influence provision of curative and preventive tuberculosis healthcare in institutions of public health in Kisumu County, Kenya. The study focused on public health institutions that practices M&E system on provision of curative and preventive tuberculosis healthcare services. The study employed the use of pragmatism paradigm and a descriptive research design to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. A correlational design was used to test the hypothesis. A sample of 221 respondents was selected from a population of 517 using stratified random sampling. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire with both open and close ended with Likert type on 1-5 five point scale and interview schedule. Correlational design was used to test the hypothesis. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and data presented in frequency tables using means and standard deviations while qualitative data was presented in in narrative statements. Hypothesis was tested using linear regression at 0.05 level of significance to determine the degree and direction of relationships among the thematic area of the study. The reliability of the instruments was obtained using Cronbach Alpha coefficient of 0.735 for all items meaning that the instruments were reliable. The results showed that data dissemination and use and provision of curative and preventive tuberculosis health care services in public health institutions had [r2=0.186, p<0.05]. The results for quantitative data based on composite mean score of 3.91 and 0.466 standard deviation for this variable respectively. Therefore, data dissemination and use influence provision of curative and preventive tuberculosis healthcare services in public health institutions.

Nicholas M. Jacob, Shem O. Wandiga DKVMKO. "Degradation of Aflatoxin in Maize using Ferulic Acid (Phydroxy-3-Methyl Cinnamic Acid) Catalyzed by Hydrogen Peroxide." International Journal of Food Science . 2020;3(1):1-17.
S D, GO O, V O-H. "Depression and its association with disease activity and quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis at the Kenyatta National Ho." Afr J Rheumatol. 2020;8(1):15-21. Abstractdepression_and_its_association_with_disease_activity.pdf

Background: Rheumatoid arthritis
is a systemic inflammatory disease that affects the synovial membrane,
resulting in the structural damage of cartilage, bone and ligaments. The
course of RA differs between patients, and its severity can range from selflimiting
disease to severe destruction and systemic complications. RA affects
patients physically, psychologically and socially. Patients experience pain,
joint swelling, stiffness, functional limitations and fatigue and overall poor
quality of life. In addition, they report anxiety and depressive symptoms
and concerns about increased physical limitations. Experiencing
psychological distress may inflate the subjective severity of patient-reported
symptoms such as pain and tenderness. Furthermore, patients experience a
loss of independence and restrictions in participation, i.e. a decrease in
socializing which may in turn propagate symptoms of depression. An accurate
description of the relationship between depression, disease severity and quality
of life is necessary for our setting. If an interaction exists, then there is a
group of vulnerable patients who could benefit from earlier identification
of depression and the impact their disease has on HRQoL and appropriate
management provided. Objective: To determine the prevalence
of depression and the relationship between depression, disease activity
and quality of life in ambulatory patients with rheumatoid arthritis at
the Kenyatta National Hospital.Design: A descriptive-cross sectional

Sala, M.S., Otieno JD, Nzuma, M.J., Mureithi, S.M. "Determinants of Pastoralists’ Participation in Commercial Fodder Markets for Livelihood Resilience in Drylands of Northern Kenya: Case of Isiolo." Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice . 2020;10(1):DOI: 10.1186/s13570-020-00166-1.
Sola L, Levin NW, Johnson DW, Pecoits-Filho R, Aljubori HM, Chen Y, Claus S, Collins A, Cullis B, Feehally J, Harden PN, Hassan MH, Ibhais F, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Levin A, Saleh A, Schneditz D, Tchokhonelidze I, Kazancioglu RT, Twahir A, Walker R, Were AJO, Yu X, Finkelstein FO. "Development of a framework for minimum and optimal safety and quality standards for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis." Kidney International Supplements. 2020.
Langat MK, Ndunda BM, Salter C, Odusina BO, Isyaka SM, Mas-Claret E, Onocha PA, Midiwo JO, Nuzillard J-M, Mulholland DA. "Diterpenoids from the stem bark of Croton megalocarpoides Friis & MG Gilbert." Phytochemistry Letters. 2020;39:1-7. AbstractPhytochemistry Letters

Description
Five previously undescribed compounds, megalocarpoidolide I (1), megalocarpoidolide J (3), 12-epi-crotonzambefuran A (4), megalocarpoidolide K (5), 1-trans-p-hydroxycoumaroyl–geranylgerani-1-ol (6) were isolated from the stem bark of Croton megalocarpoides Friis & M. G. Gilbert. The known ent-trachyloban-18-ol, megalocarpoidolide B, megalocarpoidolide C (2), megalocarpoidolide H, crotocorylifuran, 7,8-dehydrocrotocorylifuran, 1,2-dehydrocrotocorylifuran-2-one, acetyl aleuritolic acid, lupeol, N-trans-p-coumaroyl-3′,4′-dihydroxyphenylethylamine, dodecyl trans-ferulate and lignoceryl trans-ferulate were also isolated. The structures of the compounds were determined using NMR, IR spectroscopy and HRMS. The structure of compound 1 was determined using Logic for Structural Determination (LSD). Compounds 1, 2 and 3 that were selected for screening based on their ability to add diversity to the …

Mbithi ML. "Does COMESA Have Export Potential to Emerging Economies?" Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development. 2020;11(10):58-65.
Shah P. "Domestication of the Ramsar Convention in Kenya." Towards realizing of Vision 2030: Kenya Policy Briefs. Office of the DVC Research, Innovation and Extension. University of Nairobi. . 2020;1(1):13-14.
Brizuela V, Bonet M, Romero CLT, Abalos E, Baguiya A, Fawole B, Knight M, Lumbiganon P, Minkauskienė M, Nabhan A, Osman NB, Qureshi ZP, Souza JP. "Early evaluation of the ‘STOP SEPSIS!’ WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Awareness Campaign implemented for healthcare providers in 46 low, middle and high-income countries." British Medical Journal . 2020;10(5). AbstractWebsite

Objective To evaluate changes in awareness of maternal sepsis among healthcare providers resulting from the WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Study (GLOSS) awareness campaign.

Design Independent sample precampaign/postcampaign through online and paper-based surveys available for over 30 days before campaign roll-out (pre) and after study data collection (post). Descriptive statistics were used for campaign recognition and exposure, and odds ratio (OR) and percentage change were calculated for differences in awareness, adjusting for confounders using multivariate logistic regression.

Setting and participants Healthcare providers from 398 participating facilities in 46 low, middle and high-income countries.

Intervention An awareness campaign to accompany GLOSS launched 3 weeks prior to data collection and lasting the entire study period (28 November 2017 to 15 January 2018) and beyond.

Main outcome measures Campaign recognition and exposure, and changes in awareness.

Results A total of 2188 surveys were analysed: 1155 at baseline and 1033 at postcampaign. Most survey respondents found the campaign materials helpful (94%), that they helped increase awareness (90%) and that they helped motivate to act differently (88%). There were significant changes with regard to: not having heard of maternal sepsis (−63.4% change, pre-OR/post-OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.68) and perception of confidence in making the right decisions with regard to maternal sepsis identification and management (7.3% change, pre-OR/post-OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.06).

Conclusions Awareness raising campaigns can contribute to an increase in having heard of maternal sepsis and an increase in provider perception of confidence in making correct decisions. Offering the information to make accurate and timely decisions while promoting environments that enable self-confidence and support could improve maternal sepsis identification and management.

