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1981
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics treatment of gout. East Afr Med J. 1981 Mar;58(3):151-5. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Mar;58(3):151-5. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics. Medical treatment of peptic ulcers. East Afr Med J. 1981 Feb;58(2):84-9. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Feb;58(2):84-9. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics. Medical treatment of peptic ulcers. East Afr Med J. 1981 Feb;58(2):84-9. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Feb;58(2):84-9. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Related Articles, Links Clinical trials in medicine. East Afr Med J. 1981 Nov;58(11):809-13. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Nov;58(11):809-13. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Related Articles, Links Clinical trials in medicine. East Afr Med J. 1981 Nov;58(11):809-13. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Nov;58(11):809-13. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Related Articles, Links Practical therapeutics. Anxiolytic drugs. East Afr Med J. 1981 Aug;58(8):551-6. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Aug;58(8):551-6. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Related Articles, Links Practical therapeutics. Anxiolytic drugs. East Afr Med J. 1981 Aug;58(8):551-6. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Aug;58(8):551-6. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFOBELARTHUR, O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO.Practical therapeutics current concepts in management of bronchial asthma. East Afr Med J. 1981 May;58(5):311-7. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Jan;58(1):8-11. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFOBELARTHUR, O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO.Practical therapeutics current concepts in management of bronchial asthma. East Afr Med J. 1981 May;58(5):311-7. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Jan;58(1):8-11. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

Cordobés F, Lobato RD, Rivas JJ, Muñoz MJ, Chillón D, Portillo JM, Lamas E. "Observations on 82 patients with extradural hematoma: comparison of results before and after the advent of computerized tomography." Journal of neurosurgery. 1981;54:179-186. AbstractWebsite
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O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 1981 Veterinary Sanitary Characteristics of poultry meat in Stenorol (coccidiostat tests Msc. Thesis, Moscow, 1981.).". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1981. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO, Kamidigo MO.Placenta percreta with spontaneous rupture of the uterus before labour and a uterine carnual ring.E. Afr. Med. J. 1981:58, 886.". In: J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr. 1: 140, 1982. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1981. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO, Kamidigo MO.Placenta percreta with spontaneous rupture of the uterus before labour and a uterine carnual ring.E. Afr. Med. J. 1981:58, 886.". In: E.Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 271. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1981. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. Obanya, P., Hookoomsing V. (1981) Curriculum Development in Languages. Course materials for African Curriculum Organisation (ACO).". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1981.
M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "On the operator equation AB + BA* = A*B+BA = I, Proceedings of the First African Symposium in Pure and Applied Mathematics and Mathematics Education.". In: Nairobi, Kenya. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear; 1981. Abstract
J. M. Khalagai,
M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "On the operator equation AB + BA* = A*B+BA = I, Proceedings of the First African Symposium in Pure and Applied Mathematics and Mathematics Education.". In: Nairobi, Kenya. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear; 1981. Abstract
J. M. Khalagai,  held in Nairobi, Kenya in
M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "On the Operator Equation AB+BA*=A*B+BA=l.". In: Maths Japon, 26 No.5 577-583. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear; 1981. Abstract
J. M. Khalagai,
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "Optimisation of a three dimensional terrestrial geodetic network.". In: MSc thesis, University of Nairobi,. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1981. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
S. PROFNTEEREJACOB. "P.E versus Militarism in the British Education system 1870-1925.". In: Seminar, University of Manchester, 1981. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1981. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
P.M. MRWAMBUAPETER. "P.H. Rees, P.A. Kager, M.R. Murithi, P.P. Wambua, S.D. Shah and A.E. Butterworth. Tuberculin sensitivity in Kala-azar. Transaction of the Royal Society of Tropical Medical and Hygiene: Vol. 75 No. 5,630, 1981.". In: Immunobiology. 1989 Jun;179(2-3):172-89. IAHS Press Wallingford, UK.; 1981. Abstract

Specificities of tolerance induced in allogeneic bone marrow (BM) chimeras which had been established by injecting allogeneic BM cells pretreated with anti-Thy-1 mAb alone (without complement (C)) were analyzed using Simonsen's splenomegaly assay. Lymphocytes from fully allogeneic, semi-allogeneic and H-2 subregion compatible BM chimeras were specifically unresponsive to donor and recipient antigens (Ag). However, cells from H-2 subregion compatible chimeras initiated as vigorously a GVHR in F1 recipient mice, which were disparate at H-2K and I-A regions, as did spleen cells of donor mice, which were incompatible at the entire H-2 and minor histocompatibility regions of the recipients. The donor cells from such chimeras that initiated these considerable GVHR were either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, synergistic effects by the CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were also observed. We found no evidence for a suppressive mechanism(s) in maintenance of the specific tolerance in allogeneic chimeras. Further, when lymphoid cells from these chimeras were adoptively transferred to irradiated mice of the donor strain and maintained for 5 days in the absence of recipient Ag (tolerogen), the adoptively transferred cells were shown to retain their unresponsiveness to the recipient Ag. These results reveal that T lymphocytes from allogeneic BM chimeras prepared by our method had been specifically induced to a tolerant state to both donor and recipient Ag and that the major mechanism of induction and maintenance of long-lasting tolerance is attributable to clonal deletion of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets rather than to the development of a population of suppressor cells of any sort.

MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "P.M. Mbithi and J. Mbula Bahemuka. Socio-economic Factors Influencing Technical Farm Development in the Arid/semi-Arid Lands of Kenya. For the Ministry of Agriculture, 1981.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1981.
N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga, J.S. Kaminjolo, J.M. Gathuma, J.K. Omuse, F.M.K. Nderu and J.N. Gicho. Prevalence of antibodies to parainfluenza virus-3 (Pl-3) in various wildlife pecies and cattle sharing the same habitats in Kenya.Journ.Wild. Dis.17(4), 981: 605-608.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1981. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N.Nyaga, A.D. Wiggins and W.A. Priester. Epidemiology of equine influenza, risk by age breed and sex Comp. Immuno. Microbiol. Infec. Dis.Vol. 3. 1981:67-83.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1981. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Pamba H.O. and Mulega P.C.:Comparison of Kato Thick Smear Technique and Formal Ether Sedimentation Method for Qualitative Diagnosis of Intestinal Helminths.E. Afr. Med. J. 95: 100, 1981.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 95: 100, 1981. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1981. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Pamba H.O. Mirza N.B. and Stavry E.M.:Human Intestinal Oesophagostomiasis:Medicom. 3: 5, 1981.". In: Medicom. 3: 5, 1981. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1981. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
OMONDI MRMISANGOQUIRENEBERNARD. "Paper entitled: ENGINEERRING EDUCATION FOR DEVELOPMENT. Presented at the First Seminar on Training of Graduate Engineers, E.R.B., Nairobi. 25.". In: Far East J. of Theo. Stat. 18 (2), pp. 161 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1981. Abstract
v:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} o:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} w:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} .shape {behavior:url(#default#VML);} 12.00 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Common nearly best linear estimates of location and scale parameters of normal and logistic distributions, which are based on complete samples, are considered. Here the population from which the samples are drawn is either normal or logistic population or a fusion of both distributions and the estimates are computed when it is not yet known which of the two populations (between the normal and logistic) is true. The problem discussed in this paper involves two possible population types in a given sample. Samples of sizes  and  are used to validate these estimates and a comparison of their variances is made with those of the best linear unbiased estimators (BLUEs) for normal and logistic distributions.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Patterns of Industrialisation in the Countries of the Indian Ocean Region in Alex kerr The Indian Ocean Region Resources and Development (perth University of Western Australia Press and Boulder Colorado Westview Press.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1981. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "The potential for Utilization of some Indigenous Kenyan Seeds".,.". In: Nairobi. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1981. Abstract
   
K DRNDERUFM. "Prevalence of antibodies of para-influenza 3 virus in various wildlife species and domestic cattle sharing the same habitat in Kenya.". In: journal. East African Journal of Development Studies; 1981. Abstract

Sera from various wildlife ruminants coexisting in the same habitat with cattle had hemagglutiation-inhibition antibodies as high as those in cattle.  Sera from wildebeest, Kongoni, Thomson's gazelle, eland and African buffalo had titres ranging from 64 to 128.  Zebra, Bushbuck, Warthog and Oryx were negative to the H I test.  It was suggested that some of the wild ruminants with high titres could be possible reservoirs of para-influenza 3 virus.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Properties of Some new Curvature in Sasakian Manifold.". In: Proc. First East African Sym. Sec. B pp. 71-75. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1981. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Reaching Out to God without Religion", A Review of Understanding God and the Modern Way by Mohamed Mbwana, Found in a bound typescript, Institute of African Studies Library, University of Nairobi, Kenya.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1981. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1981: Education in Geodesy in Africa - State and Prospect, an invited paper to the Second International Symposium on Geodesy in Africa, Nairobi, November 1981.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1981.
M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "Schattenkerk, J. K. Bhatt, S. M., Rees, P. H.: Antituberculous drugs and kala-azar. Lancet 1981; vol. 2:304.". In: Lancet 1981; vol. 2:304. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1981. Abstract

We describe the technique of splenic aspiration in 113 patients presenting with splenomegaly. It was used initially to establish a diagnosis, and in those patients with kala azar, to follow the response of the parasites to therapy until 'parasitological cure'. In all 671 aspirations were performed. No complications occurred in the 69 patients with active kala azar, who collectively had more than 600 aspirations. One patient in a moribund condition had a fatal haemorrhage. The aspirate suggested a lymphoma, confirmed at autopsy. In 68 of the 69 patients with active kala azar, the diagnosis was established at the first aspiration. The essentials of the technique are the use of a small calibre needle (21 G), and speed, the needle being in the spleen for less than a second, with the consequent procurement of a few drops of material only.

OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "SEEHERMAN, H.J., TAYLOR, C.R. MALOIY, G.M.O. and ARMSTRONG,R.B.(1981) Design of the mammalian respiratory system II. Measuring maximum aerobic capacity. Respiratory Physiology 44, 11-23.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1981. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Selection of Drifts or Bridges in Semi-Desert Areas of Flash Floods;.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, Tampere University of Technology,Finland. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 1981. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

