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1986
Kager PA;, Rees PH. "Haematological investigations in visceral leishmaniasis.". 1986. Abstract

Various haematological parameters were followed in a group of 47 Kenyan patients with visceral leishmaniasis during treatment and follow up. The WBC and platelet numbers were normal by the time of cure, the Hb level took longer to become normal. Red cells were microcytic and hypochromic. MCV and MCH increased during follow up but microcytosis persisted up to a year after cure. Low serum iron and transferrin concentration, low total iron binding capacity and normal to high serum ferritin levels were found in 10 patients and are consistent with 'anaemia of chronic inflammation'. Bone marrows of 15 patients before treatment were normo- to hypercellular with increased erythropoietic activity. Low haemosiderin content of the bone marrow was consistent with iron deficiency, but normalization of Hb without iron suppletion would argue against a major role of iron deficiency. Coagulation studies did not indicate diffuse intravascular coagulation. Splenomegaly seems the most important factor in the causation of the pancytopenia. Further studies of contributing factors and of the cause and mechanism of 'hypersplenism' are needed.

Mwabu G. "Health Care Decisions at the Household level: Results of a Rural Health Survey in Kenya." Social Science and Medicine. 1986;22(3): 315-319.
Ngugi EN;, Plummer FA. "Health Outreach and Control of HIV Infection in Kenya.". 1986. Abstract

This paper highlights the role of mobilization of individuals and community groups and health professionals in prevention of HIV transmission. It traces the educational strategy employed to reach the general population and selected groups at risk. In Kenya, the general awareness about AIDS started to grow in late 1985 and increased in 1986--87. This has resulted in reduction ofthe incidence of some sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The importance of pretesting education material as well as monitoring and evaluation of educational efforts to lay the ground for culturally appropriate and more effective health education messages to combat HIV transmission is presented. The paper concludes by emphasizing the importance of developing the HIV infection programs with the people and for the people. Key Words: Human immunodeficiency rvirus-Prevention-Kenya-Sexually transmitted diseases.

Greenfield, C; Fowler MJ. "Hepatitis B Virus And Primary Liver Cell Carcinoma. The Application Of Molecular Biology.". 1986. Abstract

Worldwide, primary liver cell carcinoma (PLC) is one of the most common tumours. Epidemiological evidence has implicated hepatitis B virus (HBV) in its aetiology and the mechanisms whereby HBV could operate at the genomic level have been investigated using the techniques of molecular biology. The resemblance of certain features of HBV to the retroviruses has also suggested mechanisms whereby malignant transformation may take place, but as yet there is no clear evidence for HBV being directly oncogenic. This has suggested to some that it is the persistent inflammatory reaction caused by HBV infection that is instrumental in causing PLC. We believe, however, that HBV can act independently of this mechanism and that the failure so far to show this at the molecular level may be due to technical reasons.

de cock, km; Govindarajan VRAGS; B;. "Hepatitis B virus DNA in fulminant hepatitis B.". 1986.
Farci, P; Osidiana MRZFJTWGV; CN;, et al. "Hepatitis delta virus infection in Kenya. Its geographic and tribal distribution.". 1986. Abstract

In 1982-1984, an epidemiologic survey of the prevalence of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) in circulating blood (HBs-antigenemia) and of hepatitis delta virus infection was performed in Kenya. The distributions of hepatitis B virus and the delta virus were shown to be very variable. In southern Kenya, only two of 202 sera from HBsAg-positive individuals with no known liver disease and none from 123 HBsAg-positive patients with hepatitis B-related liver disease were positive for delta antibody. In contrast, in northern Kenya, there was an overall prevalence of delta antibody in healthy individuals of 31%. The distribution of delta infection is discussed in relation to lifestyle, ethnic group, and geographic area.

Greenfield, CL; Lartin KM; SFS; DRR. "Heterochromatin Staining Pattern Of Quail-chicken Hybrid Lymphocytes.". 1986. Abstract

Feulgen-Rossenbeck staining of lymphoid cells of quail-chicken hybrids in histologic sections revealed a pattern of heterochromatin arrangement distinguishable from that of either parental type. During interphase, hybrid lymphocytes exhibited combined characteristics of both the parental quail and the parental chicken. Hybrid heterochromatin was arranged in a large central mass as in the quail and in fairly evenly distributed small chromacenters around the periphery of the nucleus similar to the arrangement in the chicken. It is suggested that this pattern of staining can be used as a marker for hybrid cells in studies of genetic interactions.

Kagiko MM;, Lindqvist. K;, Gathuma JM. "Immunological Characterization Of The Antigens Of Hydatid Cyst Fluid.".; 1986. Abstract

Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF. The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF. This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture. The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS). This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA. Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%. The predictive value was 89%. Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.

Kagiko MM;, Lindqvist. K;, Gathuma JM. "Immunological Characterization Of The Antigens Of Hydatid Cyst Fluid.".; 1986. Abstract

Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF. The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF. This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture. The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS). This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA. Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%. The predictive value was 89%. Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.

KAMASARA VO. "Impact of Bank Failures an Economic Development in Kenya.". In: Student Accountant. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1986. Abstract

The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.