Alphayo I. Lutta, Lance W. Robinson, Oliver V. Wasonga, Ruto E, Jason Sircely, Nyangito MM. "Economic valuation of grazing management practices: discrete choice modeling in pastoral systems of Kenya." Environmental Planning and Management. 2020;63(2).
S W, A K, S K, I M. "Effect of Combining Clinical Teaching Tools on Clinical Judgment Skills of Undergraduate Nursing Students in Kenya." South Asian Research Journal of Nursing and Healthcare . 2020;2(1):117-123.
A.M H, Ongeri BO. "Effect of Islamic banking development on economic growth –A case of the Kenyan Economy." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology . 2020;7(2).
Busienei J, Irungu P, Gichungi H, Muriithi B, Diiro G. "Effect of Technological Innovation on Gender Roles: The Case of Fruit Fly IPM Adoption on Women’s Decision‑Making in Mango Production and Marketing in Kenya." The European Journal of Development Research. 2020;10.1057(s41287-020-00282-z).
OTHOO, Dulo, Olago, D. O., Ayah. "Effects of Shallow Water Table on the Construction of Pit Latrines and Shallow Wells in the Informal Settlements of Kisumu City." Sanitation Value Chain, J-STAGE an electronic journal platform for science and technology. 2020;5(1).
Maina J, Wandiga S, Gyampoh B, Gachene C. "Effects of Supplemental Irrigation on Crop Yields: Case Study Kales (Brassica Oleracea) Crop." Journal of Ecological Engineering. 2020;(21):209-213. AbstractEcological Engineering

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects that supplemental irrigation (SI) has on Kale (Brassica Oleracea) crop yields as compared to wholly rain-fed crop. The experiments were conducted in Kieni, Central Kenya where the rainfall pattern was bimodal. The planting for rain-fed crops was done in three blocks each measuring 10m x1m with a spacing of 30cm between plants and 45cm between rows of plants and the procedure repeated for the crops receiving SI. The average weekly yields were computed for both crops for each season comprised of 14 weeks. The average weekly yields were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to determine whether the average yields from rain-fed and supplemental irrigated crops were statistically different. This was done by MS Excel 2016 spread sheets by setting a statistical level of significance of 5%. F value was 17.94 higher than the critical value of 4.01 while the P-value of 9x10-5 was lower than the 5% level of confidence meaning that there was a significant difference in the yield means of rain-fed and SI crops. The total rain-fed crop yields for the period was 147.0 Kgs and that of the one under SI was 238Kgs, an increase of about 62%. Therefore, supplemental irrigation can be adopted in areas where rainfall trends are declining to increase crop yields when all other factors remain constant for farmers to increase resilience.

Kaunda, Mwea, Dulo. "Emissions of Vehicular Traffic along Uhuru Highway Corridor in Nairobi." Journal of Engineering and Architecture. 2020;8(2):22-27.
G M, G MI, J M. "End-of-Life Care Education Needs OF Nurses: A Cross-Sectional Study." Annals of Nursing and Practice. 2020;7(1).
Mwangi M, Kituyi E, Ouma G. "Enhancing adoption of climate services through an innovation systems approach." Scientific African. 2020:e00445. Abstractdoi.org

Abstract
Recent years have marked the emergence of the innovation systems approach as a shift from the conventional linear models of technology transfer. Linear technology diffusion models hinder participatory approaches of local actors such as smallholder farmers and regards them as spectators in the development process, which impedes wide adoption of technology by the intended beneficiary. This article sought to understand the potential of the innovations systems approach as an incentive to enhance the adoption of climate services by smallholder farmers through regarding them and other relevant stakeholders as part of the process, fostering knowledge sharing and interactive learning. The methodology included stakeholder/actor identification, mapping of stakeholder linkages, capacity building and active involvement of stakeholders through the climate services process. The results showed that unlike the conventional linear knowledge delivery process, the innovation systems approach takes into consideration the complex processes that are highlighted by non-linear processes, feedback loops, and other complex interactions that occur among heterogeneous actors. As such in place of the linear knowledge delivery approach, a more systems approach is necessary to help mobilize science and technology such as climate services to deliver benefits, which has the potential to enhance access, salience, credibility, and legitimacy of the scientific information.

Keywords
Innovation systems approach; Climate services; Stakeholder linkages; Adoption

Bauza V, Madadi V, Ocharo R, Nguyen TH, Guest JS. "Enteric pathogens from water, hands, surface, soil, drainage ditch, and stream exposure points in a low-income neighborhood of Nairobi, Kenya." Science of The Total Environment. 2020;709:135344. AbstractScience of The Total Environment

Description
Child exposure to fecal-oral pathogens occurs through several transmission pathways. However, the relative importance of different exposure points for pathogen transmission both inside and outside households is not well understood. We conducted a cross-sectional study in the urban slum of Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya, collecting 237 environmental samples from 40 households from source water, stored drinking water, caregiver hands, child hands, household surfaces, soil, standing water, open drainage ditches, and streams. We quantified the fecal indicator Escherichia coli and the enteric pathogens of adenovirus, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella spp./enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), and Vibrio cholerae. At least one enteric pathogens was detected in 13% of household stored water, 47% of hand, 46% of table surface, 26% of plate surface, 75% of floor surface, 96% of soil, 56% of standing water, 77% of drainage ditch …

Bauza V, Madadi V, Ocharo R, Nguyen TH, Guest JS. "Enteric pathogens from water, hands, surface, soil, drainage ditch, and stream exposure points in a low-income neighborhood of Nairobi, Kenya." Science of The Total Environment. 2020;709(March 2020):135344.
Okumu MO, Mbaria JM, Gikunju JK, Mbuthia PG, Madadi VO, Ochola FO. "Enzymatic activity and brine shrimp lethality of venom from the large brown spitting cobra (Naja ashei) and its neutralization by antivenom." BCM Research Notes. 2020;13(25):1-7.
Urinayo V. KODKA. "Erratic Rainfall Patterns Impact on Water Quality of Yanze River, Kigali Rwanda." Journal of Climate Change and Sustainability. 2020;3(2):49-57.
Wanjala G, Ongosi BO. "Establishing the Impact of Double-Intake Programmes on the Physical Infrastructural Learning Environment at the University of Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge . 2020;5(2):17-29 .abstract.pdf
Magutu PO, Inyega JO, Nyaanga RO. Evidence-based training assessment approaches and methodologies in procurement planning and supply chain managemen. Knowledge Empowerment Foundation. ISBN: 978-81-942015-4-0; 2020.
Musa AM, Wasonga OV, Mtimet N. "Factors influencing livestock export in Somaliland’s terminal markets." Pastoralism Research, Policy and Practice . 2020;10(2020 10:1 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13570-019-0155-7).factors_influencing_livestock_export_in_somaliland._musa_et_al._2020.pdf
Mburu J, Mbogoh SG, Bundi A, Ambuko JL. "Factors influencing the adoption of pre-harvest practices among mango farmers in Embu and Machakos counties, Kenya." International Journal of Postharvest Technology and Innovation. 2020;Vol. 7(1):pp.56-72.
Mbogoh SG, Ambuko JL, Mburu J, Bundi A. "Factors influencing the adoption of pre-harvest practices among mango farmers in Embu and Machakos counties, Kenya." International Journal of Postharvest Technology and Innovation. 2020;Vol. 7(1):pp.56-72.
Wamitila KW. "Factual and Fictional Narratives in East African Literatures.". In: NARRATIVE FACTUALITY: A HANDBOOK EDITED BY: MONIKA FLUDERNIK & MARIE-LAURE RYAN . Berlin/ Boston: De Gruyter; 2020.
Muthini D, Nzuma J, Nyikal R. "Farm production diversity and its association with dietary diversity in Kenya." Food Security. 2020;https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-020-01030-1.
Mitchell EJ, Qureshi ZP, Were F, Daniels J, Gwako G, Osoti A, Opira J, Bradshaw L, Oliver M, Pallotti P, Ojha S. "Feasibility of using an Early Warning Score for preterm or low birthweight infants in a low-resource setting: results of a mixed-methods study at a national referral hospital in Kenya." BMJ Open. 2020;10(10). AbstractWebsite

Abstract

Introduction: Fifteen million babies are born prematurely, before 37 weeks gestational age, globally. More than 80% of these are in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. 35% of all deaths in the first month of life are due to prematurity and the neonatal mortality rate is eight times higher in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) than in Europe. Early Warning Scores (EWS) are a way of recording vital signs using standardised charts to easily identify adverse clinical signs and escalate care appropriately. A range of EWS have been developed for neonates, though none in LMICs. This paper reports the findings of early work to examine if the use of EWS is feasible in LMICs.

Methods: We conducted an observational study to understand current practices for monitoring of preterm infants at a large national referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Using hospital records, data were collected over an 8-week period in 2019 on all live born infants born at <37 weeks and/or <2500 g (n=294, 255 mothers) in the first week of life. Using a chart adopted from the EWS developed by the British Association of Perinatal Medicine, we plotted infants' vital signs. In addition, we held group discussions with stakeholders in Kenya to examine opinions on use of EWS.

