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1984
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani, 1984. Growth and runner production of everbearing strawberries in Kenya. Acta Horticulturae, 158: 151-156.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1984. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani. 1984. Growth and flowering pattern of Liatris corms in Kenya. Acta Horticulturae, 158:249-253.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1984. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A. Role of the Laboratory in Infectious Disease. Fiji Medical Association Annual Seminar. (14th .". In: Fiji Medical Association Annual Seminar. (14th . IBIMA Publishing; 1984. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Wang'ombe JK.Economic Evaluation in Primary Health Care: The Case of Western Kenya Community Based Health Care Project,Soc Sci Med. 1984;18(5):375-85.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1984;18(5):375-85. SITE; 1984. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

NDERITU PROFWARUICHARLES. "Warui, C.N. (1984). A stereological comparison of the perfused and immersed avian kidneys. J. Anat. 139: 729-730.". In: Proceedings of the XIIth International Anatomical Congress: London 764 A.; 1984.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""What is Literature to Kenyan Historians?" Weekly Review 7 Sept 1984, pp. 17.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1984. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
M DRMUNYUASJ. "Williamson P., Penhale J.W., Munyua S.J.M. and Murray J.(1984). Acute reaction of mares uterus of bacterial infection. Proceedings of 10th International Congress of Animal Reproduction and Artificial Insemination. June 10 14 1984. III 477 480.". In: Proceedings of 10th International Congress of Animal Reproduction and Artificial Insemination. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1984. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
G. PROFKIOYPAUL. "Wilmshurst PT, Al-Hasani SF, Semple MJ, Hamblin AS, Kioy PG, Lucas GF, Savidge GF, Webb-Peploe MM. The effects of amrinone on platelet count, survival and function in patients with congestive cardiac failure. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1984 Mar;17(3):317-24.PMI.". In: 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1984. Abstract
In a prospective trial, the immediate and long-term haematological effects of amrinone were studied in sixteen patients with refractory cardiac failure. The platelet count was significantly and variably reduced in all patients and the reduction was related to log plasma amrinone concentration. Platelet survival was significantly reduced in those cases studied. No evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation or intravascular platelet deposition was observed and the reduced platelet survival was not considered to be the result of an immunological process. Evidence of a marrow response to the reduced platelet count and survival was seen. Although no haemorrhagic symptoms were observed in the patients, the haematological side-effects were considered to be of such severity as to limit the use of this drug in clinical practice.    PMID: 6712864 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Workers Participation in Decision Making: Joint Consultation Machinery.". In: paper presented at ARLAK Industrial Relations Seminar, Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1984. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "YOUSEF, M.K. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1984) Thermoregulation in working ungulates. In: Stress Physiology in Livestock, Vol. 1, CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, USA, pp. 109-120.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1984. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
1983
Gichaga FJ. "Slow Sand Filtration Pilot plant Construction.". In: IRC/MOH/MOWD/UON Seminar. Nairobi; 1983.
Oucho JO. The Kenyan Land Settlement Programme. Geneva: Employment and Development Department, International Labour Organization; 1983.
N.M.Monyonko, J.H.REID. "DO QCD CORRECTIONS DESTROY THE AMPLITUDE ZERO IN THE PROCESS q anti -q-gamma?". In: QCD WORKSHOP,OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY. OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY; 1983.
Fisher JN, Kitabchi AE. "A randomized study of phosphate therapy in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 1983;57:177-180. Abstract

The use of phosphate therapy in the management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has been controversial, particularly with respect to the effect of phosphate intermediates on tissue oxygenation. In a prospective randomized study we evaluated the effect of phosphate (8.5 mmol/h or approximately 6 g phosphate/24 h) (experimental group) vs. no phosphate therapy (control group) in 30 DKA patients, 15 in each group. Various determinations including erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), oxyhemoglobin dissociation (p50), serum phosphate, calcium, lactate, pyruvate, electrolytes, and response time to reach predetermined values for glucose, bicarbonate, and pH were measured at frequent intervals during the first 24 h of therapy and daily for 5 days after metabolic control. Initial electrolytes, glucose, pH, erythrocyte 2,3-DPG, lactate, and p50 were not different in either group. Whereas the experimental group had a greater level of 2,3-DPG than the control group by 48 h, the difference was not statistically significant. Recovery indices, including hours to reach glucose of 250 mg/dl, bicarbonate greater than 15 meq/liter, pH greater than 7.3, and mental alertness, were not different in the two groups nor were the p50 or lactate measurements. The experimental group exhibited significantly lower plasma ionized calcium values during therapy. We conclude that phosphate therapy may accelerate regeneration of erythrocyte 2,3-DPG but in the relatively small number of patients studied it had no demonstrable influence on tissue oxygenation or clinical response to low dose insulin therapy of DKA. Furthermore, the exaggeration of hypocalcemia seen in phosphate-treated patients may be reason for caution in the use of such therapy.

Gichaga FJ. "Conducting Technical Research.". In: CIDA/Kenya Polytechnic/Mombasa Polytechnic Staff Development Seminar. Nairobi; 1983.
Oucho, J.O. and Mukras MS. Migration, Transfers and Rural Development: A case study of Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1983.
Lever E, Jaspan JB. "Sodium bicarbonate therapy in severe diabetic ketoacidosis." The American Journal of Medicine. 1983;75:263-268. Abstract

Rates of recovery of plasma glucose and bicarbonate levels, arterial pH, and level of consciousness were determined in a retrospective analysis of 95 episodes of severe diabetic ketoacidosis in patients treated with conventional regimens including low-dose insulin, saline, and potassium administration. No significant differences were found between 73 episodes in 52 patients treated with sodium bicarbonate and 22 episodes in 21 patients not undergoing such treatment. In view of these observations, the potential hazards of sodium bicarbonate replacement therapy, and the fact that sodium bicarbonate is still frequently given, the use of intravenous sodium bicarbonate treatment in patients with severe diabetic ketoacidosis requires reevaluation.

