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Rego AB. "The Kenyan Experience in Environmental Education." The Kenyan Experience in Environmental Education. Submitted.
Nyamu DG. Knowledge on diabetes mellitus among diabetic patients attending Kenyatta national hospital outpatient clinic.; Submitted. Abstract

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease that has significant morbidity and mortality worldwide resulting from complications arising from poor control. 1,3
There is no local data to show the level of diabetic patients' knowledge on this disease at KNH, an important aspect in DM management. In the present cross-sectional study, determination of the diabetic patient's knowledge of his/her disease was undertaken for the first time at KNH.
Study Objectives: To determine the proportion of KNH DM outpatients with adequate knowledge on the disease and to determine the level of provision of diabetic education to the DM outpatients.
Study design: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study from September 2007 to January 2008.105 DM patients (above 18 years) who had given informed consent were interviewed to determine the level of their knowledge on OM and hence the proportion of respondents with adequate knowledge. Codes were manually assigned to all questions and the respective answers. Five randomly selected KNH OM OPO healthcare providers were also interviewed to determine the level of KNH preparedness in the provision of diabetic education to the OM outpatients. A sequential sampling procedure was used to interview the diabetic patients. Every Wednesday during the course of the study one different OM healthcare provider was picked and interviewed.
Data Analysis: The data obtained were captured using Epi-data computer software which was then exported to SPSS version 15.0 for analysis. Statistical significance was determined using the Pearson Chi Square at p<0.05, at 95% confidence limit. Results: 105 diabetic patients aged 18 years and above were interviewed; 53(50.5%) were males and 52 (49.5%) females. The age categories 18-30, 31-40,41-50, 51-60, 61-70 and above 70 years accounted forl2 (11.4%), 24 (22.9%), 21 (20.0%),21 (20.0%),22 (21.0°) and 5(4.8%) OM patients respectively. The highest education levels; College/University, Secondary, Primary and Non-formal accounted for 27(25.7%), 42(40.0%), 25(23.8%) and 11(10.5%) DM patients respectively. 52 (49.5%)patients had sufficient knowledge on the diabetes mellitus disease itself, 64(61%) on DM complications, 35 (33.3%) on DM medications, 84 (80%), on the importance of dietary control, 73 (70%) on the importance of doing exercises and 11 (10.5%) on the importance of DM Affiliate Associations.
Patients with highest academic level had the highest proportion of patients with adequate knowledge on the disease (p=O.OOO 1), dietary control (p=O.O 1) and exercise (p=0.03). Patients' age influenced the proportion of patients with adequate knowledge on OM complications (p=0.03). The study also showed that diabetic patients' education was conducted mainly verbally at OPO clinic once a week for two hours and only one healthcare provider conducted the training at each education session though the number of staff was ten. Conclusion: Patients were mainly taught verbally. Two-thirds to three-quarter of the patients had sufficient knowledge on the OM disease, importance of dietary requirements and exercise programs.90% of patients had insufficient knowledge on diabetes organizations and two-thirds on rational use of DM medications. Recommendation: Hospital's training and education on rational use of DM medications should be improved. The hospital should make the healthcare providers and the DM patients aware of the DM' associations for patients' benefit. More research involving larger samples over longer periods should be carried out in order to reflect what happens over a longer period of time.

"Muasya JN". "Lecture Thirteen: Gender and Pedagogy in Higher Education.". In: Training Manual in Pedagogy. Nairobi, Kenya: Centre for Open and Distance Learning, University of Nairobi; Submitted.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "Linear operators for which T* and T^2 commute." Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM),2012, to appear. Submitted. Abstract

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Plasman, M., Tiberi, C., Ebinger, C., Albaric, J., Peyrat, S., Déverchère, J., Le Gall, B., Tarits, P., Roecker, S., Wambura, R. MMAG, Wambura, R. MMAG, Wambura, R. MMAG, Mtelela, K. MKHPGMGS, Msabi, M. KHPGGSJ. "Lithospheric low-velocity zones associated with a magmatic segment of the Tanzanian Rift, East Africa." Geophyscical Journal International. Submitted.
Weinstein, A. EORTALWAGMCSS, Ebinger, C. ORTALWAGMSSC, Oliva, S. RTALWAGMSCM, Roecker, S. TALWAGMCMC, Tiberi, C. ALWAGMMCE, Aman, M. LWAGMCEJ, Lambert, C. WAGMEJS, Witkin, E. AGMJS, Albaric, J. GMS, Gautier, S. M, Muzuka, A. MKHI-KMFPMRGGR, Mulibo, G. KG, Kianji, G., Hadfield, R. I-KMFPMRFMR, Illsley-Kemp, F. MFPMRMRS, Msabi, M. FPMRRSJ, Ferdinand, R. PMRSJ, Peyrat, S. MRJ, Muirhead, J. R, Rodzianko, A., Fischer T. "Magmatic Co2 assisted rifitng in East Africa : seismicity of the Magadi-Natron-Manyara basins, Africa. Submitted to Tectonics." tectonics. Submitted.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Kilonzo P. Matata (Play). Nairobi: E.A. E. P; Submitted.
J.S.OLIECH. "Medical Treatment on Bening Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) with Combination Drug Therapy.". In: East African Medical JOURNAL. East African Medical Journal; Submitted. Abstract

Obective:To carry out an overview of the medical treatment of the benign prostatic hyperplasia using the combination drugs of alpha adrenergic uro-selective blockers(tamsulocin,alfuzocin) and the 5 alpha reductase iso-enzymes 1&2 inhibitor dutasteride . Data source :Review of researches don and those ongoing especially those sponsored and financed by GlaxoSmithcline in the multicenter international control trials. Data selction: Selected data from international researches on BPH from the following research groups MTOPS,PREDICT,PLESS,VCOOP,ALFIN,DUTASTERIDE 4-DATA 2004/PHASE 111a studies,COmbAT2007,SMART-1, also from GlaxoSmithkline data files.Data Extraction:Selection of research conclusions from various researches tested for clinical use by the international researchers.Data synthesis:From these the advantages of drug compliance  on clinical use on BPH was analysed.                                                                           

Omonge E;, Kyateesa; J, Otieno FCF;, Kayima, Lule G;, McLigeyo AA. Metabolic factors associated with the development of lipodystrophy in patients on long-term highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART).; Submitted. Abstract

Dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes are frequent in patients on highly active anti-retroviral
therapy (HAART) and especially in patients with lipodystrophy, and may lead to atherosclerosis. This
study described the metabolic alterations associated with lipodystrophy in adults on chronic HAART in
Kenya. The prevalence of dyslipidaemia amongst the study participants was (211) 79.6%. Elevated total
cholesterol was found in 129, high low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in 107, low High-density
lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in 110 and high triglycerides in 131 participants. Lipodystrophic
patients were more likely to have dyslipidemia than normal lipids (55.4 versus 35.1%, p = 0.007 OR 2.2
CI 1.3 to 4.6) with 57, 45.9, 65.9 and 45.2% having elevated total cholesterol, elevated LDL-C, elevated
triglycerides and low HDL-C, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia were
significantly associated with lipodystrophy (OR 3.8 CI 2.3 to 6.4; p = 0.000) and (OR 1.94 CI 1.2 to 3.2; p
= 0.008), respectively. The odds of lipodystrophy was 2.913 times higher for patients with elevated
triglycerides than for those with normal triglycerides (p < 0.001). Sixty-four (24.3%) participants had
dysglycemia, with 3.5% having diabetes and 20.8% having impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Among
patient with lipodystrophy, 69.8% had normal fasting glucose, 25.1% had IFG and 5.1% were diabetic.
Lipodystrophic patients were not more likely to have abnormal blood sugars than normal blood sugars
(p value 0.125).