Results: Recording of vital signs was variable; only 63% of infants had at least one temperature recorded and 53% had at least one heart rate and respiratory rate recorded. Stakeholders liked the traffic-light system and simplicity of the chart, though recognised challenges, such as staffing levels and ability to print in colour, to its adoption.

Conclusion: EWS may standardise documentation and identify infants who are at higher risk of an adverse outcome. However, human and non-human resource issues would need to be explored further before development of an EWS for LMICs.

V O, A A, A K. "Fertility transition in selected sub-Saharan African countries: the role of family planning programs ." F1000Research. 2020;8(1748). AbstractWebsite

Change in fertility rate across societies is a complex process that involves changes in the demand for children, the diffusion of new attitudes about family planning and greater accessibility to contraception. Scholars have concentrated on a range of factors associated with fertility majorly at the national scale. However, considerably less attention has been paid to fertility preference - a pathway through which various variables act on fertility. It is understood that women have inherent fertility preferences which each they seek to achieve over her reproductive cycle. However, the service delivery enhancement levels and capacity across countries as integral pathways to this goal accomplishment stand on their way towards eventual outcomes. Precisely, the Sub-Saharan African countries’ disparities amid similarities in their population policies is a cause of concern.

Bohlin-Nizzetto P, Melymuk L, B.White K, Kalina J, Madadi VO, SamAdu-Kumi, Prokeš R, Přibylová P, Klánová J. "Field- and model-based calibration of polyurethane foam passive air samplers in different climate regions highlights differences in sampler uptake performance." Atmospheric Environment. 2020;238(117742).
Chitedze I, Nwedeh CC, Ang’u C. "Financial Modelling of Feed-In Tariff for Increasing Solar Photovoltaic Energy Portfolio in Malawi." Journal of Energy and Natural Resources. 2020;9(1):14-27.
Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Wanja DW, Mwadime JM, Ngowi HA. "Fish husbandry practices and water quality in central Kenya: potential risk factors for fish mortality and infectious Diseases." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International . 2020;2020.
Wanja DW, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Mwandime JM, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Ngowi, H. "Fish husbandry practices and water quality in central Kenya: Potential risk factors for fish mortality and infectious diseases." Veterinary Medicine International. 2020;2020.
Bebora LC, Mbuthia PG, Nyaga PN, Waruiru RM, Wanja DW, H.A N. "Fish Husbandry Practices and Water Quality in Central Kenya: Potential Risk Factors for Fish Mortality and Infectious Diseases." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International . 2020;2020.abstract.pdf
Derese S. "Flavonoids and Isoflavonoids of Millettia dura and Millettia ferruginea: Phytochemical review and chemotaxonomic values." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2020;91. Abstract

The phytochemical information on Millettia dura Dunn, M. ferruginea (Hochst.) Baker and M. ferruginea subsp. darassana (Cufod.) J.B. Gillett was reviewed. All the three taxa elaborate mainly isoflavones (33 reported), occurring in the flowers, seeds/seed pods, stem bark and root bark. Out of the 33 isoflavones reported, some 19 (ca. 58%) contain prenyl at C-8 or its modification as 2,2-dimethylchromene ring at C-7/C-8, occurring in all the three taxa. Except for three isoflavones isolated from M. ferruginea subsp. darassana, all the isoflavones of these taxa are 5-deoxygenated. In these taxa, oxygenation at C-6 is a common feature, while isoflavones with C-8 oxygenation are rare, only three reported, and all of these from M. dura. There are 7 rotenoids reported from these taxa, and occur almost entirely in the seeds/seedpods of these plants. The major rotenoid with methylenedioxy group at C-2/C-3, millettone and its 12a-hydroxy derivative, millettosine, occur only in M. dura, this appears to distinguish M. dura from M. ferruginea.

Buyinza D, Chalo DM, Derese S, Ndakala A, Yenesew A. "Flavonoids and Isoflavonoids of Millettia dura and Millettia ferruginea: Phytochemical review and chemotaxonomic values." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2020;91:104053. AbstractBiochemical Systematics and Ecology

Description
The phytochemical information on Millettia dura Dunn, M. ferruginea (Hochst.) Baker and M. ferruginea subsp. darassana (Cufod.) J.B. Gillett was reviewed. All the three taxa elaborate mainly isoflavones (33 reported), occurring in the flowers, seeds/seed pods, stem bark and root bark. Out of the 33 isoflavones reported, some 19 (ca. 58%) contain prenyl at C-8 or its modification as 2,2-dimethylchromene ring at C-7/C-8, occurring in all the three taxa. Except for three isoflavones isolated from M. ferruginea subsp. darassana, all the isoflavones of these taxa are 5-deoxygenated. In these taxa, oxygenation at C-6 is a common feature, while isoflavones with C-8 oxygenation are rare, only three reported, and all of these from M. dura. There are 7 rotenoids reported from these taxa, and occur almost entirely in the seeds/seedpods of these plants. The major rotenoid with methylenedioxy group at C-2/C-3, millettone and its …

Buyinza D, Chalo DM, Derese S, Ndakala A, Yenesew A. "Flavonoids and Isoflavonoids of Millettia dura and Millettia ferruginea: Phytochemical review and chemotaxonomic values." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2020;91:104053. AbstractBiochemical Systematics and Ecology

Description
The phytochemical information on Millettia dura Dunn, M. ferruginea (Hochst.) Baker and M. ferruginea subsp. darassana (Cufod.) J.B. Gillett was reviewed. All the three taxa elaborate mainly isoflavones (33 reported), occurring in the flowers, seeds/seed pods, stem bark and root bark. Out of the 33 isoflavones reported, some 19 (ca. 58%) contain prenyl at C-8 or its modification as 2,2-dimethylchromene ring at C-7/C-8, occurring in all the three taxa. Except for three isoflavones isolated from M. ferruginea subsp. darassana, all the isoflavones of these taxa are 5-deoxygenated. In these taxa, oxygenation at C-6 is a common feature, while isoflavones with C-8 oxygenation are rare, only three reported, and all of these from M. dura. There are 7 rotenoids reported from these taxa, and occur almost entirely in the seeds/seedpods of these plants. The major rotenoid with methylenedioxy group at C-2/C-3, millettone and its …

Focus Grade 5 Kiswahili. . Nairobi: Focus publishers; 2020.
Focus Grade 5 T/G.. Nairobi: Focus publishers; 2020.
"Formal Features in Alex la Guma’s “Come Back to Tashkent." Asian Journal of African Studies,. 2020;47(1):99-119.
Bonet M, Brizuela V, Abalos E, Cuesta C, Baguiya A, Group TWHOGMSS(GLOSS) R. "Frequency and management of maternal infection in health facilities in 52 countries: Results of the WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Study (GLOSS), a one-week inception cohort." Lancet Global Health. . 2020;8(5):661-671. AbstractWebsite

Background
Maternal infections are an important cause of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity. We report the main findings of the WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Study, which aimed to assess the frequency of maternal infections in health facilities, according to maternal characteristics and outcomes, and coverage of core practices for early identification and management.
Methods
We did a facility-based, prospective, 1-week inception cohort study in 713 health facilities providing obstetric, midwifery, or abortion care, or where women could be admitted because of complications of pregnancy, childbirth, post-partum, or post-abortion, in 52 low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) and high-income countries (HICs). We obtained data from hospital records for all pregnant or recently pregnant women hospitalised with suspected or confirmed infection. We calculated ratios of infection and infection-related severe maternal outcomes (ie, death or near-miss) per 1000 livebirths and the proportion of intrahospital fatalities across country income groups, as well as the distribution of demographic, obstetric, clinical characteristics and outcomes, and coverage of a set of core practices for identification and management across infection severity groups.
Findings
Between Nov 28, 2017, and Dec 4, 2017, of 2965 women assessed for eligibility, 2850 pregnant or recently pregnant women with suspected or confirmed infection were included. 70·4 (95% CI 67·7–73·1) hospitalised women per 1000 livebirths had a maternal infection, and 10·9 (9·8–12·0) women per 1000 livebirths presented with infection-related (underlying or contributing cause) severe maternal outcomes. Highest ratios were observed in LMICs and the lowest in HICs. The proportion of intrahospital fatalities was 6·8% among women with severe maternal outcomes, with the highest proportion in low-income countries. Infection-related maternal deaths represented more than half of the intrahospital deaths. Around two-thirds (63·9%, n=1821) of the women had a complete set of vital signs recorded, or received antimicrobials the day of suspicion or diagnosis of the infection (70·2%, n=1875), without marked differences across severity groups.
Interpretation
The frequency of maternal infections requiring management in health facilities is high. Our results suggest that contribution of direct (obstetric) and indirect (non-obstetric) infections to overall maternal deaths is greater than previously thought. Improvement of early identification is urgently needed, as well as prompt management of women with infections in health facilities by implementing effective evidence-based practices.

Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Midiwo JO, Byamukama R, Kamau RW, Kumarihamy M, Muhammad I. "Full View Synthesis of a pyrrolidine derivative of a carvotacetone and monoterpenes for anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and anti-cryptococcal properties." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-8. AbstractNatural Product Research

Abstract
Monoterpene derivatives are of great biological relevance in the pharmaceutical industry. In the present study, pyrrolidine derivative of a carvotacetone, 3-O-benzylcarvotacetone (1), and selected monoterpenes (3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (3) and cis-piperitol (5)) were prepared to provide (R)-1-(4-(benzyloxy)-5-isopropyl-2-methylcyclohexa-1,3-dien-1-yl)-pyrrolidine (2), 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-3,6-dioxocyclohexa-1,4-dien-1-yl acetate (4), cis-3-hydroxypiperitone (6) and carvacrol (7). Structure of 2 was determined based on NMR and HRMS spectral data. Compound 4 exhibited activity against fungi Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of < 0.8 µg/mL. In addition, this compound 4 had an IC50 value of 14.97 µg/mL against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Previous to the current study, both compound 6 and 7 had been reported to have anti-microbial and anti-fungal activities.

Graphical abstract
Keywords: MonoterpenesCarvacrolCis-3-hydroxypiperitoneAnti-MRSAAnti-cryptococcal

Orata D. Fundamentals of Electrochemistry. Germany: Lambert Academic Publisher; 2020. AbstractLap Lambert Academic Publishing

Fundamentals of Electrochemistry is a text which discusses all aspects of the electrochemical processes. This includes, discussions ranging from primary definition of terms in electrochemistry to solution of advanced electrochemical equations which is key in explaining the various electrode processes. The textbook is ideal for senior undergraduate and postgraduate students in Universities.

Wanyonyi LS. "Further remarks on unitary equivalence of some classes of operators in Hilbert spaces." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(3):06-10. Abstractfull text

In this paper we investigate results on unitary equivalence of operators that include n-binormal, skew
binormal and n-power-hyponormal operators acting on complex Hilbert space H.
AMS subject classification 47B47, 47A30, 47B20.

"Gendered Analysis of the Demand for Poultry Feed in Kenya. ." Agricultural Economics Research, Policy and Practice in Southern Africa – Agrekon. 2020;(ISSN: 0303-1853 ).
Nyang'au EM, Bulimo WD, Mobegi V, Opanda S, Magiri E. "Genetic Analysis of HA1 Domain of Influenza A/H3N2 Viruses Isolated in Kenya During the 2007 to 2013 Seasons Reveal Significant Divergence from WHO-Recommended Vaccine Strains." Int J Infect Dis. 2020. Abstractnyagau_et_al_2020.pdf

BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses evolve rapidly and cause regular seasonal epidemics in humans challenging effective vaccination. The virus surface HA glycoprotein is the primary target for the host immune response. Here, we investigated the vaccine efficacy and evolution patterns of human influenza A/H3N2 viruses that circulated in Kenyan in the period before and after the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic, targeting the HA1 domain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A hundred and fifteen HA sequences of Kenyan virus viruses were analyzed relative to the corresponding WHO vaccine reference strains using bioinformatics approaches. RESULTS: Our analyses revealed varied amino acid substitutions at all the five antigenic sites (A-E) of the HA1 domain, with a majority the changes occurring at sites A and B. The Kenyan A/H3N2 viruses isolated during 2007/2008 seasons belonged to A/Brisbane/10/2007- like viruses lineage, while those circulating in 2009 to 2012 belonged to the lineage of A/Victoria/361/2011-like viruses. The 2013 viruses clustered in clade 3C.3 of the A/Samara/73/2013-like viruses. The mean evolutionary rate of the A/H3N2 viruses analyzed in the study was at 4.17×10(-3) (95% HPD=3.09×10(-3) to 5.31×10(-3)) nucleotide substitutions per site per year, whereas the TMRCA was estimated at 11.18 (95% HPD=9.00-14.12) years ago from 2013. The Prediction of vaccine efficacy revealed modest vaccine efficaciousness during 2008, and 2010 influenza seasons, whilst sub-optimal effectiveness was registered in 2007,2009, 2012 and 2013. Further, the overall selective pressure acting on the HA1 domain was estimated at 0.56 (ω<1), suggesting that a majority of codon sites in the HA1 epitopes were evolving under purifying selection. CONCLUSIONS: Generally, our results highlight the genetic plasticity of A/H3N2 viruses and reveal considerable disparity in vaccine efficaciousness against the A/H3N2 viruses that circulated in Kenya, specifically during 2007,2009, 2012, and 2013 influenza seasons. Our findings underscore the importance and need for consistent surveillance and molecular characterization of influenza viruses, to inform decision making and enhance early of detection of strains with epidemic/pandemic potential as well as benefit in guiding decisions regarding the appropriate annual influenza vaccine formulations.

Elusah J, Bulimo WD, Opanda SM, Symekher SL, Wamunyokoli F. "Genetic diversity and evolutionary analysis of human respirovirus type 3 strains isolated in Kenya using complete hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene." PLOS ONE. 2020;15(3):e0229355. Abstractelusa_et_al_2020.pdfWebsite

Human respirovirus type 3 (HRV3) is a leading etiology of lower respiratory tract infections in young children and ranks only second to the human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV). Despite the public health importance of HRV3, there is limited information about the genetic characteristics and diversity of these viruses in Kenya. To begin to address this gap, we analyzed 35 complete hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) sequences of HRV3 strains isolated in Kenya between 2010 and 2013. Viral RNA was extracted from the isolates, and the entire HN gene amplified by RT-PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequences revealed that all the Kenyan isolates grouped into genetic Cluster C; sub-clusters C1a, C2, and C3a. The majority (54%) of isolates belonged to sub-cluster C3a, followed by C2 (43%) and C1a (2.9%). Sequence analysis revealed high identities between the Kenyan isolates and the HRV3 prototype strain both at the amino acid (96.5–97.9%) and nucleotide (94.3–95.6%) levels. No amino acid variations affecting the catalytic/active sites of the HN glycoprotein were observed among the Kenyan isolates. Selection pressure analyses showed that the HN glycoprotein was evolving under positive selection. Evolutionary analyses revealed that the mean TMRCA for the HN sequence dataset was 1942 (95% HPD: 1928–1957), while the mean evolutionary rate was 4.65x10-4 nucleotide substitutions/site/year (95% HPD: 2.99x10-4 to 6.35x10-4). Overall, our results demonstrate the co-circulation of strains of cluster C HRV3 variants in Kenya during the study period. This is the first study to describe the genetic and molecular evolutionary aspects of HRV3 in Kenya using the complete HN gene.