Levin AG, Jones M, Kirkham DM, Shah T, Peters TJ, Hill ID, Wasunna A, Brubaker G. "Lymphocyte enzyme activities in East African blacks: decrease in 5'nucleotidase and possible relation to immunosuppression." Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.. 1983;77(6):840-4. Abstract

Microanalysis of subcellular organelle marker enzymes was applied to cryopreserved lymphocytes (obtained and processed in the field) from East African blacks with moderate to severe malnutrition and subject to locally endemic parasitic and infectious diseases. An initial study demonstrated that activities of these enzymes, with the partial exception of catalase, were stable to cryopreservation. Cryopreserved and thawed lymphocyte specimens (1 to 3 X 10(6) viable cells) from 26 Africans and 20 Caucasian controls were studied. There was a highly significant decrease in 5'nucleotidase activity in these African subjects. Activity of another plasma membrane enzyme, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and of marker enzymes for other intracellular organelles, was not significantly different between the two groups, indicating that the nucleotidase alteration is highly specific. 5'Nucleotidase activity in a group of 17 East African blacks of high socio-economic status lay between the values obtained in the other two groups and was not significantly different from either. Further studies on 5'nucleotidase showed no evidence that the enzyme is functionally different in Africans. The differences in activity of this enzyme in Africans may reflect the known immuno-suppressive effects of infectious disease and malnutrition or may have a genetic basis which may in turn be associated with the pathogenesis of secondary immunodeficiency.

Ochoro WE. " Environmental Management and Integrated Rural Development in the Eastern and Southern Africa Sub - region.". In: Regional Office for Africa and UNESCO M AB Paris regional seminar. Nairobi, Kenya.; 1983.
M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "1983 - Clinical presentation of visceral leishmaniasis in Kenya. Clinical aspects of Kalaazar in Kenya chapter 5 pg. 37. Kager, Rees, Bhatt, Manguyu, Hock Meyer, Wellde and Lyerly.". In: Trop Geogr Med. 1984 Mar;36(1):21-35. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1983. Abstract

At the beginning of the century, splenectomy was used in the treatment of kala-azar, but now is rarely needed, the major indication being for drug resistant kala-azar. Inadvertent splenectomy prior to the diagnosis of kala-azar continues to occur, probably because of a reluctance to perform splenic aspiration in the investigation of splenomegaly. Five Kenyan children underwent splenectomy for drug resistant kala-azar. All were immediately improved, but one died of overwhelming post splenectomy infection (OPSI) two months later and another of a malignant lymphoma seven months after surgery. The other three patients appear to be cured. Splenectomy was considered in a sixth child with kala-azar because of a Salmonella abscess in the spleen, but the abscess ruptured catastrophically before surgery could be arranged.

Taha SM, El-Nakhal MNS, Ishac YZ. "Acid-fermented vegetables.". 1983.Website
Wanjala C. "African Literature and the Tyranny of Change.". In: Language and Literature. Suva: The University of South Pacific Press; 1983.
Tole NM. "Anomalies in the radiation output of a new x-ray tube.". 1983. AbstractWebsite

Cavity ionization methods have been employed to show that the amOUI1l of X-radiation produced by a newly installed x-ray tube was grossly reduced. Qualitative information based on the techniques of radiological photography suggests that there was no fault with the kilovoltage generator and that the tube was therefore the source of the anomaly. Observations of tube current avalanche and sparking at high potentials provide further clue as to the nature of the fault. A discussion of the possible causes of the anomaly is presented. This study demonstrates that, when specialised equipment for detecting the origin of some faults in x-ray machines is not available, radiation dosimetry and sensitometry can provide a most useful alternative.

Ochanda N, EPP H;, Lantieri D, Agatsiva JL. "Application of remote sensing to earth resources monitoring in Kenya.". 1983.Website
Narang S., Seawright J.A., T.K. M, N.L.Willis. "Assignment of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and glucose oxidase to chromosome 2 of Anopheles albimanus.Can." J.Genet.Cytol. 1983;25:567.
Abiodun, Adigun Ade; Odingo RS. "Basic Space Sciences In Africa.". 1983. AbstractWebsite

Through space applications, a number of social and economic programmes in education, communications, agro-climatology, weather forecasting and remote sensing are being realized within the African continent. Regional and international organizations and agencies such as the African Remote Sensing Council, the Pan-African Telecommunication Union and the United Nations system have been instrumental in making Africa conscious of the impact and implications of space science and technology on its peoples. The above notwithstanding, discernible interests in space research, to date, in Africa, have been limited to the work on the solar system and on interplanetary matters including satellite tracking, and to the joint African-Indian proposal for the establishment of an International Institute for Space Sciences and Electronics (INISSE) and the construction, in Kenya, of a Giant Equatorial Radio Telescope (GERT). During this “Transport and Communications Decade in Africa,” Africa's basic space research efforts would need to initially focus on the appropriateness, modification and adaptation of existing technologies for African conditions with a view to providing economic, reliable and functional services for the continent. These should include elements of electronics, communications, structural and tooling industries, and upper-atmosphere research. The experience of and collaborative work with India, Brazil and Argentina, as well as the roles of African scientists, are examined.

Ogana W. Calculation of flows past lifting airfoils. Trieste.: ICTP Internal Report; 1983.
Wamola IA, Mirza NB, Ngugi JM, Bwibo NO. "Campylobacter gastroenteritis in Nairobi.". 1983.Website
C.K. M. "Catha edulis. Epiemiologial studies on chewing patterns and habits." International Council in Alcohol and Addition. 1983;1(1):178-180.
Ogana W. Choosing the decay function in the transonic integral equation. Trieste.: ICTP Internal Report,; 1983.
Kiaira JK, Njogu RM. "Comparison of glycolysis in intact and digitonin-permeabilized bloodstream trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma brucei.". 1983. AbstractWebsite

Digitonin has been used to permeabilize bloodstream trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma brucei. Such permeabilized parasites revealed a fully-functional glycolytic pathway which catabolized glucose and some phosphorylated glycolytic intermediates. Glucose-starved bloodstream trypomastigotes revealed saturation kinetics with a glucose Km = 0.6 mM and Vmax = 150 natom O/min per 10(8) for intact parasites; Km = 4 mM and Vmax = 100 natom O2/min per 10(8) for permeabilized parasites. Glucose oxidation in intact parasites was stimulated 40% by addition of 3 micrograms digitonin/10(8) parasites. Higher concentrations of digitonin than this inhibited the glucose oxidation. Ten millimolar phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) inhibited the rate of O2 consumption by permeabilized trypanosomes respiring on glucose under aerobic conditions by 50%. It is proposed that glucose oxidation is apparently limited by transport across trypanosomal plasma membrane, and phosphofructokinase is regulated by PEP levels. It is concluded that permeabilization of trypanosomes with digitonin might offer a closer physiological condition for the study of the regulation of glycolysis by using glycolytic intermediates and other chemical compounds which would otherwise not be transported across the membrane(s).

