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1976
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""African land tenure reform" in J. Heyer et al. (eds.) Agricultural Development in Kenya: an Economic Assessment, Oxford University Press, Nairobi.". In: Academics Press, New york. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1976. Abstractafrican_land_tenure_reform.pdf

The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.

Mukunya DM. "Agriculture."; 1976.
Khamala CPM, Castelino JB. Energy sources in E. Africa.; 1976.
Kokwaro JO. "Euphorbiaceae.". 1976.Website
Brzustowski TA, Lutia MF. "Flow due to a two-dimensional heat source with cross flow in the atmosphere.". 1976. AbstractWebsite

This paper presents a model describing the flow field due to a two-dimensional infinitely long heat source in a stably-stratified atmosphere with a uniform wind cross-flow. The governing equation which is valid for any wind shear is non-linear in its general form and is solved for uniform flow only. The energy equation is not solved but a “source” function is assumed. The results of this model exhibit some of the observed mass fire characteristics such as the inflow window, the pinch effect, the upstream downdraft and a strong dynamic convection column. Blocking and the formation of eddies are shown to be the most important characteristics of the onset of mass fire conditions.

Mukunya DM. "Grain Storage."; 1976.
Mbaya VB. "Hepatic changes induced by Schrebera alata (Hochst): a preliminary report on the toxicology of II kau kawa.". 1976. Abstract

Schrebera alata is a deciduous fuel tree from which the Samburu people in Northern Kenya obtain bark for medicinal purposes. A pharmacologically active principle that produces analgesic effects can be extracted from the bark with hot water. When administered to rats daily for a period of 6 weeks, the extract of bark (referred to as II kau kawa by the Samburu) caused reduced activities of succinic dehydrogenase, an enzyme that is involved in oxidative processes, and cholinesterase in heart and liver tissues. Histological sections from the liver revealed extensive cellular degeneration and small areas with necrotic lesions. Only that fraction of the bark extracts which contained components less soluble in alcohol produced such lesions within a 2 weeks period. The same fraction is associated with pharmacological activity. Since hepatic injuries occur frequently and the incidence of primary hepatic carcinoma is high in tropical areas, the role of natural toxins as aetiologic factors for cirrhotic conditions must be adequately clarified. It is apparent that bark from S.alata possesses some toxicity and its effects on the liver indicate it can contribute significantly to prevalent hepatocellular damages.

Thairu K, Mugambi M. Human Biology Volume 1 . Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau ; 1976.
Oniang'o CM. "Punishment and Terrorism in Africa."; 1976.
Okwaro HW, Mbuvi JP, Sombroek WG. "Soils of semi-arid savanna zone of the north-eastern Kenya : site evaluation report.". 1976. Abstract

Recent ground observation and study of ERTS imagery, in connection with national programme for country-wide soils mapping at scale 1: 1,000,000, have yielded substantial new information on the nature and distribution of the soils in the savanna-covered semi-arid plains of the North-Eastern Kenya. The findings differ in several aspects from earlier schematic mapping, notably in the near absence of well-drained calcerous soils and the wide extent of saline/alkali soils in the central-eastern section. The origin of the different soils development at the various geomorphologic levels is discussed, in relation to the character of the sediments as well as the quaternary changes in climate. Also, an outline is given of the significance of such exploratory mapping, on physiographic basis, for the sound planning of range management, wildlife conservation and irrigation development in the area.

Johansen, K; Maloiy GGMO; H. Temperature regulation in the naked mole rat.; 1976.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""The Special Rural Development Programme (SRDP): An Assessment," in East African Journal, Vol. 9, No. 3, March 1976.". In: East African Journal of Rural Development, Vol. 9, 9 June 1976. IPPNW; 1976. Abstract

Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.

Varma S. Tissue Reaction to Surgical Sutures in Infected Wounds. Colorado: Colorado State University; 1976.
D.N. Kariuki and S.F.A. Kettle, & Ti Soi Sang. "Vibrational Spectra of molecular crystals of impure metal carbonyls".". 1976.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1976. August, The 3rd Conference of The Language Association of Eastern Africa. Kenya Science Teachers College, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1976.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""A Percecuted Poet from the Far East", A Review of Cry the People and Other Poems, by Kim Chi Ha in Maktaba III, 2, 67-72.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1976. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (1976). "The Marketing of Poultry Meat and Eggs in Nairobi". Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nairobi. Unpub. M.Sc.Thesis.". In: Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nairobi. Unpub. M.Sc.Thesis. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1976.
H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Acute pneumonias in adults in Nairobi.". In: East Afr Med J. 1976 Aug;53(8):480-3. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1976. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Agricultural Administration in Kenya,".". In: East African Journal of Rural Development, Vol. 9, 9 June 1976. IPPNW; 1976. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. (1976): Control of infectious agents exclusively transmitted by the venereal route with particular reference to Vibrio fetus. Dissertation for Partial fulfilment of requirements for the award of D.P.V.M., Royal Veterinary and Agricultural .". In: Proceedings of the Association of veterinary teachers and research workers of Great Britain Annual Scientific Conference, April 1981, Scarbororough, England. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1976. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. (1976): Control of infectious agents exclusively transmitted by the venereal route with particular reference to Vibrio fetus. Dissertation for Partial fulfilment of requirements for the award of D.P.V.M., Royal Veterinary and Agricultural .". In: Proceedings of the Association of veterinary teachers and research workers of Great Britain Annual Scientific Conference, April 1981, Scarbororough, England. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1976. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O. DRABUNGUCORNELIO. "Another Triangle Inequality.".". In: American Mathematical Monthly. Vol.83 No. 3, March 1976,p. 204. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 1976. Abstract
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S. PROFEL-BUSAIDYABDULGAFURH. "Assessment of Physical Changes and Natural System Responses;.". In: Nairobi. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 1976. Abstract
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O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O. (1976): .". In: Makerere University Press, Kampala, Uganda, pp.87-103. Kisipan, M.L.; 1976. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Ayim EN, WAMOLA I.A and Oduori ML. Throat and Respiratory Diptheria in Kenya Africa. EAMJ Vol. 53 No. 8: 468-474. (1976).". In: EAMJ Vol. 53 No. 8: 468-474. (1976). IBIMA Publishing; 1976. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
O. DRABUNGUCORNELIO. "The characteristics of Successful Principals in AA High Schools of Texas.". In: ERIC: Resources in Education,. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 1976. Abstract
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Rees BI, Lari J. "Chronic intussusception in children." British Journal of Surgery. 1976;63:33-35. AbstractWebsite
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E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "D.E. Kapule, 1976 Ph.D Thesis on characteristics of relief of Kilifi Area Kenya in relation to the study of Endogenetic Ore deposits.". In: John Wiley & Sons. Publishers Chichester. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1976. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Denudation surfaces and the Origina of Stone-lines in the Machakos Area of Kenya. Proceedings of the 23rd International Geographical Congress. International Geography 1976, Vol.1, Geomophology. Moscow.". In: The Kenyan Geographer, Vol.5(Special Issue) pp.1-6). UN-HABITAT; 1976. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Development Administration and Decentralization: Some Administrative and Political Consideration". IDS Working Paper No. 257 January 1976.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1976. Abstract
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S. PROFEL-BUSAIDYABDULGAFURH. "Diffusion of Dissolved Oxygen through Concrete". Presented at the National Association of Corrosion Engineers Conference, Corrosion 76,.". In: Houston, Texas. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 1976. Abstract
     