N PROFGUANTAIA. "SELF MEDICATION IN MANAGEMENT OF MINOR HEALTH PROBLEMS IN KENYA.". In: THE EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. C.K. Maitai, AN Guantai, Mwangi; 1981. Abstract
A survey of proprietary pharmaceutical products used inslf-medication, in Kenya, has been undertaken. Out of 472 products covered in the survey, 32% were those used for gastrointestinal disorders and 18% for respiratory disorders. The significance and limitations of self-medication as they relate to management of minor health problems are discussed.
O PROFORINDADA. "Serum Lysozymes (Muramidase) levels in the normal and various Pathological States in Kenyan African.E. G. Kasili, D.A.O. Orinda, and J. Mudasia E. A. Med. Journal Vol. 58 No. 3, Marhc (1981).". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Mar;58(3):163-70. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1981. Abstract
PMID: 7249984 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "TAYLOR, C.R., MALOIY, G.M.O., WEIBEL, E.R., LANGMAN, V.A.,KAMAU, J.M.Z., SEEHERMAN, H. J. and HEGLUND, N.C. (1981).(1981) Design of the mammalian respiratory system III. Scaling maximum aerobic capacity to body mass: wild and domestic mammals. Respiration.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1981. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
SAMUEL PROFKIBICHO. ""Teaching of Afrian Religion in our schools and colleges and the christian attitude towards this religion," African Theological Journal.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 1981. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "A Textbook of Oral Literature,S Kichamu Akivaga ,A Bole Odaga. (Heinemann Education Books, 1981).". In: Paper presented at workshop on vocational Training in Nyeri 3rd . Elsevier; 1981. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Theileria parva. Isolation of acroschizonts from in vitro propagated parasitized bovine lymphoblastoid cells. Nyormoi O., Bwayo JJ. and Hirumi H. (1981). Experimental Parasitology 52: 303?311.". In: Experimental Parasitology 52: 303?311. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1981. Abstract
The factors responsible for the explosive spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be identified and debated. One of the most controversial factors has been male circumcision. This cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the association between circumcision status and infection with HIV-1 among men with genital ulcer disease. Eight hundred and ten men participated in the study, of whom 190 (23%) were HIV-1-positive. A logistic regression model adjusted for behavioral and historical showed that HIV-1 positivity was independently associated with being uncircumcised (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3-7.2) and with a history of urethral discharge (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8). This association could not be explained by measures of sexual exposure to HIV-1 among this population. Male circumcision should be considered as an intervention strategy for AIDS control.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Thomas, C. and P. N. Mbugua (1981): Effect of supplements on the live weight gain of beef cattle given forage during the dry season.". In: In proceedings: International grasslands congress. Kentucky, USA. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1981.
KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Training for participation and development.". In: Proceedings of one weeks councilors seminar held at Kakameg,a, May 1981 compiled and edited by S. Kichamu Akivaga. Elsevier; 1981. Abstract
n/a
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "Uniform derivative convergence of diagonal Pad.". In: Proceedings of 1st Eastern African Symposium in Applied Mathematics, and Mathematical Education, Nairobi. 1981. Section B, pp. 25-36. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1981. Abstract
n/a
NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "The unsystematic alternative: towards plural health care among the Kikuyu of central Kenya. Kimani VN. Soc Sci Med [B]. 1981 Jul;15(3):333-40.". In: Soc Sci Med [B]. 1981 Jul;15(3):333-40. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1981. Abstract

45 Kenyan traditional healers were interviewed with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases. Traditional management of eye diseases is based on the healers' concept of the disease causation as well as their knowledge of the herbal, animal and chemical substances that possess (or are reported to possess) remedial effect on the disease. While many of the healers interviewed failed to give a clear distinction between the various eye conditions, diseases such as cataract, foreign bodies and injuries were recognized easily. In almost all cases the medicinal substances were first diluted in water before they were applied to the eyes. Human milk, blood and the white of the egg were the animal substances listed as medicinal to various eye conditions. A solution of sugar was one of the chemical substances used in the treatment of specific eye conditions. Given correct information, some of these healers could f

O PROFOYUGIWALTER. "Walter O. Oyugi, Rural Development Administration: A Kenyan Case Study. plus Bibliography.". In: New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House. 265 pp. IPPNW; 1981. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A, Mirza NB and Ichoro O. Bacteriology of Septicaemia at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Medicom, vol 3 (6): 1981.". In: Medicom, vol 3 (6): 1981. IBIMA Publishing; 1981. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A, Mirza NB and Nsazumuhire H. Penicillin resistant Pneumococcal Meningitis in Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. EAMJ Vol 58: 112. Jan 1981.". In: EAMJ Vol 58: 112. Jan 1981. IBIMA Publishing; 1981. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A, Mirza NB. Problems of Salmonella infections in a hospital in Kenya. EAMJ vol 58 (9): 677, 1981.". In: EAMJ vol 58 (9): 677, 1981. IBIMA Publishing; 1981. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "WEIBEL, E.R., TAYLOR, C.R., GEHR, P., HOPPELER, H., MATHEIU, O. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1981) Design of the mammalian respiratory system IX. Functional and structural limits for oxygen flow. Respiration Physiology 44, 151-164.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1981. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Wheeler, C., Mwangi, R.W. and Goldsworthy, G.J. (1981). Lipoproteins and lipid mobilization in Locusta . Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. P. 541.". In: Proc. 3 int. Conf. trop. climates. 235-237 (1985). The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1981.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Where is Ngugi", in Black Phoenix, 2, 23-24.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1981. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
1980
Sprung CL, Rackow EC, Fein IA. "Pulmonary edema; a complication of diabetic ketoacidosis." Chest. 1980;77:687-688. Abstract

Hemodynamic evaluation in two patients and analysis of pulmonary edema fluid in one patient with diabetic ketoacidosis and acute pulmonary edema were performed. Pulmonary arterial wedge pressures in both patients were low or normal (1 and 9 mm Hg). In one patient the colloid osmotic pressure of the pulmonary edema fluid was 68 percent of the value of the serum. The serum colloid osmotic pressure-pulmonary arterial wedge pressure gradient in the second patient was markedly reduced. Pulmonary edema complicating diabetic ketoacidosis may be the result of increased permeability of pulmonary capillary membranes and altered intravascular colloid-hydrostatic forces.