Obel AO. "A comparison of timolol plus hydrochlorothiazide plus amiloride and methyldopa in essential hypertension in black Africans." ropical and Geographical Medicine. 1983;(35):285-91. AbstractWebsite

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O. WS. "Concentration of Heavy Metals in Water, Sediments and Plants of Kenya Lakes.". In: Kenya J. of Science and Technology. Series (A) (1983) (2): 89-94. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1983. Abstract

n/a

J.O. K. "Coumarins from Zanthaxylum usambarense (Engl.) Kokwaro (Rutaceae)." Planta Medica . 1983;47(4):251-253.
E.N. PN. "The Council of National Representatives Brasilia, 6th-10th June 1983.". In: Kenya Nurs J. 1983 Dec;11(2):.; 1983:. Abstract

Kenya Nurs J. 1983 Dec;11(2):23-7.
The Council of National Representatives Brasilia, 6th-10th June 1983.
Ngugi EN.

PMID:
6564282
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Muigai SGS;, Njuguna SK;, Mukunya DM;, Ngugi DN. "Current bean research programmes in Kenya.".; 1983.
Muigai SGS;, Njuguna SK;, Mukunya DM;, Ngugi DN. "Current bean research programmes in Kenya.".; 1983.
W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "Dietary sources of fluoride in Kenya.". In: Fluorosis Research Strategies', Proceedings of a workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya; S.Likimani, (Ed.) , 32-6 (1983). UoN; 1983. Abstract

Analysis offluoride concentrations in Kenyan waters have been carried out using two methods: the fluoride ion selective electrode method and colorimetric method. Water samplesanalysed were taken from boreholes and rivers in Nairobi. Central and Rift Valley Provincesand from the Rift Valley lakes. The high levels of fluoride content present in the Rift Valley lakes and boreholes would pose a threat if the water is used for drinking or for irrigation purposes. However the fluoride concentrations for most potable waters (especially those derived from rivers) is less than the accepted limits of 0.7-1.8 ppm. In order to account for the high incidence of dental fluorosis in Kenya, it is necessary to determine the fluoride intakefrom the total diet. A method suitable for analyzing fluoride content in foods and plant materials is discussed. Preliminary survey of fluoride concentrations for various foods showed: bananas, 4.2ppm; potatoes, 5.6 ppm; cabbages, 0.3ppm; maize 0.7ppm. High levels of fluoride were found in tea leaves in the range 229-340 ppm per kg. which is quite equivalent to 4.4-7.3 ppm F per 125 c.c. cup of tea. Fluoride concentration in coffee beans is quite low – 6.6 ppm per kg. and sodas, beer, cow’s milk have less than 0.01 ppm.

D.N. Kariuki TNHM & LW. "Dietary sources of fluoride in Kenya.". 1983.
Magoha GAO. The effect of exogenous testosterone on the testicular histology in male rats. . EAMJ; 1983. Abstract

Primary malignant lymphomas of the female breast are rare up to date such tumors have been described in the male. Majority of the malignant tumors of the breast are the well known infiltrating duct carcinoma. This is report of a mammary non-Hodgkins malignant lymphoma in a 35 year old Nigerian female. This tumor had a rapid progression terminating in death seven months after histological diagnosis. The clinical presentation, treatment, prognosis and the differential diagnosis with medullary and poorly differentiated carcinoma of the breast are discussed.

Obel AO. "Epidemiology and diabetes mellitus in referral hospital in a tropical developing country. ." Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine. 1983;(14):207-10.
Gichaga FJ. Evaluation of flexible road pavements in Kenya.; 1983. Abstract

Experience from some of the recently completed roads shows that road pavements have at times failed prematurely thereby leading to unplanned expenditure in the exercise of rehabilitating them. This paper outlines results of studies carried out to establish long-term behaviour of road pavements under tropical climatic conditions. The studies involved measurements of elastic deflections, pavement distortion and rutting, cracking as well as establishing traffic loading patterns for typical high standard trunk roads of varying design in Kenya. The results of the studies show that while pavements are weakened by repeated wheel load applications pavements also tend to develop strength with age. The results further showed that for a pavement approaching failure elastic deflections are a function of cracking and rutting; and that higher elastic deflections are obtained during the months of high rainfall and high temperatues. The paper recommends that there is need for road authorities to regularly monitor factors that relate to road pavement performance such as traffic loading, pavement condition, etc. in order to help in the financial planning for pavement strengthening and maintenance works and that the necessary funds should be set aside in the budget. (TRRL)

Dossaji SF, Becker H, Exner J. "Flavone C-glycosides of Phorodendron tomentosum form different host trees,." Phytochemistry. 1983;22(1):311-312. Abstract

Apeginin, three known apigenin C-glycosides and isoschaftoside together with apeginin 4-O-glucoside have been identified in leaves of Phoradendron tomentosum growing on different hosts.

Ndetei DM. "Folie imposee in a Kenyan couple.". 1983.
"Football Sub-Culture: The Case of Sydney Swan Team in New South Wales, Australia ." Football Sub-Culture: The Case of Sydney Swan Team in New South Wales, Australia . 1983.
MULIMBA JAO. "Fractures of the Humerus E.A.M.J. 60 (12): 843, 1983.". In: E.A.M.J. 60 (12): 843, 1983. Springerlink; 1983. Abstract

It has been the view of the Association of Surgeons of East Africa (ASEA) that, like primary health care, there is primary surgery. The unit of provision of primary surgery is the district hospital. The training of surgeons for district hospitals starts at the undergraduate level, leading to the attainment of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (M.B. Ch.B.) degree. After internship the doctor works in a district or provincial hospital for 2-3 years, then trains for the degree of Master of Medicine (M. Med. (Surg.)) for a period of 3 years. The training involves rotation through all branches of surgery, so that the surgeon should be able to handle all aspects of routine surgery in a district hospital. To equip the surgeon further, a period in an outside setting is considered advisable. There are arrangements for regional surgical colleges to standardise the form of surgical training in the ASEA region. To keep surgeons in touch with the outside world, specialist training is done outside the region, but arrangements are being made for localised specialised units to offer this training.