Matanji P. Implementation of automated housekeeping systems in academic libraries in Kenya.. Melbourne: Monash University, Graduate School of Librarianship; 1986.
Ochoro WEO, Odada JEO, Manundu CM, Awiti LM, Makanda DW, Kabando RM. Incentives for increased agricultural production. A case study of Kenya's sugar industry..; 1986.Website
Awiti LM, Odada JEO, Manundu CM, Ochoro WEO, Makanda DW, Kabando RM. Incentives for increased agricultural production. A case study of Kenya's sugar industry..; 1986.Website
Makanda DW, Odada JEO, Manundu CM, Ochoro WEO, Awiti LM, Kabando RM. Incentives for increased agricultural production. A case study of Kenya's sugar industry..; 1986.Website
Gichaga FJ, Rangasami KS. Introduction to Building and Civil Engineering Drawing. MacMillan Publishers; 1986.
MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, Bali SK. "An Investigation Into Factors Contributing to Teaching Effectiveness Among Student Teachers: Towards a Prediction Model for Teaching Effectiveness among student teachers.". In: Msingi Journal of Educational Foundations, Vol.2 No. 1, Kenyatta University. IBIMA Publishing; 1986. Abstract

Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi, Kenya.

Marube K. Investigation of attitudes towards Mathematics by teacher trainees of Migori and Kisii Teachers Training colleges. Nairobi: Kenyatta University; 1986. Abstract

Abstract
Performance in Mathematics has been poor for the last many years. The course of the problem has not been established. Children at the primary level of education in Kenya are not known to have probems with mathematics concepts. This is clear from the good performance in the subject at the national examination level (KCPE). Students start having problems with Mathematics concepts at the secondary level. Results in mathematics at the national secondary examination tell it all; poor performance.
It is suspected that the problems related with Mathematics among school pupils emanates from the teachers of Mathematics. This is what necessitated the study; to investigate the attitudes of the teacher trainees who on their graduation become teachers of Mathematics.
The study established that the teacher trainees from the two Colleges was negative. The teacher trainees took mathematics because it was compulsory. It was found out that most of them did not pass mathematics at their qualifying examination to College. Probably, this is why they hold negative attitudes towards the subject. This may be the reason why the pupils they teach may not like the subject.

Lubwama SW;, Plummer FA;, Ndinya-Achola JO;, Nsanze H;, Namaara W;, D'Costa LJ;, Ronald AR. "Isolation and identification of Haemophilus ducreyi in a clinical laboratory.". 1986. Abstract

Routine procedures used to isolate Haemophilus ducreyi in a busy laboratory are reported. Identification was based on colony morphology and nutritional and biochemical properties of 120 fresh isolates of H. ducreyi. These isolates grew very well on Gonococcal Agar and Mueller-Hinton Agar incubated at 34 degrees C in candle extinction jars containing moistened filter paper. Colonies varied in size, giving a polymorphic appearance. They were smooth, dome-shaped, and buff-yellow to grey in colour, and measured 2 mm in diameter. They could be pushed intact across the agar surface. By microscopic examination of gram-stained smears the isolates were gram-negative coccobacilli arranged in short chains, clumps or whorls and occasionally in typical "rail track" arrangements. Individual bacteria showed bipolar staining. Colonies autoagglutinated in saline. All strains were catalase-negative and did not produce indole or H2S. They were oxidase- and beta-lactamase positive and required X but not V factor for growth. Now that reliable techniques have been developed and characteristics established it is possible for most clinical laboratories to isolate and identify this organism from most patients with chancroid.

T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T (1986). Filling the gaps in services. Africa Health 8:24-25.". In: Africa Health 8:24-25. African Meteorological Society; 1986. Abstract

No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Gachuiri CK;, Carles AB;, Schwartz HJ. "Levels, causes and factors affecting mortality in a herd of small East African goats on a semi-arid thornbush Savannah."; 1986. Abstract

Kenya comprises vast arid and semi-arid areas and at the present level of technology and economic infrastructure in the country, the only feasible way to prod-:&z food for human consumption from these areas is through domestic ruminants. Small stock production has played a major role in th economy of range areas in the past 10 years. Sheep and goats have contributed significantly more than cattle in terms of livestock products in these areas (Semenye, 1977). The goat population has recently been estimated at 7.7 million with 40% of these being kept by pastoralists (Stotz, 1983). An increasing proportion of goats is observed in the pastoralists flocks with increasing aridity of the environment, leading to the assumption that goats are better adapted to the conditions of the arid rangeland of Northern Kenya. High mortality rates, especially prcweaning, has been cited as a major constraint on improving productivity. Wilson et al. (1985) reported a preweaning mortality of 28.6% for goats in a Maasai ranch. Carles et al. (1982), working in a pastoral area in Northern Kenya, reported mortalities of 6-12% for breeding females, rising as high as 66% during the first year of life. An opportunity arose to study in more detail, the causes, levels and factors affecting mortality in a typical pastoral system with the establishment, by the Department of Animal Production in cooperation with the Ministry of Livestock Development, the European Economic Community, the German Research Foundation and the German Agency for Technical cooperation, of a research station in a pastoral area near Isiolo.

Musoke RN. "Low birthweight.". 1986.
ELIAS PROFMAITHOT. "Maitho, T., Lees, P. and Taylor, J.B. 1986. Absorption and Pharmacokinetics of phenylbutazone in welsh mountain ponies. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. 9, 26-39.". In: journal. de Gruyter; 1986. Abstract

