Publications

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1974
Mukunya DM. "Bean Diseases In Kenya.".; 1974.
Wanjala C. "Cesaire's Responsibilities as a Poet." Thought and Practice: The Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya. 1974;1(1):59-72.
Ogana W. "Co-existence (Short story)." Hambone. 1974;Vol. 1.:pp. 61-65.
Varma S, Ferguson HL, Breen H, Lumb WV. "Comparison of Seven Suture Materials in Infected Wounds." Journal of Surgical Research. 1974;17:165-170.
Wanjala C. "The East African Writer and Society." Kenya Historical Review. 1974;2:23-37.
Odingo RS, Vogel LC, Muller AS, Onyango. "History of Medicine, and Health Services in Kenya (1900-1950).". 1974.Website
Mati JK;, Mugambi M;, Muriuki PB;, Thairu K. "An inhibitory action of prolactin on isolated rabbit myometrium.". 1974.
Maitai CK. "An investigation of a Masai medicinal herbs Sumeita (Momordica pterocarpa Hoechest)." Bull Epizoot Dis Afr.. 1974;22(2):152-5. AbstractWebsite

In a case of poisoning involving 70 cattle analysis of specimens obtained during post mortem examination showed that the toxic substances were arsenic and toxaphene. This was consistent with both the clinical and post mortem findings. Arsenic was detected in water from an abandoned cattle dip in the farm. Soil samples collected in the vicinity of the dip contained both arsenic and toxaphene.

Malo O. "On a Certain Transformation of Boltzmann Equation.". 1974. AbstractOn a Certain Transformation of Boltzmann Equation

An identical transformation of the Boltzmann equation leads directly to an equation of a purely stochastic process. A simple special case is obtained from the well-known formulae of neutron physics on the transition probabilities in velocity space representing the process of slowing down a neutron inside a stationary nucleus.

Wanjala C. "Poetry in East Africa." Joliso. 1974;2(2):1-6.
Carman NJ, Dossaji SF, Mabry TJ. "A populational survey of amino acids in Propsopis species from North and south America." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 1974;2:73-74. Abstract

Leaf extracts of 540 plants representing 24 species of the genus Prosopis from North and South America were analyzed by 2-D PC and high voltage electrophoresis for their protein and non-protein amino acids. In addition to the presence of the usual protein amino acids, most of the species examined contained high concentrations of the non-protein amino acids, pipecolic acid, 4-hydroxypipecolic acid and proline.

C.K M, et GAT, Kamau JA. "Toxicite D’ Adenia Vollensii (Kiliambiti). Identification et evaluation du principe toxique." Bulletin Des Epizooties in Afrique. 1974;XX(2):165-168.
Khamala CP, Dingle H. What tropical Africa can contribute to ecology.; 1974.
KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "The African Experience of God, in Africa Thought and Practice, Nairobi, Vol. 1 No. 1, pp. 49-58.".; 1974. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "African Theology, in WSCF Dossier, Geneva, No. 5, pp. 33-49.".; 1974. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