OLE PROFMBATIAOLIVER. "Discussant: Session on Urban Economics,.". In: 51st Annual Western Economic Association Conference, June 24-27, 1976. University of Nairobi.; 1976. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
OLE PROFMBATIAOLIVER. "Economic Contribution of Tourist Industry to Economic Development and Growth in Kenya.". In: Presented at 51st Annual Conference of Western Economic Association, June, 24-27, 1976, Hyatt Regency Hotel, San Francisco, California. University of Nairobi.; 1976. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
OGEDA MRODUMBEJACKONIAH. "Economic Justification of Adult Education in Kenya.". In: Seminar Discussion Paper CADE. Thought and Practice; 1976. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Einhorn N. Ojwang SBO Carcinoma of the cervix in Kenya Proceeding of the Conference of the working party on Radionuclides and Afterloading techinique in the treatment of cancer of the uterus in developing areas, Balgrade, Yugoslavia 1976.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1978.55, 194. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1976. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Einhorn N. Ojwang SBO Carcinoma of the cervix in Kenya Proceeding of the Conference of the working party on Radionuclides and Afterloading techinique in the treatment of cancer of the uterus in developing areas, Balgrade, Yugoslavia 1976.". In: East Afr Med J. 1977 Sep;54(9):472-5. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1976. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Ejide AO and WAMOLA I.A. The bacteriology of burns at Kenyatta National Hospital. EAMJ Vol 53 pp. 415 (1976).". In: EAMJ Vol 53 pp. 415 (1976). IBIMA Publishing; 1976. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Form and Content in the Novel: Class, the Writer and the Critic, Busara 8.2.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1976. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Gall Bladder Disease and Adult Obstructive Jaundice at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi,.". In: East African Medical Journal 53 (2): 74 - 81. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1976. Abstract
A clinical, radiological, histological, and geographical study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya is reported. It was found that this cancer is diagnosed more often in males than in females, with a ration of 8:1 (Kenya Cancer Registry). The most common age in males and females is 50 to 59 years. The regions of the esophagus most commonly involved are the middle and lower thirds, in almost equal proportions. An unexplained tendency for the tumor to be poorly differentiated towards the lower third is noted. In addition a review on the possible etiological factors is presented.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gathuma J. M. and Mango, A. M. (1976). The role played by wild carnivores in the epidemiology of bovine cysticercosis in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 24, (2) 149 .". In: journal. FARA; 1976. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gathuma J. M. and Mango, A. M. (1976). The role played by wild carnivores in the epidemiology of bovine cysticercosis in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 24, (2) 149 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1976. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "GEOGRAPHY IN EDUCATION by N.J. Graces. A Review: in The Kenyan Geographer, Vol.2, No.2., Nairobi.". In: The Kenyan Geographer, Vol.5(Special Issue) pp.1-6). UN-HABITAT; 1976. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
P PROFONIANG'OCLEMENTM. "Henry Odera Oruka Punishment and Terrorism in Africa. The E.A Literature Bureau, Nairobi, 1976, pp 102.". In: The Journal of Philosophical Association of Kenya. Vol. III No. 2 (pp 123-140).; 1976. Abstract
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OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "HOPPE, P., KAY, R.N.B. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (1976) The rumen as a reservoir during dehydration and rehydration in the camel. Journal of Physiology London 254, 76-77P.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1976. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER, G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Is Bronchial Carcinoma Increasing in Kenya?". In: East African Medical Journal. 53 (7): 383 - 388. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1976. Abstract
A clinical, radiological, histological, and geographical study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya is reported. It was found that this cancer is diagnosed more often in males than in females, with a ration of 8:1 (Kenya Cancer Registry). The most common age in males and females is 50 to 59 years. The regions of the esophagus most commonly involved are the middle and lower thirds, in almost equal proportions. An unexplained tendency for the tumor to be poorly differentiated towards the lower third is noted. In addition a review on the possible etiological factors is presented.
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER, G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Is Bronchial Carcinoma Increasing in Kenya?". In: East African Medical Journal. 53 (7): 383 - 388. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1976. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula. "Mobilization of Resources for Development". Paper read at the International Conference on Voluntarism, Vienna, Austria, 1976. Published by "Action" in Voluntarism: The Real and Emerging Power, Washington DC, 1976.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1976.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J.G. Donders and J. Mbula. "Ethics and Values". Published in the report of the National Committee on Educational Objectives and Policies, Government of Kenya, 1976.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1976.
KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "Jesse Mugambi and N. Kirima, The African Religious Heritage, Nairobi Oxford University Press.".; 1976. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "JOHANSEN, K., LOMHOLT, J.P. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (1976) Importance of air and water breathing in relation to size of the African lungfish (Protopterus amphibius). Journal of Experimental Biology 65, 395-399.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1976. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "JOHANSEN, K., LYKKEBOE, G., WEBER, R.E. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1976) Blood respiratory properties in a mammal of low body temperature, the naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glabber). Respiration Physiology 28,303-314.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1976. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "JOHANSEN, K., LYKKEBOE, G., WEBER, R.E. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1976) Respiratory properties of blood in awake and aestivating lungfish (Protopterus amphibius). Respiration Physiology 27, 335-345.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1976. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
MOSES DRKURIAKIMANIARTHUR. "K.A.M. Kuria (1976). Ajuga remota Benth. Isolation and characterisation of the herb's bitter principle. M.Sc.(Pharmacy) thesis.". In: East Centr. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. EAMJ; 1976. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
S DRKARANJAHDOMINIC. "Karanja D. S .". In: The Limnology, Climatology and Palaeoclimatology of the East African Lakes pp. 413-431, Gordon and Breach Publishers, Amsterdam. June 1996 b) Books Reference Date. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1976. Abstract
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OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "KAY, R.N.B., HOPPE, P. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (1976) Fermentative digestion of food in the Colobus monkey (Colobus polykomos) Experientia 32, 484-487.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1976. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Kenya's National Report to the United Nations Conference on I Inmai; Settlements. 1976.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1976. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Lema VM, Makokha AE, Sanghvi HCG, Wanjala S. A Review of the Medical Aspects of Adolescent Fertility in Kenya. (Submitted Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa).". In: Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1976. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MALOIY G.M.O. and SALE, J.B. (1976) Renal function and electrolyte balance during dehydration in the hyrax. Israeli Journal of Medical Sciences 12, 852-853.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1976. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MALOIY G.M.O.(1976) Water and salt metabolism in the camel. In: Progress in Animal Biometeorology, Volume 1, Part 1. (Edit. H.D. Johnson), pp. 58-66. Swets and Zietlinger, Amsterdam.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1976. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Medicinal Plants of East Africa Ed. 1, Nairobi,.". In: First Edition. 4to. Hard cover. Dust jacket. Study of medicinal plants and their uses in East Africa. Pp. (xii),384, photos, line-drawings. Some light browning. University of Nairobi Press; 1976. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Medicinal Plants of East Africa, East African Literature Bureau, Nairobi, p.223.". In: Proceedings of the Kenyan Seminar on Agroforestry. ICRAF, Nairobi, pp. 377-386. University of Nairobi Press; 1976. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Medicinal plants of East Africa. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau.". In: First Edition. 4to. Hard cover. Dust jacket. Study of medicinal plants and their uses in East Africa. Pp. (xii),384, photos, line-drawings. Some light browning. University of Nairobi Press; 1976. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. "The Mission of Writing and Humanist Commitment". A Review of Critial Perspective on Amos Tutuola, Edited by Bernth Lindfors, in Maktaba III, 2, 145-148.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1976. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
Hendrickson A, Boothe R. "Morphology of the retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in dark-reared monkeys ({Macaca} nemestrina)." Vision Research. 1976;16:517-IN5. AbstractWebsite

Nine infant monkeys were reared in continuous darkness from 2 weeks to 1, 3 and 6 months of age. One monkey was dark-reared from 3 to 7 months after birth. Light microscopic morphological studies of retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) were done on animals sacrificed immediately after emerging from darkness and others that were tested behaviorally before sacrifice. Neither retina nor dLGN showed any obvious changes in cell number, size or staining characteristics when compared to light-reared, age-matched controls. Autoradiographic tracing of labeled retinal ganglion cell synaptic terminals indicated a normal distribution for dark-reared animals.

MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Mukunya, D. M. 1976. Development disease resistance in local beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya.". In: A seminar paper presented to the members of the institute of Botany and Physiology. July, 1976. Shangai, People. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1976. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Mukunya, D.M. 1976. Agriculture .". In: Presented at the FAO/IITA Crop Loss Horizontal Resistance Workshop. Ibadan, Nigeria October, 1977. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1976. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Mukunya, D.M. 1976. Grain Storage, A chapter in D. Ngugi et al. East Africa Agriculture. A text book for schools. Macmillan Publishers Ltd. P. 76 .". In: Presented at the FAO/IITA Crop Loss Horizontal Resistance Workshop. Ibadan, Nigeria October, 1977. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1976. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Mukunya, D.M. and S.O. Keya, 1976. Phaseolus bean production in East Africa. A review paper prepared for publication in the Handbook of Agriculture in East Africa Publishing House, Nairobi 81 p.". In: Presented at the FAO/IITA Crop Loss Horizontal Resistance Workshop. Ibadan, Nigeria October, 1977. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1976. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Mukunya, D.M. and S.O. Keya, 1976. Phaseolus bean production in East Africa. A review paper prepared for publication in the Handbook of Agriculture in East Africa Publishing House, Nairobi 81 p.". In: Presented at the FAO/IITA Crop Loss Horizontal Resistance Workshop. Ibadan, Nigeria October, 1977.; 1976. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Multi Purpose District Development Centres: The Case of Baringo Development Training Centre. IDS Working Paper No. 264, April, 1976.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1976. Abstract
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OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MUSEWE, V.O., MALOIY, G.M.O. and KANJA, J.K. (1976) Evaporative water loss in two small African antelopes: dik-dik and suni. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 53C, 17-18.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1976. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R. W. and Goldsworthy, G.J. (1976). Age-related changes in the response to Adipokinetic hormone in Locusta. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 29, 291.". In: Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology. p. 21. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1976.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Mysterious Feminine Power Looms Over Male Innocence", A Review of Ripples in the Pool, A Novel by Rebeka Njau in Maktaba IIIm 1m 149-150.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1976. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ndinya-Achola JO, Kasili EG.Acute Leukaemia in pregnancy -A case report from Kenyatta National Hospital. E.A. Med. J. Vol. 53 No. 11, Nov. 1976.". In: E.A. Med. J. Vol. 53 No. 11, Nov. 1976. IBIMA Publishing; 1976. Abstract
To monitor clinically significant isolates and their antimicrobial susceptibilities, all specimens sent to microbiology laboratory of the Kenyatta National Hospital were cultured on appropriate media. The susceptibility of the isolates was performed on Muller Hinton or diagnostic sensitivity test (DST) agar using comparative discs diffusion technique. The results were then entered into Microbe Base 2 computer programme. A total of 7416 clinically significant isolates were collected from 1991 to 1995. The most commonly isolated organisms were E.coli, Klebsiella and Staphylococcus aureus. Most of these hospital acquired infections had multiple resistance to conventional antimicrobials, namely, penicillin, tetracyclines, gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole and ampicillin. The resistance pattern was high among both gram negative and positive bacteria isolates. Beta-lactamase production amongst them were 51%, 69.3%, 79.6% respectively. Prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 39.8%. Addition of clavulanic acid to amoxycillin increased Staphylococcus aureus susceptibility three fold. The emergence of multiple drug resistance calls for a continuous monitoring and reviewing of antibiotic policy in the hospital and the country at large.
EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "A new predacious mite of genus Typhlodromus Scheuten from Brazil. Rev. Brasil. Biol., 36: 531 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1976. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "ODUOR-OKELO, D. (1976). Histochemistry of the duodenal glands of the cat and horse. Acta Anat. 94: 446-456.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1976. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "On the Solution of Fokker .". In: Nuovo Cimento 35B, 1,. University of Nairobi Press; 1976. Abstract
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P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Prefect Fluid Distribution in Class One space-time (II).". In: Prog. Math. Vol.10, No.2 PP 11-18. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1976. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "Properties of constants for a quadrature formula to evaluate Bromwich.". In: Journal of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. 1976. 18, 49-56. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1976. Abstract
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EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Residual toxicity of some common acaricides in Brazil to the predacious mite, Amblyseius brazilli. Entomophaga, 21: 303 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1976. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
Mutungi OK. "The Rights of the Unborn Child and Minors." (ed.) by U.U. Uche, 1976, E.A.L.B; 1976. Abstract
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OLEWE PROFNYUNYA. "The Role of Major Powers in African Developemnt, Interantional Studies Association.". In: University Centre for International Studies, University of Pittsburg. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1976. Abstract
East African Publishers, Ltd.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1976: Elements of Surveying for Civil Engineers, A textbook for Civil Engineering students, (in Arabic).". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1976.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1976: The use of Photogrammetry for Geographical Development, invited paper at the Second Arabic Geographic Conference, Baghdad, March 1976.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1976.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Saturation Effects of Collision Broadened Rotational Lines.". In: J. Chem. Phy. 65, 945,. University of Nairobi Press; 1976. Abstract
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OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "SEEHERMAN, H.J., TAYLOR, C.R. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (1976) Maximum aerobic power and anaerobic glycolysis during running in lions, horses and dogs. Federation Proceedings 35, 797.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1976. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Selective Formation of 2-Esters of some methylD-Hexopyranosides via Dibutylstannylene Derivatives.". In: Kenya. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1976. Abstract
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A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Shah, DM, Slack RCB and WAMOLA I.A. Single dose treatment of Acute Gonorrhoea in Males .". In: (Paper presented to KMA meeting, Mombasa March 1976). IBIMA Publishing; 1976. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Statistical Thermodynamics of a Two Spin System.". In: Pres. International Symposium on Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Theory,. University of Nairobi Press; 1976. Abstract
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P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Structures in Electromagnetic Tensor Field.". In: Proc. Internal Dedi. Semi. On recent advances in Maths.And its applications, BHU. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1976. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "A Study of George Orwell.". In: Paper read at the international seminar on Evaluation of Educational programmes, at the Univesity of southmpton,U.K. in June, 1977. Elsevier; 1976. Abstract
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S. PROFEL-BUSAIDYABDULGAFURH. "The Survey of the Extent of Corrosion Problems in Kenya". Final Report to the National Council for Science & Technolog.". In: Houston, Texas. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 1976. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""The Kikuyu in the Pre-Colonial Period" in Kenya Before 1900.". In: Edited by B.A. Ogot, E.A Publishing House, Nairobi.; 1976. Abstract
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OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Two relaxation Time Model for Orientational Motion of Molecules in a Gas Reservoir.". In: J. Chem. Phy. 64, 2212. University of Nairobi Press; 1976. Abstract
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MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Waghela, S. and Gathuma, J. M. (1976). A serological survey of the prevalence of brucelosis in pigs in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 24 (3) 251 .". In: journal. FARA; 1976. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Waghela, S. and Gathuma, J. M. (1976). A serological survey of the prevalence of brucelosis in pigs in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 24 (3) 251 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1976. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I. A, Zimmerman, R R; and Slack RCB. Salmonella typhimurium .". In: Proceedings of the 1976 Annual Scientific Conference of the East African Medical Research Council (Book on Delivery of Health Care in Africa). IBIMA Publishing; 1976. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A and Shiroya, AGMI. The Role of Preventive Disease in causing Death in Kenya .". In: Proceedings of the EAMRC Annual Scientific Conference (1976). IBIMA Publishing; 1976. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A, Hillman, DA and Kiugu, SK. The Incidence of Bacterial Opthalmia Neonatorum at Kenyatta National Hospital .". In: Proceedings of the 1976 Annual Scientific Conference of the E.A. Medical Research Council. IBIMA Publishing; 1976. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Wanjala S. Acute Puerperal Inversion of the Uterus at Kenyatta National Hospital (Submitted to Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa).". In: Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1976. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Wanjala S. Is Microsurgery Useful in the Management of Infertiligy in Kenya (Submitted as an Editorial to Journal of Obsterics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa.". In: Editorial to Journal of Obsterics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1976. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "'Who is on Trial in The Trial of Dedan Kimathi?' in Busara Vol. 8 No.2.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1976. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
S. PROFEL-BUSAIDYABDULGAFURH. "X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF) of Trace Elements in Tuff (Volcanic Soil) and in Tissues of Rats fed with Tuff.". In: Nairobi. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 1976. Abstract
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1975
Gichaga FJ. "The Trans-African highway – Mombasa/Lagos,." Journal, Institution of Engineers of Kenya. 1975:16-21.
Gichaga FJ. "Integrated Engineering Training for Civil Engineers in Kenya.". In: 13th Annual Conference on Engineering Education in East Africa. Nairobi; 1975.
Powner D, Snyder JV, Grenvik A. "Altered pulmonary capillary permeability complicating recovery from diabetic ketoacidosis." Chest. 1975;68:253-256. Abstract