C GJ. "Gatumu J,C(1983)Attitudes of head teachers towards Christian Religious Education in Runyenjes, Embu.". In: M.Ed Research Thesis. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1983. Abstract

Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

T.K. M, Narang S., J.A.Seawright. "A genetic sexing strain of Anopheles albimnus." Proc.XV Intl.Congr.Genet.Abstr. 1983;2:727.
Bowry TR;, Ojwang J;, Lumba M. "HBV infection: prevalence of core antibody and other markers in urban based, black school children in Kenya.". 1983. Abstract

This paper reports a study of 279 sera obtained from children attending five schools in Nairobi, the capital of Kenya which is situated in a non-malarious zone. Their ages ranged from six to 16 years. The surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBV) was detected in 13 children (4.7%) including seven boys and six girls. The core and surface antibodies were measured by radioimmunoassay on 125 of the samples to study the pattern of infection in childhood and the interrelationships of different parameters of the infection. The core antibody by itself was observed in four children (3.2%). A total of 31 samples (24.8%) had both core and surface antibodies, 19 (15.2%) had only surface antibody. Thus, 48% of all school children tested had serological evidence of past exposure to the virus. The implications of these findings are discussed.

Ojwang PJ;, Onyango FE;, Aluoch JA. "Hypercalcaemia in pulmonary tuberculosis.". 1983. Abstract

uberculosis can affect calcium metabolism, mainly through an enhanced production of active vitamin D. The incidence of hypercalcemia among unselected patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis was investigated, retrospectively, during a ten-year period. Among 67 patients, the mean serum calcium concentration on admission was significantly raised compared to healthy controls (2.51 ± 0.16 (SD) vs 2.43 ± 0.07 mmol/l; p<0.001) and 25% of the patients had hypercalcemia. After one year of successful tuberculostatic treatment the serum calcium values had normalized Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/03009739009178584

"I.O. Kibwage, E. Roets and J. Hoogmartens. Thin layer chromatography of erythromycins and other macrolides. J. Chromatogr. 256:164-171.". 1983. Abstract

The literature on the thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of macrolides has recently
been reviewed'>'. An improved separation of the components of erythromycin
has been reported by Vanderhaeghe and Kerremans '. The use of high-performance
thin-layer chromatography in the analysis of some macrolides has been the subject of
a recent publication".
The best TLC system known, described for the separation of erythromycins,
uses plates coated with silanized silica gel and methanol-water-15 % ammonium
acetate buffer pH 7.0 (50:20:10) as the mobile phase:'. This system (R-VI in Table I)
allows very good separation of erythromycin A (EA), B (EB) and C (EC), but erythromycin
D (ED) is not separated from EA. Small amounts of acid degradation
products of erythromycin such as anhydroerythromycin A (AEA) and erythromycin
A enol ether (EAEN) were found by high-performance liquid chromatography
(HPLC) of commercial samples'': TLC with system R-VI did not separate AEA
from EB. Preparative chromatography of the mother liquors of the erythromycin
purification indicated the presence of des-N-methylerythromycin A (dMeEA). As this
compound was not separated from erythromycin A with TLC system R-VI, other
mobile phases were examined. In the present study a system using silica gel as the
coating material and diisopropyJ ether-methanol-25 % ammonia (75:35:2) as the
mobile phase was found to separate EA, EB, Ee, ED, EAEN, AEA and dMeEA. The
results obtained with several other mobile phases are also discussed, together with
their application in the identification and purity control of other macrolides

Odhiambo, W. A.;, Chindia ML;, W; GS, Macigo FG;, Akama K. "Injuries Of The Maxillofacial Skeleton In Nairobi, Kenya.". 1983. Abstract

Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.

Gachene CKK;, Barber RG. "Kenya Soil Survey and Department of Soil Science."; 1983.
Kokwaro JO. "Maintaining the balance between Agriculture and the environment.". In: Fifth International Farm Management Congress. Nairobi; 1983.
Mande JD, Mbithi PMF, Mbiuki SM. "Mechanical strength of plaster casting bandages available in Kenya.". 1983. Abstract

Five plaster of Paris casting bandages including Nairobi Enterprises, Salvagyps, Helm, Plasrun-gyps and Veronese, available on the Kenyan market were evaluated based on breaking strength. Helm plaster of Paris had a significantly higher mean maximum load compared to all the other products (p

A. OF. Mechanical Transmission of Trypanosoma evansi steele, by Stomoxys calcitrans.. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi ; 1983.
A.N G, C.K. M. "Metabolism of cathinone to d- norpseudoephedrine in humas." J. Pharm Sci. 1983;72(10):1217-8.
C.K. M. "The need for a poison information centre in Kenya." East Afr Med J. . 1983;60(9):597-8.
Braun HMH, Mungai DN. "A new map of agroclimatic zones of Kenya.". 1983.
Kamau D(M)RG, Kamau AK. "NON-CONVENTIONAL APPROACHES TO FINANCING LOW-COST HOUSING SCHEMES IN KENYA." UNHCS (Habitat). 1983.
Juma F, Ogada T. "Pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide in Kenyan Africans.". 1983. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide was studied in 10 Kenyan Africans with Hodgkins lymphoma. The mean +/- s.d. elimination half-life (t1/2) was 7.5 +/- 1.38 h. The mean +/- s.d. volume of the central compartment (V1) was 0.35 +/- 0.12 l/kg and the apparent volume of distribution (V) was 0.64 +/- 0.06 l/kg. The microconstants k21, k12 and k10 were 1.81 +/- 0.84 h-1, 1.90 +/- 1.080 h-1 and 2.05 +/- 0.86 h-1 respectively (mean +/- s.d.).