The disposition of phenylbutazone (4.4 mg/kg), administered intravenously to six Welsh Mountain ponies, was described by a two-compartment open model. Pharmacokinetic parameters were not significantly different after morning dosing in comparison with afternoon dosing. When phenylbutazone (4.4 mg/kg) was administered orally to the same ponies, marked variations in time to peak concentrations were produced with different feeding schedules. When access to hay was permitted before and after dosing, the mean time to peak concentration was 13.2 ± 1.2 h and double peaks in the plasma concentration–time curve were common. Double peaks were also encountered when phenylbutazone was given to ponies deprived of food prior to, and allowed access to hay after, dosing. In this circumstance, mean times to peak concentration were much shorter (3.8 ± 1.3 h after morning dosing and 5.3 ± 1.5 h followed afternoon dosing). Absorption was more regular and double peaks were less apparent when food was withheld both before and after dosing. In order to explain these findings, it is tentatively postulated that, whereas some of the administered dose of phenylbutazone may be absorbed quickly, some may become adsorbed on to the feed and subsequently released by fermentative digestion in the large intestine and/or caecum. The consequences of delayed absorption in fed animals for toxicity and clinical efficacy, and for the use of phenylbutazone in equestrian sports, are considered. Delayed absorption in ponies given access to hay was not accompanied by a significant reduction in total absorption. Bioavailability was estimated to be approximately 69% in fed and 78%, in unfed ponies. Estimates of bioavailability gave similar values for morning (72%) and afternoon (71%) dosing.

Oucho JO. "Migration Differentials and Rural Depopulation in Kenya: Development Planning Implications.". In: Rural Depopulation. Zaragoza: Department of Geography and Spatial Organization; 1986.
S.O K, J F, E. J DS. "MIRCENS: Catalytic tools in agricultural training and development.". 1986. Abstract

A global network of Microbiological Resources Centres (MIRCENs) , set up by Unesco, includes five centres concerned with biological nitrogen fixation. These centres are Kenya, Brazil, the United States and Senegal-train experts in the methods of Rhizobium inoculation, which when applied to certain leguminous plants can often avert the need to use expensive chemical nitrogen fertilizers in food crop production. The MIRCENs constitute an excellent example of international co-operation in science.

Onyari JM. "The need for aquatic pollution studies in Kenyan inland waters.". 1986. AbstractThe need for aquatic pollution studies in Kenyan inland waters

The need for baseline data on pollution studies to the aquatic biota of Kenyan Inland waters is of profound importance. Aware of the possible contamination of the rivers and Lakes with heavy metals, pesticides and other pollutants used around them for the control of tropical diseases and treatment of agricultural crops, a monitoring programme is necessary.

Anyango B;, Keya SO;, Owino F. "Nodulation Survey of Nitrogen Fixing Tre es in Kenya."; 1986.
Odhiambo JW. "The performance of multistage group screening designs.". 1986. AbstractThe performance of multistage group screening designs

This article deals with multistage group screening in which group-factors contain the same number of factors. A usual assumption of this procedure is that the directions of possible effects are known. In practice, however, this assumption i s often unreasonable. This paper examines, in the case of no errors in observations, the performance of multistage group screening when this assumption is false . This enails consideration of cancellation effects within group-factors

Greenfield C, Osidiana V, Karayiannis P, Galpin S, Musoke R, Jowett TP, Mati P, Tukei PM, Thomas HC. "Perinatal Transmission Of Hepatitis B Virus In Kenya: Its Relation To The Presence Of Serum Hbv-dna And Anti-hbe In The Mother.". 1986. Abstract

In Kenya hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its sequelae are common. We followed up 49 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)- positive mothers and their newborn infants for 9 months to determine the importance of perinatal transmission in the African and to relate this to the HBe and HBV-DNA status of the mother. Our study shows that perinatal transmission is relatively unimportant in Kenya and that this may be a consequence of the low levels of circulating HBV-DNA in the maternal plasma. These results imply that vaccination without hyperimmune globulin may be adequate to control HBV infection in Kenya

Mwabu G. "A Portfolio Model of Patients' Behavior." Eastern Africa Economic Review ", 3. 1986.
Mbogoh SG. "Production systems and labour.". 1986.
Ochoro WE, Hjalmarson L. "Productive Efficiency and Productivity Change in Kenyan Manufacturing.". In: Manufacturing in Kenya under Adjustment. IBRD; 1986.
Bisetegne D, Ogallo L, Ininda J. "Rainfall Characteristics in Ethiopia." Technical Conference on Meteorological Research in Eastern and Southern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya. 1986.
Patel NB. "Reversible inhibition of neurite growth by focal electric currents." Prog Clin Biol Res. 1986;210:271-278.
Gachukia, E; Njau KPW; WM. "Rural, woman's Contribution to Economic Development."; 1986.
K'Obonyo PO. "Severity of consequences for the leader and subordinates work history as determinants of leader attribution .". 1986. AbstractWebsite

The effects of the level of seriousness of consequences of a subordinates performance and the nature of a subordinate's work history on leader attribution and response were investigated in a 2 x 3 factorial design with a sample of 46 male and 38 female junior and middle-level managers. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of six experimental conditions. Two variables, "consequences" of subordinate's performance and subordinate's "work history" were manipulated in a laboratory setting. As expected, (1) the level of internal attribution and response directed at the subordinate increased with the increase in the seriousness of consequences; (2) Internal attribution and the level of response directed at the subordinate were greater in the "poor work history" situation than in the "good work history" situation. Contrary to expectation, however, there was no significant difference between the two levels of serious consequences, i.e., "serious" and "serious with consequences" for the manager.