M PROFOGUTUGILBERTE. ""An Unholy Trinity", Kenya Historical Review, Vol 2 No. 2.". In: The African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries Vol. 5 No. 2.; 1974. Abstract
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OLE PROFMBATIAOLIVER. "The Application of Information Theory to Evaluate the Economic Effects of Fair Employment Laws on Occupations Progress of Black Americans, 1954-1972.". In: Read at the Forty-Ninth Annual Conference of Western Economic Association Meeting at Sahara Hotel, Las Vegas, Nevada, June 9-11, 1974. University of Nairobi.; 1974. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Ayim and WAMOLA I. A.Cross Infections in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) Chapter in .". In: Chapter in . IBIMA Publishing; 1974. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The Balance of Payment Adjustment Process.". In: A Report for the UNDP/UNCTAD. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1974. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. "Book Review, Poems, Ashes and Ambers by Hossenjee Edoo and Anand Mulloo, Port Louis (Nice Printing)44pp.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1974. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
Mutungi OK. "Business Organizations and the Africanisation of Commerce and Industry in Kenya." Doctoral Thesis, J.S.D. at Yale University Law School; 1974. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Canadian International Development Agency's Assistance in Kenya", February 1974.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1974. Abstract
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HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Cesaire's Responsibilities as a Poet", in Thought and Practice: The Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya 1, 1, 59-72.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1974. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Co-editor with Dr. Vogel of a book entitled "Health and Disease in Kenya" - published by the East African Literature Bureau, 1974.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1974. Abstract
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Mutungi OK. "Company and Partnership Laws and their Propriety in the Africanisation of Commerce and Industry in Kenya." Paper read at the Workshop on Socio-Legal Research at the Kenya Institute of Administration; 1974. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The contribution of Leisure to Crime and delinquence-A Comparision between developing and Developed countries, thought and practice-A journal of Philosophical Association of Kenya, Vol.1, no.2, 1974, East African literature bereau.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1974. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The Contribution of Leisure to Crime and Delinquency - A Comparison Between Developing and Developed Countries, Thought and Practice - A Journal of Philosophical Association of Kenya Vol. 1, No. 2, 1974, East African Literature Bureau.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1974. Abstract
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P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Curvature Tensors in Riemannian Manifold (II).". In: Proc. Indian Acad. of Sci. Vol.LXXIX Ser. A., No.3 PP 105-110. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1974. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "The Dead,Joe (April).". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1974. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Demographic and Technological Variables in Kenya's Employment Scene Eastern African Economic Review.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1974. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The Distribution of Juvenile Delinquency in the Provinces and Districts in Kenya. A Case Study of the Factors Accounting for the Differential Distribution of Delinquency Rates, Journal of Eastern African Research and Development, Vol. 4, No.1, 1974, East .". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1974. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The Distribution of Juvenile Delinquency in the provinces in Kenya. A case Study of the factors Accounting for the Differential Distribution of delinquency rates, journal of eastern African research and development, Vol., No.1, 1974, east African Literatu.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1974. Abstract
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P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Effectively Increasing Employment an Agenda for Business. I.D.S Working Paper No. 152 Also privately circulated by S.G Hawkins and Associates.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1974. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Employment, Technology and Industrialization in Kenya: A Study in Development Strategy. Dissertation Abstracts International Seriess A Vol. 35, No. 1.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1974. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Factor Intensity in Kenyas Industrial sector. An Input Ratio analysis. Working Paper No. 184. Instutute for Development Studies University of Nairobi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1974. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The Formation of Tris(2-4-Pentanediono) Chromium (III) in the presence of Trichloroethanoate and other Carboxylate ions in Aqueous Solutions".". In: Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 39, 769-771. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1974. Abstract
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F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "The Geography of East Africa. Chapter 2 of ZAMANI: A Survey of East African History. New Edition. Chapter 2 of ZAMANI: A Survey of East African History. Eds. B.A. Ogot and J.A. Kieran.". In: Longman, pp.22-48, Nairobi. UN-HABITAT; 1974. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. "A History of the Kikuyu, 1500-1900.". In: Oxford University Press, Nairobi.; 1974. Abstract
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A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Itotia, J N, Say P J and WAMOLA I. A. Meningitis (Bacterial and Fungal). Chapter in book on : .". In: Chapter in book on : . IBIMA Publishing; 1974. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula, "Penetration of Christianity in to Traditional African Family". Master of Arts Thesis, (awarded with distinction), University of Nairobi, 1974.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1974.
N PROFNYAGAP. "J.S. Kaminjolo, P.N. Nyaga, and J.N. Gicho. Isolation, cultivation and characterisation of a poxvirus from horses in Kenya. Zebl. Vet. Med. B21., 1974: 592-601.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1974. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