Kayima, Joshua Kyateesa; McLigeyo AA, Omonge E;, Omonge E;, Otieno FCF;, Lule G;, McLigeyo AA. Metabolic factors associated with the development of lipodystrophy in patients on long-term highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART).; Submitted. Abstract

Dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes are frequent in patients on highly active anti-retroviral
therapy (HAART) and especially in patients with lipodystrophy, and may lead to atherosclerosis. This
study described the metabolic alterations associated with lipodystrophy in adults on chronic HAART in
Kenya. The prevalence of dyslipidaemia amongst the study participants was (211) 79.6%. Elevated total
cholesterol was found in 129, high low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in 107, low High-density
lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in 110 and high triglycerides in 131 participants. Lipodystrophic
patients were more likely to have dyslipidemia than normal lipids (55.4 versus 35.1%, p = 0.007 OR 2.2
CI 1.3 to 4.6) with 57, 45.9, 65.9 and 45.2% having elevated total cholesterol, elevated LDL-C, elevated
triglycerides and low HDL-C, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia were
significantly associated with lipodystrophy (OR 3.8 CI 2.3 to 6.4; p = 0.000) and (OR 1.94 CI 1.2 to 3.2; p
= 0.008), respectively. The odds of lipodystrophy was 2.913 times higher for patients with elevated
triglycerides than for those with normal triglycerides (p < 0.001). Sixty-four (24.3%) participants had
dysglycemia, with 3.5% having diabetes and 20.8% having impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Among
patient with lipodystrophy, 69.8% had normal fasting glucose, 25.1% had IFG and 5.1% were diabetic.
Lipodystrophic patients were not more likely to have abnormal blood sugars than normal blood sugars
(p value 0.125).

2013 PMK; PS; LM-V; JK; AKADEK &. "Missed Opportunities for early HIV Diagnosis: Critical insights from the stories of Kenyan women living with HIV." International Journal of health Promotionand Education. Submitted;(10/3/2013).
Rintaugu EG, Ngetich EDK. "Motivational gender differences in sport and exercise participation among university sport science students." Journal of Physical Education and Sport (JPES) . Submitted;12(2):180-187.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Ms Chore Jane Njambi; Prof. Anna Karani Dr. Margaret Chege. Assessment of Challenges Facing Preceptors at Kenyatta National Hospital Specialized Units.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, vol. 40:1: 6-13. Impress Communication Printers and Stationers; Submitted. Abstract

The main aim of this cross-sectional descriptive study was to assess challenges faced by preceptors at Kenyatta National Hospital specialized units. The study was conducted among preceptors with more than one year experience at Kenyatta National Hospital specialized units and combined both quantitative and qualitative methods. Data was collected using a self administered semi-structured questionnaire distributed to 113 randomly sampled preceptor nurses and an interview guide was used to collect qualitative data from five unit managers. The data was coded, computed and analyzed by SPSS version 17 (qualitative data was analyzed manually).Commonly reported challenges by preceptors included; heavy patient workload 85.71%, lack of adequate resources 59.52% and a high number of students attached to a preceptor 59.52%. Chi square was used to establish relationships between variables. Motivation to serve as a preceptor was strongly associated with the number of years a participant had served as a nurse. (X=11.30; p=0.01).

P.G. J. "Mucosal changes at the oesophago-gastric junction as visualized at Endoscopy–A prospective pilot study." MEDICOM-The African Journal of Hospital Medicine . Submitted;17(1):5-8.
Parton WJ, Scurlock JMO, Ojima DS, Gilmanov TG, Scholes RJ, Schimel DS, Kinyamario JI. "Observations and modeling of biomass and soil organic matter dynamics for the grassland biome worldwide.". Submitted. AbstractObservations and modeling of biomass and soil organic matter dynamics for the grassland biome worldwide

Century is a model of terrestrial biogeochemistry based on relationships between climate, human management (fire, grazing), soil properties, plant productivity, and decomposition. The grassland version of the Century model was tested using observed data from 11 temperate and tropical grasslands around the world. The results show that soil C and N levels can be simulated to within ±25% of the observed values (100 and 75% of the time, respectively) for a diverse set of soils. Peak live biomass and plant production can be simulated within ± 25% of the observed values (57 and 60% of the time, respectively) for burned, fertilized, and irrigated grassland sites where precipitation ranged from 22 to over 150 cm. Live biomass can be generally predicted to within ±50% of the observed values (57% of the time). The model underestimated the live biomass in extremely high plant production years at two of the Russian sites. A comparison of Century model results with statistical models showed that the Century model had slightly higher r2 values than the statistical models. Data and calibrated model results from this study are useful for analysis and description of grassland carbon dynamics, and as a reference point for testing more physiologically based models prediction's of net primary production and biomass. Results indicate that prediction of plant and soil organic matter (C and N) dynamics requires knowledge of climate, soil texture, and N inputs.

Monyonko NM, Reid JH. "One-loop vacuum polarization in the nonlinear Re gauge." Physical Review D. Submitted;32(Number 4):962-967.
MWANGI EN, KAAYA GP, ESSUMAN S, KIMONDO MG. "Parasitism of Amblyomma variegatum by a Hymenopteran Parasitoid in the Laboratory, and Some Aspects of Its Basic Biology.". Submitted. AbstractParasitism of Amblyomma variegatum by a Hymenopteran Parasitoid in the Laboratory, and Some Aspects of Its Basic Biology

Unfed Amblyomma variegatum F. nymphs were experimentally infected in the laboratory with a hymenopteran parasitoid, Ixodiphagus hookeri (Howard). The parasitoid was originally obtained from ticks collected from cattle in the Trans-Mara area of Kenya where it naturally infects 50% of A. variegatum nymphs. In the field, nymphs collected from cattle were found to be infected, but not those collected from grass. The optimum temperature for emergence of parasitoids from the nymphs in the laboratory was 28°C, but emerged parasitoids were more active and survived longer at 22°C. There was a higher proportion of parasitoid nonemergence from laboratory-infected than from the field-infected nymphs. This study is the first record of infection of A. variegatum in the laboratory with a parasitoid. Possibilities of mass rearing and use of the parasitoid as a biocontrol agent for ticks are discussed.

Onyambu CK. The pattern of chest radiographic findings in immunocompromised patients at the Kenyatta national hospital.; Submitted. Abstract

The pattern of chest radiograph findings were studied in 280 HIV positive individuals.
These were compared to 40 HIV negative patients who acted as controls. The
commonest disease seen was pneumonia 94 (33.9%), followed by pulmonary
tuberculosis 89 (3l.7%). Mixed infections were seen in 34 (12.2%) cases while PCP
occurred in 16(5.6%) cases. The pneumonia seen was more of bronchopneumonia than
lobar pneumonia in-patients with HIV (33.9) than HIV negative patients (23%).
The cases of pulmonary tuberculosis seen showed less upper lobe distribution than in
HIV negative patients. Most of the cases showed mid and lower zone distribution.
There are less cavitations than HIV negative patients. Also more cases with hilar and
mediastinal nodes were seen. There were 34 (12.2%) cases of mixed infection, which
constituted of 3 (1.1 %) cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. These mainly presented
with hilar and mediastinal nodes. The clinical differentiating features were KS skin
nodules in-patients with pulmonary K.S.

Jani PG, Nyaga PN. "Peritonial Drains in Perforated Appendicitis without Generalised Peritonitis:A prospective RandomisedControlled Trail ." East and Central African Journal of Surgery (Online). Submitted;16(2).
Kilonzo BM. A Plastic Anaemia At The Kenyatta National Hospital During The Period 1973-1978.; Submitted. Abstract

A total of 54 patients were diagnosed and treated for plastic anaemia between July, 1973 to December 1978 at the Kenyatta National Hospital. The sex distribution was equal. Most of the age groups were affected with the majority of Cases occurring in the young age groups.
Most tribes in Kenya were found not to be free from a plastic anaemia and there was a predominance of the disease amongst the Kikuyu tribe who lived in and around Nairobi.
Very few factors associated with actiology could. Be elicited and this was partially due to adequate histoties taken at the time of admission by the various physicians. Even though great difficulties are encountered in establishing an aetiologic role for a given agent, so that in large proportion of patients remains unexplained.
The presenting clinical features were those of anaemic haemorrhages due to thrombocytopenia and infections resulting from leucopenia, all of which were observed in all the patients reviewed except for the 4 patients with pure red cell aplasia.
The other 50 patients had hypoplastic marrows. Confirmation of diagnosis was delayed due to initial blood transfusion given before peripheral blood film examination in most patients.
Massive blood transfusion was given to patients on remission. Although platelet concentrates are available and obviate the massive blood transactions, only very few patients received platelet infusions.
Corticosteroid and androgenic asteroids were administered but there was no laid down policy as to the protocol to be followed. Hence administration of these drugs was done in a haphazard manner with a big proportion of patients going without any steroid therapy. This may have accounted to a great extent, for the very poor remission rate noted.
Since it has been observed that pure red cell aplacia remits spontaneously, prolonged therapy of these patients should be pursued vigorously.
Most of the deaths encountered occurred during the first 4 months of admission and they were mainly due to complications of the disease process mainly infections, congestive cardiac failure and excessive haemorrhage.