Zaja JO. "Short Distance Runners .". 1986.Website
Gachene CKK. "Soils of Bondo area.". 1986.
Ogallo LJ. "Stochastic Modelling of regional annual rainfall anomalies in East Africa." Journal of Applied Statistics. 1986;13(1):49-56.
Mukunya DM, Gatharu EM, Omunyin ME. "Strains of BCMV and their interaction with I-gene bean varieties.". 1986.
Odhiambo LO, Odada JEO. Studies in Cooperatives: Their Role in the Kenyan Economy. Nairobi: The Kenyan Economic Association and Friedrich Ebert Foundation; 1986.
Swazuri MA. A study of housing needs assessment a case study of Malindi town .; 1986. Abstract

The gap between what amount of housing is available and the desired housing level represents housing need. Investigations have shown that this need is growing over time, with little in the form of more housing being provided. In order to gauge by how far this need is being satisfied, it is necessary to undertake some study of housing needs in an area. This project work comprises a study of methods for estimating overall housing needs. Prevailing theories of housing need have concentrated very much on the physical housing product itself as a representation of what and how much housing is required. Some of these theories and their practical applications in estimating housing needs are investigated. The results of most of these methods point out that the housing problem in many developing countries is one of unmanageable proportions, and that the needs have in many cases been measured unconvincingly. These methods have been applied to the study area of Malindi Town in the Coast Province of Kenya. The results of the study reveal the deficiencies in the current assessment methods. Any proper method for estimating housing needs should consider important elements like the environmental quality of the houses and their surrounding neighborhoods. It should also consider the level of housing services and peoples cultures that are necessary for the decent living of the occupants, whether these occupants can or cannot afford these essentials. The proposed model in this study incorporates a methodology for assessing housing needs in the light of the above prerequisites, which have often been neglected in the current housing need estimates. Though without fault, the method at least tries to reduce some of the defects inherent in the prevailing methods for estimating housing needs. There are three main parts to the study. First, housing needs are discussed in relation to current theories and methods of measuring them. Models are given and analysed against the magnitude of the housing problem as portrayed by other analysts. The second part is about the study area, Malindi Town in Coast Province, in which the various methods have been applied in order to test the hypothesis and carry out aims of the study. Data on population trends, household sizes, income structures, building materials, housing information .and construction activities are presented and analysed to provide a basis for the estimations. The third section links parts one and two in actual housing needs estimation using data obtained from a field survey. This section winds up with summary and recommendations obtained from the results of the estimations. Housing needs should not be assessed literayfor, they involve more than what meets the eye and more often they should be measured in recognition of the society's housing norms and allied attitudes

Misoi, G.K., Gichaga FJ. "Study of Road Corrugations in Kenya." Kenya Journal of Sciences. 1986;7(1):35-48.
Ndinya-Achola JO, Nsanze H;, Karasira P, Fransen L, Fransen L, Piot P, Ronald AR. "Three day oral course of Augmentin to treat chancroid.". 1986. Abstract

Amoxycillin and clavulanic acid (Augmentin; Beecham Research Laboratories) was used to treat patients with bacteriologically proved chancroid in three different dose regimens. A single dose of Augmentin (amoxycillin 3 g, clavulanic acid 350 mg) was found to be ineffective. A similar dose repeated after 24 hours was equally ineffective, but a dose (amoxycillin 500 mg, clavulanic acid 250 mg) given every 8 hours for three days was found to be effective. The drug was well tolerated and no side effects were noted in any of the patients treated

Schröder H, Schröder M. "The Toposa Verb." OPSL (Occasional Papers in Sudanese Languages.. 1986;5::1-47. AbstractWebsite

JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa

Zaja JO. "Translating The Language Of Development Communication Into Kiswahili: A Case Of Mediating Meaning, Difference And Ambiguity In Cross-cultural Communication .". 1986. AbstractWebsite

Communicating the concepts and practices of development by way of translation across languages and cultures is always intertwined with linguistic and conceptual tensions which blur meaning, distort communicative intention and nurture conceptual ambiguity in target paradigms. In order to create linguistically viable and functional cross-cultural communication, translation has to rely on myriad strategies entailing mediating meaning, that is, rendering cross-cultural communications in ways that make intended meaning accessible and usable. Meanings of concepts and their practices are subtly nuanced and understood in different languages and cultures. Meaning nuances as such denote tensions between incongruent linguistic and cultural interests and in situations of such tensions, translation provides a forte for mediating both linguistic and cultural differences of the interacting languages. This paper seeks to argue that translations of specialized terminologies in any field of human activity do not always result in explicit meaning equivalences, but rather in meanings that are contextually situated and culturally nuanced. Translating in such situations requires that we identify and account for how people and language communities make meaning of concepts on the basis of their own circumstances, worldviews and in their local languages. Thus, lack of linguistic equivalencies and the presence of meaning indeterminacy in translation is not a reflection of translational failure but rather, a calling to attention of the differences in the perceptions and interpretations of concepts across languages, which in subtle ways represent modes of thinking and communicating (Hoppers 2002). Successful and functional translation of specialized terminologies must be underpinned by the realization that conceptual meanings are always situated in cultural, contextual and temporal terms. Their transmission through translation into ‘new’ contexts can never be straightforward but rather mediated.