MATHENGE PROFMARIBEIJAMES. "Kamau, J.A. and Maribei, J.M., (1974). Systemic Bovine Mucormycotic Infection. A case report. Bull. Epiz. Dis. Africa 22 (2) 133-142.". In: Presented at the Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, 28-30 April, 1996. au-ibar; 1974. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. "Karani, F.A.; "The History of Maseno School, Its Alumni, and the Local Society, 1906 to 1962." M.A. Thesis, University of Nairobi 1974.". In: M.A. Thesis, University of Nairobi 1974. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1974.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. "Karani, F.A.; "The History of Maseno School, Its Alumni, and the Local Society, 1906 to 1962." M.A. Thesis, University of Nairobi 1974.". In: M.A. Thesis, University of Nairobi 1974. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1974.
EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Life history studies on the predatory mite Phytoseius finitimus Ribaga (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Rev. Brasil. Biol., 34 : 437 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1974. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Literature and NationalBuilding; The Kenya Teacher , Dec. 1974.". In: Nairobi School in June, 1975. Elsevier; 1974. Abstract
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OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MALOIY, G.M.O.(1974) A behavioural approach to a dry life. New Scientist 61, 119.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1974. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MALOIY, G.M.O.(1974) Digestion and renal function in East African goats and haired sheep. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal 40, 177-188.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1974. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Mathews: Law, Order and Liberty in South Africa': a review article, East Africa Law Journal 9 (2).". In: East African Law Journal (10). Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1974. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
K DRKAHUHOSAMUEL. "Mati, J.K.G. and Kahuho, S.K.: .". In: J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw. 1974 Jan;81(1):57-60. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1974. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
ONYALO PROFYAMBOMAURI. "Mauri Yambo, "Hadith 4: Politics and Nationalism in Colonial Kenya (edited by Bethwell A. Ogot)." A review in Kenya Historical Review. Vol. 2, No. 2, 1974 (pp. 299-303).". In: In African Journal of Sociology, Vol. I, No. 1 & 2, May. University of Nairobi Press, Open and Distance Learning; 1974. Abstract
{ This paper proposes a new theory, a theory of the memetic sphere; and outlines its main features, based on library research. In Dawkinsian parlance, memes are ideas, phrases and sentences with a gene-like capacity to replicate. The theory maps the chain-reaction in the form of which this replication becomes what we know as the information explosion, and attempts to show what lies beyond the explosion. No known study has highlighted the similitudes between the memetic sphere and the physical universe. The theory is summarized in an Einsteinian equation
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Mugera, G.M, Mworia, G.M. and Munyua, W. K. (1974): The treatment of East Coast Fever using Aureomycin.D. Bull. Epiz. Dis Afr. Vol. 21. No.4; 501-505.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1974. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Mugera, G.M, Mworia, G.M. and Munyua, W. K. (1974): The treatment of East Coast Fever using Aureomycin.D. Bull. Epiz. Dis Afr. Vol. 21. No.4; 501-505.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey.; 1974. Abstract
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WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Muhammed S.I., S.W. Mbogwa: ( 1974) :Isolation of Microsporum nanum from a dog with skin lesions. The Vet. Rec. Dec. 574.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1974. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Mukunya, D.M. 1974. Bean diseases in Kenya. Ann. Rept. Bean Improvement Coop. 17; 57-59.". In: A seminar paper presented to the members of the institute of Botany and Physiology. July, 1976. Shangai, People. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1974. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Recent advances in mechanism of causation of diabetes mellitus in man and Acomys cahirinus. East Afr Med J. 1974 May;51(5):425-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1974 May;51(5):425-8. E Afr Med J; 1974. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Recent advances in mechanism of causation of diabetes mellitus in man and Acomys cahirinus. East Afr Med J. 1974 May;51(5):425-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1974 May;51(5):425-8. E Afr Med J; 1974. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "ODUOR-OKELO, D. (1974). Carbohydrate histochemistry of the duodenal glands and trachea of the cat and horse. Dr.Vet.Med.Thesis, University of Bern,Switzerland.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1974. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "ODUOR-OKELO, D. (1974). The Leydig cells and vascular system in the testis of the goat (Capra hircus). Z. Mikrosk Anat. Forsch 88: 1036-1044.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1974. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "OHWAKI, H.,HUNGATE, R.E.,LOTTER, L., HOFFMAN, R.R. and MALOIY,G.M.O. (1974) The stomach fermentation in East African Colobus monkeys in their natural state. Applied Microbiology 27, 713-723.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1974. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
P PROFONIANG&#39;OCLEMENTM. "Oniang'o, C.M.P. "A Consideration of the "A-Series" Theory of Time. Southern Eastern Philosophical Review, Vol.3 No.5, 1974 (pp 102-105).". In: Makerere Historical Journal, Vol. 1 No. 1 1975 (pp 103-112).; 1974. Abstract
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P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Optimization with a Technological Constraint paper 4 in the Proceedings of the East african Universities Scial Science Conference (Kampala.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1974. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "The Physical and Biological Environment of Kenya. Being chapter 2 of Book called Health and Disease in Kenya. Edited by Vogel, et al. E.A.L.B. Nairobi (pp.9-26).". In: Proceedings of the First World Congress on Water Resources vol.II, pp.19-44. UN-HABITAT; 1974. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Poets with Borrowed Overcoats Can Still Retain their Personality; A Brief Study on Reed in the Tide, Poems by John Pepper Clark, London Londman 1968", in Busara VI, 1, 39-42.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1974. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
OGEDA MRODUMBEJACKONIAH. "Problems of Communication Barriers between the Youths and Parents.". In: Seminar on Family Life Education Programme, 15th November 1974 at Siriba Teachers College. Thought and Practice; 1974. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "A Production Function Analysis of Different Firm Sizes in Kenya. Working Paper No.183 I.D.S.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1974. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Property theory and land use analysis: an essay in the political economy of ideas"; IDS Discussion paper No. 209 (also published in the Journal of Eastern African Research and development, 1975 Vol. 1. 37-53.". In: East African Law Journal (10). Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1974. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Quantum Statistical Response Function,.". In: Nuovo Cimento 21B, 178. University of Nairobi Press; 1974. Abstract
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OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "The Quantum Theory of Three Dimensional Rigid Rotator.". In: Nuovo Cimento 21B, 162,. University of Nairobi Press; 1974. Abstract
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OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "REITE, O.B., MALOIY, G.M.O. and AASEHAUG, B.(1974) pH, Salinity and temperature tolerance of Lake Magadi Tilapia grahami. Nature London 247, 315.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1974. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
Mutungi OK. "The rights of the Unborn Child and Minors." Paper presented to the Regional Workshop on the Teaching of Population Dynamics in Law Schools in Africa; 1974. Abstract
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A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Say, and WAMOLA I. A. Problems of Salmonellosis Chapter in .". In: (Paper presented to East and Central Physicians Conference, Zambia, June, 1975). IBIMA Publishing; 1974. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Seaton and Maliti: Tanzania Treaty Practice".". In: East African Law Journal (10). Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1974. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
KAUR DRSEHMIJASWANT. "Sehmi J.K; National Goitre Prophylaxis in Kenya. Ministry of Health, Nairobi.". In: M.Sc. thesis, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1974. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The Social Reality and Sociology of Knowledge, Thought and Practice - A Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1974, East African Literature Bureau.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1974. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The Social Reality and Sociology of knowledge, thought and Practice-A Journal of the philosophical Association of kenya,Vol.1,No.2, 19784, east African literature Bereau.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1974. Abstract
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O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Some historical and philosophical aspects of Geology.". In: Thought and Practice, Vol. l (2). Wiley Interscience; 1974. Abstract
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F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "The Status of Kenya's Water Resources and their Development.". In: Proceedings of the First World Congress on Water Resources vol.II, pp.19-44. UN-HABITAT; 1974. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
M PROFOGUTUGILBERTE. ""The ideas of time and history with special reference to the Luo of Kenya", Kenya Historical Review, Vo. 2 No. 1.". In: The African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries Vol. 5 No. 2.; 1974. Abstract
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OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""The research process in the study of property and land use in Kenya", paper for the ILC/Ford Foundation Worshop on Social Science Methodogy and Perspectives in legal Research, Kenya Institute of Administration, Kabete.". In: East African Law Journal (10). Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1974. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
Page MM, Alberti KG, Greenwood R, Gumaa KA, Hockaday TD, Lowy C, Nabarro JD, Pyke DA, Sönksen PH, Watkins PJ, West TE. "Treatment of diabetic coma with continuous low-dose infusion of insulin." British Medical Journal. 1974;2:687-690. Abstract