Ikiara GK. "Political economy of cash transfers In Kenya.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

As a result of socio-economic and political challenges facing Kenya: 46% of the country‟s 38 million people are living below the poverty line; there are a rapidly growing number of orphans and vulnerable children - half of which have resulted from a HIV/AIDs pandemic which has hit the country in the last two decades; frequent droughts, and the recently unprecedented post-election violence following the disputed 2007 general elections, social protection programmes for the country‟s poor and vulnerable population have become increasingly important both economically and politically.
This study, using data and information obtained from government and donor representatives closely involved with Kenya‟s CT programmes and secondary data, examines Kenya‟s Social Protection Programmes with special focus on CT programmes.
Starting with a brief review of the prevailing poverty and economic conditions and challenges facing the country, the paper examines government attitude and attention towards Cash Transfer (CT) and non-cash social protection programmes; the evolution, coverage and other features of the existing CT programmes in the country; the roles of the government and development partners in the programmes; domestic and external influences in the establishment of the various social protection programmes; estimated costs of the required CT programmes and the affordability and sustainability of the programme in view of the prevailing economic conditions and capacities; and the political economy and the overall ownership of the implementation of CT programme in the country.
While Kenya has had a long history of implementation of non-cash transfer programmes, such as: food relief in the drought stricken areas; emergency and special programmes; school bursaries for needy children, and a wide range of other interventions, CTs are new, mainly in their pilot or early stages and have been in existence only in the last 5 years.
The existing CT programmes have a limited coverage of the targeted members in three programmes, viz the Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC), the Elderly and the Hunger Safety Net programme. With the on-going discussions to finalise the country‟s Policy on Social Protection and the Social Protection Strategy (2009-2012) and a large increase in government‟s financing of the CT programmes through national budget, the national coverage of these programmes is expected to rise substantially by 2012.
There are high prospects of enhancing and institutionalising CT and non-CT social protection programmes in the country‟s budgetary system in view of the broad political support the programmes have received from a wide spectrum of political actors in the country. The liberalisation of the country‟s political system in 1992 which ushered in a highly vibrant and competitive multi-party political environment, has favoured introduction and expansion of social protection initiatives, both cash and non-cash.
A number of donors, notably UNICEF, DFID, World Bank and SIDA played key technical and financial roles in the establishment of CT programmes in the country creating the perception that the programmes were donor driven and that the government was more in favour of non-cash interventions. With increasing government and public appreciation of CT programmes as an appropriate tool for reaching more effectively a special group of the population the extremely poor or hard-core poor, who cannot participate in productive economic activities, the government participation in financing the programmes has risen dramatically, in the last two years. The government is expected to shoulder the bulk of the required resources for these programmes in the coming years but with supplementary resources from willing development partners.
There is considerable consensus among the stakeholders that the CT programmes are affordable and sustainable even without external donors, so long as the programmes are expanded gradually, taking into account the capacity of the national economy to support the programmes at various levels. The successful implementation of much larger non-cash social protection programmes such as the Free Primary Education for 8 million pupils and Free Day Secondary Education and the Constituency Development Fund are generally taken as good indicators of the ability of the country to sustain CT programmes as long as political will is there.
Most of the stakeholders were of the view the CT programmes are too socially and politically sensitive to be heavily dependent on external support which was often determined by exogenous factors beyond the government‟s control.
Kenya‟s draft National Social Protection Strategy, estimates that the country could escalate the Cash Transfer Programme nationally to cover all the extremely poor consisting of the People with Disabilities (PWD), Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC), and Households with Older Persons above 65 years, at a total cost of approximately Ksh 12 billion annually (about 3.3% of the national budget), at a monthly cash “transfer” of Ksh 1,000 per household.

Shiundu PM, Munguti SM, Williams KRS. "Practical implications of ionic strength effects on particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation.". Submitted. AbstractPractical implications of ionic strength effects on particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation

Modification of ionic strength of an aqueous or non-aqueous carrier solution can have profound effects on the particle retention behavior in thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFFF). These effects can be considered as either advantageous or not depending on the performance criteria under consideration. Aside from the general increase in retention time of particulate material (latexes and silica particles), our experiments indicate improvement in resolution with increases in electrolyte concentration. Absence of an electrolyte in the carrier solution causes deviations from the theoretically expected linear behavior between the retention parameter l (a measure of the extent of interaction between the applied field and the particle) and the reciprocal temperature drop across the channel walls. A negative interaction parameter d of about 20.170 was determined for 0.105- and 0.220-mm polystyrene (PS) latex particles suspended in either a 0.25 or a 1.0 mM TBAPcontaining acetonitrile carrier and for 0.220 mm PS in 0.50 and 1.0 mM NaCl-containing aqueous medium. This work also demonstrates that optimum electrolyte concentrations can be chosen to achieve reasonable experimental run-times, good resolution separations, and shifts in the steric inversion points at lower field strengths, and that too high electrolyte concentrations can have deleterious effects such as band broadening and sample loss through adsorption to the channel accumulation surface. The advantages of using ionic strength rather than field strength to effect desired changes are lowered power consumption and possible application of ThFFF to high temperature-labile samples.

Mutahi WT, Thiong'o FW. "Prevalence and intensity of Schistosomiasis mansoni in irrigation and non-irrigation areas of central Kenya.". Submitted. AbstractPrevalence and intensity of Schistosomiasis mansoni in irrigation and non-irrigation areas of central Kenya

OBJECTIVE: To compare the extent of intestinal schistosomiasis among school children attending school in an irrigation and non-irrigation area of Central Kenya. DESIGN: A cross sectional study. SETTING: Three separate parasitological surveys involving four primary schools in Mwea irrigation scheme, Kirinyaga District and two from a non-irrigation area in Machakos District. SUBJECTS: One thousand two hundred and twenty two children aged between five and nineteen years were examined for Schistostoma mansoni infection by Kato thick smear technique. RESULTS: High prevelances ranging from 73% to 94% were noted among children in all the participating schools. Overall 41% of the infected children had heavy infection (>400 eggs per gram), 27% had moderate infection (101-400 epg) and 32% had light infection (10-100epg). When data from the two areas were analysed seperately, peak eggs output were found in 5-9 year olds among children in Kirinyaga while this situation shifted to the 10-14 year olds in Machakos children. In Kirinyaga District, boys in the 10-14 years age group had a significantly higher output than girls (P<0.01), but this situation was reversed in the older children (P<0.05). Girls in Machakos District had consistently but non-significantly higher output than boys. CONCLUSION: Intestinal schistomiasis is more prevalent and with a higher intensity in the irrigated than in non-irrigated areas. There were also pronounced age and gender related differences in the pattern of infection between the two study areas.

Mutahi WT, Thiong'o FW. "Prevalence and intensity of Schistosomiasis mansoni in irrigation and non-irrigation areas of central Kenya.". Submitted. AbstractPrevalence and intensity of Schistosomiasis mansoni in irrigation and non-irrigation areas of central Kenya

OBJECTIVE: To compare the extent of intestinal schistosomiasis among school children attending school in an irrigation and non-irrigation area of Central Kenya. DESIGN: A cross sectional study. SETTING: Three separate parasitological surveys involving four primary schools in Mwea irrigation scheme, Kirinyaga District and two from a non-irrigation area in Machakos District. SUBJECTS: One thousand two hundred and twenty two children aged between five and nineteen years were examined for Schistostoma mansoni infection by Kato thick smear technique. RESULTS: High prevelances ranging from 73% to 94% were noted among children in all the participating schools. Overall 41% of the infected children had heavy infection (>400 eggs per gram), 27% had moderate infection (101-400 epg) and 32% had light infection (10-100epg). When data from the two areas were analysed seperately, peak eggs output were found in 5-9 year olds among children in Kirinyaga while this situation shifted to the 10-14 year olds in Machakos children. In Kirinyaga District, boys in the 10-14 years age group had a significantly higher output than girls (P<0.01), but this situation was reversed in the older children (P<0.05). Girls in Machakos District had consistently but non-significantly higher output than boys. CONCLUSION: Intestinal schistomiasis is more prevalent and with a higher intensity in the irrigated than in non-irrigated areas. There were also pronounced age and gender related differences in the pattern of infection between the two study areas.