Astère Bararyenya, Bode A. Olukolu, Phinehas Tukamuhabwa, Wolfgang J. Grüneberg, Ekaya W, Jan Low, Mildred Ochwo-Ssemakula TOL. "Genome-wide association study identified candidate genes controlling continuous storage root formation and bulking in hexaploid sweetpotato." BMC Plant Biology . 2020;20(1):1-16.
SM Mwendwa, Mbuvi JP, Kironchi G, Gachene CKK. "A geopedological approach to soil classification to characterize soils of Upper Kabete Campus Field, University of Nairobi, Kenya ." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2020.
SM Mwendwa, Mbuvi JP, Kironchi G, Gachene CKK. "A geopedological approach to soil classification to characterize soils of Upper Kabete Campus Field, University of Nairobi, Kenya ." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2020.
Elsayed HM, Wadee S, Zaki MS, Were AJO, Ashuntantang GE, Bamgboye EL, Davids MR, Hafez MH, Mahamat M, Naicker S, Niang A, Seck SM, Swanepoel CR, Tannor EK, Twahir A, Yao HK. "Guidelines for the prevention, detection and management of the renal complications of COVID-19 in Africa." African Journal of Nephrology. 2020;98(5):S117-S134.Website
Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Nguhiu JM, Wamboi P. "Haemato- biochemical changes and prevalence of parasitic infections of indigenous chicken sold in markets of Kiambu County, Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine. 2020;8(1):18-25.
Wamboi P, Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Bebora LC. "Haemato-biochemical changes and prevalence of parasitic infections of indigenous chicken sold in markets of Kiambu County, Kenya, ." International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine. 2020;8(1):18-25.
Mwangi S, Abuga K, Mungai N, Mwangi J. "A High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the Determination of Artemisinin in Artemisia annua L. Leaf Extracts." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. . 2020;23(2):48-53. Abstract

A simple, sensitive, accurate and precise high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for determination of artemisinin in crude plant material was developed and validated. Optimal separation of artemisinin from matrix components in the plant extracts was achieved using a Waters XTerra® RP18 , 5 m, 250 × 4.6 mm column, maintained at 40 °C, a mobile phase consisting of 0.05 M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 6.0 - acetonitrile (60:40) containing 5 mM hexane sulfonate in isocratic flow. The mobile phase flow rate was 1.0 ml/min while elution was monitored at 216 nm. The method satisfied the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) validation criteria for linearity, accuracy, precision and sensitivity. The developed method is applicable in routine quality control of Artemisia annua crude extracts.

"How Are Husbands to Know about the Health of Their Menopausal Wives? Kisima." An Ecumenical Magazine for Christian Mothers. 2020;1(1): 20-22.
Tanui F, Olago D, Dulo SI, Ouma G, Kuria Z. "Hydrogeochemistry of a strategic alluvial aquifer system in a semi-arid setting and its implications for potable urban water supply: The Lodwar Alluvial Aquifer System (LAAS)." Groundwater for Sustainable Development. 2020;11:100451. Abstractdio.org

Lodwar Municipality is one of the fastest-growing urban areas of Sub-Saharan Africa that depends mainly on groundwater for its municipal water supply. Most of the groundwater sources are located within the riparian zones of the Turkwel River. With limited understanding of its aquifers, the groundwater of Lodwar may be at risk of natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Statistical techniques and geochemical methods were applied to determine the aquifer hydrogeochemistry. Three distinct aquifers, which we collectively refer to as the Lodwar Alluvial Aquifer System, underlie Lodwar and its environs, the shallow alluvial, intermediate, and deep aquifers which are the main source of fresh water. A fourth, the shallow aquifer of the Turkana grit, is highly saline and with fluoride contamination. Just as the Turkwel River, the shallow alluvial aquifer (SAA) was dominated by Ca–HCO3 water type, while the TGSA was Na–Cl water type and became Na–HCO3 near the Holocene sediments. The intermediate aquifer (IA) was Na–HCO3water type. Pockets of Mg–HCO3 water occurred in the shallow alluvial and intermediate aquifers. The natural processes in the SAA include rock-water interaction, recharge by surface water, and oxidation reactions, while evaporation and dissolution are the major factors controlling the chemistry of the TGSA. Ion exchange, dilution, and dissolution are the major processes in the IA. Elevated levels of NO3− and SO42− during the wet season within the SAA and the IA reflects their vulnerability to pollution. Saline intrusion into the shallow and intermediate aquifers from the Turkana grit aquifers is likely to occur.

Tanui F, Olago D, Dulo SI, Ouma G, Kuria Z. "Hydrogeochemistry of a strategic alluvial aquifer system in a semi-arid setting and its implications for potable urban water supply: The Lodwar Alluvial Aquifer System (LAAS)." Groundwater for Sustainable Development. 2020;11:100451. Abstractdio.org

Lodwar Municipality is one of the fastest-growing urban areas of Sub-Saharan Africa that depends mainly on groundwater for its municipal water supply. Most of the groundwater sources are located within the riparian zones of the Turkwel River. With limited understanding of its aquifers, the groundwater of Lodwar may be at risk of natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Statistical techniques and geochemical methods were applied to determine the aquifer hydrogeochemistry. Three distinct aquifers, which we collectively refer to as the Lodwar Alluvial Aquifer System, underlie Lodwar and its environs, the shallow alluvial, intermediate, and deep aquifers which are the main source of fresh water. A fourth, the shallow aquifer of the Turkana grit, is highly saline and with fluoride contamination. Just as the Turkwel River, the shallow alluvial aquifer (SAA) was dominated by Ca–HCO3 water type, while the TGSA was Na–Cl water type and became Na–HCO3 near the Holocene sediments. The intermediate aquifer (IA) was Na–HCO3water type. Pockets of Mg–HCO3 water occurred in the shallow alluvial and intermediate aquifers. The natural processes in the SAA include rock-water interaction, recharge by surface water, and oxidation reactions, while evaporation and dissolution are the major factors controlling the chemistry of the TGSA. Ion exchange, dilution, and dissolution are the major processes in the IA. Elevated levels of NO3− and SO42− during the wet season within the SAA and the IA reflects their vulnerability to pollution. Saline intrusion into the shallow and intermediate aquifers from the Turkana grit aquifers is likely to occur.

Mitchell EJ, Benjamin S, Ononge S, Ditai J, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Masood SN, Whitham D, Godolphin PJ, Duley L. "Identifying women giving birth preterm and care at the time of birth: a prospective audit of births at six hospitals in India, Kenya, Pakistan and Uganda." BMC Pregnancy Childbirth . 2020;20(439). AbstractWebsite

Background
Globally, 15 million infants are born preterm each year, and 1 million die due to complications of prematurity. Over 60% of preterm births occur in Sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. Care at birth for premature infants may be critical for survival and long term outcome. We conducted a prospective audit to assess whether women giving birth preterm could be identified, and to describe cord clamping and neonatal care at hospitals in Africa and south Asia.

Methods
This prospective audit of livebirths was conducted at six hospitals in Uganda, Kenya, India and Pakistan. Births were considered preterm if between 28+ 0 and 33+ 6 weeks gestation and/or the birthweight was 1.00 to 1.99 kg. A pre-specified audit plan was agreed with each hospital. Livebirths before 28 weeks gestation with birthweight less than 1.0 kg were excluded. Data were collected on estimated and actual gestation and birthweight, cord clamping, and neonatal care.

Results
Of 4149 women who gave birth during the audit, data were available for 3687 (90%). As 107 were multiple births, 3781 livebirths were included, of which 257 (7%) were preterm. Antenatal assessment correctly identified 148 infants as ‘preterm’ and 3429 as ‘term’, giving a positive predictive value of 72% and negative predictive value of 97%. For term births, cord clamping was usually later at the two Ugandan hospitals, median time to clamping 50 and 76 s, compared with 23 at Kenyatta (Kenya), 7 at CMC (India) and 12 at FBH/LNH (Pakistan). At the latter two, timing was similar between term and preterm births, and between vaginal and Caesarean births. For all the hospitals, the cord was clamped quickly at Caesarean births, with Mbale (Uganda) having the highest median time to clamping (15 s ‘term’, 19 ‘preterm’). For preterm infants temperature on admission to the neonatal unit was below 35.5 °C for 50%, and 59 (23%) died before hospital discharge.

Conclusions
Antenatal identification of preterm birth was good. Timing of cord clamping varied between hospitals, although at each there was no difference between ‘term’ and ‘preterm’ births. For premature infants hypothermia was common, and mortality before hospital discharge was high.

