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1985
El-Banhawy EM, Abou-Awad BA. "Comparison between generations and reproduction of Amblyseius gossipi when maintained on natural diets, Eriophyes dioscoridis or pollen grains and the artificial diet, royal jelly of honey bees (Acari Phytoseiidae : Eriophyidae). Bull. Ent. Soc. Egypt,65:.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1985. Abstract

We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten

El-Banhawy EM, Abou-Awad BA. "Comparison between the toxicity of synthetic pyrethroids and other compounds to the predacious mite, Amblyseius gossipi (Mesostigmata : Phytoseiidae). Exp. Appl. Acarol., 1: 185." Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March.. 1985. AbstractWebsite

We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten

Okeyo AM;, Wanyoike M;, Ruvuna F;, Gichuru WN;, Cartwright TC;, Wachira JD. "Comparison of edible meat yields among different goat breeds and crosses."; 1985.
Okeyo AM;, Wanyoike M;, Ruvuna F;, Gichuru WN;, Cartwright TC;, Wachira JD. "Comparison of edible meat yields among different goat breeds and crosses."; 1985.
Murunga PA, Gichaga FJ, Mawenya AS. "Computation of Deflections and Radii of Curvature of Flexible Road Pavements using Finite Element Method." African Journal of Science and Technology.. 1985;4(No. 2).
Onyari JM. "The concentrations of Mn.". 1985.Website
Ndetei DM. "Content of grandiose phenomenology."; 1985. Abstract

The content of grandiose ideas and delusions in patients of various cultural groups admitted to a London psychiatric hospital were compared. There were no overall differences but certain trends were apparent. It was found that religion was the commonest content of grandiose symptoms in all the groups. Its frequency was higher in the African and Jamaican groups, an observation that can be understood from the cultural background of these groups. The other types of content, namely royals, identity and ability were less frequent in all groups

Omara-Opuene AI, Varma S. "Crosurgery of Bovine Squamuos Cell Carcinoma of the Vulva." Veterinary Record. 1985;117:518-520.
Anyango B;, Keya SO;, Widdowson D;, Wangaruro S;, Mugane C;, Karani FN. "Current Status of Legume Inoculant Production in Kenya.".; 1985.
Yamoah CF;, Mulongoy K;, Agboola AA;, Ssali H;, Keya SO. "Decomposition and nitrogen contribution by prunings of selected legumes in alley cropping."; 1985.
Ayiemba EHO. "Demographic Patterns .". 1985.Website
Ikamari LDE. 'Determinants of Contraceptive Use in Kenya'. Population Studies and Research Institute, University of Nairobi; 1985.
Zander K;, Mburu J. "Determining Right Priorities for Conserving Farm Animal Genetic Resources — The Case of Borana Cattle in East Africa."; 1985. Abstract

Borana cattle have their origin in Southern Ethiopia and Kenya where they are guarded by the Borana-Oromyfa clans in the harsh environment of the Borana plateau. Borana cattle are also the main source of the livestock-keepers’ income and the local people’s cultural identity is formed on the husbandry of these animals. Nowadays the existence of this breed and hence its cultural heritage is threatened due to intensifying crossbreeding among different breeds and eventually dwindling records of pure Borana animals. Conservation of the pure Borana genetic resources is important for future use and enhancement of biodiversity, but financial aid for conservation initiatives is scarce. This study addresses two crucial topics in conservation theory: the question of “which” Borana animals should be conserved and hence deserve priority in funding, and the question of “who” should conserve them. 370 livestock-keepers on the Borana plateau were selected for conducting semi-structured questionnaires and choice experiments. The models were then analysed using NLOGIT 3.0. The first question is driven by the fact that currently three different subtypes of the Borana breed are known and kept on the Borana plateau. Appropriate allocation of funds among them must take place according to their economic and genetic values. Economic values are determined by applying a discrete choice analysis estimating the livestock-keepers’ willingness to pay and relative preferences for different attributes of the Borana cattle. Genetic values depend on two factors, namely the level of extinction probability and the level of marginal genetic diversity. Both factors are incorporated into the model and together with economic values form the total value of Borana cattle and its subtypes. The question of “who” should participate in conservation initiatives requires the consideration of individual livestock-keepers’ characteristics into the model revealing heterogeneity in livestock-keepers’ preferences and willingness to pay for different cattle attributes. A random parameter logit model is used seeking to establish different groups of livestock-keepers that can be targeted for conserving Borana. Results suggest that Borana cattle are particularly important because of their adaptability and performance attributes and that their values vary significantly among livestock keepers with different production systems and in different areas.