Mutahi WT, Thiong'o FW. "Prevalence and intensity of Schistosomiasis mansoni in irrigation and non-irrigation areas of central Kenya.". Submitted. AbstractPrevalence and intensity of Schistosomiasis mansoni in irrigation and non-irrigation areas of central Kenya

OBJECTIVE: To compare the extent of intestinal schistosomiasis among school children attending school in an irrigation and non-irrigation area of Central Kenya. DESIGN: A cross sectional study. SETTING: Three separate parasitological surveys involving four primary schools in Mwea irrigation scheme, Kirinyaga District and two from a non-irrigation area in Machakos District. SUBJECTS: One thousand two hundred and twenty two children aged between five and nineteen years were examined for Schistostoma mansoni infection by Kato thick smear technique. RESULTS: High prevelances ranging from 73% to 94% were noted among children in all the participating schools. Overall 41% of the infected children had heavy infection (>400 eggs per gram), 27% had moderate infection (101-400 epg) and 32% had light infection (10-100epg). When data from the two areas were analysed seperately, peak eggs output were found in 5-9 year olds among children in Kirinyaga while this situation shifted to the 10-14 year olds in Machakos children. In Kirinyaga District, boys in the 10-14 years age group had a significantly higher output than girls (P<0.01), but this situation was reversed in the older children (P<0.05). Girls in Machakos District had consistently but non-significantly higher output than boys. CONCLUSION: Intestinal schistomiasis is more prevalent and with a higher intensity in the irrigated than in non-irrigated areas. There were also pronounced age and gender related differences in the pattern of infection between the two study areas.

Bolton P;, Neugebauer R;, Ndogoni L. "Prevalence of Depression in Rural Rwanda Based on Symptom and Functional Criteria.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

The authors' objective was to estimate the prevalence of major depressive disorder among Rwandans 5 years after the 1994 genocidal civil war. They interviewed a community-based random sample of adults in a rural part of Rwanda using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist and a locally developed functional impairment instrument. The authors estimated current rates of major depression using an algorithm based on the DSM-IV symptom criteria (A), distress/functional impairment criteria (C), and bereavement exclusionary criteria (E). They also examined the degree to which depressive symptoms compromise social and occupational functioning. Three hundred sixty-eight adults were interviewed, of whom 15.5% met Criteria A, C, and E for current major depression. Depressive symptoms were strongly associated with functional impairment in most major roles for men and women. The authors conclude that a significant part of this population has seriously disabling depression. Work on appropriate, feasible, safe, and effective mental health interventions should be a priority for this population.

Muma MK, Kimani K, Kariuki – Wanyoike MM, ILAKO DR, Njuguna MW. "Prevalence of Refractive errors among Primary School Pupils in Kilungu Division of Makueni District, Kenya.". Submitted. Abstract

To determine the magnitude and pattern of significant refractive errors in primary school children in Kilungu division of Makueni District, Kenya. Design: A cross – sectional primary school based study. Setting: Eight (8) Primary school in Kilungu division of Makueni District, Kenya. Target population: 1439 Primary school pupils aged between 12 and 15 years. Results: The prevalence of significant refractive error was 5.2%, 75/1439, (95% CI) being responsible for 92.6 % of all causes of poor eyesight. Hypermetropia accounted for 3.2% (95% CI), myopia 1.7% (95% CI) and astigmatism 0.3% (95% CI) of refractive errors. Myopia was more likely to be present in the pupils aged 14 to 15 years than those aged 12 to 13 years with OR 2.9 (0.1 – 9.2) which was statistically significant (p = 0.022). Conclusion: The overall prevalence of significant refractive errors in pupils aged 12 to 15 years in Makueni's Kilungu division at 5.2% (95% CI) was high enough to justify a regular school eye screening in primary schools in Kenya.

Chepchirchir A. Primary school children in Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya.; Submitted. Abstract

Study objective was to determine the prevalence and etiology of dermatophyte
infections and establish the relationship between type of infection and age and gender
of the primary school children in Kibera during the period between September 2006
and January 2007.
Study design, was a cross- sectional descriptive study that focused on the prevalence,
distribution and species differentiation of the causative agents of dermatophytosis in
city council sponsored primary schools in Kibera, Nairobi.
The setting. The study was conducted in Kibera, the largest of the informal
settlements within the capital city, Nairobi which is home to between 700-1,000,000
inhabitants.
Subjects. The study targeted primary school children from the ages of 5 years to 15
years from four government sponsored primary schools namely Olympic, Kibera,
Ayany and Mbagathi Way. A sample of 424 pupils was selected from a population of
8904 pupils in the four schools.
Materials and Methods. The pupils responded to questions from a structured
questionnaire that was prepared to elicit socio economic and demographic data from
the participants. Physical examination was carried out on every participant to
determine presence of skin infection. Photography was done for those with skin
lesions and specimens collected from the infected sites. The specimens were
processed in the mycology laboratory to determine the etiological agents of the skin
infections.
Results. From the participants, 11.2% had ringworm infection with tinea capitis
being the commonest type while the grey patch type was the dominant clinical
manifestation.
The distribution of ringworm among schools was statistically significant with
Olympic primary school registering the highest ratio of those infected to those not
infected.
(P=O.OOI).
xu
Both male and female pupils within the age bracket of 6-8 years were significantly
infectedthan other age categories. Infection rate decreased with increase in age.
(p= 0.002)
Gender related prevalence was statistically significant with girls registering more
infectionsthan boys in their categories. (P=O.033)
All the three genera of fungi associated with dermatophytes were isolated with a number
of species namely T violecium (35), T mentagrophytes(3), T terestre(3), T
schoenleinii(2), and T interdigitale( 1), M canis(2), M. equinum( 1), E. jlocossum(1).
T. violecium was the predominant species isolated, at (35)71% followed by T.
mentagrophytes and T terrestre at (3)6% each.
Conclusion: The study shows a high prevalence of 11.2% dermatophyte infection among
the school children in this locality. Contributing factors to the high frequency and chronic
occurrences of ring worm in this area include poor living environment, children
interaction patterns and poor health seeking behaviour. There is need for health education
to create awareness among the communities in urban informal settlements to seek
treatment and improve on hygiene to reduce the prevalence of these infections.

Akech M. "Privatization and Democracy in East Africa: The Promise of Administrative Law.". Submitted. Abstractprivatization_and_democracy.pdfWebsite

This book explores the role of democracy and Public Law in privatization processes in the three East African countries of Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. In particular, the book recommends the creation of strongly institutionalized Administrative Law frameworks to facilitate meaningful democratization of privatization processes in these countries. The book anticipates that such reforms would enhance the day-to-day accountability of, and public participation in, privatization processes in the three countries. The book seeks to contribute to the study of the relationship between Public Law, markets and democracy in African countries. Its particular contribution is the argument that privatization processes can only be efficient, fair and legitimate if they are democratic, that is, participatory and accountable.

Odote C. "Public Interest Litigation and Climate Change: An Emerging Response Mechanism.". In: International Climate Law and Global Governance: Legal Response to a Changing Environment . Baden-Baden, Germany: Nomos Publishers; Submitted.
Bhatt B, Angeyo KH, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A. Rapid Nuclear Forensics Analysis via Laser Based Microphotonic Techniques Coupled with Chemometrics. Hangzhou, China; Submitted.
MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, NJIHIA JM. "Road Maintenance in Kenya: A Soft Systems Approach.". In: Conference Proceedings, all Africa Conference of Engineers,. IBIMA Publishing; Submitted. Abstract

Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi, Kenya.