Robertson TW, Hickey TL, Guillery RW. "Development of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in normal and visually deprived {Siamese} cats." The Journal of comparative neurology. 1980;191:573-579. Abstract

Neuronal cell bodies in the lateral geniculate nucleus of normal and of monocularly-deprived Siamese cats have been measured. Seventeen normally reared Siamese cats, ranging in age between 20 and 120 days, were used to determine rates of normal geniculate cell growth. A second group of five adult Siamese cats reared from bith with the lids of one eye closed were used to study the effects of monocular visual deprivation upon geniculate cell size. For each of the normal and visually deprived Siamese cats, the cross-sectional areas of 600 lateral geniculate cells were measured from camera lucida drawings of Nissl preparations. During normal development the geniculate cells rapidly increase in size during the first postnatal month of life and reach their adult size sometime between days 28 and 56. While this course of geniculate cell growth is similar to that seen in normally pigmented cats, the pattern of change seen after monocular deprivation is quite different in Siamese cats from that found in normally pigmented cats. In Siamese cats the regions of the nucleus receiving a contralateral projection from the deprived eye appear to be shielded from the effects of binocular competition. Cells throughout lamina A and in the abnormal, contralaterally innervated segment of lamina A1 show only about a 10% reduction in cell size. There are no noticeable differences between the parts of lamina A in the binocular and monocular segments of the nucleus. Cells in the ipsilaterally innervated segment of lamina A1, in contrast, show deprivation-induced changes that average 27.1%. Two mechanisms are proposed to explain why some geniculate cells in Siamese cats appear to be shielded from binocular competition: one depends on possible interactions between geniculo-cortical cells lying in adjacent parts of the same geniculate lamina, and the other depends on an anatomical segregation of the cell type ("Y-cells") most heavily affected by the binocular competition. Each proposed mechanism is related to earlier observations on monocularly deprived, normally pigmented cats.

Morris LR, Kitabchi AE. "Efficacy of low-dose insulin therapy for severely obtunded patients in diabetic ketoacidosis." Diabetes Care. 1980;3:53-56. Abstract

To evaluate the efficacy of low-dose insulin therapy in cases of severe diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), we examined admission clinical and biochemical parameters and responses to therapy in 48 diabetic patients who presented with DKA and were randomized to receive either high- or low-dose insulin. There were no differences in the initial clinical and biochemical parameters of the patients, regardless of assignment to low or high dose; however, a subgroup of 13 patients who were classified as severe DKA (based on their presentation in a comatose or stuporous state) had, as expected, more marked clinical and biochemical abnormalities than their alert cohorts. The responses to therapy (rate of glucose decrement and control of acidosis) were comparable in the high-dose and low-dose groups of comatose/stuporous patients and were not significantly different from the noncomatose cohorts. These data indicate that low-dose insulin therapy in severely ill comatose patients is as effective as high-dose.

Gichaga FJ. "The role of Engineering in the Promotion of Health Care.". In: 9th Council Meeting of the Commonwealth Medical Association and 9th Annual Scientific Conference of Kenya Medical Association. Nairobi; 1980.
Gichaga FJ. "Pavement Design Considerations Under Tropical Climate.". In: I.R.F. IVTH African Highway Conference. Nairobi ; 1980.
Gichaga FJ, Kipkore SK. "Violation of Traffic Laws in Selected Roads in Nairobi.". In: I.R.F. IVTH African Highway Conference. Nairobi; 1980.
Maitai CK, Watkins WM. "A survey of outpatient prescriptions dispensed in Kenyatta National Hospital." East Afr Med J. 1980;57(9):641-5.
Hall PJ, Levin AG, Entwistle CC, Knight SC, Wasunna A, Brubaker G. "B15 heterogeneity in East African Blacks." Tissue Antigens. 1980;16(4):326-32. Abstract

One-hundred-forty-one Blacks (135 unrelated) from Kenya and Tanzania have been tissue-typed (HLA-A, B and C loci) as part of a study of host factors involved in Burkitt's lymphoma and naso-pharyngeal carcinoma. Evidence is presented for the existence in this population of several B15-related antigens which together occur with a relatively high frequency of 30% in unrelated individuals. It is likely that these variants may include the antigens SV and perhaps Bu recently defined with population frequencies of under 1% in Caucasians. In the absence of monospecific typing sera, identification of these variants may be helped by their apparently strong association with C-locus antigens in Blacks. Recognition of these B15 variants has been largely responsible for reducing the proportion of unidentified or "blank" B-locus antigens in this population to only 6%. These findings substantiate and amplify previous reports suspecting the presence of such antigens in Blacks, and should facilitate studies of possible associations of disease with HLA in these populations.