Self-limited noncardiogenic interstitial pulmonary edema probably reflecting altered permeability of the pulmonary capillary membrane is reported in a patient being treated for severe diabetic ketoacidosis. The possible etiology, associated findings, and therapy with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) by facemask are discussed.

LaVail MM, Battelle BA. "Influence of eye pigmentation and light deprivation on inherited retinal dystrophy in the rat." Experimental eye research. 1975;21:167-192. Abstract
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Gichaga FJ. "Curriculum Development for Highway and Transportation Engineering. .". In: Subject Meeting in Civil Engineering. University of Nairobi; 1975.
Ostashevskiĭ II, Sungurov IA, Volchkov VA. "[Light scattering by cell suspensions in normal conditions and exposed to external factors]." Biofizika. 1975;20(5):853-8. Abstract

The characteristics of light scattering of cell suspensions in norm (pH 7,2, t=20degreesC) and upon external influences (change of pH and increase of tdegree). The turbidity tauapproximatelylambda-n and n=0,2--0,3 for cells in norm. After cell damage n increases. Dependence of n correlates with the increase of some injured cells determined by eozin test. Alterations of light scattering after cell damage were connected with the increase of deposit of intercellular structure in general scattering.

Akamatsu N, Nakajima H, Ono M, Miura Y. "Increase in acetyl CoA synthetase activity after phenobarbital treatment." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 1975;24(18):1725-7.
Bhagwat VM, Ramachandran BV. "Malathion A and B esterases of mouse liver-I." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 1975;24(18):1713-7.
Bhagwat VM, Ramachandran BV. "Malathion A and B esterases of mouse liver-I." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 1975;24(18):1713-7.
Bhagwat VM, Ramachandran BV. "Malathion A and B esterases of mouse liver-I." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 1975;24(18):1713-7.
Schmoldt A, Benthe HF, Haberland G. "Digitoxin metabolism by rat liver microsomes." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 1975;24(17):1639-41.
Schmoldt A, Benthe HF, Haberland G. "Digitoxin metabolism by rat liver microsomes." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 1975;24(17):1639-41.
Silen W, Machen TE, Forte JG. "Acid-base balance in amphibian gastric mucosa." Am. J. Physiol.. 1975;229(3):721-30. Abstract

It has been established that H+ secretion can be maintained in frog stomach in the absence of exogenous CO2 by using a nutrient bathing fluid containing 25 mM H2PO4 (pH approximately equal to 4.5) or by lowering the pH of a nonbuffered nutrient solution to about 3.0-3.6. Exogenous CO2 in the presence of these nutrient solutions uniformly caused a marked decrease in H+ secretion, PD, adn short-circuit current (Isc) and an increase in transmucosal resistance (R). Elevation of nutrient [k+] to 83 mM reduced R significantly but transiently without change in H+ when nutrient pH less than 5.0, whereas R returned to base line and H+ increased when nutrient pH greater than 5.0. Acidification of the nutrient medium in the presence of exogenous CO2 results in inhibition of the secretory pump, probably by decreasing intracellular pH, and also interferes with conductance at the nutrient membrane. Removal of exogenous CO2 from standard bicarbonate nutrient solution reduced by 50% the H+, PD, and Isc without change in R; K+-free nutrient solutions reverse these changes in Isc and PD but not in H+. The dropping PD and rising R induced by K+-free nutrient solutions in 5% CO2 - 95% O2 are returned toward normal by 100% O2. Our findings support an important role for exogenous CO2 in maintaining normal acid-base balance in frog mucosa by acting as an acidifying agent.

Flohr H, Breull W. "Effect of etafenone on total and regional myocardial blood flow." Arzneimittelforschung. 1975;25(9):1400-3. Abstract

The distribution of blood flow to the subendocardial, medium and subepicardial layers of the left ventricular free wall was studied in anaesthetized dogs under normoxic (A), hypoxic (B) conditions and under pharmacologically induced (etafenone) coronary vasodilation (C). Regional myocardial blood flow was determined by means of the particle distribution method. In normoxia a transmural gradient of flow was observed, with the subendocardial layers receiving a significantly higher flow rate compared with the subepicardial layers. In hypoxia induced vasodilation this transmural gradient of flow was persistent. In contrast a marked redistribution of regional flow was observed under pharmacologically induced vasodilation. The transmural gradient decreased. In contrast to some findings these experiments demonstrate that a considerable vasodilatory capacity exists in all layers of the myocardium and can be utilized by drugs. The differences observed for the intramural distribution pattern of flow under hypoxia and drug induced vasodilation support the hypothesis that this pattern reflects corresponding gradients of regional myocardial metabolism.

Thornton JA, Harrison MJ. "Letter: Duration of action of AH8165." Br J Anaesth. 1975;47(9):1033.
Coscia L, Causa P, Giuliani E, Nunziata A. "Pharmacological properties of new neuroleptic compounds." Arzneimittelforschung. 1975;25(9):1436-42. Abstract

RMI 61 140, RMI 61 144 and RMI 61 280 are newly synthetized N-[8-R-dibenzo(b,f)oxepin-10-yl]-N'-methyl-piperazine-maleates which show interesting psychopharmacologic effects. This work contains the results of a study performed with these three compounds, in order to demonstrate their neuropsycholeptic activity in comparison with chloropromazine (CPZ) and chlordiazepoxide (CPD). The inhibition of motility observed in mice shows that the compounds reduce the normal spontaneous motility as well as the muscle tone. The central-depressant activity is evidenced by increased barbiturate-induced sleep and a remarkable eyelid ptosis can also be observed. Our compounds do not show any activity on electroshock just as do CPZ and CPD. As to the antipsychotic outline, our compounds show strong reduction of lethality due to amphetamine in grouped mice and a strong antiapomorphine activity. They show also an antiaggressive effect and an inhibitory activity on avoidance behaviour much stronger than CPZ. We have also found extrapyramidal effects, as catalepsy, common to many tranquillizers of the kind of the standards used by us. As for vegetative phenomena, the compounds show hypotensive dose related action ranging from moderate to strong, probably due to an a-receptor inhibition. Adrenolytic activity against lethal doses of adrenaline, antiserotonin and antihistaminic effects, as well as other actions (hypothermia, analgesia, etc.) confirm that RMI 61 140, RMI 61 144 and RMI 61 280 are endowed with pharmacologic properties similar and more potent than those of CPZ. Studies on the metabolism of brain catecholamines show that they are similar to CPZ, although with less effect on dopamine level.