Maitai CK. "Plant poisoning in childhood ." Medicus. 1983;1:10-11.
Ochoro WE. "Policy options for developing countries in the context of international trade: an overview.". In: International Trade Conference. Mombasa, Kenya; 1983.
Ng'ethe N. "Politics, ideology and the underprivileged.". 1983. AbstractWebsite

What are the origins of Harambee? What is the meaning of Harambee and what is the place of the underprivileged in the context of the Harambee phenomenon, ideology, tradition, or whatever else it may be called. These are the main questions addressed in the present article. The author suggests that in the context of Harambee the place of the underprivileged is perhaps not to be sought in the so-called traditional roots of the phenomenon but rather in its more immediate predecessors whose politics led to the modern Harambee polity. This polity is basically a patron client polity in which Harambee serves as a quasi-ideology aimed at the maintenance of the status quo. Harambee is portrayed as having its roots in the traditional communal societies, however, because this is something with which the peasants can identify. Without the peasants, the patron-client state would be without the majority of its clients.

Ogeto J, Maitai CK, Wangia C, Mkoji ML, Wakori E, Rutere GK, Mithamo RW, Ochieng' A, Githiga IM. "Practical therapeutical drug quality control in kenya - further observations.". 1983. Abstract

Over a period of 18 months starting from 20th July 1981, 191 requests for drug analysis were received and processed In the Drug Analysis and Research nil (DARU) at the department of pharmacy in the University of Nairobi. Of these requests, about 65% came from the government central medical stores, 13% from government hospitals, 11.3% from the Ministry of Health headquaters (Director of Medical Services and Chief Pharmacist), 5% from private local pharmaceutical firms, 4.8% from the Tuberculosis Investigation Centre and the rest from miscelaneous sources. About 65% of the samples received were manufactured locally and 35% imported. In general complaints received from medical practitioners were found 10 be justified. Results of analysis together with some relevant observations are presented.

Ogeto J, Maitai CK, Wangia C, Mkoji ML, Wakori E, Rutere GK, Mithamo RW, Ochieng' A, Githiga IM. "Practical therapeutical drug quality control in kenya - further observations.". 1983. Abstract

Over a period of 18 months starting from 20th July 1981, 191 requests for drug analysis were received and processed In the Drug Analysis and Research nil (DARU) at the department of pharmacy in the University of Nairobi. Of these requests, about 65% came from the government central medical stores, 13% from government hospitals, 11.3% from the Ministry of Health headquaters (Director of Medical Services and Chief Pharmacist), 5% from private local pharmaceutical firms, 4.8% from the Tuberculosis Investigation Centre and the rest from miscelaneous sources. About 65% of the samples received were manufactured locally and 35% imported. In general complaints received from medical practitioners were found 10 be justified. Results of analysis together with some relevant observations are presented.

Kokwaro JO. Research on medicinal and aromatic plants of East Africa. Citta di Castello ; 1983.
Onyari JM. "A review of the biology of tilapia species in Lake Victoria with special reference to its feeding and breeding habits.". 1983. AbstractFull text link

A review of the biology of tilapia species in Lake Victoria with special reference to its feeding and breeding habits

Gakuru O. "The Rural Youth in Africa."; 1983.
Samanta P. "SADCC and Regional Cooperation.". In: MSU & University of Michigan.; 1983.
Ogeto JO, Maitai CK. "The scientific basis for the use of strychnos henningsii(gilg) Plant material to stimulate appetite.". 1983. Abstract

The mediciinal value of Strychnos henningsii plant. Particularly as an appetite stimulant has long been recognised by the indigenous people of Kenya even before this is properly documented in scientific literature The present work involves isolation and purification of the bitter alkaloidal principles present in powdered plant material. Quantitative estimation of the alkaloidal content, in each morphological part of the plant was done and the result compared with that of closely related species. Strychnos nux vomica, an officiall drug in several pharmacopoeia. Examination of the isolated alkaloidal was done using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas, liquid chromatography (GLC) to deter¬mine the number of alkaloids present in the plant. The median lethal du-e (I.D) in rats and the bitterness threshold in humans for the isolated alkaloidal rnixture were determined and compared with those reported for S, nux vomica. Result-, of this work indicate that S. henningsii can be substitute for S. nux vomica as an apettite stimulant

Ogeto JO, Maitai CK. "The scientific basis for the use of strychnos henningsii(gilg) Plant material to stimulate appetite.". 1983. Abstract

The mediciinal value of Strychnos henningsii plant. Particularly as an appetite stimulant has long been recognised by the indigenous people of Kenya even before this is properly documented in scientific literature The present work involves isolation and purification of the bitter alkaloidal principles present in powdered plant material. Quantitative estimation of the alkaloidal content, in each morphological part of the plant was done and the result compared with that of closely related species. Strychnos nux vomica, an officiall drug in several pharmacopoeia. Examination of the isolated alkaloidal was done using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas, liquid chromatography (GLC) to deter¬mine the number of alkaloids present in the plant. The median lethal du-e (I.D) in rats and the bitterness threshold in humans for the isolated alkaloidal rnixture were determined and compared with those reported for S, nux vomica. Result-, of this work indicate that S. henningsii can be substitute for S. nux vomica as an apettite stimulant

MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ, SamuelsdortI PO. "Semantic Analysis of Swahili Applied "Extension - A Functional Approach." Language in Function, 8213508 MTA KESZ Sokszor~sito. 1983.
D'Costa LJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bowmer I, Fransen L. "Single dose spectinomycin for the treatment of chancroid: a comparison of 2 g versus 4 g.". 1983.
Kokwaro JO. "The state of conservation in African Tropical Forest.". In: UNEP/ADB workshop on the environment of indigenous African timber trees. Abidjan; 1983.
CF C, DS E, PE D, N H, BD R, LW I, H T. "Susceptibility of aposymbiotic Culex quinquefasciatus to Wuchereria bancrofti." Journal of invertebrate pathology. 1983;41(2):214-223. AbstractElsevier link

Larvae of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus originating from Kenya were reared in 0.025 mg/ml tetracycline hydrochloride. Some of the resulting progeny were shown, by electron microscopy and crossing experiments, to have been rendered free of the rickettsia like symbiont Wolbachia pipientis and from these progeny, symbiont-free lines were established. In experimental feedings on infected human volunteers and on cryopreserved microfilariae, the aposymbiotic stocks were found to be fully susceptible to the filaria Wuchereria bancrofti. This contrasts with some recently published data on Aedes polynesiensis, from which it has been suggested that rickettsia like symbionts have an important role in the development of filaria in the mosquito.