Thirty-eight patients in diabetic coma from four different centres were treated with a continuous low-dose intravenous infusion of insulin at an average dose of 7.2 IU/hr. All patients recovered rapidly except for one profoundly shocked patient who died. The mean fall in plasma glucose was 58% four hours after the start of insulin. Blood ketone bodies and plasma free fatty acids showed a similar response. There was no significant difference in plasma glucose response according to severity of acidosis or previous treatment with insulin. Hypokalaemia was uncommon. In the treatment of diabetic coma this technique has proved simple, safe, and effective.

A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A. and Gathaiya (1974). Some aspects of Gonorrhoea in Nairobi. The Nairobi Journal of Medicine. Vol 7:36-40.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine. Vol 7:36-40. IBIMA Publishing; 1974. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A. Itotia, Say and Cruikshank. Diarrhoeal Disease due to Shigella, Salmonella and Enteropathogenic E. coli. Chapter in .". In: Chapter in . IBIMA Publishing; 1974. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
1973
Fulop M, Tannenbaum H, Dreyer N. "Ketotic hyperosmolar coma." Lancet. 1973;2:635-639. Abstract
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Parnavelas JG, Globus A, Kaups P. "Changes in {Lateral} {Geniculate} {Neurones} of {Rats} as a {Result} of {Continuous} {Exposure} to {Light}." Nature. 1973;245:287-288. AbstractWebsite

THE results of several investigators demonstrate that environmental manipulations can affect the structure of the brain. Environmental conditions studied most often have been deprivation and enrichment. In the visual system different forms of light deprivation have been found to induce a decrease in spine density1–3, dendritic branching4,5 and in cell areas6. A number of studies have described changes resulting from enriched environmental conditions, including an increase in cortical weight and depth7,8, ratio of glial cells to neurones9, spine density10, and dendritic branching11. The effects of excess light stimulation in the visual system have also been studied. Continuous exposure to light has been found to cause irreversible damage to photoreceptors12,13 and an increase in spine density in the visual cortex of albino rats14. Under these conditions, investigators have reported a decrease or absence of evoked potentials in adult albino rats15. Black-white discrimination and two pattern discrimination tests did not indicate any difference between these animals and control rats16. We have been able to show significant quantitative morphological changes in the dendritic field of neurones in the dorsal lateral geniculate of rats reared under continuous illumination from birth to 35 d.

Beigelman PM. "Potassium in severe diabetic ketoacidosis." The American Journal of Medicine. 1973;54:419-420. Abstract
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Maitai CK, Muraguri N, Patel HA. ".A survey on the use of poisoned arrows in Kenya during the period 1964-1971." East Afr Med J. . 1973;50(2):100-104. AbstractWebsite

In a case of poisoning involving 70 cattle analysis of specimens obtained during post mortem examination showed that the toxic substances were arsenic and toxaphene. This was consistent with both the clinical and post mortem findings. Arsenic was detected in water from an abandoned cattle dip in the farm. Soil samples collected in the vicinity of the dip contained both arsenic and toxaphene.

Maitai CK, Muraguri N, Patel HA. "A survey on the use of poisoned arrows in Kenya during the period 1964-1971." East Afr Med J. 1973;50(2):100-4.
Wanjala C. "Achebe: Teacher and Satirist.". In: Standpoints on African Literature. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau; 1973.
C.K. M. The arrow poisons. Nairobi: E.A. Literature Bureau ; 1973.
Dossaji SF, Bell EA, Wallace JW. "Biflavones of Dioon." Phytochemistry. 1973;12:371-373. Abstract

Abstract—Seven biflavones, amentoflavone, bilobetin, sequoiaflavone, ginkgetin, sciadopitysin, 7,4',7',4"-
tetra-O-methylamentoflavone, and diooflavone (amentoflavone hexamethyl ether), were identified from
extracts of the cycad genus Dioon. The biflavones were identified by direct comparison with authentic
samples using m.m.p., co-chromatography in 3 solvents, and NMR studies of the acetates. This is the first
time amentoflavone hexamethyl ether has been identified as a natural product. After surveying numerous
species of the Cycadales, no evidence could be obtained for the occurrence of biflavones glycosides or of biflavones base upon any other nucleus than apeginin.