Coscia L, Causa P, Giuliani E, Nunziata A. "Pharmacological properties of new neuroleptic compounds." Arzneimittelforschung. 1975;25(9):1436-42. Abstract

RMI 61 140, RMI 61 144 and RMI 61 280 are newly synthetized N-[8-R-dibenzo(b,f)oxepin-10-yl]-N'-methyl-piperazine-maleates which show interesting psychopharmacologic effects. This work contains the results of a study performed with these three compounds, in order to demonstrate their neuropsycholeptic activity in comparison with chloropromazine (CPZ) and chlordiazepoxide (CPD). The inhibition of motility observed in mice shows that the compounds reduce the normal spontaneous motility as well as the muscle tone. The central-depressant activity is evidenced by increased barbiturate-induced sleep and a remarkable eyelid ptosis can also be observed. Our compounds do not show any activity on electroshock just as do CPZ and CPD. As to the antipsychotic outline, our compounds show strong reduction of lethality due to amphetamine in grouped mice and a strong antiapomorphine activity. They show also an antiaggressive effect and an inhibitory activity on avoidance behaviour much stronger than CPZ. We have also found extrapyramidal effects, as catalepsy, common to many tranquillizers of the kind of the standards used by us. As for vegetative phenomena, the compounds show hypotensive dose related action ranging from moderate to strong, probably due to an a-receptor inhibition. Adrenolytic activity against lethal doses of adrenaline, antiserotonin and antihistaminic effects, as well as other actions (hypothermia, analgesia, etc.) confirm that RMI 61 140, RMI 61 144 and RMI 61 280 are endowed with pharmacologic properties similar and more potent than those of CPZ. Studies on the metabolism of brain catecholamines show that they are similar to CPZ, although with less effect on dopamine level.

Scherberger RR, Kaess H, Brückner S. "[Studies on the action of an anticholinergic agent in combination with a tranquilizer on gastric juice secretion in man]." Arzneimittelforschung. 1975;25(9):1460-3. Abstract

A double-blind study with intra-individual comparisons was carried out to investigate the effects of 15 mg of (8r)-3alpha-hydroxy-8-isopropyl-1alphaH-tropanium bromide(+/-)-tropate (Sch 1000), 15 mg Sch 1000 + 10 mg oxazepam, 10 mg oxazepam and placebo with oral administration in randomized sequence on gastric juice volume, amount of acid, concentration and pH values in 12 healthy volunteers. The secretion parameters were measured during a 1-h basal period and a 2-h stimulation period. The gastric juice was obtained in 15 min portions via stomach tube. Stimulation was effected by 1 mug/kg/h pentagastrin via drip infusion. The Friedman test was used for the comparative statistical evaluation, and individual comparisons were carried out by means of the Wilcoxon test (pair-differences rank). The results show that Sch 1000 and Sch 1000 + oxazepam were equal in effect on basal and stimulated secretion volume. As compared with placebo, it was not possible to establish an effect on secretion volume for oxazepam alone. Sch 1000 and Sch 1000 + oxazepam were found to be equipotent in reducing the amount of basal acid, while oxazepam reduced this quantity only during the first 30 min of basal secretion. None of the three active preparations was capable of inhibiting the stimulated acid, although both Sch 1000 preparations produced a clear trend towards lowered mean values. During the basal secretion period, all three test preparations had an inhibiting action on acid concentration, but none of them had a significant effect during the stimulation period. The pH value was savely increased only by Sch 1000 and Sch 1000 + oxazepam, and this even only during the basal period. The results are discussed.

Hendrickson WA, Ward KB. "Atomic models for the polypeptide backbones of myohemerythrin and hemerythrin." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.. 1975;66(4):1349-56.
Wiesmann UN, DiDonato S, Herschkowitz NN. "Effect of chloroquine on cultured fibroblasts: release of lysosomal hydrolases and inhibition of their uptake." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.. 1975;66(4):1338-43.
Wiesmann UN, DiDonato S, Herschkowitz NN. "Effect of chloroquine on cultured fibroblasts: release of lysosomal hydrolases and inhibition of their uptake." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.. 1975;66(4):1338-43.
Smith RJ, Bryant RG. "Metal substitutions incarbonic anhydrase: a halide ion probe study." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.. 1975;66(4):1281-6.
Smith RJ, Bryant RG. "Metal substitutions incarbonic anhydrase: a halide ion probe study." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.. 1975;66(4):1281-6.
Chow YW, Pietranico R, Mukerji A. "Studies of oxygen binding energy to hemoglobin molecule." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.. 1975;66(4):1424-31.
Chow YW, Pietranico R, Mukerji A. "Studies of oxygen binding energy to hemoglobin molecule." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.. 1975;66(4):1424-31.
Lorkin PA, Stephens AD, Beard ME, Wrigley PF, Adams L, Lehmann H. "Haemoglobin Rahere (beta Lys-Thr): A new high affinity haemoglobin associated with decreased 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate binding and relative polycythaemia." Br Med J. 1975;4(5990):200-2. Abstract

A new haemoglobin with increased oxygen affinity, beta82 (EF6) lysine leads to threonine (Hb Rahere), was found during the investigation of a patient who was found to have a raised haemoglobin concentration after a routine blood count. The substitution affects one of the 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate binding sites, resulting in an increased affinity for oxygen, but both the haem-haem interaction and the alkaline Bohr effect are normal in the haemolysate. This variant had the same mobility as haemoglobin A on electrophoresis at alkaline pH but was detected by measuring the whole blood oxygen affinity; it could be separated from haemoglobin A, however, by electrophoresis in agar at acid pH. The raised haemoglobin concentration was mainly due to a reduction in plasma volume (a relative polycythaemia) and was associated with a persistently raised white blood count. This case emphasises the need to measure the oxygen affinity of haemoglobin in all patients with absolute or relative polycythaemia when some obvious cause is not evident.

Barthel W, Markwardt F. "Aggregation of blood platelets by adrenaline and its uptake." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 1975;24(20):1903-4.
Ris MM, Deitrich RA, Von Wartburg JP. "Inhibition of aldehyde reductase isoenzymes in human and rat brain." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 1975;24(20):1865-9.
Theodor JL, Senelar R. "Cytotoxic interaction between gorgonian explants: mode of action." Cell. Immunol.. 1975;19(2):194-200.
Mier PD, van den Hurk JJ. "Lysosomal hydrolases of the epidermis. 2. Ester hydrolases." Br. J. Dermatol.. 1975;93(4):391-8. Abstract

Five distinct ester hydrolases (EC 3-1) have been characterized in guinea-pig epidermis. These are carboxylic esterase, acid phosphatase, pyrophosphatase, and arylsulphatase A and B. Their properties are consistent with those of lysosomal enzymes.