Keywords
Culex quinquefasciatus; Wolbachia pipientis; Wuchereria bancrofti; electron microscopy; tetracycline treatment; aposymbiotic mosquitoes; filarial susceptibility; cryopreservation

ELIAS PROFMAITHOT. "*6FFBC058752C37F0ACD407CD04F39F6DD393B3C8.". In: journal. de Gruyter; 1983.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1983, 14-17th July The 2nd Nilo-Saharan Linguistics Colloquium, The University of Colleraine. N. Ireland.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1983.
GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. "3 Chapters in Official Handbook.". In: Kenya Government, Nairobi.; 1983. Abstract
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S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Achapa C.O., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Lequin R.M., Mati J.K.G., Njoroge J.K. Dynamic study follow up of pituitary reserve function in patients who had suffered postpartum haemorrhage J. Obstet Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 2:166, 1983.". In: J. Obstet Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 2:166, 1983. uon press; 1983. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid.
MARTIN DROGUTU. "Advertising Agencies in Kenya: Their Nature and Operations (MBA Research Project,).". In: Journal of Vocational Behaviour. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1983. Abstract
Summing multipliers is an important class of operators in the geometric theory of general Banach spaces. They are particularly useful in the study of the structure of the classical spaces. The work done by Grothendieck and Pietsch provides a good basis for the study of this class of operators. The topic of this study is Aspects on (p,q)-summing multipliers. (p,q)-summing multipliers are sequences of bounded linear operators mapping weakly p-summable sequences into strongly q-summable sequences. This study is concerned with using the concepts of absolute and p-summing multipliers to characterize the space of all (p,q)-summing multipliers. In particular we show that the space of all (p, q)-summing multipliers is complete. This is accomplished through a detailed study of the concepts of the summing operators and absolute and p-summing multipliers
JOHN PROFADWOK. "Adwok, J.A., Urethral Strictures at the Kenyatta National Hospital.A prospective study. A dissertation as part of fulfillment for the degree of Master of Medicine in Surgery.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1986; 63: 651. AIBUMA Publishing; 1983. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""African Literature and the Tyranny of Change", in Language and Literature, Edited by Sandra Nandan (Suva, Fiji: The University of South Pacific Press, 336-352.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1983. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah G.J.O., Ogaa J.S. Mutiga E.R. and Muraguri, J. (1983). Coliform mastitis in the Nairobi area of Kenya: Bacteriological types, antimicrobial sensitivity patterns and clinical problems of treatment. Ken. Vet. 7(1) - 20.". In: Ken. Vet. Assoc. Scientific Seminars, April, 1987, Nyeri,Kenya. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1983. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. (1983). Vibriosis: Current Diagnostic trends.". In: Annual Conf. Ken. Vet. Assoc. April, 1983, Nairobi. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1983. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. Mac-Laren, A.P.C. and Boyd, H. (1983). Development and Application of the Counterium Unoelectrophoresis (CIE) test for the immunodiagnosis of C. fetus infection in cattle Br. Vet. J. 139, 528 - 36.". In: Ken. Vet. Assoc. Scientific Seminars, April, 1987, Nyeri,Kenya. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1983. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Agumbah, G.J.O., Ogaa, J.S., Mutiga, E.R. and Muraguri, J.M. 1983. Coliform mastitis in the Nairobi area of Kenya: Bacteriological Types, Antimicrobial sensitivity patterns and clinical problems of treatment. Kenya Vet. 7(1) : 20-24.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1983. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "AKAMA, .K., ODHIAMBO, W.A., CHINDIA, M.L., GUTHUA, S.W., and MACIGO, F.G.: Injuries of the Maxillofacial skeleton in Nairobi, Kenya. East Afri. Med. Journal.". In: East Afri. Med. Journal. Elsevier; 1983. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "AKAMA, M.K., ODHIAMBO, W.A., CHINDIA, M.L., GUTHUA, S.W. and MACIGO, F.G. Injuries of the Maxillofacial Skeleton in Nairobi, Kenya. E. Afr. Med. J.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. Elsevier; 1983. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "Alpha Vs Non-alpha: Some Observations on the Position of the Semantic Functions on the Sematic Function Hierarchy.' In S.C. Dik (ed.) Advances in Functional Grammer. Dordrecht Holland: Foris Publications.". In: A book review in Journal of African Languages and Linguistics Vol. 15 - 1, 80-85. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1983. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Alumina and Silica gel catalysed rearrangement of 2,2 Diaryl Oxiranes to 2,2 -Diarylacetaldehydes" J.Sci. Technol.". In: Kenya. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1983. Abstract
   
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Appropriate Technology and Prospects in Grain Storage. Kenya Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal. 1(3): 36 - 42.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1983. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
J PROFBUOROIB. "Atwell, R.B. and Buoro I.B.J. (1983): Clinical presentation of Canine dirofilariasis with relation to their haematological and mocrifilarial status. Research in veterinary Science 35:364-366.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Vet Medicine. Taylor & Francis; 1983. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Autrup H, Bradley KA, Shamsuddin AK, Wakhisi J, Wasunna A. Detection of putative adduct with fluorescence characteristics identical to 2,3-dihydro-2-(7'-guanyl)-3-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 in human urine collected in Murang'a district, Kenya. Carcinogenesis. 19.". In: Carcinogenesis. 1983 Sep;4(9):1193-5. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1983. Abstract

Food samples collected in Murang'a district, Kenya are known to be contaminated with a mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB), and a positive correlation exists between the dietary intake of AFB and the incidence of liver cancer. When urine samples collected in this district were analyzed for the presence of 2,3-dihydro-2-(7'-guanyl)-3-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 (AFB-GuaI) by h.p.l.c., 6 of 81 samples had a detectable level of a compound whose fluorescence spectrum was identical to chemically synthesized AFB-GuaI as confirmed by photoncounting fluorescence spectrophotometry. These results are an indication of interaction between the ultimate carcinogenic form of AFB and cellular nucleic acids in vivo and further support the hypothesis that AFB may play an important role in the etiology of human liver cancer.