S. S, Gitau G.K., J. VL, C. M, P. K. "Impact of calf feeding practices on calf growth and health in smallholder dairy farms in Nyeri County, Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology, and Innovation. 2020;1(3):2707-0425.
Wanjala, G., Obutu OB. "Impact of Double-Intake Programmes on the Teacher Co-Efficient Determinant of Quality Education at the University of Nairobi,Kenya." International Journal of Educational Technology and Learning. 2020;8(1):16-24.abstract.pdf
Nyang'au P, Muriithi B, Nzuma J, Irungu P, Gichungi H, Diiro G. "Impact of Integrated Fruit Fly Management Strategy on Food Security among Smallholder Mango Farmers in Kenya." African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 2020;20(2):15431-15454.
Kaigongi MM, Lukhoba CW, Yaouba S, Makunga NP, Githiomi J, Yenesew A. "In Vitro Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activities of the Root Bark Extract and Isolated Chemical Constituents of Zanthoxylum paracanthum Kokwaro (Rutaceae)." Plants. 2020;9(7):920. AbstractPlants

Description
Zanthoxylum paracanthum Kokwaro (Rutaceae) is an endemic Kenyan and Tanzanian plant used in folk medicine by local populations. Although other Zanthoxylum species have been studied, only Z. paracantum stem extracts have been profiled, even though the roots are also used as herbal remedies. As root extracts may be another source of pharmaceutical compounds, the CH 2 Cl 2/MeOH (1: 1) root bark extract was studied in this report. Eight root bark compounds were isolated and their structural identities were confirmed by mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)(using COSY, HSQC, NOESY and HMBC) analyses. The structural identities were determined as follows: the fatty acid—myristic acid (1); the sterol—stigmasterol (2); the lignan—sesamin (3); two β-carboline alkaloids—10-methoxycanthin-6-one (6) and canthin-6-one (7); and three phenanthridine alkaloids—8-acetonyldihydrochelerythrine (4), arnottianamide (5) and 8-oxochelerythrine (8). Some of these compounds were identified in the species for the first time. These compounds and the extract were then tested in vitro against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) before tests for antiproliferative activity against the human breast cancer (HCC 1395), human prostate cancer (DU 145) and normal (Vero E6) cell lines were conducted. Minimum inhibition concentration values of 3.91, 1.95, 0.98 and 7.81 µg/mL against MRSA, S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans, respectively, were recorded. Among the isolates, canthin-6-one was the …

Omole RA, Moshi MJ, Ilias M, Larry W, Malebo HM, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO. "In vitro Antiplasmodial and Cytotoxic activity of Three Medicinal Plants used Traditionally for Treatment of Malaria." Investigational Medicinal Chemistry & Pharmacology. 2020;10(1):2-6.omole_et_al_2020.pdf
Omole RA, Moshi MJ, Ilias M, Larry W, Malebo HM, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO. "In vitro Antiplasmodial and Cytotoxic activity of Three Medicinal Plants used Traditionally for Treatment of Malaria." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2020;10(1):2-6. AbstractPharmacognosy Communications

Description
Introduction:
Reports of emergence of Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs) resistant malaria parasites in Greater Mekong region and Equatorial Guinea, is a strong reason necessitating increased efforts to discover new antimalarial compounds with novel mechanisms of action. Plants have potential to yield new antiplasmodial compounds. This study investigated the safety and efficacy of three plants; Bersama abyssinica Fresen, Rubus keniensis Standl and Hypoestes verticillaris (Lf) Sol. ex Roem. and Schult that are used by the Ogiek community of Kenya for treatment of malaria.
Methodology:
The crude extracts were tested for in vitro antimalarial activity using Plasmodium falciparum strains W2 (chloroquine resistant) and D6 (chloroquine sensitive). Safety evaluation was done using monkey kidney Vero cells and the brine shrimp lethality test.
Results:
Dichloromethane: methanol (1: 1) and 5% aqueous methanol extracts of the three plants exhibited in vitro antiplasmodial activity against the W2 and D6 Plasmodium falciparum strains with IC50= 12.11–19.18 µg/mL, 5.46-7.04 µg/mL and 9.82–34.52 µg/mL, respectively. H. verticillaris extracts were the most active against the two Plasmodium falciparum strains. The dichloromethane: methanol extracts of the three plants exhibited lower toxicity on monkey kidney Vero cells relative to antiplasmodial activity as compared to the 5% aqueous methanol extracts. The mean Vero cells: parasite selectivity index of the dichloromethane: methanol extracts was (4.8), B. abyssinica (3.75) and R. keniensis (1.9), while for the 5% aqueous methanol extracts they were H. verticillaris (1.0), B. abyssinica (1.95 …

Alkizim FO, Kimani JM, Otieno ES, Thairu K. "In vivo study on the effect of African black tea extract on wound healing." International journal of Medical and Health Research. 2020;6(6):67-74.
Mwangi M, Kituyi E, Ouma G, Macharia D. "Indicator approach to assessing climate change vulnerability of communities in Kenya: a case study of Kitui county." Scientific Research. 2020. Abstractscirp.org

Community vulnerability to climate change can be conceptualized as an aggregate of three vulnerability components: exposure to climatic stress, sensitivity to climate stress and adaptive capacity. However, even within similar regions these vulnerability components are spatially differentiated necessitating the understanding of a regions vulnerability pattern before targeting adaptation assistance. This research sought to understand the differentiated vulnerability patterns of communities in Kitui County as well as the existing coping strategies to guide implementation of adaptation assistance. Indicator approach to vulnerability assessment and focus group discussions were used to understand the vulnerability pattern and coping strategies respectively. Results showed a differentiated vulnerability pattern with a west to east gradient across Kitui County. The pattern exhibited less vulnerability scores on the western and central parts and more vulnerability scores on the eastern and northern parts of the County. Existing coping strategies have become inadequate with increasing climate variability, severity and frequency of extreme climate events, which render the communities even more vulnerable. The patterns of vulnerability can guide appropriate targeting of adaptation assistance and in turn lead to improved climate change resilience and community livelihoods.

Toroitch W, Migosi J, Sakaja Y. "Influence of Resource Controls on the Performance of Infrastructural Projects in ECDE County Projects in Soy Sub-County." International Journals of Academics & Research. 2020;7(8):38-44.
Mbugua JK, Mbui DN, Mwaniki J, mwaura F, Sheriff S. "Influence of Substrate Proximate Properties on Voltage Production in Microbial Fuel Cells." Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems. 2020;10(02):43. AbstractJournal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems

Description
In the current study, we investigate the influence of proximate properties of five different fruits on voltage and current generated from a double chamber microbial fuel cell. Fruits comprising of avocado, tomato, banana, watermelon and mango were analyzed for proximate properties using standard methods. Rumen fluid was used as the inoculum in fabricated H-shaped double chamber fuel cells with graphite rods electrodes at room temperature. The voltage and current generated were monitored daily for 30 days using a DT9205A digital multi-meter. The average moisture content for the fruits samples ranged from 82.86% - 95.16% while the crude fat was in the range of 0.12% - 0.33% with avocado having fat levels at 9.03%. Carbohydrates level was the highest in banana at 19.24% and the lowest in tomato waste at 2.93%. Tomato waste produced the highest voltage of 0.702 V on day 20 while lower voltage was noted in watermelon fruit wastes at 0.019 V. The voltage and current increased linearly with time for all the fruit wastes. These results indicate that substrate proximate properties influence the voltage and current generated in microbial fuel cell. In addition, moisture content and carbohydrates level were the major factors that influence microbial fuel cells performance.

Mbugua JK, Mbui DN, Mwaniki J, mwaura F. "Influence of Substrate Proximate Properties on Voltage Production in Microbial Fuel Cells." Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems. 2020;10:43-51. Abstract

In the current study, we investigate the influence of proximate properties of five different fruits on voltage and current generated from a double chamber microbial fuel cell. Fruits comprising of avocado, tomato, banana, watermelon and mango were analyzed for proximate properties using standard methods. Rumen fluid was used as the inoculum in fabricated H-shaped double chamber fuel cells with graphite rods electrodes at room temperature. The voltage and current generated were monitored daily for 30 days using a DT9205A digital multi-meter. The average moisture content for the fruits samples ranged from 82.86% - 95.16% while the crude fat was in the range of 0.12% -0.33% with avocado having fat levels at 9.03%. Carbohydrates level was the highest in banana at 19.24% and the lowest in tomato waste at 2.93%. Tomato waste produced the highest voltage of 0.702 V on day 20 while lower voltage was noted in watermelon fruit wastes at 0.019 V. The voltage and current increased linearly with time for all the fruit wastes. These results indicate that substrate proximate properties influence the voltage and current generated in microbial fuel cell. In addition, moisture content and carbohydrates level were the major factors that influence microbial fuel cells performance.