Nitta K, Yoneyama M. "Polymer concentration dependence of the helix to random coil transition of a charged polypeptide in aqueous salt solution." Biophys. Chem.. 1975;3(4):323-9. Abstract

The helix to coil transition of poly(L-glutamic acid) was investigated in 0.05 and 0.005 M aqueous potassium chloride solutions by use of potentiometric titration and circular dichroism measurement. Polymer concentration dependence of the transition was observed in the range from 0.006 to 0.04 monomol/e in 0.005 M KG1 solution. The polymer concentration dependence can be interpreted by current theories of the transition of charged polypeptides and of titration curves of linear weak polyelectrolytes taking the effect of polymer concentration into consideration.

Crow TJ, Deakin JF, Longden A. "Proceedings: Do anti-psychotic drugs act by dopamine receptor blockade in the nucleus accumbens." Br. J. Pharmacol.. 1975;55(2):295P-296P.
Miller FL, Cawley AJ, Choquette LP, Broughton E. "Radiographic examination of mandibular lesions in barren-ground caribou." J. Wildl. Dis.. 1975;11(4):465-70. Abstract

Dental anomalies were observed in 43 of 1,226 barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) taken between 1966 and 1968. In five of these 43 animals, the mandibles had deformities which radiography showed to be the result of dental abscesses in four cases and probably of a trauma in the other. The absence of actinomycotic lesions of the jaw bones of these 1,226 animals, and of more than 500 examined previously, indicates that "lumpy jaw" is rare in barren-ground caribou. The authors suggest the use of radiography to determine the nature of bone growth on skeletal remains, in the absence of soft tissues for examination for Actinomyces, either microscopically or by cultural methods.

Imamura K. "[Studies on the energy for sperm motility (author's transl)]." Nihon Funin Gakkai Zasshi. 1975;20(4):6-13.
Hunter AL, Klaassen CD. "Biliary excretion of colchicine in newborn rats." Drug Metab. Dispos.. 1975;3(6):530-5. Abstract

The 24-hr LD50 of colchicine in newborn rats is 0.24 mg/kg, which is about 1/10 that observed in the adult. The 24-hr LD50 of colchicine was relatively constant in rats over 25 days of age. In an attempt to determine the mechanism of the increased sensitivity of the newborn rat to the toxic action of colchicine, the distribution of 3H after the administration of 3H-colchicine (0.1 mg/kg) was measured in 10- and 35-day-old rats. The concentration of 3H was higher in all tissues of the newborn than the adult after ip administration, suggesting an immaturity in the pathway for colchicine elimination. After iv administration, radioactivity disappeared much more slowly from the plasma of the newborn rat than from the adult. This was due to a lower capacity of the liver of the newborn to concentrate colchicine and to excrete it into the bile. Development of the hepatic excretory mechanism responsible for excretion of colchicine occurred at the same age as did the increase in LD50. These results suggest that colchicine is more toxic in the newborn because the drug remains in the body for a longer time due to immaturity of the liver excretory process.

Weiss JM, Glazer HI, Pohorecky LA, Brick J, Miller NE. "Effects of chronic exposure to stressors on avoidance-escape behavior and on brain norepinephrine." Psychosom Med. 1975;37(6):522-34. Abstract

A single exposure to a severe stressor (either cold swim or inescapable shock) impairs subsequent performance in a shuttle avoidance-escape task (1), a deficit attributed to reduction in brain noradrenergic activity produced by these stressors. In the present paper, two experiments are described which examine how repeated exposure to such stressors affects (a) shuttle avoidance-escape performance (Experiment 1), and (b) aspects of brain norepinephrine metabolism (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 showed that, whereas subjects receiving the single exposure to cold swim or shock showed a large avoidance-escape deficit, subjects that received repeated exposure to these stressors for 14 days performed similarly to the control group that received no stressor. Experiment 2 showed that, whereas subjects that received one session of the inescapable shock stressor showed a lower level of norepinephrine in hypothalamus and cortex than did subjects that received no shock, subjects that received repeated exposure to inescapable shock or cold swim showed neurochemical "habituation." Subjects that received repeated shock showed elevated tyrosine hydroxylase activity and no depletion of norepinephrine level, and both repeated shock and cold swim caused a decrease in uptake of 3H-norepinephrine by slices of cortex in vitro. Thus, it is concluded that the behavioral and neurochemical changes that were observed after the stressful conditions studied are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in avoidance-escape responding following exposure to these stressful events are due to changes in brain noradrenergic activity.

Galliard T, Phillips DR, Matthew JA. "Enzymic reactions of fatty acid hydroperoxides in extracts of potato tuber. II. Conversion of 9- and 13-hydroperoxy-octadecadienoic acids to monohydroxydienoic acid, epoxyhydroxy- and trihydroxymonoenoic acid derivatives." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;409(2):157-71. Abstract

1. Crude extracts and partially purified enzyme preparations from potato tubers catalyse, at pH 5-7, the conversion of linoleic acid hydroperoxides to a range of oxygenated fatty acid derivatives. 2. 9-D- and 13-L-hydroperoxide isomers are converted at similar rates to equivalent (isomeric) products. 3. The major products from the 13-hydroperoxide isomer were identified as the corresponding monohydroxydienoic acid derivative, threo-11-hydroxy-trans12,13-epoxy-octadec-cis9-enoic acid and 9,12,13-trihydroxy-octadec-trans10-enoic acid. The corresponding products from the 9-hydroperoxide were the monohydroxydienoic acid, 9,10-epoxy-11-hydroxy-octadec-12-enoic acid and 9,10,13-trihydroxy-octadec-11-enoic acid. 4. No separation of activities forming the different products was achieved by partial purification of enzyme extracts. 5. Product formation was unaffected by EDTA, CN-, sulphydryl reagents or glutathione but was reduced by boiling the extracts. 6. This system is compared with the 9-hydroperoxide-specific enzymic formation of divinyl ether derivatives by potato extracts.

Wan H, Horvath C. "Behavior of soluble and immobilized acid phosphatase in hydro-organic media." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):135-44. Abstract

The hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate by wheat germ acid phosphatase (orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.2) has been investigated in mixtures of aqueous buffers with acetone, dioxane and acetonitrile. The enzyme was either in free solution or immobilized on a pellicular support which consisted of a porous carbonaceous layer on solid glass beads. The highest enzyme activity was obtained in acetone and acetonitrile mixed with citrate buffer over a wide range of organic solvent concentration. In 50% (v/v) acetone both V and Km of the immobilized enzyme were about half of the values in the neat aqueous buffer, but the Ki for inorganic phosphate was unchanged. In 50% (v/v) mixtures of various solvents and citrate buffers of different pH, the enzymic activity was found to depend on the pH of the aqueous buffer component rather than the pH of the hydro-organic mixture as measured with the glass-calomel electrode. The relatively high rates of p-nitrophenol liberation in the presence of glucose even at high organic solvent concentrations suggest that transphosphorylation is facilitated at low water activity.

Yoshimura F, Suzuki T. "Calcium-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase in the microsomal fraction of tooth germ from porcine fetus." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):167-77. Abstract

The characterization and localization of a Ca(2+)-ATPase (ATP phosphohydrolase, EC 3.6.1.3) in the tooth germ of the porcine fetus are reported. This enzyme, a microsome fraction, is preferentially activated by Ca(2+). In the presence of 0.5 mM ATP, maximal enzyme activity is obtained at 0.5--1.0 mM CaCl2. The maximal rate of ATP hydrolysis is approx. 20 mumol per h per mg of protein as the enzyme preparation is used here. At optimal Ca(2+) concentration, the Mg(2+) has an inhibitory effect. The enzyme does not require Na+ or/and K+ for activation by Ca(2+). Other nucleotide triphosphates may serve as the substrate, but V for ATP is the highest. The Km for ATP is 8.85 - 10(-5) M. The optimal pH for Ca(2+) activation of the enzyme lies around 9.2. Well known inhibitors of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase, mitochondria ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase in the erthrocyte do not inhibit the enzyme. In the subcellular order the enzyme may be assumed to be localized in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum fraction containing cell and Golgi body membrane fragments and in the tissue order in the enamel organ containing an ameloblast layer, stratum intermedium and stellate reticulum.