Obel AO, W.M KT-, Ellison R.H MM. "Dietary sodium/potassium ratios in salt substitute and its putative significance in essential hypertension." East African Medical Journal. 1985;( 62):507-514.
Okeyo AM;, Kitlit JK;, Ahuya CO;, Ruvuna F;, Cartwright TC. "Disease and prolificacy characteristics of the Galla and East African Breeds at Ol'Magog."; 1985.
McPherson CNL;, Zeyhle, E; Romig T,; Mwangi, M.; Rees P,; McPherson C;, Wachira T;, Cheruiyot H;, Gathura PB;, Gathuma JM;, Kinoti GK. "Echnicoccus – Research for appropriate control techniques for Turkana.".; 1985.
McPherson CNL;, Zeyhle E;, Mwangi M;, Rees P;, McPherson C;, Wachira T;, Cheruiyot H;, Gathura PB;, Gathuma JM;, Romig T;, Kinoti GK. "Echnicoccus – Research for appropriate control techniques for Turkana.".; 1985.
Magambo MJS;, Waithaka K. "The Effect Of Conventional Methods Of Growing Tea On Yields."; 1985. Abstract

Tea bushes are manipulated so as to form strong woody frames with the largest possible plucking surface area. Studies on dry matter production and partitioning of tea bushes have shown that the harvest index is low in old bushes and high in young bushes. The low indexes in old bushes are partly due to large amounts of wood in the primary frame which provide a large cambial sink for photosynthates. Reducing the plant size by maintaining bushes at low heights greatly increased yields per unit area of plucking surface. Thus, maintaining large bushes does not necessarily mean high yields. The impression from dry matter production and partitioning studies is the need for a thorough reinvestigation and revision of the conventional methods of growing tea which encourage the development of unnecessary large amounts of woody tissues.

Rashid K;, Waithaka K. "The effect of phosphorous fertilization on growth and tuberization of sweet potato, ipomoea Batatas L.".; 1985. Abstract

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of phosphorus fertilizer levels on the growth and tuberization of two sweet potato cultivars. P did not cause any significant influence on growth or yield of vines and tubers in either cultivar. Cv. I (Musinya) produced significantly longer and a higher yield of vines than cv. II (Gikanda), but the latter produced a significantly higher yield and number of tubers than the former. There was no significant difference in dry matter accumulation in the tubers of both cultivars at all P levels and the control. However, cv. I accumulated significantly higher dry matter in the vines than cv. II, whereas cv. II accumulated significantly higher dry matter in tubers than cv. I during both seasons but P fertilization did not influence the accumulation.

MCLIGEYO SO. The experience at Kenyatta National Hospital - A Retrospective and Prospective Study.; 1985. Abstract

Forty seven patients with acute renal failure were studied prospectively over a two-year period at the Kenyatta National Hospital. There were 20 males and 27 females. The mortality rate was 40.4%. Most patients had medically oriented problems. Complications that were associated with a high mortality were infections and the presence of neuropsychiatric manifestations.