Rajab JA. The role of trephine needle bone marrow biopsy in the evaluation of various haematological and non-haematological diseases At Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract

This is a descriptive retrospective and prospective
study of 101 patients admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital
(KNH) between 1st October, 1985 and 30th January, 1990 and
had bone marrow examination done by aspiration and trephine
needle biopsy. At KNH trephine needle bone marrow (TNBM)
biopsy has been performed over the years when aspiration
results in 'dry tap'. It is only available for the use by a
few specialists (haematologists) and it is rarely performed
in staging malignant lymphomas or as a routine diagnostic
technique in various other diseases. The study was done to
evaluate the role of the technique in patient care at this
hospital. The relevant data and the diagnostic outcome of
50 patients admitted to the hospital between 1st October,
1985 and 30th June, 1989 were collected retrospectively.
Trephine needle biopsies were performed by the investigator
on 51 patients during the last 7 months of the study. Data
collected included: the age and sex, the indications for
bone biopsy, the quality of the specimen, the reporting
format and the final diagnosis on the trephine biopsies.
The 101 patients studied were between 2 and 75 years of
age. The mean age was 23.9 years. There were 62 males and
39 females. A 'dry tap' aspirate, the commonest indication
for TNBM biopsy was reported in 37 (36.6%) cases. In twelve
cases, the aspirate and needle biopsy were performed at the
same time using the same needle. Ten of these were in the
staging of malignant lymphomas. Good or satisfactory
specimens were obtained in at least 86% of the biopsies

performed. Aplastic anaemia, the commonest abnormality
detected was found in 28 (27.7%) of the patients studied. A
review of the reporting format showed that in only 20% cases
in the retrospective study was a full report of the biopsy
given by the haematologist.
This study shows that TNBM biopsy is a simple and safe
procedure yielding a good or satisfactory specimen in most

instances. The biopsy will most likely provide a diagnosis
when bone marrow aspirate fails due to 'dry tap' or scanty
yield. The procedure may be of value in routine
investigation of various diseases such as aplastic anaemia
and in staging of malignant lymphomas although larger
studies need to be done in this area (only ten cases in this
study). A standard format should be formulated and adhered
to by haematologists and pathologists reporting on the TNBM
biopsies in this hospital.

YABS DRJOHN. "Small Business Powers Development. The role of Small Scale Business in Economic Developent in Kenya.". In: Ufanisi Journal No.47. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; Submitted. Abstract

The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  

Muia JMK, Kariuki JN, Mbugua PN, Gachuiri CK, Lukibisi LB, Ayako WO, Ngunjiri WV. "Smallholder dairy production in high altitude Nyandarua milk-shed in Kenya: Status, challenges and opportunities.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

A stratified sampling method was used to select 156 dairying households from representative Divisions in Nyandarua County. The stratification was based on cattle grazing systems (CGS) and agro-ecological zones (AEZs) across the Divisions. The objectives of the study were to assess status of smallholder dairy cattle production in relationship to CGS and AEZ, major challenges facing smallholder dairy production, and the opportunities for improvement. Data collected included the characteristics of the farm, family, farmer, feeds and feeding, dairy cattle and their performance, milk uses and markets, and the dairy production services. The information on the challenges facing dairy production and the opportunities for improvement was obtained from discussions with livestock extension workers, dairy co-operatives, milk processors, and from secondary sources. The present results indicated that the average farm size was 3.5 Ha and 41, 38, and 44% of the households fed dairy stock with improved fodders, grass hay, and concentrate supplements, respectively. Among the households, about 44, 38 and 32% had access to artificial insemination (AI), extension, and all weather roads services, respectively. Households keeping crosses of the dairy breeds were 59% while the average herd size was 5.3 heads consisting of 40% cows in milk. The average calf live-weight gain was 322g/ day and milk yield per cow was 8.4kg/day. About 65% of the milk was marketed at an average price of 15.00 KES/kg, equivalent to 0.205 US$/kg. As the levels of dairy intensification increased, there were significant increase in milk production per hectare and decrease in calf live-weight gains (P<0.05). On the other hand, as the level of agricultural potential increased, there were significant decreases in milk production and marketed milk per farm (P<0.05). It was concluded that smallholder dairy cattle production was below the potential for Nyandarua County and was influenced by the CGS and AEZs. The major challenges in smallholder dairy production included poor road network and milk marketing, high costs and inaccessibility of dairy production inputs and support services, inappropriate dairy production technologies, and limited value addition of milk.

Monyonko NM, Reid JH, Sen A. "SOME PROPERTIES OF GREEN'S FUNCTIONS IN THE NON LINEAR R GAUGE." Physics Letters. Submitted;136B(Number 4):265-268.
Katende J, Pokhariyal G. "A study of Sasakian Manifolds." Far East Journal of Mathematical Sciences. Submitted.
A Study Of Some Clinical And Laboratory Aspects Of The African Suffering From Duodenal Ulceration.; Submitted. Abstract

This is a prospective study of 50 patients with duodenal
ulcer proved by endoscopy. The clinical and laboratory features
of these patients were analysed and where possible compared to a
group of 30 control subjects.
It was found that a significant number of duodenal ulcer
patients do not present with the classical clinical picture. The
frequency of blood group Q was more in the duodenal ulcer patients as
compared to the controls and duodenal ulcer patients had higher basal
and maximal acid output values. An attempt at interpreting these results
in the Kenyatta Hospital set up has been made.

Gitao CG, Bebora L. "Subclinical mastitis affecting hygienic quality of marketed camel milk from North - Eastern Province, Kenya.". Submitted. Abstractsubclinical_mastitis_affecting_hygienic_quality_of.pdfWebsite

North Eastern Province, camel is the dominant livestock; it provides subsistence to many people especially during the frequent droughts when other animals either die or are unthrifty. This is beca use camel is highly suited for hot environments. In this region, camels number approximately 3 million and are the main producers of milk for the residents, who are mainly of Somali origin, and are pastoralists. Currentl y, the milk is also sold in Nairobi and other far places; and there is a fast growing demand for it. This has necessitated examination of the milk quality, in response to food safety awareness, especially noting that some of the bacteria causing subclinical mastitis can cause disease in humans. This study was carried out to establish the hygienic quality of camel milk from this area, zeroing down to 2 districts, Garissa and Wajir. T hree hundred and eighty four bulk camel milk samples were collected in volumes of 200 to 300 ml. They wer e transport ed to the laboratory in cold/ice boxes and bacterial isolation and characterization done not later than 24 h after arrival at the laboratory. Before culturing, the milk samples were screened using Ca lifornia Mastitis Test (CMT); samples testing positive (a n indication of subclinical mastitis) were then subjected to bacteriological investigation, using standard methods. Results of this study have shown that subclin ical mastitis is prevalent in dromedary camels of Garissa and Wajir districts of North Eastern province of Kenya, and that Gram positive cocci ( Staphylococcus and Streptococcus) are the dominant mastitis pathogens isolated. Other isolated bacteria included Klebsiella/Enterobacter, E scherichia coli and Bacillus. The positive correlation of CMT with the presen ce of mastitis pathogens in camel milk showed that CMT is a useful screening test in the detection of subclinical mastitis in camels; it is thus a useful tool for farm ers, aiding them in picking the affected animals, segregating and treating them. The resu lts also contribute towards coming up with respective control measures so as to keep camel milk fresh for longer periods and als o make it safe for human consumption.

Mumo PM. "Sunday schools as the Foundation of Christian Nurture and their Relevance for Theological Education in Africa.". In: Handbook of Theological Education in Africa. London: Regnum Books International; Submitted.
Katithi" "DM, Michira" "IN, Guto" "PM, Baker" "P, Kamau' "GN, Iwuoha" "E. "SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF GREEN TEA STABILIZED IRON NANOCATALYSTS FOR BRYMOTHYMOL BLUE (BTB) DEGRADATION." Journal of Nano Research. Submitted.
BHALENDU PROFBHATT. "Synthesis of carboxamide protactel glutamine and isoasparagine derivatives and their cleavages in Triflouracetic Acid - Methyylene chloride and Boran Triflouride with Acetic acid.". In: Journal of the Kenya Chemical Society. B.M. Bhatt and P.M. Gitu; Submitted. Abstract

We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten

Okeng'o GO, Malo JO, Awuor JB, Genga RO. "Testing Structure Formation in the Universe via Coupled Matter Fluids.". Submitted.
Mbuthia PG, Njagi AW, Bebora LC, Minga UM, Christensen JP, Olsen JE. "Time-course investigation of infection with a low virulent Pasteurella multocida strain in normal and immune-suppressed 12-week-old free-range chickens.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Twelve-week-old indigenous chickens, either immune-suppressed using dexamethasone (IS) or non-immunesuppressed (NIS), were challenged with a low virulent strain, Pasteurella multocida strain NCTC 10322T, and developed clinical signs and pathological lesions typical of chronic fowl cholera. NIS birds demonstrated much more severe signs of fowl cholera than IS birds. With few exceptions, signs recorded in IS and NIS birds were of the same types, but significantly milder in the IS birds, indicating that immune suppression does not change the course of infection but rather the severity of signs in fowl cholera. P. multocida signals by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were observed between 1 h and 14 days in the lungs, trachea, air sacs, liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and caecal tonsils, while signals from other organs mostly were observed after 24 h. More organs had FISH signals in NIS birds than in IS birds and at higher frequency per organ. Many organs were positive by FISH even 14 days post infection, and it is suggested that these organs may be likely places for long-term carriage of P. multocida following infection. The present study has demonstrated the spread of P. multocida in different tissues in chickens and distribution of lesions associated with chronic fowl cholera, and pointed to a decrease of pathology in IS birds. Since dexamethasone mostly affects heterophils, the study suggests that these cells play a role in the development of lesions associated with chronic fowl cholera in chickens.