Tan AW, Nuttall FQ. "Characteristics of the dephosphorylated form of phosphorylase purified from rat liver and measurement of its activity in crude liver preparations." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):45-60. Abstract

The phosphorylated form of liver glycogen phosphorylase (alpha-1,4-glucan : orthophosphate alpha-glucosyl-transferase, EC 2.4.1.1) (phosphorylase a) is active and easily measured while the dephosphorylated form (phosphorylase b), in contrast to the muscle enzyme, has been reported to be essentially inactive even in the presence of AMP. We have purified both forms of phosphorylase from rat liver and studied the characteristics of each. Phosphorylase b activity can be measured with our assay conditions. The phosphorylase b we obtained was stimulated by high concentrations of sulfate, and was a substrate for muscle phosphorylase kinase whereas phosphorylase a was inhibited by sulfate, and was a substrate for liver phosphorylase phosphatase. Substrate binding to phosphorylase b was poor (KM glycogen = 2.5 mM, glucose-1-P = 250 mM) compared to phosphorylase a (KM glycogen = 1.8 mM, KM glucose-1-P = 0.7 mM). Liver phosphorylase b was active in the absence of AMP. However, AMP lowered the KM for glucose-1-P to 80 mM for purified phosphorylase b and to 60 mM for the enzyme in crude extract (Ka = 0.5 mM). Using appropriate substrate, buffer and AMP concentrations, assay conditions have been developed which allow determination of phosphorylase a and 90% of the phosphorylase b activity in liver extracts. Interconversion of the two forms can be demonstrated in vivo (under acute stimulation) and in vitro with little change in total activity. A decrease in total phosphorylase activity has been observed after prolonged starvation and in diabetes.

Fluck RA, Jaffe MJ. "Cholinesterases from plant tissues. VI. Preliminary characterization of enzymes from Solanum melongena L. and Zea mays L." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):130-4. Abstract

Enzymes capable of hydrolyzing esters of thiocholine have been assayed in extracts of Solanum melongena L. (eggplant) and Zea Mays L. (corn). The enzymes from both species are inhibited by the anti-cholinesterases neostigmine, physostigmine, and 284c51 and by AMO-1618, a plant growth retardant and they both have pH optima near pH 8.0. The enzyme from eggplant is maximally active at a substrate concentration of 0.15 mM acetylthiocholine and is inhibited at higher substrate concentrations. On the basis of this last property, the magnitude of inhibition by the various inhibitors, and the substrate specificity, we conclude that the enzyme from eggplant, but not that from corn, is a cholinesterase.

Chegwidden WR, Watts DC. "Kinetic studies and effects of anions on creatine phosphokinase from skeletal muscle of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):99-114. Abstract

A purification procedure for creatine kinase (EC 2.7.3.2) from muscle of the monke35--170 muequiv H+/mg protein per min at 30 degrees C and a yield of approx. 0.5 g/kg muscle. Assuming equilibrium kinetics, synergistic binding of substrates at one catalytic site is found for both the forward and back reactions. Kinetic constants for the binding of each substrate to the free enzyme and the enzyme-second substrate complex are determined and are compared with those for the enzyme from other species. Inhibition by small anions is determined in the presence of different combinations of substrates and products. SO4(2-) inhibits by simple competitive inhibition and probably binds at the site of the transferrable phosphoryl group. Inhibition by NO3-, NO2-, SCN- and Cl- is more complex and these ions are suggested to mimic the transferrable phosphoryl group in a planar transition-state complex. These anions stabilize the dead-end complex, enzyme-creatine-MgADP, which lacks the transferable phosphoryl group. The effects of these anions on the dissociation constants of the enzyme-substrate complexes is reported and is in accord with the above hypothesis. The dead-end complex in the absence of anion does not protect the essential thiol group against inhibition by iodoacetamide. Addition of NO3- or Cl- to the dead-end complex or a substrate equilibrium mixture without anion confers protection. The essential thiol group is inhibited by iodoacetamide at a rate which is essentially independent of pH over the normal stability range of the enzyme. Contrary to our previous report this pH independence is not altered by the presence of dead-end complex, creatine plus MgADP, in the presence or absence of anion or in the presence of a substrate equilibrium mixture. It is inferred that the 'essential' thiol group of the monkey enzyme has essentially the same properties as that of the rabbit enzyme. In consequence, the inferences made about the role of this group based on our previous work on the monkey enzyme are no longer valid. The present findings are compatible with the essential thiol group playing a conformational role in the catalytic process.

Kumar R, Tao M. "Multiple forms of casein kinase from rabbit erythrocytes." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):87-98. Abstract

Two rabbit erythrocyte casein kinases, GTP:casein kinase I and GTP:casein kinase II, have been purified 29 000- and 47 000-fold, respectively. Studies employing sucrose density gradient centrifugation indicate that kinase I has a molecular weight of about 9.5 - 10(5) (25 S) and kinase II about 1.4 - 10(6) (32 S). These enzymes can utilize either ATP or GTP as the phosphoryl donor. Among various protein substrates examined, these kinases catalyze the phosphorylation of casein greater than 50% dephosphorylated phosvitin congruent to 50% dephosphorylated casein greater than phosvitin. Histones, protamine and bovine serum albumin are poor phosphoryl acceptors. Kinetic data indicate that both enzymes are inhibited by high casein substrate concentrations which may be partially relieved by NaCl. Both phosphotransferases require Mg(2+) for activity and are optimally active at pH 9.0. The enzymes have apparent Km values of 2.5 - 10(-5) M for GTP, 2 - 10(-5) M for ATP, and 0.4--0.6 mg/ml for casein. The incorporation of the terminal phosphate of GTP into casein as catalyzed by these enzymes is inhibited to varying degrees by ATP, ITP, ADP, and GDP but not by UTP, CTP, GMP, adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate, and guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate. In addition, NaF and 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid are also found to inhibit the activity of both kinases. The effect of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate is interesting and suggests that this metabolite may regulate the activity of the casein kinases in the red blood cells.

Kumar R, Tao M. "Multiple forms of casein kinase from rabbit erythrocytes." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):87-98. Abstract

Two rabbit erythrocyte casein kinases, GTP:casein kinase I and GTP:casein kinase II, have been purified 29 000- and 47 000-fold, respectively. Studies employing sucrose density gradient centrifugation indicate that kinase I has a molecular weight of about 9.5 - 10(5) (25 S) and kinase II about 1.4 - 10(6) (32 S). These enzymes can utilize either ATP or GTP as the phosphoryl donor. Among various protein substrates examined, these kinases catalyze the phosphorylation of casein greater than 50% dephosphorylated phosvitin congruent to 50% dephosphorylated casein greater than phosvitin. Histones, protamine and bovine serum albumin are poor phosphoryl acceptors. Kinetic data indicate that both enzymes are inhibited by high casein substrate concentrations which may be partially relieved by NaCl. Both phosphotransferases require Mg(2+) for activity and are optimally active at pH 9.0. The enzymes have apparent Km values of 2.5 - 10(-5) M for GTP, 2 - 10(-5) M for ATP, and 0.4--0.6 mg/ml for casein. The incorporation of the terminal phosphate of GTP into casein as catalyzed by these enzymes is inhibited to varying degrees by ATP, ITP, ADP, and GDP but not by UTP, CTP, GMP, adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate, and guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate. In addition, NaF and 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid are also found to inhibit the activity of both kinases. The effect of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate is interesting and suggests that this metabolite may regulate the activity of the casein kinases in the red blood cells.