Delsol, J. P., Maurel P, Ochanda N. "Un cas D’ Edute la foret tropical de Kakamega – Nandi. Uest Kenya." International Symposium on Remote sensing of Environment. 1986.
Kariuki JKN, Khwa-Otsyla BO, Kitonyi J. "An unusual intra-renal arterio-venous fistula: a case report.". 1986.
Okeyo AM, Ruvuma F, Cartwright TC, Maleche JN. "Use of teething technique to estimate age in goats.". 1986.
MUTISO DRKINEENEWA. ". .". In: Hankuk University of Foreign Studies Press, March 1987, 161pp. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1986. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. ". Bernard N. Kimani Njoroge, William P. Ball, Robert S. Cherry .". In: Proceedings of the American Chemical Society Symposium, Division of Environmental Chemistry, San Diego,California,. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 1986. Abstract
This study investigated the effectiveness of three physical-chemical methods namely; pH adjustment, precipitation with alum and the use of polyelectrolytes. In the treatment of diary wastewater from Brookeside milk processing plant. It also investigated the drainability of the sludge produced by each of the three methods. Laboratory tests were carried out in three different batches, one for each of the three methods. In the alum method enough alum was added to the wastewater samples to cause precipitation by sweep floc. In the pH adjustment method, the pH of samples were lowered to the iso-electric point of the casein proteins of approximately pH 4.5 leading to their precipitation as a result of solubility changes. The polyelectrolytes method involved the use of two polyelectrolytes, Sudfloc 3820 and Sudfloc 3860 each of which was used to coagulate the dirty wastewater. For each of the three methods, the samples were taken in one-litre beakers and subjected to Jar tests to determine the optimum dosages. After one hour of settling the supernatants were decanted and subjected to standard Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) tests, turbidity and pH measurements. The settled sludge was subjected to drainability studies. Results showed the treatment of dairy wastewater by the three physical-chemical methods to be effective. There were COD removals of between 60% and 90% and turbidity reduction of over 90%. The use of the sudfloc polyelectrolytes was found to be the least demanding in terms of effluent quality control as no pH adjustments of either the wastewater or the effluent was required. The use of polyelectolytes produced the least volumes of sludge and also the better drainability and solids concentration. Sudfloc 3820 was found to achieve better results than Sudfloc 3860 in terms of COD reduction and the drainability of sludge produced although both achieved the same drainability studies. This study showed that each of the three physical-chemical methods can be used effectively to remove the white colour of dairy wastewater as well as the bulk of the proteins and fats, hence, enabling the discharge of the effluents into natural waters to be of good assimilative capacity.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. ".Omondi, L.N. (1986) Reduplication as a Linguistic Phenomenon. Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere. October, 1986. Schriftenreihe des Kolner Institut fur Afrikanistik.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1986.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1986, 5-8th August 3rd Nilo-Saharan Linguistics Colloquium, Kisumu, Kenya.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1986.
O DROUTAGEORGE. "7. .". In: Souvenir Journal of African Literature, No 1. Vol 1. Octawns: Nairobi, 1999. 1999; 1986. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 11957248 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, D. O. Orinda: Focal kinesigenic choreoathetosis preceding the development of Steele .". In: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. 49: 957- 959, 1986. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1986. Abstract

One hundred normal lateral skull radiographs were studied and those of ten patients with basilar impression attending Kenyatta Hospital, Nairobi. The mean shortest distance of the odontoid tip to McGregor's basal line was 1.2 +/- 2.28 mm below the basal line (range 6 mm below to 3 mm above basal line), in normals and 9 +/- 2.7 mm (6-14 mm) above basal line in patients. The mean basal angle was 113 degrees +/- 7 degrees (102 degrees-133 degrees) in normals and 122 degrees +/- 6 degrees (113 degrees-125 degrees) in patients. The mean nasion-basion-opisthion angle was 162 degrees +/- 4 degrees (154 degrees-169 degrees) in normals and 178 degrees +/- 5 degrees (173 degrees-185 degrees) in patients. The mean total length of clivus was 48 +/- 3.7 mm (43-56 mm) in normals and 44 +/- 6.6 (36-48 mm) in patients group. The mean median diameter of the foramen magnum was 39 +/- 5 mm (30-48 mm), atlas 21 +/- 3 mm (18-25 mm) axis 18 +/- 3 mm (14-23 mm), third cervical vertebra 16 +/- 2 mm (13-22 mm) in normals and in patients: 39 +/- 4 mm (36-45 mm), atlas 23 +/- 6 (15-30 mm) axis 19 +/- 4 mm (16-25 mm), third cervical vertebra 16 +/- 3 (14-20). There was a significant difference in the position of the odontoid tip and the nasion-basion-opisthion angle between the normal and patient groups. All the other parameters measured in this work did not differ significantly between the two groups.