O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O. (1983): .". In: Published by the Lengo Press, Nairobi, pp.112-118. Kisipan, M.L.; 1983. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "The B.Sc. Agricultural Engineering Course. Paper presented at the Agricultural Inter-University subject Meeting. September 5-10 Arusha, Tanzania.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1983. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O., 1983. Geophysical investigations for kimberlite pipes in the greenstone belt of western Kenya.". In: Journal of African Earth Sciences 1, 235-253. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1983. Abstract
n/a
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.,(1983). Comparison between field measurements and local climatic estimates of crop water use in Oklahoma. M.Sc. Thesis. Oklahoma State University. Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1983. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Biogas Slurry Systems, Biogas for Rural Development. CSC Technical Publication No, 137.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1983. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
J PROFBUOROIB. "Buoro, I.B.J. and Atwell R.B. (1983). Heartworm Diagnostic Kit. Australian Veterinary Journal 13: 134.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Vet Medicine. Taylor & Francis; 1983. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
J PROFBUOROIB. "Buoro, I.B.J. and Atwell R.B. (1983). Intravascular Haemolytic Sydrome in Dogs.Veterinary Record 112:273-274.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Vet Medicine. Taylor & Francis; 1983. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
J PROFBUOROIB. "Buoro, I.B.J., Atwell R.B. and Heath, T. (1983). The angles of branching and the diameters of pulmonary arteries in relation to the distribution of pulmonary lesions in Canine dirofilariasis. Research in Veterinary Science. 35:353-356.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Vet Medicine. Taylor & Francis; 1983. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "CHINDIA, M. L., GUTHUA S.W.: Neonatal chondroblastic oesteosarcoma of the mandible. E. Afri. Med. J. (In Press).". In: E. Afri. Med. J. (In Press). Elsevier; 1983. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
MOCHACHE DRJASONMOSOMI. "Chobe District Settlement Strategy, Botswana: A Participatory Pilot Approach for District Settlement Planning. In collaboration with United Nations Centre for Human Settlements. UNDP and Government of Botswana June 2000 (Forthcoming in UNCHS Publications).". In: Bristol University, UK, September 1989. University of Nairobi; 1983. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "CLEMENS, E.T. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1983) Digestive physiology of East African wild ruminants. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 76A, 319-333.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1983. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "CLEMENS, E.T., MALOIY, G.M.O. and SUTTON, J.D. (1983) Molar proportions of fatty acids in the gastrointestinal tract of East African wild ruminants. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 76A,217-224.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1983. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "CLEMENS, E.T., MALOIY, G.M.O. and SUTTON, J.D. (1983) Nutrients digestability and gastrointestinal electrolyte flux in the elephant and rhinoceros. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 76A,653-656.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1983. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "Co-operatives as Credit Institutions: Some Policy Recommendations, Freidrich Ebert Foundation POLIS Supplement, March 1983.". In: The Development of the National Economy Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, 1993. International Union of Crystallography; 1983. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "Comparative efficacy of nine fungicides for control of coffee leaf rust in 1981/82 period in Kenya. Kenya Coffee (1983) 48(567): 169-174.". In: at a symposium on integrated pest management in tropical and subtropical cropping systems - Bad Durkheim, West Germany, organized by DLG, February 8th - 15th 1989 Vol. 111. 799-804. J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 1983. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU. "A comparison of three dosage regimens of sodium stibogluconate in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in Kenya. J Infect Dis. 1983 Jul;148(1):148-55.". In: J Infect Dis. 1983 Jul;148(1):148-55. Taylor & Francis; 1983. Abstract
A prospective randomized trial of three dosage regimens of sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam; Wellcome Foundation, London) to treat visceral leishmaniasis was conducted. Previously untreated patients were randomized to receive 31 doses of sodium stibogluconate (10 mg Sb/kg of body weight per dose) administered once daily for 31 days (group A), every 12 hr for 15 days (group B), or every 8 hr for 10 days (group C). Of the 29 patients who completed treatment, seven of 10 in group B and all of the patients in groups A and C responded to treatment and remained well for one year. One patient in group B failed to respond to treatment, and two others in group B initially responded to treatment but relapsed six weeks after discharge. None of the treatment regimens was toxic. Parasites disappeared from splenic aspirates most quickly and hemoglobin levels rose most rapidly in patients receiving sodium stibogluconate every 8 hr. Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in Kenya with sodium stibogluconate at a dose of 10 mg Sb/kg every 8 hr for 10 days appears to be a safe alternative to conventional treatment. Its efficacy should be confirmed in a larger number of patients.
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. "Conditional Logit Analysis of Household Choice of Medical Treatment Alternatives in Rural Villages in Kenya.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1983. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO, OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "A Correlational Analysis of the Relationship between Performance in Theory Courses and Teaching Practice in the Kenyan Primary Teachers Colleges. Paper Presented at Graduate/Staff Seminar Bureau of Educational Research; Kenyatta University College; 25th O.". In: Paper Presented at Graduate/Staff Seminar Bureau of Educational Research; Kenyatta University College; 25th October 1983. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1983. Abstract
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M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Croton megalocarpus Hutch seed kernel oil: A potentially rich source of Octadeca-9, 12-dienoic acid", J. Sci, Technol.". In: Kenya. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1983. Abstract
   
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Culture Events in East and Central Africa", Busara (1983), V, 2, 70-76.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1983. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
M PROFOGUTUGILBERTE. ""Dieu en Langage Luo" Vivant Universe No. 344, Biemestrel, April.". In: The African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries Vol. 5 No. 2.; 1983. Abstract
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"Drought and famine in Turkana: some human problems and attempted solutions." The Kenya Geographer, vol. 5. Nos. 1&2, pp. 175 ; 1983. Abstract
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DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "E. M. W. Akunda. Influence of plant population on growth .". In: Paper presented at the MICREN BOARD MEETING, LILONGWE . Kisipan, M.L.; 1983. Abstract
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M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al (1983) Diagnosis of Nairobi sheep Disease virus in sheep using complement fixation test. Kenya veterinarian vol 77 No. 93 p 77.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1983. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu Lucy L. Muruatetu G Davies. 1983. Serological diagnosis of Rift Valley fever virus infection in cattle and sheep. (in Kenya). Higher National Diploma project. Polytechnic of Nairobi. P 1-73.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1983. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "EDDY, F.B. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1983) Sodium balance in the catfish (Clarias mossambicus) exposed to acid water. Hydrobiologia 106, 123-126.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1983. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
N. DRMUSYOKIRACHEL. "Education and Desired Family Size: A Study of Kenyan Youth. A Ph.D. Dissertation, Florida State University, 1982 published by University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Michigan, June, 1983.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1983. Abstract
No abstract available.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "The effects of Cortisone on GABA metabolism on the rat hypothalamus and hippocampus. MSc Thesis Donestsk State University.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Feb;73(2):88-90. Springerlink; 1983. Abstract