Peterson DW, Maitai CK, Sparber SB. "Relative potencies of two phenylalkylamines found in the abused plant Catha edulis, khat." Life Sci.. 1980;27(22):2143-7.
Maitai CK, Talalaj S, Njoroge D, Wamugunda R. "Effect of extract of hairs from the herb Urtica massaica, on smooth muscle." Toxicon. 1980;18(2):225-9.
C.K. M, S. T. Local plants with known medicinal value. Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) ; 1980.
FN. K. " “A bird’s eye view of Factors influencing Product Distribution Systems in Kenya”, ." CONTACT, Journal of Consumer Association,. 1980:3-6.
MULIMBA JAO. "Bacteriology of Tonsils of Keynyatta National Hospital. E.A.M. J. 57 (4): 252, 1980.". In: E.A.M. J. 57 (4): 252, 1980. Springerlink; 1980. Abstract

It has been the view of the Association of Surgeons of East Africa (ASEA) that, like primary health care, there is primary surgery. The unit of provision of primary surgery is the district hospital. The training of surgeons for district hospitals starts at the undergraduate level, leading to the attainment of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (M.B. Ch.B.) degree. After internship the doctor works in a district or provincial hospital for 2-3 years, then trains for the degree of Master of Medicine (M. Med. (Surg.)) for a period of 3 years. The training involves rotation through all branches of surgery, so that the surgeon should be able to handle all aspects of routine surgery in a district hospital. To equip the surgeon further, a period in an outside setting is considered advisable. There are arrangements for regional surgical colleges to standardise the form of surgical training in the ASEA region. To keep surgeons in touch with the outside world, specialist training is done outside the region, but arrangements are being made for localised specialised units to offer this training.

Oluoch AJ. A Comparative Study Of Needle Aspiration Biopsy With Histology In The Diagnosis Of Enlarged Prostate.; 1980. Abstract

Forty one patients with enlarged prostate were studied
as regards their acid phospatase estimation, clinical findings
on rectal examination and needle aspiration biopsy. The results
of this study were compared with histological diagnosis after
surgery. It was found that combined needle aspiration biopsy,
rectal examination plus acid phosphatase estimation gave a
reliable diagnosis of pathological state of prostate gland in
terms of malignancy in 82 per cent of the cases.
Since the disease in consideration is early cancer, the
combined diagnostic approach as above can be quite useful in
contemplating early surgery to eradicate early cancer with hope of
cure. On the other hand, those who believe in hormonal therapy
and want to avoid operation can start the hormonal treatment quite
early.

"Cowpea research in Kenya." Department of Land Resource Management and Agricultural Technology (LARMAT). 1980;1980.
Obel AO. "Cushing ’ s Syndrome in Africans." East African Medical Journal. 1980;(57):495-99.
Mungai DN, Sogomo, K.L.; Gatahi MMM; FN. "Detailed Soil Survey of the ADC/MoA Farm, Garissa (Garissa District) .". 1980.Website
Dossaji SF, Gitonga J, Bell EA. "Distribution and significance of amino acids in the leaves of Acacia and Crotalaria (Leguminosae)." Kenya J. of Science and Technology, 1, 19.. 1980;1:19-22. Abstract

Leaf extracts of 13 species of Acacia and 9 species of Crotalaria which are native to or estabhshed in Kenya were analysed by 2D paper chromatography and high voltage ionophoresis for their free protein and nonprotein amino acids. In addition to the presence of protein amino acids, both the genera contained nonprotein amino acids. Acacia species contained pipecolic acid, 4-OH pipecolic acid, 5-OH pipecolic
acid and homoarginine. They did not contain N-acetyldjenkolic which is found in the seeds of all but one of the species analysed. The leaf extracts of three species of Crotalaria contained the toxic amino acids, a-amino-p-oxalylaminopropionic acid and a-amino-y-oxalylaminobutyric acid.

MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ, Polome & Hill E. "Ecology of Tanzanian Language Situation." Language in Tanzania. 1980:139-175.
Maitai CK. "Effect of extract of hairs from the herb Urtica massaica, on smooth muscle." Toxicon.. 1980;18(2):225-229. AbstractWebsite

Cathinone, a potent psychostimulant isolated from young shoots of Catha edulis was given to four human volunteers. Examination of urine collected from the volunteers at predetermined intervals showed the presence of unchanged cathinone, d-norpseudoephedrine, and two unidentified basic substances. The observed biotransformation of cathinone to the less potent psychostimulant, d-norpseudoephedrine involves reduction of a ketone group to alcohol, a common metabolic pathway in humans.

KAAYA GP, ODUOR-OKELLO D. "The Effects of Trypanosoma congolense infection on the testis and epididymis of the goat." . Bulletin of animal Health and production in Africa. 1980;28:1-5.
T.K M. "Genetics: The science of life." POST Magazine . 1980;5:11-13.
Ogana W. Hand of Chance (2nd Edition, Novel). Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 1980.
Raja, R; Adamali GN; J. "Heel pad thickness in Kenyan Africans.". 1980.
Munyua JK, Larsson-Razinikiewicz. M. The influence of Ca2+ on size and light scattering properties of the Casein Micelles. Stockholm: University of Uppsala; 1980.
KAAYA, G.P., TIZARD, I.R., MAXIE MG, VALLI VEO. "Inhibition of leukopoiesis by sera from Trypanosoma congolense infected calves: Partial characterization of the inhibitory factor." Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie . 1980;31:232-238.
Kimani V;, Lawry JM;, Good CM. "The Initiation of a Kikuyu Medicine Man.". 1980. Abstract

The field research for this paper was part of a broader project on urban and rural traditional medicine conducted in Kenya in ,1977-1978, supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation, Washington, D. C. We wish to thank Professor F. J. BENNETT of the Department of Community Health, University of Nairobi, for providing us with office space and valuable advice. We also wish to express our appreciation to RICHARD MUTHEE and PENINAH MAKOBU for their good work as research assistants. Pronounciation: u as 0 in English word who; i as English a

MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. Law, Morals and the Individual in Kenya .; 1980.
S PROFOLIECHJOSEPH. "Male infertility at KNH. Medicom Vol. 2:95, 1980.". In: Medicom Vol. 2:95, 1980. PROF.J.S.OLIECH; 1980. Abstract

No a ABSTRACT.
Ten males,6 of whom were azoospermic and 4 oligospermic were studied for their subfertilityor infertility after the gynaecologist had proven wives normal and referred them to urology clinic for further tests .Study showed that the causes of subfertility or infertility are uncorrectable and in the few that can be corrected, the results of the improved fertility in so far as getting child is concerned has no workable formula.
bstract yet

Balasundaram VR;, Keya SO. "Microbial Flora of Some Kenyan Soils.".; 1980.
Wanjala C. "The New Jerusalem in African Literature and Literary Criticism." Literary Review. 1980:25-26.
Kokwaro JO, Gillett JB. "Notes on Anacardiaceae of Eastern Africa." Kew Bulletin. 1980;34(4):745-760.
OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Pamba H.O.:Hookworm and Ascaris Infection in Nyanza Province, KenyaE.Afr. Med. J. 57: 891, 1980.". In: Afr. Med. J. 57: 891, 1980. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1980. Abstracthookworm_and_ascariasis_infections_in_nyanza_province_kenya.pdf

This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.

Khamala CP, Okeyo-Owour JB. "Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) varietal response to insect podborer infestation in Kenya.". 1980. AbstractPigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) varietal response to insect podborer infestation in Kenya.

In field trials with (a) determinate and (b) indeterminate pigeon pea cv., pod damage by Heliothis armigera, Pardasena virgulana and Melanagromyza obtusa and seed yield losses ranged from 37% and 23% in an early-flowering cv. of (b) to 64% and 52% in a late-flowering cv. of (b), resp

Oucho JO. "Population Density and Area Patterns.". In: The Nature and Extent of Soil Loss Studies in Kenya: Results of Phase I. Sochi: USSR: UNEP-IFIAS Workshop; 1980.
"Population dynamics of pine woolly aphid, Pineus pini (Gmelin) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in Kenya.". 1980. AbstractPopulation dynamics of pine woolly aphid, Pineus pini (Gmelin) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in Kenya

The population dynamics of Pineus pini (Gmel.) was examined in two locations in the Kenya Highlands where the mean annual precipitation ranges from 620 to 1400 mm. Variations in population densities were related to rainfall. Generally, there was a marked decrease in population during the three months of heavy rainfall in March to May and a significant increase during dry weather from August to October. This was followed by a slight decrease in the rate of population build-up, until the long rains in April again resulted in another population collapse. Nine species of predatory insects were identified, and population fluctuations of the most common of these, Exochomus spp., was studied. Predators seemed to remove about 12% of the aphid population. Other mortality factors included heat and crawler dispersion. The greatest mortality occurred early in the life-cycle and was mainly due to eggs and crawlers being washed off the host-tree by rain.

Oucho JO. "Population Problems in the African Environment: A Challenge for Environmental Education.". In: Environmental Education: A Practical Guide.; 1980.
J.O O. The Port of Kisumu in the Lake Victoria Trade. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 1980.
Mbuthia PG. "Poultry bacterial diseases."; 1980.
"Purgative Drugs in Primary Health Care." Kenya J. Pharm. P7-8, 1980. 1980:7-8.
Dossaji SF, Kubo I. "Quercetin 3-(2"-Galloyglucoside), a molluscicidal flavanoids form Polygonum senegalense:." Phytochemistry. 1980;19:482-483. Abstract

Valepotriates, mainly isovaltrate and valtrate, have been separated and quantitatively estimated by reversed-phase HPLC in the leaves, flowers, stems and rhizomes of Valeriana kilimandascharica. The isovaltrate/valtrate concentration reaches a maximum of 5.89% in the leaves, 3.84% in the flowers, 3.17% in the stems and 5.15% in the rhizomes.

S PROFOLIECHJOSEPH. "A review f thyroid cancer at KNH. Medicom Vol. 2:3, 1980.". In: Medicom Vol. 2:3, 1980. PROF.J.S.OLIECH; 1980. Abstract

No ABSTRACT.

This a report of thirty patients who presented at Kenyatta National Hospital( KNH),Uinversity Of Nairobi (UON) during the three year period January 1974-December 1976 with a diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma.Fourteen had follicular, eight papiilary,four anaplastic,and four medullary types.
Eight patients had metastatic deposits in lymph nodes,lung,or bone and majority of these were anaplastic.Twenty patients received surgical treatment.Five total thyroidectomy, 12 had subtotal thyroidectomy,3 had hemithyroidectomy and 2 had radioactive iodine treatment without surgery.
Most patients received subtotal thyroidectomy with or without radiotherapy. The anaplastic cancers had the poorest prognosis, all dying within six months of diagnosis.Early diagnosis with frozen section the papillary/follicular possess good prognosis if appropriate surgical treatment of subtotal or hemithyroidectomy is done.
abstract yet

Mailu AM, Rose DJW, Khamala CPM. "Sequential surveys for the pine woolly aphid, Pineus pini (L.) Homoptera: Adelgidae in Kenya.". 1980. AbstractWebsite

Sequential survey procedures are described from Kenya for classifying the damage caused by the aphid Pineus pini (Gmel.) to Pinus patula. The criteria used are the degree of needle stunting caused by a given number of aphids per centimetre of shoot length, the percentage of twigs on individual trees with mats of aphid wool, and the amount of tree surface covered with aphid wool. Field procedures for making measurements are given, and the survey procedures are presented.

MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ,(ed.) DNK. "Strategies for Introducing English as the National/Official language in Namibia." English as the Official Language, Perspectives and Strategies. 1980;(4).
Rajula CM. The Survival After The Cardiac Arrest At The Kenyatta National Hospital.; 1980. Abstract

The records of 450 patients who required cardiopulmonary resuscitation during the period 1974-1980 are reviewed. All suffered cardio-pulmonary arrest, and the results of treatment are expressed in terms of length of survival. One hundred fifty nine patients (35.6%) responded to the cardio-pulmonary resuscitation initially. Out of this, 115 patients (72.33%) died in the hospital later; 44 (8.9%) who were hospitalised for another one month, after cardio-pulmonary arrest, and then discharged, were considered long survivors.
The chances of successful resuscitation were greater in patients with ischaemic heart disease (20% survived); undergoing anaesthesia (20% survived); and those with drug
overdose (15.5% survived). Patients with ventricular fibrilation as the primary electro-cardiographic finding had better prog~osis as compared to those with asystole.
Resuscitation in patients with progressive metabolic and respiratcry failure, and multiple episodes of cardiac arrests, was associated with poor prognosis. Low survival rates were
also found in children under ten years of age.
About eleven percent of all the survivors developed residual brain damage with marked intelectual impairment, including 2 patients with psychiatric problems.

Varma S, Shartry AM. "A Technique for Partial Marsupialization of the Spleen in Calves." Veterinary Record. 1980;106(a):127-128.
S PROFOLIECHJOSEPH. "Thyroid enlargement and the trachea ASEA proceedings, 1980.". In: ASEA proceedings, 1980. PROF.J.S.OLIECH; 1980. Abstract

ABSTRACT.
Although it has been said that local symptoms are uncommon and that large goiters are oftenwell tolerated ( Sloan,1971), this is not true of our patients.Pressure effects may depend upon size and position of the the gland but asymmetry of nodular thyroid and strong anterior neck muscles and fasciamay cause severe compression or deviation of the trachea. In KNH,Nairobi, we have been truck by the frequency of the pressure symptoms caused by these goiter weighing less than 100gms
t

Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Gathumbi PK, Kihurani DO, Mbithi PMF, Mbiuki SM. "A typical (cutaneousl actinobacillosis in cattle: clinical observation, diagnosis and Treatment in eighteen cases.". 1980.
Gathuma JM;, Kagiko MM. "Veterinary Science And Human Health.".; 1980.
Gathuma JM;, Kagiko MM. "Veterinary Science And Human Health.".; 1980.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1980, September 8-10, 1st Nilo-Saharan Linguistics Colloquium, Leiden.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1980.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1980, September, Eastern African History Conference, Nyeri.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1980.
M DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "6th ECARBICA Conference in Nairobi. Publication of National Museums of Kenya.". In: UoN Press. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1980. Abstract

n/a

HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""A Bold Fearless Account of Kenya's Recent Political History", A Review of Joseph Karimi and Philip Ochieng, The Kenyatta Succession, Nairobi (Transafrica) 1980, 195 pages, in Nairobi Times.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1980. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
O PROFORINDADA. "Acute Intermittent Porphyria in an East Africa Female.A.M. Odonga, J. R. Wambwa and D.A.O. Orinda,E. A. Med. Journal Vol. 57, No. 10 p 716, (1980).". In: East Afr Med J. 1980 Oct;57(10):716-9. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1980. Abstract
PMID: 7215256 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Adult Education and Development in Kenya, the Experience of the Kenya Adult Education Association., Proceeding of African Adult Education Association Workshop for National Secretaries and Leaders of Voluntary Associations, Freetown, Sierra Leone, 26th to .". In: Soc Sci Med. 1984;18(5):375-85. SITE; 1980. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Adult Education and its effect on the economics of Primary Health Care. Kenya Journal of Adult Education, Vol. 8, No. 2, September 1980.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1984;18(5):375-85. SITE; 1980. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

M DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "Africa and Diaspora, Teaching Literature in Kenya Schools.Kenya Literature Bureau.". In: UoN Press. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1980. Abstract

n/a

CHANDRA DRSAMANTAPURNA. "Agriculture and Development in Zambia, Economic Affairs, Vol.25, Nos.1 - 3, January-March.". In: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. 103, No. 3., pp. 211-220. Journal of Natural Products; 1980. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "BAMFORD, O.S. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1980) Energy metabolism and heart rate during treadmill exercise in the marabou stork. Journal of Applied Physiology 49, 491-496.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1980. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "Book Review: Traditional Ideology and Ethics Among the Southern Luo, by A.B.C. Acholla-Ayayo in Problems of Developing Countries, No. 80, 1980.". In: The Development of the National Economy Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, 1993. International Union of Crystallography; 1980. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Bureaucracy and Rural Development in Africa,".". In: Indian Journal of Public Administration, Vol. XXVI, No. 2, April-June, pp. 418-442. IPPNW; 1980. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
DANIEL DRNJAI, SAMSON PROFMEMEJULIUS. "Calciferol induced hypercalcemia in renal osteodystrophy. East Afr Med J. 1980 Oct;57(10):712-5. Meme JS, Njai DN, Otieno LS, Kalya R.". In: East Afr Med J. 1980 Oct;57(10):712-5. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1980. Abstract
No abstract available
DANIEL DRNJAI, SAMSON PROFMEMEJULIUS. "Calciferol induced hypercalcemia in renal osteodystrophy. East Afr Med J. 1980 Oct;57(10):712-5. Meme JS, Njai DN, Otieno LS, Kalya R.". In: East Afr Med J. 1980 Oct;57(10):712-5. au-ibar; 1980. Abstract
No abstract available
SAMUEL PROFKIBICHO. ""Challenge from the encouner of christianity and African Religion to the traditional christian idea of Revelation "Collection: African theology, Vol. I, reports of the Yaounde meeting, Ecumenical Association of African Theologians, Yaounder.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 1980. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Changes in China since 1976 in Viva.". In: Special Edition on President Daniel Moi's State to the Peoples Republic of China. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1980. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Changes in China since 1976 in Viva.". In: Special Edition on President Daniel Moi's State to the Peoples Republic of China.; 1980. Abstract