K MRCHEPKONGAMIKE. "The Adult Literacy Programme: How functional? A case study of Metkei Location.". In: Doctorate, Georg-August- University G. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1986. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
K MRCHEPKONGAMIKE. "The Adult Literacy Programme: How functional? A case study of Metkei Location.". In: Doctorate, Georg-August- University G. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1986. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
JOHN PROFADWOK. "Adwok, J.A., Treatment of urethral strictures.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1986; 63: 651. AIBUMA Publishing; 1986. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
JOHN PROFADWOK. "Adwok, J.A., Urethral Strictures at the Kenyatta National Hospital.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 63:175. AIBUMA Publishing; 1986. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Aetiology of liver cirrhosis in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1986 Nov;63(11):724-30.". In: Br Heart J. 56(3): 285. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1986. Abstract
No abstract available. 
MBURUGU PROFEDWARDK. "The African Household in Socio-Economic Change: A Coceptual Problem in Research", in Research Methods in Social Sciences: A Quest for Relevant Approaches for Africa, Edited by Bashir O.M., Fadhalla d Fassil G. Kiros and published by Khartoum University Pr.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Internaitonal Conference of the Geological Society of Africa . Kisipan, M.L.; 1986. Abstract
Families in Kenya. In Handbook of World Families, edited by B.N. Adams and J. Trest. Sage Publication, 2005.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. (1986). Clinical and serological diagnosis of infertility in cattle due to C. fetus infection. Dept. of Clinical Studies Academic staff seminars, Kabete, Nairobi.". In: Ken. Vet. Assoc. Scientific Seminars, April, 1987, Nyeri,Kenya. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1986. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. and MacLaren, A.P.C. (1986): Demonstration and activity of Anodal antigens of C.fetus in the CIE system. Irish Bet. J. 40,24 -29.". In: Ken. Vet. Assoc. Scientific Seminars, April, 1987, Nyeri,Kenya. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1986. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
A. DRSWAZURIMUHAMMED. ""An Assessment of the Social Needs of Muslims in Kenya", a research consultancy project for Saad Yahya and Associated, September, 1986.". In: Key issues for Developing Countries. 1992 Ed., Bhatnagar S.C., pp. 103-114. Tata-Mcgraw-Hill. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 1986. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""An autonomous legal framework for the cooperative mobilisation of personal savings for development", a paper for the second Cooperative Commissioners Conference convened by the African Confederation of Cooperative Savings and Credit Associations (ACOSCA).". In: Paper for the Walter Rodney Seminar Series, African Studies Centre, Boston University, USA Decembe 8. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1986. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Anacardiaceae (Mango family) of East African flora, London.". In: establishing quantitative criteria for consensus. Economic Botany, 44 (3): 369-381. University of Nairobi Press; 1986. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "ANDERSEN, J., ZACHARIASSEN, K.E., MALOIY, G.M.O. and KAMAU,J.M.Z.(1986) Adaptation of carabid beetles to dry habitats in East Africa. Journal of Tropical Ecology 2, 127-138.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1986. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
J PROFBUOROIB. "Atwell R.B., Sutton, R.H. and Buoro, I.B.J. (1986). Early pulmonary lesions caused by dead Dirofilaria immitis in dogs exposed to homologous antigens. British Journal of Experimental Pathology 67: 395-405.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Vet Medicine. Taylor & Francis; 1986. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O. (1986): .". In: In The Kenyan Geographer, Vol.1, 1986. Kisipan, M.L.; 1986. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "B. Syuto., I.Ohishi., M.Naiki and S. Kubo: Binding of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin to gangliosides, J. Biochem. 100, 27-33.". In: Proceedings of the 11th Annual Medical Scientific Conference, Nairobi, Kenya. East African Medical Journal; 1986. Abstract
Lipophorin was isolated from the haemolymph of adult tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans, by ultracentrifugation in a potassium bromide density gradient. 2. The tsetse fly lipophorin (Mr congruent to 600,000) has a density of congruent to 1.11 g/ml and consists of two apoproteins, apolipophorin-I (apoLp-I, Mr congruent to 250,000) and apolipophorin-II (apoLp-II, Mr congruent to 80,000), both of which are glycosylated as shown by staining with periodate-Schiff reagent. The protein complex is composed of 49% protein and 51% lipids. 3. The finding of lipophorin in tsetse fly haemolymph suggests that, although these flies primarily utilize proline for their energy needs, there is an active transport mechanism for the supply of lipid requirements.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "B.Syuto., M.Naiki., I.Ohishi and S.Kubo: Binding of 125 Ibotulinum neurotoxin to synatopsomal membrane receptor : Jpn. Med. Sci. Biol. 38,100.". In: Proceedings of the 11th Annual Medical Scientific Conference, Nairobi, Kenya. East African Medical Journal; 1986. Abstract
Lipophorin was isolated from the haemolymph of adult tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans, by ultracentrifugation in a potassium bromide density gradient. 2. The tsetse fly lipophorin (Mr congruent to 600,000) has a density of congruent to 1.11 g/ml and consists of two apoproteins, apolipophorin-I (apoLp-I, Mr congruent to 250,000) and apolipophorin-II (apoLp-II, Mr congruent to 80,000), both of which are glycosylated as shown by staining with periodate-Schiff reagent. The protein complex is composed of 49% protein and 51% lipids. 3. The finding of lipophorin in tsetse fly haemolymph suggests that, although these flies primarily utilize proline for their energy needs, there is an active transport mechanism for the supply of lipid requirements.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Bebora L.C. (1986): Common poisons-poultry.". In: Paper presented at KVA scientific meeting on . Taylor & Francis; 1986.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Bebora L.C. (1986): Salmonellosis in poultry: the disease, its diagnosis and Prevention.". In: Paper presented at KVA scientific meeting on . Taylor & Francis; 1986.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.,(1986). Environmental Degradation and Conservation within the Njemps Flats and Tugen Plateau Areas of Central Baringo, Kenya. December,1986. Unpublished Report.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1986. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.,(1986). Technical and Socio-Economic considerations in rehabilitating and conserving an eroded/denuded catchment area: A case study of the Chemeron Catchment Area, Central Baringo, Kenya. In: Soil and Water Conservation in Kenya . Proceedings.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1986. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Binding of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins receptors on synatosomal membrane of rat brain.(Ph.D Thesis).". In: Hokkaido University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Libray. East African Medical Journal; 1986. Abstract
Lipophorin was isolated from the haemolymph of adult tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans, by ultracentrifugation in a potassium bromide density gradient. 2. The tsetse fly lipophorin (Mr congruent to 600,000) has a density of congruent to 1.11 g/ml and consists of two apoproteins, apolipophorin-I (apoLp-I, Mr congruent to 250,000) and apolipophorin-II (apoLp-II, Mr congruent to 80,000), both of which are glycosylated as shown by staining with periodate-Schiff reagent. The protein complex is composed of 49% protein and 51% lipids. 3. The finding of lipophorin in tsetse fly haemolymph suggests that, although these flies primarily utilize proline for their energy needs, there is an active transport mechanism for the supply of lipid requirements.
MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Bondole wa Mbula, E.M. Gathuru, 1986. Malakisi tobacco necrosis virus. Proceeding of the symposium on viral diseases in Africa held in Nairobi, Kenya. O.A.U. Scientific and Technical Res. Council Publication.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Symposium of the Crop Science Society of Kenya held on 4-8th July 1988. Nairobi, Kenya. 15 p. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1986. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
MUTHONI DRWAGURAPRISCA. "The Catholic Family: A source Book(Nairobi: Kenya Episcopal Confrence).". In: Episcopal Confrence, 1986. EAMJ; 1986. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "Characteristics of relief in connection with the study of Engonenic Ore deposits International Geomorphology.". In: John Wiley & Sons. Publishers Chichester. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1986. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Charasterization of Simulium (Edwardsellum) damnosum s.l. populations from six river systems in Kenya by cellulose acetate eletate electrophoresis.". In: Trans.R. Soc.Trop. Med & Hyg. 80: 914-922. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1986.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Composition of early human milk of Kenyan mothers of preterm and term infants. East Afr Med J . 1986 Nov; 63 ( 11 ): 693-8 . No abstract available. PMID: 3582225 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Jitta JN, Musoke RN, Bwibo NO, Kioni J.". In: East Afr Med J . 1986 Nov; 63 ( 11 ): 693-8 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1986. Abstract
No abstract available
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Cultural Factors and Development: The Case of Kenya.". In: Courier (E.E.C. Publication). Asian Economic and Social Society; 1986. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Curvature Tensor in Kahler and Almost Kahler Manifold.". In: Kenya Jour. of Sci. Ser. Vol.7, No.2, pp., 19-20 (1986). Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1986. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "D'Costa LJ, Ndinya-Achola Haase D, Fransen L, Nsanze H. Treatment of PPNG with Regimens involving Augmentin with or without Probenecid, and Penicillin + Probenecid with or without a small dose of Augmentin. Afr. J. Sex. Trans. Dis. Vol. 2: No. 1, 1986.". In: Afr. J. Sex. Trans. Dis. Vol. 2: No. 1, 1986. IBIMA Publishing; 1986. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "D.E Kapule and J.G. Wandera, 1986. Crop Production in Samburu District. Republic of Kenya. Samburu District Socio-Cultural profiles.". In: Nairobi University Press. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1986. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "D.E. Kapule 1986 Physico-geographical characteristics of Samburu District Republic of Kenya. Samburu District of Kenya. Samburu District Socio-cultural Profiles.". In: Nairobi University Press. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1986. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "D.E. Kapule and J.G. Wandera, 1986, Livestock Production in Samburu District. Republic of Kenya. Samburu District Socio-Cultural Profiles.". In: Nairobi University Press. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1986. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
ODHIAMBO MRLUTHEROTIENO. "Decomposition analysis in analysing small fire performance Univerity of Stirling Library.". In: Accountant. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1986.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Desertification in Africa with special references to East Africa. GEOGRAPHICAL REPORTS OF TOKYO Metropolitan University, No.21. The memorial volume of Prof. Hiroshi Toya. Pp. 23-34.". In: Chapter 8 in Managing Protected Areas in Africa. Ed W.J. Lusigi, Unesco-World Heritage Publishers - pp. 57-61. UN-HABITAT; 1986. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "Diagnosis of human hydatidosis in Kenya I. The role of indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) based on a thermo-stable antigen. E. Afr. Med. J. 63:311 .". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1986. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "Diagnosis of human hydatidosis in Kenya II. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on a thermo-stable antigen. E. Afr. Med. J. 63: 318 .". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1986. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
S. PROFEL-BUSAIDYABDULGAFURH. "Diffusion of Dissolved Oxygen through Concrete". Material Performance, 12,39-44 (December ).". In: Presented, NUSESA Maintenance of Equipment for the Advancement of Science Regional Conference, Sheraton Hotel, Kampala, Uganda, 3-4 December 2001. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 1986.
CHANDRA DRSAMANTAPURNA. "The Economic Integration of an island economy: The Case of Zanzibar to Tanganyika.". In: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. 103, No. 3., pp. 211-220. Journal of Natural Products; 1986. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Effects of clay minerals on the stabilization of black cotton and lateritic soils.". In: Kenya Journal of Science and Technology, Series A. Vol. 7. 5-23. Wiley Interscience; 1986. Abstract
Nyambok, I.O.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "The effects of Corticosteroids on Neurotransmitter metabolism on the rat CNS.MSc thesis University of Nairobi.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Feb;73(2):88-90. Springerlink; 1986. Abstract