In a bid to determine the HIV-1 subtype variants in transmission in Nairobi and its possible association with clinical status, we screened 207 confirmed HIV-1 positive patients visiting HIV/AIDS laboratory at the Virus Research Centre in Nairobi between January and March 1994. We used a selfmade ELISA obtained from an established panel of HIV-1 V3 loop peptides (ANRS, France) and derived from seven isolates: MN, HXB2, SC, Z6, Z2, ELI and CDC4. Test samples were obtained from 95 blood donors and medical examination attendees, 57 patients with chronic diarrhoea, 31 confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis, 16 with pneumonia and 12 herpes zoster. Out of the total, 21.5% had antibodies against the MN strain, 19.1% had against the Z2 strain while reaction against the HXB2 strain was observed in 17.2%. SC, CDC4, Z6 and ELI had prevalences of 11.5%, 6.2%, 5.3% and 3.8% respectively. Fifteen per cent of the tested sera showed no reaction to any of the used peptides. Strong and significant associations were observed between the total number of strains a sample react to and the clinical state. We infer that both the North American consensus strains (MN and HXB2) and the African isolates (Z2 and Z6) are predominant in Nairobi. The correlation between antibody reactivity and clinical state is an interesting observation that necessitates an expanded study and, the use of strain specific peptides maybe a sensitive and easier method for use for molecular epidemiological purposes. PIP: During January-March 1994, in Nairobi, Kenya, the sera of pre-university students, suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases, and blood donors were screened for HIV-1 antibodies at the Virus Research Centre. All confirmed HIV-1 positive samples were categorized according to the patient's clinical status. A self-made ELISA was obtained from an established panel of HIV-1 V3 loop peptides and derived from seven isolates (MN and HXB2 [North American strains], SC, CDC4, Z2 and Z6 [African strains], and ELI). The sera of the 22 confirmed HIV-1 negative students were used as negative controls. There were 207 confirmed HIV-1 cases (95 blood donors and 112 suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases). 64 (31%) and 112 (54%) samples reacted to at least 3 strains and no more than 2 strains, respectively. The remaining 31 (15%) samples did not react to any of the 7 peptide strains. Samples with CD4 cell counts greater than 500 x 1 million reacted significantly to more peptide strains than those with CD4 counts below 200 x 1 million (88% vs. 7%). Reactivity to specific strains were 21.5% for MN, 19.1% for Z2, 17.2% for HXB2, 11.5% for SC, 6.2% for CDC 4, 5.5% for Z6, and 3.8% for ELI. Anti-HXB2 antibodies were more common in blood donors than suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases (22% vs. 13%). AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases were more likely to have no antibodies than blood donors (21% vs. 7%). A significant association existed between the number of peptide strains a patient could react to and the clinical state (p 0.01). Specifically, 77% of samples with no V3 antibodies to the seven strains had AIDS or advanced HIV infection while 55% of those which had cross reactivity with three or more strains were asymptomatic. Further research is needed to better understand this correlation. These findings suggest that use of strain specific peptides may be a sensitive and easier method for use for molecular epidemiological purposes.

P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "The Effects of Higher Energy Costs on the Balance of Payments Employment Technology Choice and Real Incomes in Kenya with particular Emphasis on Machakos District a Report to the Ford Foundation with W. M Mwangi and H. Fieldstein.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1983. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
W DRGACHUKIDAVID. ""Evaluating and negotiating for Foreign Investment Projects: Some Notes from the Kenyan Experience.". In: J. Social Med. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1983. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "An Evaluation of the Economic Impact of Minimum Wage Legislation in Kenya.". In: ILO Proejct paper. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1983. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Evaluation of the Institute of Cultural Affairs Contribution to Village Renewal Development Programme in Kenya with Particular Emphasis on Machakos district A Report to the Ford Foundation with W.M Mwnagi and II Fieldstein.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1983. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
MBURUGU PROFEDWARDK. ""Factors Related to Stock Ownership and Population Movements and Perceptions on Lnd Pressure and othe Environmental Changes Among the Rendile in Marsabit District". Integrated Project in Afrid Lands, IPAL Technical Reprt Number F-2, UNESCO, Nairobi pp.1-4.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Internaitonal Conference of the Geological Society of Africa . Kisipan, M.L.; 1983. Abstract
Families in Kenya. In Handbook of World Families, edited by B.N. Adams and J. Trest. Sage Publication, 2005.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Fransen L, Piot P, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ronald AR, Nsanze H. Genital infections in parent of infants with ophthalmia neonatorum in Nairobi, Kenya. Journ. Obs. & Gynae. of Eastern & Central Africa Vol. 2, 154 - 156, 1983.". In: Journ. Obs. & Gynae. of Eastern & Central Africa Vol. 2, 154 - 156, 1983. IBIMA Publishing; 1983. Abstract
Routine procedures used to isolate Haemophilus ducreyi in a busy laboratory are reported. Identification was based on colony morphology and nutritional and biochemical properties of 120 fresh isolates of H. ducreyi. These isolates grew very well on Gonococcal Agar and Mueller-Hinton Agar incubated at 34 degrees C in candle extinction jars containing moistened filter paper. Colonies varied in size, giving a polymorphic appearance. They were smooth, dome-shaped, and buff-yellow to grey in colour, and measured 2 mm in diameter. They could be pushed intact across the agar surface. By microscopic examination of gram-stained smears the isolates were gram-negative coccobacilli arranged in short chains, clumps or whorls and occasionally in typical "rail track" arrangements. Individual bacteria showed bipolar staining. Colonies autoagglutinated in saline. All strains were catalase-negative and did not produce indole or H2S. They were oxidase- and beta-lactamase positive and required X but not V factor for growth. Now that reliable techniques have been developed and characteristics established it is possible for most clinical laboratories to isolate and identify this organism from most patients with chancroid.

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