Macoco DK. Construction of a Gravity Map, .; 1973. Abstract

To display more clearly the gravity anomalies caused by geologic bodies in the upper parts of the crust, a new colored isostatic residual gravity map of the conterminous United States has been prepared using the gravity data set compiled for the Gravity Anomaly Map of the United States (Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 1982). The new isostatic residual gravity map is based on an Airy-Heiskanen model of local compensation, in which the surface load requiring compensation is defined by 5-min topographic and bathymetric data sets. A colored first-vertical-derivative map of isostatic residual gravity further enhances the short-wavelength anomalies produced by bodies at or near the surface and emphasizes the regional fabrics and trends in the gravity field. For the purpose of displaying gravity anomalies caused by shallow bodies of geologic significance, the nature of the isostatic model and the values of its parameters are of lesser importance than the application of an isostatic correction of some sort. Most isostatic models result in residual gravity maps that appear nearly identical in their main patterns and features. Anomalies on isostatic residual gravity maps should not be casually interpreted in terms of “undercompensation” or “overcompensation” because large-amplitude anomalies can be produced by crustal bodies in complete local isostatic equilibrium. Many isostatic residual gravity anomalies less than several hundred kilometers wide can be related to known geologic bodies. We present here a classification scheme that attempts to categorize such anomalies on the basis of tectonic environment. In general, highs correlate with intruded or accreted mafic material or with upthrusted crustal sections, whereas lows occur over low-density sedimentary or volcanic sections, felsic intrusive bodies, or down-warped crustal sections. Although some longer-wavelength anomalies, such as the broad gravity high centered over Montana, could be manifestations of density contrasts deep in the mantle, many such anomalies can also be modeled by geologically reasonable density contrasts that are isostatically compensated and confined to depths of less than several hundred kilometers, so that their source bodies need not be deep. The fact that certain of these broader anomalies have well-defined boundaries which correlate with near-surface geologic features increases the likelihood that their sources lie entirely within the lithosphere. If so, then the density contrasts required to explain the gravity data imply fundamental anomalies in chemical composition or thermal state for the crustal and upper mantle columns under these regions. We have investigated spectral analysis as a method to quantitatively characterize regional anomaly patterns. Contoured plots of normalized amplitude spectra were prepared for various areas of the isostatic residual gravity field of the United States. These Fourier domain representations show characteristic patterns that can be interpreted in terms of the trends and wavelengths of anomalies and may help to more objectively distinguish geologic basements with different origins or tectonic histories.

Wanjala C. "Cultural Events in East and Central Africa." Busara. 1973;5(2):70-76.
Dossaji SF, Bell EA. "Distribution of alpha-Amino-beta-Methylaminopropionic acid in Cycas." Phytochemistry. 1973;12:143-144. Abstract

alpha-Amino-beta-Methylaminopropionic acid, previously isolated from seeds of Cycas circinalis, has
now been identified either free or bound in all the other nine species of this genus.

Wanjala C. "East African Literary Supplement." Joliso. 1973;1(1):1-4.
Wanjala C. "The Face of Injustice: Alex La Guma's Fiction.". In: Standpoints on African Literature. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau; 1973.
Ogana W. "Fall of a cat (Short story)." Yardbird Reader, Yardbird Publishing Incorporated. 1973;Vol. 2, : pp.147-153.
Kasili, EG; Cameron HM; RRF; CSA. "Histopathology of brain tumours in the African in Kenya.". 1973.
Infection and Suture Tolerance. Colorado: Colorado State University; 1973.
Thairu K, Mugambi M, Muriuki PB, Mati JKG. "An Inhibitory Effect of Prolactin in Isolated Rabbit Myometrium. ." J. Endocr.. 1973.
Wanjala C. "The Kenya National Theatre Revival." Weekly Review 8 November 1973 (1973):32.
Wanjala C. "Literature and Society: A View in Approach." Busara. 1973;5(2):70-76.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W. K; Mugera, G.M. Bitakaramire, P.K. and Nderito, P.C. (1973): Pathology of East Coast Fever in Experimental bovine. Bull. Epiz. Dis. Afr. Vol. 21. No. 1; 39-49.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey.; 1973. Abstract