Bulinda BM, Inyega HN, Inyega JO. Instructional supervision and inspection practice, 2nd Ed. . LAP LAMBART Academic Publishing. ISBN: 978-620-0-65126-6; 2020.
Muyonga M, Odipo G, Agwanda ALO, A K. "Interlinkages between Migration and Inequality in Africa: Review of Contemporary Studies." African Human Mobility Review . 2020;6(1):6-26.
Vachharajani TJ, Kim Y-S, Riella M, Harris D, Jha V, collaboration with members of the of Group IISNINW. "International Society of Nephrology’s initiative on interventional nephrology minimum training and program-building standards in resource-limited countries." International Society of Nephrology. 2020;98(5):1067-1070.Website
Owor RO, Derese S, Bedane KG, Zühlke S, Ndakala A, Spiteller M. "Isoflavones from the seedpods of Tephrosia vogelii and pyrazoisopongaflavone with anti-inflammatory effects." Fitoterapia. 2020;146:104695. AbstractFitoterapia

Description
Phytochemical investigation of Tephrosia vogelii seedpods led to the isolation of twelve compounds: vogelisoflavone A (1), vogelisoflavone B (2), isopongaflavone (3), onogenin, luteolin, 4′,7-dihydroxy-3′-methoxyflavanone, trans-p-hydroxycinnamic acid, tephrosin, 2-methoxygliricidol, dehydrorotenone, 6a,12a-dehydro-α-toxicarol and pinoresinol. Compounds 1 and 2 are reported as new natural products. Isopongaflavone (3) was structurally modified using hydrazine to pyrazoisopongaflavone (4). These compounds were characterized based on their NMR and HRESIMS data. Further, four compounds (1–4) were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Treatment of the LPS-stimulated PBMCs with the compounds at a concentration of 100 μM suppressed the secretion of interleukin IL-1β interferon-gamma (IFN-γ …

IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Kiswahili as a Privileged Mother Tongue in Kenya: the Pros and Cons - Expected." Reyono Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. . 2020.
Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "LAB SCALE BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM MARKET WASTES AND DAGORETTI SLAUGHTERHOUSE WASTE IN KENYA." International Journal of Energy and Environmental Research. 2020;8(1):12-21. Abstract

In this study, fruits and vegetable market wastes were used as substrates in biogas
production under psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Slaughterhouse waste
consisting of blood and diluted rumen fluid mixture was used as inoculum with seven days retention
time. Influence of C: N ratios of the unique mixtures of vegetables found in the market were
investigated. On average, the vegetable wastes found at the market contained >86% moisture, 5 -
12% volatile solid and 0.46 – 2.06% ash matter on a wet basis. The protein range was between
0.57 – 3.49% with high-fat content being recorded in avocado (Persea americana) wastes at
9.03%. The highest cumulative biogas was recorded in wastes mixture at 3500ml on seventh day
while low biogas yield was registered for wastes with C: N ratios greater than 35:1 like avocado
and lower than 10 like coriander and courgette wastes. The optimum operation pH was in the
range of 6.80 – 7.2.It can be concluded that the highest cumulative biogas was generated from
fruits/vegetable mixture at 3500ml in mesophillic conditions. This study recommends pH
adjustment to 6.8 – 7.2 in market wastes and C: N ratios of 20 – 25 for large scale biogas
production of wastes found in the Dagoretti Market.

Benjamin Nyilitya, Mureithi S, Boeckx P. "Land use controls Kenyan riverine nitrate discharge into Lake Victoria – evidence from Nyando, Nzoia and Sondu Miriu river catchments." Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies. 2020.
Kaigongi MM, Lukhoba CW, Taylor M, Yenesew A, Makunga NP. "LC-MS-Based Metabolomics for the Chemosystematics of Kenyan Dodonaea viscosa Jacq (Sapindaceae) Populations." Molecules. 2020;25(18):4130. AbstractMolecules

Description
Dodonaea viscosa Jacq (Sapindaceae) is a medicinal plant with a worldwide distribution. The species has undergone enormous taxonomic changes which caused confusion amongst plant users. In Kenya, for example, two varieties are known to exist based on morphology, ie, D. viscosa var. viscosa along the coast, and D. viscosa var. angustifolia in the Kenyan inland. These two taxa are recognized as distinct species in some reports. This prompted us to apply metabolomics to understand the relationship among naturally occurring populations of D. viscosa in Kenya, and to identify compounds that can assist in taxonomic delineation of the different varieties of D. viscosa from different parts of Kenya. The phytochemical variability of Kenyan D. viscosa var. angustifolia populations collected from four different geographical regions (Nanyuki, Machakos, Nairobi, and Narok) and one coastal D. viscosa var. viscosa (the Gazi) were analyzed by LC-MS using a metabolomics-driven approach. Four known compounds, two diterpenoids (dodonic acid (1), hautriwaic acid lactone (3), and two flavonoids (5, 7, 4′, 5′-tetrahydroxy-3, 6, 2′-trimethoxyflavone (2) and catechin (4)) were isolated and purified from the Gazi coastal collection. The presence of these compounds and their relative abundance in other populations was determined by LC-MS analyses. Multivariate statistical analyses of LC-MS data was used for the visualization of the patterns of variation and identification of additional compounds. Eleven discriminant compounds responsible for separating chemometric clusters were tentatively identified. In an antimicrobial assay, hautriwaic acid …

Muthoni KC. "Learners Mental health in a Changing World." Journal Of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) . 2020;25(2).
Jedidah Nankaya, Nathan Gichuki, Lukhoba C, Balslev H. "Maasai of Kenya: A Review.". 2020.
Guthua SW, Kamau M, ABINYA N. "Management of Maxillofacial of Osteosarcomas in Kenya: A case Series." The Annals of African Surgery. 2020;17 (1).
Owen, Dulo, Thine. "Mapping of Feasible Artificial Groundwater Recharge Areas: Case of Nairobi City County,." Journal of Engineering and Architecture. 2020;8(2)::9-16.
Makunda CS, Anyamba TJC. "Morphological Transformation of Kileleshwa, Nairobi." Africa Habitat Review Journal. 2020;14(3):1975-1998.
Makanya A, Mills-Thompson AN, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Oduma J, Ojoo R. "Morphometric and stereological methods for quantifying the coarse structural parameters of the ruminal tissues in sheep." International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine. 2020;8(1):59-70.
Mwazighe FM. "Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for the Detection of Anthracene." Int. J. of Electrochem.Sci. . 2020;15(11):11058-11069. Abstract

The electrochemical oxidation of anthracene on a bare glassy carbon electrode results in electrode fouling and reduced sensitivity in its detection. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were used to modify a glassy carbon electrode for the electrochemical detection of anthracene because of their antifouling and peak enhancement properties. The peak current for anthracene oxidation was enhanced by 73.64%, and the peak potential shifted by 53 mV to a slightly less positive value. The electrochemical process was determined to be mixed diffusion- and adsorption-controlled, and a preconcentration or accumulation time was necessary in the analysis of anthracene. Square wave voltammetry was used to analyze increasing concentrations of anthracene; a dynamic linear range of 50–146 μM (R2 = 0.98452) and a limit of detection of 42 μM were established. The sensor platform was used to detect anthracene in a spiked sample of tap water, albeit at lower than expected concentrations because of its low solubility in water.