In a bid to determine the HIV-1 subtype variants in transmission in Nairobi and its possible association with clinical status, we screened 207 confirmed HIV-1 positive patients visiting HIV/AIDS laboratory at the Virus Research Centre in Nairobi between January and March 1994. We used a selfmade ELISA obtained from an established panel of HIV-1 V3 loop peptides (ANRS, France) and derived from seven isolates: MN, HXB2, SC, Z6, Z2, ELI and CDC4. Test samples were obtained from 95 blood donors and medical examination attendees, 57 patients with chronic diarrhoea, 31 confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis, 16 with pneumonia and 12 herpes zoster. Out of the total, 21.5% had antibodies against the MN strain, 19.1% had against the Z2 strain while reaction against the HXB2 strain was observed in 17.2%. SC, CDC4, Z6 and ELI had prevalences of 11.5%, 6.2%, 5.3% and 3.8% respectively. Fifteen per cent of the tested sera showed no reaction to any of the used peptides. Strong and significant associations were observed between the total number of strains a sample react to and the clinical state. We infer that both the North American consensus strains (MN and HXB2) and the African isolates (Z2 and Z6) are predominant in Nairobi. The correlation between antibody reactivity and clinical state is an interesting observation that necessitates an expanded study and, the use of strain specific peptides maybe a sensitive and easier method for use for molecular epidemiological purposes. PIP: During January-March 1994, in Nairobi, Kenya, the sera of pre-university students, suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases, and blood donors were screened for HIV-1 antibodies at the Virus Research Centre. All confirmed HIV-1 positive samples were categorized according to the patient's clinical status. A self-made ELISA was obtained from an established panel of HIV-1 V3 loop peptides and derived from seven isolates (MN and HXB2 [North American strains], SC, CDC4, Z2 and Z6 [African strains], and ELI). The sera of the 22 confirmed HIV-1 negative students were used as negative controls. There were 207 confirmed HIV-1 cases (95 blood donors and 112 suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases). 64 (31%) and 112 (54%) samples reacted to at least 3 strains and no more than 2 strains, respectively. The remaining 31 (15%) samples did not react to any of the 7 peptide strains. Samples with CD4 cell counts greater than 500 x 1 million reacted significantly to more peptide strains than those with CD4 counts below 200 x 1 million (88% vs. 7%). Reactivity to specific strains were 21.5% for MN, 19.1% for Z2, 17.2% for HXB2, 11.5% for SC, 6.2% for CDC 4, 5.5% for Z6, and 3.8% for ELI. Anti-HXB2 antibodies were more common in blood donors than suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases (22% vs. 13%). AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases were more likely to have no antibodies than blood donors (21% vs. 7%). A significant association existed between the number of peptide strains a patient could react to and the clinical state (p 0.01). Specifically, 77% of samples with no V3 antibodies to the seven strains had AIDS or advanced HIV infection while 55% of those which had cross reactivity with three or more strains were asymptomatic. Further research is needed to better understand this correlation. These findings suggest that use of strain specific peptides may be a sensitive and easier method for use for molecular epidemiological purposes.