Kihurani DO, Nantulya VM, Mbiuki SM, Mbithi PMF. "Trypanosoma brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections in horses on a farm in Kenya.". Submitted.Website
Gripenberg U, Saarinen I, Bwibo NO, Oduori ML, Grayburn JA, Awori NW, Wasunna AE, Kinuthia DM. "Two true hermaphrodites with XX chromosomes.". Submitted.
Obiero JA, Mburu MN, Ndung’u BM, Waititu KK, Farah IO, Mwethera PG. "UniPron is A Fully Effective Non-hormonal Reversible Contraceptive in Baboon Model (Papio Anubis).". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of UniPron as a reversible contraceptive. Methods Vaginal swabs were obtained before and after UniPron administration, cultured onto appropriate culture media and bacteria identification was done based on type of media used, Gram stain reactions, colony morphology and biochemical tests. Vaginal biopsy tissues were processed using paraffin wax method, stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined under light microscopy to determine the effect of the product on vaginal tissues. The effect of UniPron on sperm was examined by mixing the product with electroejaculated spermatozoa in vitro at different concentrations. For efficacy studies, male baboons of proven fertility were mated with UniPron treated or untreated females of proven fertility during the fertile stages. Results All the five females (100%) that were treated with UniPron did not conceive and they regained total fertility when the treatment was stopped while all the controls conceived. At a concentration of 40%,UniPron completely immobilized spermatozoa in an in-vitro system. UniPron mechanism of action was by lowering the vaginal pH and on application in baboon, the pH was lowered for at least 3 h after which it went back to normal. Conclusions As we plan for a study to test UniPron as a microbicide to prevent STIs including HIV, our current study has established that this novel product is effective in contraception and harmless to vaginal tissues and vaginal microbial flora in a baboon model (Papio anubis).

Kanali CL, Kaumbutho PG, Maende CM. "The use of soil compaction levels in the selection of field-safe sugarcane transport vehicles.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Data was collected for single bundle and nucleus estate trailers aimed at selecting the trailer units that could safely travel in the sugarcane fields without causing detrimental soil compaction. The proportion of trailers carrying loads in excess of established safe axle loads was assessed. Over 60% single bundle trailers traveling in sandy loam and sandy clay loam fields were found not to induce detrimental soil compaction. Nucleus estate trailers, however, were sufficiently loaded to cause significant soil compaction. Working under soil moisture contents of 21.4–27.1% (dry basis), safe loads were found to be payloads of 64.9 and 46.1 kN carried by single bundle and nucleus estate trailers (respectively) on a single axle having two 10 ply 18.4×30 tires with an inflation pressure of 207 kPa.

Akunda EM, Kumar B. "Using internal plant water status as a criterion for scheduling irrigation in coffee in east of rift valley Kenya.". In: Kenya coffee vol. 47. No. 560, 281- 284. Kisipan, M.L.; Submitted. Abstract

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Githigia SM, Njagi LW, Mbuthia PG, Gathumbi PK, Cooper ME, Cooper JE. "veterinary forensic medicine: an emerging and important discipline.". Submitted.Website
Njagi LW, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Minga UM. "Viral nucleoprotein localization and lesions of Newcastle disease in tissues of indigenous ducks.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was valuated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts. Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Postmortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis, necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks.

Adwok JA, Githaiga JW. "Wandering spleen presenting as a right hypochondrial mass and intestinal obstruction.". Submitted. Abstract

This is a case report of a 23 year old multiparous woman who presented with intestinal obstruction and a right hypochondrial mass. Laparatomy revealed an infarcted 1.4 Kg spleen in the right lumbar region compressing the ascending colon. There was also ileal volvulus around the splenic pedicle. This is probably the first documented case of wandering spleen in the right hypochondrium, presenting as right large bowel obstruction, to be reported in our region. Wandering spleen is a rare condition, often asymptomatic, but may present as an acute abdomen. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult and rarely made. Laboratory tests are seldom useful, but imaging studies do assist. Up to 1971 only 350 cases had been reported in the western literature. Review of English literature from 1900 to 1991 reported only 51 cases in children. In our region 11 cases were reported in Uganda between 1968 and 1971. No other literature is available from our region. Clinical presentation, aetiology, investigation, and management of wandering spleen is discussed

Githaiga JW, Adwok JA. "Wandering spleen presenting as a right hypochondrial mass and intestinal obstruction.". Submitted. Abstract

This is a case report of a 23 year old multiparous woman who presented with intestinal obstruction and a right hypochondrial mass. Laparatomy revealed an infarcted 1.4 Kg spleen in the right lumbar region compressing the ascending colon. There was also ileal volvulus around the splenic pedicle. This is probably the first documented case of wandering spleen in the right hypochondrium, presenting as right large bowel obstruction, to be reported in our region. Wandering spleen is a rare condition, often asymptomatic, but may present as an acute abdomen. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult and rarely made. Laboratory tests are seldom useful, but imaging studies do assist. Up to 1971 only 350 cases had been reported in the western literature. Review of English literature from 1900 to 1991 reported only 51 cases in children. In our region 11 cases were reported in Uganda between 1968 and 1971. No other literature is available from our region. Clinical presentation, aetiology, investigation, and management of wandering spleen is discussed

OLIECH JS. "WATER,HUMAN HEALTH/WELLNESS.". In: the fifth regional workshop on water is life. PROF.J.S.OLIECH; Submitted. Abstract

Scientific paper presented during the FIFTH ANNUAL REGIONAL WORKSHOP  ON THE THEME;`` WATER IS LIFE``. Abstract: The paper illustrates the health status of water in the human body in health and in disease situations and how body water content depends on many variables including age, sex, fat content,leaness of muscles ,the internal environment of body cells and the external envronmental air and  temperature.

Nkonya E, Xiong W, Deustua J, Kato E. "Why do many smallholder farmers fail to adopt improved land management practices which can improve yields and incomes? The reason is not always because these practices are uneconomical but sometimes it is because resource poverty prevents farmers from tak.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Why do many smallholder farmers fail to adopt improved land management practices which can improve yields and incomes? The reason is not always because these practices are uneconomical but sometimes it is because resource poverty prevents farmers from taking advantage of yield and income enhancing agricultural practices. In this study we examine the relative merits of using a carbon payment scheme compared to a subsidy policy to help reduce the cost of specific land management practices with productivity and ecosystem benefits such as carbon sequestration. Using a 30-year crop simulation model, we examine the impacts of different soil fertility management treatments (SFTs) on yields and soil carbon and proceed to compute discounted incremental revenue streams over the same period. We find that the SFTs simulated are on average profitable given the conditions assumed in our DSSAT simulations. When carbon was priced at $8 or $12/t CO2e, the increase in incremental incomes generated from a carbon payment were invariably higher than those imputed from a 50% fertilizer subsidy. When carbon was priced at $4/Co2e, the increase was almost similar and sometimes higher than that from the imputed income transfer from a 50% subsidy. If these indications hold in further research, it could imply that using fertilizer subsidies as the sole mechanism for stimulating adoption of improved soil fertility management practices may unnecessarily forgo other complementary and possibly superior alternatives. Depending on the specific economic equity considerations, we conclude that either of these instruments can be used to help farmers break through resource barriers that prevent them from adopting productivity-enhancing and environmentally beneficial agricultural practices. However, given the fiscal burden on public finances and possible opportunity costs of any substantial subsidy program, it is possible that a carbon payment system can be a reasonable alternative assuming the range of carbon prices used in this study and especially if accompanied by measures to ameliorate the costs of fertilizer to farmers.