Nambati EA, Njoka M, Eyase F, Majanja J, Njuguna N, Gitonga SM, Mwikwabe N, Lelo E, Mwangi M, kingoro A, Kimani F, Lubano K, Bulimo W. "Multidisciplinary approach towards training of the next generation of forensic DNA analysts in Africa; a Kenyan perspective." Forensic Science International: Synergy. 2020;2:123-125. Abstract1-s2.0-s2589871x20300267-main.pdfWebsite

The uptake of forensic DNA testing technologies in Africa has been slow despite the revolutionary technology being discovered and adopted 3 decades ago. African governments and partners have invested in construction and equipping of forensic laboratories in Africa but the benefits are yet to be realised as the laboratories are still faced with the challenge of shortage of adequately trained personnel. This paper describes an innovative multidisciplinary training approach that was developed and used to train officers from the Directorate of Criminal Investigations Kenya. We report on the structure, implementation and effectiveness of the training. It is expected that with the increased number of trained forensic DNA analysts, there will be an improvement in quality of forensic DNA evidence presented in courts and a reduction in backlog in the forensic biology laboratories in Kenya.

omari HK, Makokha M, Abdalla S. My Arabic letters book. Nairobi: Chance Publishers; 2020.
Mbugua SN, Sibuyi NRS, Njenga LW, Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO, Meyer M, Lalancette RA, Onani MO. "New Palladium(II) and Platinum(II) Complexes Based on Pyrrole Schiff Bases: Synthesis, Characterization, X‑ray Structure, and Anticancer Activity." ACS Omega. 2020. Abstractdx.doi.org

New palladium (Pd)II and platinum (Pt)II complexes (C1–C5) from the Schiff base ligands, R-(phenyl)methanamine (L1), R-(pyridin-2-yl)methanamine (L2), and R-(furan-2-yl)methanamine (L3) (R-(E)-N-((1H-pyrrol-2-yl) methylene)) are herein reported. The complexes (C1–C5) were characterized by FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR, UV–vis, and microanalyses. Single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis was performed for the two ligands (L1–L2) and a Pt complex. Both L1 and L2 belong to P21/n monoclinic and P-1 triclinic space systems, respectively. The complex C5 belongs to the P21/c monoclinic space group. The investigated molar conductivity of the complexes in DMSO gave the range 4.0–8.8 μS/cm, suggesting neutrality, with log P values ≥ 1.2692 ± 0.004, suggesting lipophilicity. The anticancer activity and mechanism of the complexes were investigated against various human cancerous (Caco-2, HeLa, HepG2 …

R.M. Kweyu, T. Thenya KEKJ. "The nexus between land cover changes, politics and conflict in Eastern Mau forest complex, Kenya." Applied Geography. 2020;114(102115).
Mwenda JN, Wandiga SO, Kariuki DK, Madadi VO. "Occurrence and Distribution of Aflatoxin in Maize from Selected Counties, Eastern Region, Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Policy. 2020;3(2).
and Nicholas M. Jacob, Shem O.Wandiga DKKVOM. "Occurrence and Distribution of Aflatoxin in Maize from Selected Counties, Eastern Region, Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Policy. 2020;3(2):7-22.
Luketero SW, Khalagai JM. "On unitary equivalence of some classes of operators in Hilbertspaces." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(2):35-37. Abstractfull text link

It is a well-known result in operator theory that whenever two operators are similar then they have equal spectra even though they do not have to belong to the same class of operators. However under a stronger relation of unitary equivalence it can be shown that two unitarily equivalent operators may belong to the same class of op erators. In this paper we endeavor to exhibit results on such classes of operators which belong to same class under unitary equivalence.

Nzimbi BM, Luketero SW. "On Unitary Quasi-Equivalence of Operators." International Journal of Mathematics And its Applications. 2020;8(1):207-215. Abstractfull text link

In this paper we investigate unitary quasi-equivalence of operators in Hilbert spaces. We characterize operators that are unitarily quasi-equivalent. We also investigate equivalence relations closely related to unitary quasi-equivalence. We give and prove conditions under which unitary quasi-equivalence coincides with other operator equivalence relations.

Langat SK, Eyase FL, Berry IM, Nyunja A, Bulimo W, Owaka S, Ofula V, Limbaso S, Lutomiah J, Jarman R, Distelhorst J, Sang RC. "Origin and evolution of dengue virus type 2 causing outbreaks in Kenya: Evidence of circulation of two cosmopolitan genotype ." Virus Evol. 2020;6(1):veaa026. Abstractveaa026.pdfWebsite

Dengue fever (DF) is an arboviral disease caused by dengue virus serotypes 1-4 (DENV 1-4). Globally, DF incidence and disease burden have increased in the recent past. Initially implicated in a 1982 outbreak, DENV-2 recently reemerged in Kenya causing outbreaks between 2011 and 2014 and more recently 2017-8. The origin and the evolutionary patterns that may explain the epidemiological expansion and increasing impact of DENV-2 in Kenya remain poorly understood. Using whole-genome sequencing, samples collected during the 2011-4 and 2017-8 dengue outbreaks were analyzed. Additional DENV-2 genomes were downloaded and pooled together with the fourteen genomes generated in this study. Bioinformatic methods were used to analyze phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary patterns of DENV-2 causing outbreaks in Kenya. The findings from this study have shown the first evidence of circulation of two different Cosmopolitan genotype lineages of DENV-2; Cosmopolitan-I (C-I) and Cosmopolitan-II (C-II), in Kenya. Our results put the origin location of C-I lineage in India in 2011, and C-II lineage in Burkina Faso between 1979 and 2013. C-I lineage was the most isolated during recent outbreaks, thus showing the contribution of this newly emerged strain to the increased DENV epidemics in the region. Our findings, backed by evidence of recent local epidemics that have been associated with C-I in Kenya and C-II in Burkina Faso, add to the growing evidence of expanding circulation and the impact of multiple strains of DENV in the region as well as globally. Thus, continued surveillance efforts on DENV activity and its evolutionary trends in the region, would contribute toward effective control and the current vaccine development efforts.

Buyana K, Lwasa S, Tugume D, Mukwaya P, Walubwa J, Owuor S, Kasaija P, Sseviiri H, Nsangi G, Byarugaba D. "Pathways for resilience to climate change in African cities. Environ. Res. Lett. 15 (2020) 073002.". 2020.2020_environmental_research_letters_journal.pdf
Opiyo R, Were A, Nabakwe E, Mbogo A, Olenja J, Bukania Z. "Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: How Can They Make Informed Nutritional Decisions?" Office of DVC Research, Innovation and Enterprise, University of Nairobi. 2020:39-40. AbstractWebsite

The Ministry of Health and partners should develop national standard operating procedures and IEC materials in renal nutrition counsellingfor harmonized messages. All patients with chronic kidney disease should get takeaway information leaflets with patient-specific simple nutrition messages to ensure the accuracy of nutrition information; All nutritionists and healthcare workers in renal units should participate in regular continuing nutrition education on most recent evidence-based nutrition information.

IRIBEMWANGI PI, Gaithuma VW. "Phonological Influence of Kiamu dialect to Amu Learners of Standard Kiswahili - Expected." Jarida la Kimataifa la Isimu ya Kibantu (JAKIIKI). 2020.
Charles AO, Musembi RJ, Aduda BO, Ogacho A, Jain P. "Photo-thermal Conversion Efficiency of Textured and Untextured Aluminum Substrate Coated with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2)-bound CuFeMnO4 Absorber." American Journal of Modern Energy. 2020;6(1):9-15. AbstractJournal Article Website

The possibility of obtaining thermal energy from the sun for household bathing and washing has resulted to growth in market for solar thermal applications with new types of solar absorbers currently being investigated either to compliment or to replace existing ones. This study focuses on CuFeMnO4 absorber paint by addressing aspects which have little attention regarding improvement of optical absorption for higher efficiency such as texturing the metal substrates on which to coat CuFeMnO4 absorber paint. In this study, texturing was done controllably in order to match the incoming solar radiation wavelength and the surface topography and morphology. Textured and untextured aluminum sheets coated with titanium dioxide (TiO2)-bound CuFeMnO4 absorber paint were used to fabricate prototype flat plate solar thermal collectors. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) was chosen here as binder to a spectrally selective CuFeMnO4 absorber paint. The TiO2-bound CuFeMnO4 absorber paint was applied by a simple, cheap and up-scalable dip coating method over the aluminum sheets. The aluminum sheets were electro-chemically textured to enhance optical absorption and photo-thermal conversion efficiency for both the textured and untextured prototypes were compared. The efficiency characterization of the prototype collectors was done by measuring the global solar irradiance, fluid inlet, fluid outlet and ambient temperature. Both instantaneous and steady-state efficiencies were determined mathematically, and it was found that the prototype collector whose absorber plates were textured recorded higher instantaneous and steady-state efficiencies compared to the collector fabricated from untextured aluminum plates.
Keywords: Aluminum, Texturing, Conversion Efficiency, Solar Energy, (TiO2)-bound, CuFeMnO4

and D.K. TKPK. "Photocatalytic Degradation of 4-Chlorophenol by Titanium Dioxide: Role of Annealing Temperature and Morphology." and Journal of Applied Science Environment Management. 2020;24(1):5-12.

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