MWANGI DRMUCHEMIG. "Eley, R.M., Strum S. and Muchemi, G. 1986. Nutritional effects upon physical condition of three free-ranging troops of baboons in Gilgil, Kenya. Primate Report 14:136.". In: East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. EAMJ; 1986. Abstract
Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi. Four hundred and thirty six pupils in two primary schools in Kibwezi, Kenya aged between seven and sixteen years and positive for S. mansoni were treated as follows: 320 pupils with a single dose of praziquantel at 40 mg/kg body weight and 116 controls with a placebo. Immediate and delayed side effects of praziquantel were observed. The main side-effects were abdominal pain (36.3%), headache (35.3%) and nausea (13.1%). There was correlation between frequencies of these side-effects and intensity of infection measured as eggs per gram of faeces. Other side-effects included dizziness (9.7%), fever (7.8%), urticaria and bloody diarrhoea. Overall, the side-effects of praziquantel were mild and transient, and did not require any intervention. For ethical reasons, all pupils who served as controls were treated with praziquantel after the study. PMID: 8898462 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Entrepreneurship Development Policy in National Development: The Kenya Case." This article traces Kenya's entrepreneurship development policy through its development plans since independence upto Sessional Paper No. 1 of 1986 on Economic Management for R.". In: Eastern Africa Economic Review, Vol. 2, No. 1, (pages 99-105) Kenya Economic Assocation. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1986. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Entrepreneurship Development Policy in National Development: The Kenya Case." This article traces Kenya's entrepreneurship development policy through its development plans since independence upto Sessional Paper No. 1 of 1986 on Economic Management for R.". In: Eastern Africa Economic Review, Vol. 2, No. 1, (pages 99-105) Kenya Economic Assocation.; 1986. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

ELIZABETH GATUNGO. "Etude sociologique de la situation du fran." Sub-Department of French; 1986. Abstract
n/a
O PROFORINDADA. "Focal paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis preceding the development of steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome. A. M. Adam, and D.A.O. Orinda, J. Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 1986; 49: 957- 959.". In: Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 1986; 49: 957- 959. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1986. Abstract
Dept. of Human Pathol., Univ. of Nairobi, Kenya. PMID: 3180436 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFGENGARIEWA. "G. Kalman & R. O. Genga: High-Frequency Expansion of Plasma Dielectric Tensor; Phys, Rev. A 33, 604 (1986).". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1986.
O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading "The Optimum Density of Poly-Urethane Foam–Design of a Shear Fatigue Tester" Internal Report, Kenya Bureau of Standards (1986).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1986. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading "The Status of Materials Testing Equipment in Kenya" Presented at Seminar on Continuing Education of Engineers, University of Nairobi (1986).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1986. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Gandhi BM, Irshad M, Acharya SK, Choudhuri G, Tandon BN.Nitroblue tetrazolium test in the diagnosis of amoebic liver abscess. J Assoc Physicians India. 1986 Oct;34(10):711-3.". In: J Assoc Physicians India. 1986 Oct;34(10):711-3. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1986. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gathuma, J.M. (1986). Control of Protozoal diseases in Eastern Africa; The case for environmental considerations. Insect Sci. Appl. (3) 327 .". In: journal. FARA; 1986. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gathuma, J.M. (1986). Control of Protozoal diseases in Eastern Africa; The case for environmental considerations. Insect Sci. Appl. (3) 327 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1986. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. ""God Humanity and Nature in Ecumenical Discussion" Church and Society Report, Potsdam.".; 1986. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "GOMBE, S. & ODUOR-OKELO, D. & O.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1986. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.

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