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Edsmyr F, Onyango J, Tole N, Willey B. "Radiotherapy in treatment of oesophagus carcinoma in East Africa.". 1973.
Ochoro WE, Musoko GC, Obondo BN. "Rural savings." Economics Department Internship Programme, University of Nairobi. 1973.
Ruigu G. "Some Aspects of Employment on Small Holder Farms in Selected Areas of Kenya.". In: Agricultural Policy Issues in East African.; 1973.
Wanjala C. Standpoints on African Literature. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau; 1973.
Wanjala C. "The Tabanic Genre.". In: Standpoints on African Literature. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau; 1973.
Mugera GM, Mworia GM, Munyua WK. "Treatment of East Coast fever with aureomycin.". 1973.
O PROFORINDADA. "Activirale Aktivitat von Inhaltastoffen der Composite Echinacea purpurea.D.A.O. Orinda, et al Arrneim. Forsch. (Drug Res.) 23, 1119-1120 (1973).". In: (Drug Res.) 23, 1119-1120 (1973). Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1973. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 163952 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "Adam AM.Relations among open-closed mindedness, social desirability and depression in students facing a critical situation involving authority. Nurs Res Conf. 1973;(9):241-76. No abstract available.". In: E.A.M. J. 58: 401-404, 1981. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1973. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Arican Traditional Methods anf Education in East Africa in Presence Africaine, No. 87.". In: No. 89 1974, 44 pp. 3. Traditions et Modernite in Histoire de Iafrique est-elle Possible?, . Ed. Michel Amenguel, Nouvelles Editions Africaines, Abidjan. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1973. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Arican Traditional Methods anf Education in East Africa in Presence Africaine, No. 87.". In: No. 89 1974, 44 pp. 3. Traditions et Modernite in Histoire de Iafrique est-elle Possible?, . Ed. Michel Amenguel, Nouvelles Editions Africaines, Abidjan.; 1973. Abstract

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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Article: "Typological Characteristics of Subsistence Agriculture in Kenya" - paper presented at the IGU Commission on Agricultural Typology, Ontario, Canada, August, 1972 (published in proceedings, 1973).". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1973. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "The Asian Question in Uganda" The Black 1, June 1973.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1973. Abstract
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E.O PROFWASUNNAAMBROSE. "Buxton B, Wasunna AE, Saunders J, Gillespie IE. Effect of truncal vagotomy on the increase in gastric acid secretion induced by small bowel resection in dogs. Digestion. 1973;8(4):293-8. No abstract available.". In: Digestion. 1973;8(4):293-8.; 1973. Abstract
There is a marked shortage of surgical manpower all over Africa. General surgeons undertake a very wide range of surgical work because of the lack of specialists. Orthopaedic and general surgeons both care for accident injuries. Current training and recruitment programs are inadequate in correcting existing gross manpower deficiencies. The situation is further aggravated by a gross maldistribution of available manpower in favor of large urban centers. In many parts of rural Africa, minor surgical procedures are carried out by suitably trained, non-physician health workers, but facilities and resources for surgery outside urban centers are generally inadequate. The World Health Organization program on essential surgical and anesthetic procedures, which is currently under way in collaboration with the International Federation of Surgical Colleges, the World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists, and other professional bodies, should have a significant impact on these urgent needs for basic surgery in rural district hospitals.
DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "E. M. W. Akunda, S. K. Imbamba and D. Kumar. High density plantings of coffee II. Adaptive changes in some plant characteristics.". In: E. Afri. Agri. For. J. (1979) 45(2) 133 . Kisipan, M.L.; 1973. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "Econo,ics of fertility, Joliso, east African Journal of Literature and Society, Vol.1,no.2,1973.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1973. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "Economics of Fertility, Joliso, East African Journal of Literature and Society, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1973.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1973. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "The Expatriates and Decision-Making in Kenya: A Comment". Conference of Canadian Association of African Studies, Carleton University, 1973.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1973. Abstract
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P PROFONIANG&#39;OCLEMENTM. "F.A. Titus The Passover Plot: The Review of metaphysics.". In: A Philosophical Quarterly, Washington, D.C., Vol.XXVII, No. 5, 1973.; 1973. Abstract
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F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "F.F Ojany & R.B Ogendo. KENYA: A study in Physical and Human Geography, 228 pp. Longman, Naiobi/London.". In: Proceedings of the First World Congress on Water Resources vol.II, pp.19-44. UN-HABITAT; 1973. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Fanonist Overtones in Leonard Kibera's Voices in the Dark." In Joliso: East African Journal of Literature and Society, No.l, vol. 1.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1973. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Joliso, East African Journal of Literature and Society, Edited, Nairobi, East African Literature Bureau, Vol. 1, 1, 2,.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1973. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