Elgart ES, Gusovsky T, Rosenberg MD. "Preparation and characterization of an enzymatically active immobilized derivative of myosin." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):178-92. Abstract

Purified skeletal muscle myosin (EC 3.6.1.3) has been covalently bound to Sepharose 4B by the cyanogen bromide procedure. The resulting complex, Sepharose-Myosin, possesses adenosine triphosphatase activity and is relatively stable for long periods of time. Under optimal binding conditions, approximately 33% of the specific ATPase activity of the bound myosin is retained. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of polypeptides released from denatured Sepharose-Myosin indicates that 85% of the myosin is attached to the agarose beads through the heavy chains and the remainder through the light chains, in agreement with predictions of binding and release based upon either the lysine contents or molecular weights of themyosin subunits. The adenosine triphosphatase of the immobilized myosin has been investigated under conditions of varying pH, ionic strength, and cation concentration. The ATPase profiles of immobilized myosin are quite similar to those for free myosin, however subtle differences are found. The Sepharose-Myosin ATPase is not as sensitive as myosin to alterations in salt concentration and the apparent KM is approximately two-fold higher than that of myosin. These differences are probably due to chemical modification in the region of the attachment site(s) to the agarose beads and hydration and diffusion limitations imposed by the polymeric agarose matrix.

Tominaga Y, Tsujisaka Y. "Purification and some enzymatic properties of the chitosanase from Bacillus R-4 which lyses Rhizopus cell walls." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):145-55. Abstract

A strain of Bacillus sp (Bacillus R-4) produces a protease and a carbohydrolase both of which have the ability to lyse Rhizopus cell walls. Of the enzymes, the carbohydrolase has been purified to an ultracentrifugally and electrophoretically homogeneous state, and identified as a chitosanase. The enzyme was active on glycol chitosan as well as chitosan. Molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated as 31 000 and isoelectric point as pH 8.30. The enzyme was most active at pH 5.6 and at 40 degrees C with either Rhizopus cell wall or glycol chitosan as substrate, and was stable over a range of pH 4.5 to 7.5 at 40 degrees C for 3 h. The activity was lost by sulfhydryl reagents and restored by either reduced glutathione of L-cysteine. An abrupt decrease in viscosity of the reaction mixture suggested an endowise cleavage of chitosan by this enzyme.

Moroff G, Brandt KG. "Yeast glutathione reductase. Studies of the kinetics and stability of the enzyme as a function of pH and salt concentration." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):21-31. Abstract

1. The pH dependencies of the apparent Michaelis constant for oxidized glutathione and the apparent turnover number of yeast glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) have been determined at a fixed concentration of 0.1 mM NADPH in the range pH 4.5--8.0. Between pH 5.5 and 7.6, both of these parameters are relatively constant. The principal effect of low pH on the kinetics of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction is the observation of a pH-dependent substrate inhibition by oxidized glutathione at pH less than or equal 7, which is shown to correlate with the binding of oxidized glutathione to the oxidized form of the enzyme. 2. The catalytic activity of yeast glutathione reductase at pH 5.5 is affected by the sodium acetate buffer concentration. The stability of the oxidized and reduced forms of the enzyme at pH 5.5 and 25 degrees C in the absence of bovine serum albumin was studied as a function of sodium acetate concentration. The results show that activation of the catalytic activity of the enzyme at low sodium acetate concentration correlates with an effect of sodium acetate on a reduced form of the enzyme. In contrast, inhibition of the catalytic activity of the enzyme at high sodium acetate concentration correlates with an effect of sodium acetate on the oxidized form of the enzyme.

Moroff G, Brandt KG. "Yeast glutathione reductase. Studies of the kinetics and stability of the enzyme as a function of pH and salt concentration." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):21-31. Abstract

1. The pH dependencies of the apparent Michaelis constant for oxidized glutathione and the apparent turnover number of yeast glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) have been determined at a fixed concentration of 0.1 mM NADPH in the range pH 4.5--8.0. Between pH 5.5 and 7.6, both of these parameters are relatively constant. The principal effect of low pH on the kinetics of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction is the observation of a pH-dependent substrate inhibition by oxidized glutathione at pH less than or equal 7, which is shown to correlate with the binding of oxidized glutathione to the oxidized form of the enzyme. 2. The catalytic activity of yeast glutathione reductase at pH 5.5 is affected by the sodium acetate buffer concentration. The stability of the oxidized and reduced forms of the enzyme at pH 5.5 and 25 degrees C in the absence of bovine serum albumin was studied as a function of sodium acetate concentration. The results show that activation of the catalytic activity of the enzyme at low sodium acetate concentration correlates with an effect of sodium acetate on a reduced form of the enzyme. In contrast, inhibition of the catalytic activity of the enzyme at high sodium acetate concentration correlates with an effect of sodium acetate on the oxidized form of the enzyme.

Baghurst PA, Nichol LW. "The binding of organic phosphates to human methaemoglobin A. Perturbation of the polymerization of proteins by effectors." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;412(1):168-80. Abstract

Theory is presented relating to the binding of an effector to two states of a protein acceptor coexisting in equilibrium. The problem is treated in terms of the four possible cases which specify relations between numbers of binding sites and intrinsic binding constants relevant to the acceptor states. It is shown that a distinction between these cases may be possible on the basis of the form of a plot of unbound effector concentration versus the constituent equilibrium coefficient which may be calculated from the sedimentation coefficient of the protein constituent. Particularly noteworthy in this respect is the finding that a turning point may exist in this plot for defined conditions with systems in which binding sites are not conserved (and binding affinities are altered) on polymer formation. The latter type of system is exemplified by studies on methaemoglobin A in 0.25 M sodium acetate, pH 5.4. In the absence of added organic phosphate effectors, a dimer-tetramer equilibrium operates governed by an association constant of 4.15 +/- 0.06 X 10(3) 1/mol, determined from sedimentation equilibrium results. Correlation of sedimentation velocity and equilibrium results shows that addition of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) results in its binding to one site on each of the dimeric (alpha beta) and tetrameric (alpha beta)2 species with intrinsic binding constants 1.03-10(3)-1.20-10(3) and 1.1-10(4)-2.1-10(4) 1/mol, respectively. It is also shown that 2,3-diphosphoglycerate perturbs the dimer-tetramer equilibrium in a similar way to ATP.

Roskoski R, Lim CT, Roskoski LM. "Human brain and placental choline acetyltransferase: purification and properties." Biochemistry. 1975;14(23):5105-10. Abstract

Choline acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.6) catalyzes the biosynthesis of acetylcholine according to the following chemical equation: acetyl-CoA + choline in equilibrium to acetylcholine + CoA. In addition to nervous tissue, primate placenta is the only other animal source which contains appreciable acetylcholine and its biosynthetic enzyme. Human brain caudate nucleus and human placental choline acetyltransferase were purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using ion-exchange and blue dextran-Sepharose affinity chromatography. The molecular weights determined by Sephadex G-150 gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis are 67000 plus or minus 3000. N-Ethylmaleimide, p-chloromercuribenzoate, and dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) inhibit the enzyme. Dithiothreitol reverses the inhibition produced by the latter two reagents. The pKa of the group associated with N-ethylmaleimide inhibition is 8.6 plus or minus 0.3. A chemically competent acetyl-thioenzyme is isolable by Sephadex gel filtration. The enzymes from the brain and placenta are thus far physically and biochemically indistinguishable.

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