with others. `We Are the Government: a Handbook for Civic Education'. . Nairobi, CLARIPRESS.; Submitted.
Seth D. Goldstein, MD1; Dominic Papandria MD2; ALMDMPH3;, ani Georges Azzies, MD4; Eric Borgstein FRCS5; CMD6; SFMDMPH7; PJMBCB;RG, Mary Klingensmith, MD9; Mohamed Labib10 FLMD; MMMD11; EO’F12; RRMDMPH7;A, Fizan Abdullah, MD PD1. “Innovative approaches to educating the global surgical worldforce: A pilot camparison of online curricula for use in low and middle income countries”.; Submitted.
Mwendarani B. “Taswira ya mwanamke katika tamthilia mbili za kiswahili’’. Mbuthia DE, Musyoka DF, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; Submitted.
K. M, Mbote PK, Musembi C. Women's Access to Land Land-based Resources among Forest-dwelling Communities in East Africa:. Nairobi: CASELAP, University of Nairobi; Submitted.
K. M, Mbote PK, Musembi C. Women's Access to Land Land-based Resources among Forest-dwelling Communities in East Africa:. Nairobi: CASELAP, University of Nairobi; Submitted.
Nyalwal G. " Implementing knowledge Management practices in University libraries in Kenya.". In: 1st Regional conference on Knowledge management .; Submitted.
Oyugi CCA. "La mise en valeur du non-dit en classe du français langue étrangère.". In: L’enseignement du français dans le contexte multilingue estafricain et kenyan (Teaching of French in a multilingual context in East Africa and Kenya). Kenyatta University; Submitted.conference_presentation-_k.u..docxconference_presentation_2-_k.u..docxconcilier_formation_doc__ku.docx
Mueni J, Ndavula J. "New media and political marketing in Kenya: a case of 2013.". In: Kenya Elections Workshop 2013. Nairobi, Kenya; Submitted.
P OCHILO. "20. Training and Professional Qualifications for Journalists.". In: Media Bills Workshop organized by the Kenya Union of Journalists Association and African Council for Communication and Education for Media Practitioners. Nairobi Safari Club; Submitted.
Mbatia T. "Urban Green Spaces and Urban Eco-tourism in Nairobi: The Case of Nairobi National Park.". In: Bio-divercities Rio 2012. Rio de Janeiro; Submitted.
Magutu PO. "CHAPTER ONE: OPERATIONIRISING MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Integrated Waste Management - Volume II Edited by Sunil Kumar ISBN 978-953-307-447-4 472 pages, August 2011, 23 chapters.". In: Integrated Waste Management - Volume II. InTech Janeza Trdine 9, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia; Submitted. Abstract

This book reports mostly on institutional arrangements under policy and legal issues, composting and vermicomposting of solid waste under processing aspects, electrical and electronic waste under industrial waste category, application of GIS and LCA in waste management, and there are also several research papers relating to GHG emission from dumpsites.

Osano SN, Mwea SK. "The Effects of Vegetation Roots on Stability of Slopes.". In: 2nd International Civil Engineering Conference on Civil Engineering and Sustainable Development. Mombasa, Kenya; Submitted.
P.OCHILO. "The Electronic Media and Advocacy for Health.". In: The International Planned Parenthood Federation Seminar,for IPPF affiliate Personnel from four of IPPF’s six Worldwide Regions - Africa Arab World, Western Hemisphere, East and South Asia and Oceanic. ; Submitted.
P. OCHILO. The Kenyan Primary Health Care Programmes and the Supportive Options for the Mass Media. Finland: , Geneva and University of Tampere,; Submitted.
Forthcoming
O. KG. "Advance Geomorphology.". Forthcoming. Abstract
n/a
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Decentralisation in Uganda."; Forthcoming. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Decentralisation without Democratisation in Kenya."; Forthcoming. Abstract
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ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "Editor, Local Social Development Systems in Africa: Ethiopia, Kenya and Zimbabwe (forthcoming 2006) - Chapter on Kenya.". In: Acta Crystallographica C. International Union of Crystallography; Forthcoming. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "Editor, Local Social Development Systems in Africa: Ethiopia, Kenya and Zimbabwe (forthcoming) - Chapter on Kenya.". In: Acta Crystallographica C. International Union of Crystallography; Forthcoming. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
MAURI YAMBO. Field of Aaru (Poems).; Forthcoming. Abstract
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A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. "Forthcoming: History of Adult Education in Africa to be published by Pearson Education, South Africa and UNESCO.". In: To be published by Pearson Education, South Africa and UNESCO. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; Forthcoming. Abstract

Tetralones were converted to tetralinylamines via Leuckart reaction.These were then used to protect carboxamide side-chains of glutamine and asparagine. Clevage studies using trifluoroacetic acid and boron tristrifluoroacetate were then done on these derivatives. The groups 1-tetralinyl, 5,7-dimethyl-1-tetralinyl and 7-methoxy-1-tetralinyl were found to be good carboxamide protecting groups in asparagine.

M MRNJOKAJOHN. "Ideology and Governance in Kenya. In Governance in Kenya Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.". In: East African Medical Journal. East African Medical Journal; Forthcoming. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
W. MK. "Indigenous Languages, Performing Arts and the HIV/ Aids Pandemic." Hekima: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol. III. No. ?; Forthcoming. Abstract
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MARY DROMOSA. "Katumanga, M. & M. Omosa (Forthcoming) and Navigating Realities. In: P. Wanyande; M. Omosa & L. Chweya [Eds] GovernLeadership and the Politics of Nation State: Searching for a Vision, Balancing Interests ance and Transition Politics in Kenya. Nairobi: Uni.". In: GovernLeadership and the Politics of Nation State: Searching for a Vision, Balancing Interests ance and Transition Politics in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "M. Omosa, D. McCormick & P. Alila (Forthcoming) Business in Kenya: Institutions, Interactions and Strategies. In: D. McCormick, P. Alila & M. Omosa [Eds] African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Pres.". In: African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "McCormick; D.; P. Alila & M. Omosa (Forthcoming) [Eds] African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.". In: African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. & J. Onjala (Forthcoming) Kenya\.". In: Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (Forthcoming) Incorporation into the Market Economy and Food Security among the Gusii: Paradise Lost or Paradise Gained. African Journal of Sociology. Volume VI, No. 1.". In: GovernLeadership and the Politics of Nation State: Searching for a Vision, Balancing Interests ance and Transition Politics in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (Forthcoming) The Smallholder Tea Industry in Kenya: Networks, Markets and Livelihoods. In: D. McCormick, P. Alila & M. Omosa [Eds] African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.". In: The Smallholder Tea Industry in Kenya: Networks, Markets and Livelihoods. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "P. Alila, D. McCormick & M. Omosa (Forthcoming) Introduction. In: D. McCormick, P. Alila & M. Omosa [Eds] African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.". In: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "P.O. Alila, and Mitullah W, Enhancing Lobbying Capacity of Women Street Vendors: The Challenges in the Kenyan Policy Environment. IDS Occasional Paper.". In: Enhancing Lobbying Capacity of Women Street Vendors: The Challenges in the Kenyan Policy Environment. IDS Occasional Paper. International Union of Crystallography; Forthcoming. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
MARY DROMOSA. "Place, F.; M. Adato; P. Hebinck & M. Omosa (Forthcoming) Agro-forestry-Based Soil Fertility Replenishment Practices and Poverty in Western Kenya. In: M. Adato & R. Meinzen-Dick [Eds.] Agricultural Research and Poverty: Economic and Social Impacts in Six C.". In: African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "Reviewer, Marcel Rutten et al eds 1997 Elections and Prospects for Democracy in Kenya' (Kampala: Fountain Publishers, 2001) 652pp (forthcoming).". In: Acta Crystallographica C. International Union of Crystallography; Forthcoming. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "Street Vendors Shaping Urban Policy Change in Kenya: Prospects for Participatory Approach, IDS Discussion Paper (forthcoming).". In: Acta Crystallographica C. International Union of Crystallography; Forthcoming. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
MAURI YAMBO. Two Bridges (Collection of Haiku).; Forthcoming. Abstract
n/a
V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "With Mary Kinyanjui and Dorothy McCormick: `Network Brokers and Small Scale Production: The Case of Kariobangi Weighing Scales Cluster.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; Forthcoming. Abstract

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Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products.
This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.