KANYUGA MRMACOCODAVID. "Macoco, DK, 1973:Construction of a Gravity Map, partial fulfilment of B.Sc. Honors in Surveying and Photogrammetry.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1973. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MALOIY, G.M.O.(1973) The effect of dehydration and heat stress on intake and digestion of food in the Somali donkey. Environmental Physiology and Biochemistry 3(1), 36-39.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1973. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MALOIY, G.M.O.(1973) The water metabolism of a small East African antelope: the dik dik. Proceedings Royal Society of London B 184, 167-178.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1973. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MALOIY, G.M.O.(1973). Water metabolism in East African ruminants in arid and semi-arid regions. Z. Tiezuchtg. Zuchtgsbiol 90, 219-228.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1973. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Mati JKG, Ojwang SBO, Odipo WS Present attitude towards female sterilization and projected in the next generation of Kenyan women. Proceedings of the second conference of the International Association of Voluntary Sterilization, Geneva 1973.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1978.55, 194. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1973. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Mati JKG, Ojwang SBO, Odipo WS Present attitude towards female sterilization and projected in the next generation of Kenyan women. Proceedings of the second conference of the International Association of Voluntary Sterilization, Geneva 1973.". In: East Afr Med J. 1977 Sep;54(9):472-5. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1973. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Mineralogy and paragenesis of the fluorite deposits in Musgut-Kimwarer area, Keri Valley, Kenya.". In: M.Sc. thesis. Wiley Interscience; 1973. Abstract
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WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Mugera, G.M. and Munyua, W.K. (1973): A study of developmental stages ofTheileria Parva by electron microscopy. Bull. Epiz. Dis. Afr Vol. 21 No.1; 50-66.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1973. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Mugera, G.M. and Munyua, W.K. (1973): A study of developmental stages ofTheileria Parva by electron microscopy. Bull. Epiz. Dis. Afr Vol. 21 No.1; 50-66.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey.; 1973. Abstract
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MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Mukunya, D.M. and C.W. Boothroyd 1973. Mycosphaerella zea-mays sp.n, the sexual of Phyllostica maydis. Phytopathology 63:529-532.". In: A seminar paper presented to the members of the institute of Botany and Physiology. July, 1976. Shangai, People. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1973. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Mukunya, D.M. and C.W. Boothroyd 1973. Survival and spore dissertation of Mycosphaerella zeamaydis. Phytopathology 63:568.". In: A seminar paper presented to the members of the institute of Botany and Physiology. July, 1976. Shangai, People. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1973. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W. K; Mugera, G.M. and Bitakaramire, P.K. (1973): Pathogenesis and Pathology of East Coast Fever induced by irradiated ticks. Bull. Epiz. Dis Afr Vol. 21 No. 1; 75-85.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1973. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W. K; Mugera, G.M. and Bitakaramire, P.K. (1973): Pathogenesis and Pathology of East Coast Fever induced by irradiated ticks. Bull. Epiz. Dis Afr Vol. 21 No. 1; 75-85.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey.; 1973. Abstract
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WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W. K; Mugera, G.M. Bitakaramire, P.K. and Nderito, P.C. (1973): Pathology of East Coast Fever in Experimental bovine. Bull. Epiz. Dis. Afr. Vol. 21. No. 1; 39-49.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1973. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Non-farm Economic Activities rural Areas in Frank Child and Mary Kempe Small-Scale Enterprise I.D.S Occassional Paper No. 6.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1973. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1973) Language Handicap in Everyday Life. Journal of Eastern African Research and Development. Vol.13 pp. 104-125.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1973.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "On the Classical Partition Function by Gaussian Method.". In: Pres. International Conference in Theoretical Physics,. University of Nairobi Press; 1973. Abstract
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OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Order .". In: Pres. International Conference in Theoretical Physics. University of Nairobi Press; 1973. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Participant, panel on "Modernization". International Political Science Association. Montreal. August 1973.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1973. Abstract
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KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Pessimism in East African Literature, Afras: Journal of African and Asian Studies 1.3.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1973. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Popular Participation in Planning at the Local Level," in D. K. Leonard, (ed.), Rural Administration in Kenya (Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau, 1973).". In: East African Journal of Rural Development, Vol. 9, 9 June 1976. IPPNW; 1973. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
ANTIPA MROKELOJASPER. "Problems of Rural Industries: A Case Study of Kakamega District, Western Province, Kenya- for the Annual Social Science Conference Of the Eastern African Universities, Dar-es-Salaam, December.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1973. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Rees P.H., Mngola E.N., Ollary P. and Pamba H.O.:Intestinal Parasites, Chapter in Health and Diseases in Kenya. E. Afr. Lit. Bur. 1973.". In: E. Afr. Lit. Bur. 1973. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1973. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Rees P.H., Roberts J.M.D., Woodger B.A. and Pamba H.O.:Intramuscular Oxaminquine iln the Treatment of Schistosomiasis, Mansoni in Kenya. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo 15: 663, 1973.". In: Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo 15: 663, 1973. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1973. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Role of Technical Assistance in National Development: The Case of Kenya," in Y. Tandon, (ed.), Technical Assistance Administration in East Africa (Uppsala: Dag Hammarksjold Foundation, 1973).". In: East African Journal of Rural Development, Vol. 9, 9 June 1976. IPPNW; 1973. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "Solid Phase Synthesis of (2-Isoluecine-4-Leucine)oxytocin and (2-phenylalanine-4-Leucine)oxytocin and Some of Their Pharmacological Properties.". In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1973. Abstract
18) , P.M. Muturi, S. Dirlikov and P.M. Gitu. .
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Standpoints on African Literature, Ediated, Intro, Angus Calder Nairobi. East African Literature BureauFaces at Crossroads, ediated, Niairobi, East African Literature Bureau.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1973. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "The Status of Kenya's Water Resources and their Development. In ABSTRACTS for papers. Proceedings of the First World. Congress on Water Resources, Sept. 24-28, 1973, CHICAGO.". In: Proceedings of the First World Congress on Water Resources vol.II, pp.19-44. UN-HABITAT; 1973. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. ""The Predicament of Man", in Presence, Nairobi, Vol. VI No. 1.".; 1973. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""The Tabanic Genre", in Standpoints on African Literature, Nairobi (EALB) pp. 86-95.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1973. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
M DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "Theme of the past in Caribbean Literature WLE, Texas, U.S.A.". In: UoN Press. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1973. Abstract