n/a

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. ""Christian Response in Dehumanizing Situation", in The Churches Responding to Racism in the 1980s.".; 1980. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Classification of East African Crops, Nairobi,.". In: Proceedings of the Kenyan Seminar on Agroforestry. ICRAF, Nairobi, pp. 377-386. University of Nairobi Press; 1980. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "CLEMENS, E.T. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (1980) Organic acid concentration and digesta movement in the gastrointestinal tract of the bushbaby and the vervet monkey. Journal of Zoology London 194, 487-497.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1980. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. ""Community Neem Seed Hank Establishment and Processing Neem Products. Annex XV, pp 96.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 1980.
EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Comparison between the response of the predacious mite Amblyseius brazilli and its prey, Tetranychus desertorum to the different IGRs methoprene and dimilin (Acarina: Phytoseiidae:Tetranychidae).Acarologia, 21: 221- 227.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1980. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Congenital Heart Disease - MEDICOM.". In: The African Journal of Hospital Medicine 2. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1980. Abstract
A retrospective study of 42 patients with perforations of the oesophagus during the period 1981-1987 indicated that 57.1% of the perforations were iatrogenic. Diseases of the oesophagus and in contiguous structures and foreign bodies in the oesophagus caused perforations in 31% of the cases. Perforations in 35.7% of the patients were located in the middle third of the oesophagus. The lower and upper thirds were affected in 31% of the patients in each site. The presenting physical signs included tachycardia (78.6%), fever (76.2%) and dyspnoea (59.5%). The main accompanying symptoms were chest pain and coughs in 100% and in 50% of the patients respectively. Radiographic findings showed hydropneumothorax in 40.5% of the cases and consolidation in 38.1% of the patients. Oesophagoscopy was positive in 78% of cases tested while thoracocentesis was positive in all cases that were tested.
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "Convergence of Pad.". In: J. Inst. Maths. Applics. 1980. 25, 17-27. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1980. Abstract
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M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Conversion of Alcohols to Methylene Acetals by Reaction with Dimethyl Sulphoxide-Bromine", J. Org. Chem., 45, 3341-3343.". In: Kenya. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1980. Abstract
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KANYIRI PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA. "David F. Sly, Lenoir Becky, Florida University. Elisha K. Muchunga & Zibeon Muganzi, University of Nairobi.Stability and change in Family size Preference among Rural Youth in Kenya Journal of Modern African Studies Vol. 18,3, 1980.". In: Journal of Modern African Studies Vol. 18,3, 1980. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1980. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Diploma in Adult Education in Kenya, Adult Education and Development, No. 15, Sept. 1980, German Adult Education Association, Bonn.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1984;18(5):375-85. SITE; 1980. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "E. M.W Akunda and D. Kumar. Studies with antitranspiratis on coffee. (Coffee Arabic L.).". In: E. Afr. Agric. For. J. 45(3) 230 . Kisipan, M.L.; 1980. Abstract
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MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD. "E.M. Mathu (1980) .". In: Proceedings of the 9th Internaitonal Conference of the Geological Society of Africa . Kisipan, M.L.; 1980. Abstract
Tala Quarrry in African Geoscience Review Vol. 9 Number 4 pp. 385-396.  
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al. (1980). Veterinary clinical cases from Taita Taveta District Kenya. Veterinarian Journal Vol.83 No. 79 p23 .". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1980. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""East and Central Africa", Journal of Commonwealth Literature 8, 2:14-22.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1980. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Economic Efficiency and the Mechanisation of Small Farms in J.KG Mati Appropriate Mechanisation of Small Farms in africa (Nairobi Kenya National academy with B.A Ateng.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1980. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Economic importance and local use of the Kenyan mangroves.". In: Proceedings of the Kenyan Seminar on Agroforestry. ICRAF, Nairobi, pp. 377-386. University of Nairobi Press; 1980. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "EDDY, E.B., BAMFORD, O.S. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (1980) Ionic regulation in the African catfish (Clarius mossambicus) in water and air. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 66A, 637-641.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1980. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "Edward Norman, Christianity and the World Order, in No. 1, Hekima, Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, Nairobi, No. 1,pp. 149-50."; 1980. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Energy in Africa", Science and Public Policy, 476-479.". In: Nairobi. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1980. Abstract
   
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Food Population and Rural Development in Kenya Progress Policies Problems and Prospects" Chapter 4 in Douglas Ensminger Food Enough or starvation for Millions Tata McGraw Hill,.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1980. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "For Home and Freedom, Authored, Nairobi, Kenya Literature Bureau.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1980. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

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