V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "With Walter Odhiambo: `Policies and Regulations for Business Development in Kenya.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; Forthcoming. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
Cheruiyot EK, Mito CO, Kaduki KA, Laneve G, Khoshelham K. "Aquatic vegetation prediction models based on water quality parameters and meteorological conditions.". Forthcoming.
Muchiri J. "The Art of Narrating Pain in Margaret Ogola’s Place of Destiny.". In: Readings on Margaret Ogola. Nairobi: Native Intelligence; Forthcoming.
Gichuki N. Banking Law: Cases and Materials.; Forthcoming.
Oriaso SO. Beyond Horizons for Success: An Autobiography. NAIROBI: Neema; Forthcoming.
"CHAKITA Publication.". In: Suala la Utaifa wa Kenya: Nafasi ya Kiswahili. CHAKITA; Forthcoming.
Michira JN. "Changamoto katika Uteuzi wa Vitabu vya Kufundishia Kiswahili Nchini Kenya.". In: Dhima na Majukumu ya Asasi Mbali Mbali katika Ukuzaji wa Kiswahili. Nairobi: Focus Books; Forthcoming.
Habwe J. "Changamptp za kueleza Msamiati wa Samaki: Mtazamo wa Kiuhusiano." Journal of Kiswahili Moi University. Forthcoming.
Schroeder H. "Clause chaining in Nilotic languages.". Forthcoming.
Geyer. S and Wairire GG, Lombard A, Wairire GG. "A comparative content analysis of South African and Kenyan drug policies from a social development perspective." The Social Work Practitioner-Researcher. Forthcoming.
A Comparative Study of the Methodological Similarities and Differences between Socratic Philosophy and H. Odera-Oruka's Philosophical Sagacity. Goethe Institut, Nairobi, Kenya: The Council for Research in Values and Philosophy; Forthcoming.
Wasamba P. Contemporary Oral Literature Fieldwork: A Researcher’s Guide. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press; Forthcoming.book_cover.docx
Barasa L. "Corruption, transaction costs, and innovation in Africa." African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development. Forthcoming.
Prof. Wamutiso K. "Culture shock in South Korea." University of Nairobi. Forthcoming.
R M, L.K O, J.O M, V M. "Cytotoxicity of principles from Bridelia micrantha.". Forthcoming.
Habwe J. "The Development of the Kiswahili: Prose and the Evolution of the Kiswahili." Journal of Literature UoN. Forthcoming.
J.N. M, Mbatiah M, Iribe M. Dhima na Majukumu ya Asasi Mbali Mbali katika Ukuzaji wa Kiswahili. Nairobi: Focus Books; Forthcoming.
Jayne M. A Dictionary and a Story Book. Nairobi: Nairobi Journal of Literature.; Forthcoming.
Habwe J, Foundation KFJK. "The Ekegusii Determiner Phrase. Analysis in the Minimalist Programme. ." International Journal of Linguistics and Communication. Forthcoming.
Rinkanya AN. "Fifty years of female short story in Kenya ." Nairobi Journal of Literature. Forthcoming.
and Goodluck Charles, Søren Jeppesen PKPK. "Firm-Level Perspectives on State-Business Relations in Africa: The Food processing Sector in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia." Forum for Development Studies Journal. Forthcoming.
and Wairire GG, Muiruri J. "Handbook of Social Work and Social Development Practice in Africa.". In: Afrocentric strengths-based community work practice: The case of vyamas in Kenya . Ashgate Publishing Ltd; Forthcoming.
Habwe J. Hidaya. Moran Publishers; Forthcoming.
Maturu BO, Nyang'oro O. "An Index of Exchange Rate Volatility for Kenya.". In: Research Department, Kenya School of Monetary Study (KSMS), Central Bank of Kenya.; Forthcoming.
Twalib MH. "AN INGRATIATORS QUANDARY: A CLOSER LOOK AT THE EFFECTS OF THE DIMENSION OF INGRATIATION ON THE TARGET.". Forthcoming. Abstract

The objective of this study was to find out which of the dimensions of ingratiation has more effect on the target person. Studies have indicated that some employees who succeeded in organizations were not necessarily the best ones for the company, but were those who were most skillful at flattering their superiors.Perhaps the most basic factor related to successful ingratiation is the specific tactic used to increase liking. Literature is unclear on which of the dimensions would yield more results or whether if they are used together will yield more results to the target person than individually.It was hypothesized that there is no significant difference in using any of the dimensions to the target person. The study further hypothesized that there is no difference on the effect of the dimensions whether used individually or jointly. The study used a descriptive survey of a population of 169employees responding to statements about their use of the three dimensions of ingratiation. Primary data was collected using self-administered structured questionnaires. Data was analyzed using one and two-way ANOVA and the response rate was 72.2%. The results showed that opinion conformity has the highest significant mean among the three strategies followed by other enhancement and lastly self-presentation.The findings of the study also indicated that the three strategies cannot be applied at one go. It is recommended that employees should ensure application of these ingratiation strategies one at a time. The paper suggests that more strategies can be considered in order to solve an ingratiators’ dilemma. These findings add significant value on both policy and practice.

Barasa L, Kimuyu P, Vermeulen P, Knoben J, Kinyanjui B. "Innovation and efficiency in manufacturing firms in sub-Saharan Africa." European Journal of Innovation Management. Forthcoming.
MONARI FRONICA, Wakoli P. "Internet Access, Uses and Gratifications among University Students: A Survey of the School of Journalism and Mass Communication.". In: African International Business and Mnagement (AIBUMA). Nairobi, Kenya; Forthcoming.
Wambui K, Muiru N, Amatsimbi M. "The Kenya Media: A Brief History.". In: Voices of Media Veterans: Reflections over 70 Years on Communication and Media in Kenya . Nairobi: University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; Forthcoming.
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Kiswahili as a Privileged Mother Tongue in Kenya: the Pros and Cons." The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics. Forthcoming.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Nyaga L, Warambo JP. Kiswahili Pevu: Isimu, Muundo na Sarufi .; Forthcoming.
Amadi H. "Local Government Functions in a Societal Perspective: Evolution of Government-Society Relations in Kenya".". In: Local Government: A Global Perspective.; Forthcoming.
Prof. Wamutiso K. "Maisha ya majagina wa kifasihi, kidini na kimapisi.". Forthcoming.
Ayiemba EHO. "Marriage and Family Patterns.". In: Kenya Population Situation Analysis, Nairobi. Nairobi: UNFPA; Forthcoming.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui and Kamau, Paul Kuria (forthcoming), 'Production and Trade Systems.". In: Hemisphere. University of Nairobi.; Forthcoming.
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Prof. Wamutiso K. "Nambari tatu katika Utenzi wa Ayubu.". Forthcoming.
Mulwa, M R. "Non-parametric Estimation of Environmental Efficiency Using Data Envelopment Analysis and Free Disposable Hull.". In: Strategic Measurement and Management Performance using Data Envelopment Analysis: Theory and Applications. IGI Global, Hershey PA, USA; Forthcoming.
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With McCormick D, Chitere P, Orero R, Ommeh M. "Paratransit Business Strategies : A Bird’s Eye View of Matatu in Nairobi’ ." Journal of Public Transport. Forthcoming.
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HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "The Place of Action Research in the Writing of Fiction: Reflections on Kovu la Moyoni.". In: Action Research conference MMUST(PROCEED).; Forthcoming.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "Politeness Among the Swahili of Mombasa:A Family Perpective." Burji Baraton University Journal. Forthcoming.
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Moses MP, Abungu NO. "REDUCING REAL AND REACTIVE POWER LOSSES IN THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM BY DFIG PLACEMENT AND SIZING USING ORDINARY PSO AND HGAPSO : A COMPARISON." International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering. Forthcoming. Abstractijetae_paper_forthcoming_paper.pdf

Due to the increased importance of DFIGs in optimization of real and reactive power losses and the maintenance of voltage profile, the general methods of DG placement and sizing in the existing literature cannot be of practical importance in DFIG .In this paper a pure PSO method used in general DG is compared with a HGAPSO in the siting and sizing of DFIG with the objective of minimizing power losses. The corresponding Combined participation factors are assigned using the DFIG Domain Distributed Slack Bus Model and a comparison made on the two schemes of loss minimization.

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