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OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. "The United Nations and use of force by states: aspects of war and peace in the Middle East Crisis"; paper delivered at a Symposium Organised by the United Nations Youth Associations to Mark UN Day, October 24, University of Nairobi.". In: East African Law Journal (10). Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1973. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
E.O PROFWASUNNAAMBROSE. "Wasunna AE, Wakhisi J, Anabwani GM, Mukuria JW, Roy AD. Experience with gastric acid tests. East Afr Med J. 1973 Aug;50(8):444-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1973 Aug;50(8):444-8.; 1973. Abstract
There is a marked shortage of surgical manpower all over Africa. General surgeons undertake a very wide range of surgical work because of the lack of specialists. Orthopaedic and general surgeons both care for accident injuries. Current training and recruitment programs are inadequate in correcting existing gross manpower deficiencies. The situation is further aggravated by a gross maldistribution of available manpower in favor of large urban centers. In many parts of rural Africa, minor surgical procedures are carried out by suitably trained, non-physician health workers, but facilities and resources for surgery outside urban centers are generally inadequate. The World Health Organization program on essential surgical and anesthetic procedures, which is currently under way in collaboration with the International Federation of Surgical Colleges, the World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists, and other professional bodies, should have a significant impact on these urgent needs for basic surgery in rural district hospitals.
1972
DR DAVIDNYIKA. "Adjustments of the Wild A8. .". In: Department of Surveying; University of Nairobi. Nairobi.; 1972.
Mitchell JH, Wildenthal K, Johnson RL. "The effects of acid-base disturbances on cardiovascular and pulmonary function." Kidney International. 1972;1:375-389. Abstract
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DR DAVIDNYIKA. "Mapping the Earth by Use of Artificial Satellites.". In: Department of Surveying; University of Nairobi. Nairobi.; 1972.
DR DAVIDNYIKA. "Variation of Coordinates Method in Geodetic Networks.". In: Department of Surveying; University of Nairobi. Nairobi.; 1972.
Fifková E. "Effect of light and visual deprivation on the retina." Experimental Neurology. 1972;35:450-457. AbstractWebsite

The effect of light and unilateral visual deprivation (achieved by lid-suturing) on the retina of albino rats has been studied. Lid-sutured and unoperated animals were illuminated daily for 8, 11, or 16 hrs. With increasing time of illumination a progressive decrease in thickness of the outer retinal layers was observed in undeprived animals and in the open eye of the monocularly deprived rats. The shrinkage was greater in the outer plexiform than in the outer nuclear layer. In the lid-sutured eye considerably less change was found in the outer nuclear layer. The difference in thickness of the outer retinal layers of the sutured and companion open eye was 2.5 times greater after 16 than after after 8 hr of light exposure. The loss of receptors seems to be a function of the length of illumination. The decrease in thickness of the outer retinal layers in the open eye of the deprived animals was greater than in the undeprived ones suggesting that more light enters the former eye. It was assumed that an animal which has only one eye available keeps it open for longer periods of time than when both eyes are used.

Fifková E. "Effect of visual deprivation and light on synapses of the inner plexiform layer." Experimental Neurology. 1972;35:458-469. AbstractWebsite

The effect of unilateral lid closure on synaptic contacts of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) has been studied. The operation was carried out on 14-day-old albino rats which survived for 8 weeks and were kept in a room illuminated 8 hr a day. The open eye as well as the deprived one are affected by unilateral lid closure. The presence of two processes caused by unilateral deprivation was postulated: the effect of deprivation itself, which stimulates the formation of new amacrine contacts in the IPL of the closed eye; the effect of an assumed excess of light to the open eye with the consequent damage to receptors. Because of direct connection between receptors and bipolar elements the damage of the receptors seems to induce changes in the bipolar terminals that decreases the density of bipolar contacts in the IPL of the open eye.

Bhui KS, Fiorillo A, Stein D, Okasha T, Ndetei D, Lam L, Chaturvedi S, Maj M. "Improving education, policy and research in mental health worldwide: the role of the WPA Collaborating Centres." Immunology. 1972.Website
Gichaga FJ. "The Quality of Training for Civil Engineering graduates in Kenya.". In: 12th Annual Conference on Engineering Education in East Africa. Dar-es-Salaam. ; 1972.

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