Shihembetsa LU. Factors in the provision of low income housing a case study of kariobangi .; 1985. Abstract

Housing for the low-income group has been and is still a major problem in the developing countries. More attention has been put on this problem by the world in.the recent years. Kenya being one of the developing countries faces this problem like any other developing country. The population growth rates In third world countries' cities is too high as compared to developed countries. This study looked at the factors in the provision of low-income housing and how these factors hinder the process of provision of shelter. The factors included inter alia, National Housing Policy, Land, Financial Resources, Construction costs and Building standards. These factors were analysed independently in the various chapters of this study and then findings we r e drawn. The findings were used as guidelines for the recommendations made. The study was organised in six chapters. Chapter one was an introduction, giving what the study was all about. Chapter two looked at the National Housing Policy of Kenya pointing out the weaknesses of the policy. The study found that the policy has vague, unrealistic and too ambitious

Abate A;, Kayongo - Male H;, Wanyoike MM. "Fodder for High Potential Areas in Kenya.".; 1985.
Dindi EW. GEOPHYSICAL STUDIES OF ANZA GRABEN, NORTH EASTERN KENYA.; 1985. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Anza Graben is situated in the north and northeastern Kenya. It is about 120 km wide and approximately 600 km long. The area of the present study is located mainly in NE Kenya and constitutes a strike length of about 300 km. The graben is almost entirely sediment filled and is estimated to be of Cretaceous age. It is characterized by a prominent negative Bouguer anomaly reaching -40 mGal.

Several studies were made in an effort to determine its subsurface structure. These involved interpretation of a number of seismic reflection profiles, 3D interactive gravity modelling using fixed density contrasts between the sediment infill and the basement, and the analysis by filtering and modelling of the aeromagnetic data hover the graben. A crustal modelling of refraction data along the western shoulder of the Anza graben using 2D ray tracing was also performed.

Two major basins are recognizable from the results of the studies, namely the southern basin which has a northeasterly dip and the northern basin having a southwesterly one. This alternating asymmetry is also indicated for an adjoining smaller basin located to the west of the graben. The density contrast used for the final gravity model is -300 kg/m3 which indicates a maximum sediment thickness of about 8 km. The modelling of aeromagnetic data however favour a maximum thickness of at least 10km. A 2D refraction crustal P wave model of the western shoulder indicates that the crust thins northwestwards with the Moho depth decreasing from 35 km under Chanler's Falls to approximately under the southeastern shores of Lake Turkana. The abrupt shallowing of the Moho in the Lake Turkana area is attributed to the effects of the Kenya Rift Valley. However the gentle variation in the Moho depth along the remaining section of the shoulder of Anza Graben appears to depict a regional phenomenon also attributable to the formation of the Kenya Rift Valley. It is proposed from the study that sections of the graben shoulder are underlain by slightly denser rocks and that the crustal thinning associated with Anza Graben is not significant.

Waithaka K. "Growth And Runner Production Of Everbearing Strawberries In Kenya."; 1985. Abstract

Strawberry production in the tropics is hampered by lack of enough propagative material. Propagation in Kenya is mainly by crown division because the continuous short day condition in the tropics does not favour enough runner production. Physical manipulation of the parent plants proved a little beneficial in runner production in two everbearing cultivars. Defoliation of the older leaves promoted runner production in Turft and Tioga. This resulted in an increase of daughter plants for propagation. Defoliation had no influence in all cultivars used in the study. Deblossoming promoted runner production in Turft, but failed in Tioga and Aiko. Defoliation and deblossoming or a combination of the two treatments failed to promote runner production in Aiko.

MCLIGEYO SO. Haemodialysis - The Experience At Kenyatta National Hospital - A Retrospective And Prospective Study.; 1985. Abstract

Forty seven patients with acute renal failure were studied prospectively over a two-year period at the Kenyatta National Hospital. There were 20 males and 27 females. The mortality rate was 40.4%. Most patients had medically oriented problems. Complications that were associated with a high mortality were infections and the presence of neuropsychiatric manifestations.

Ojwang PJ;, Ogada T;, Webber BB;, Wilson JB;, Huisman TH. "Hb Savaria or alpha2 (49)(CE7)Ser----Arg beta2 in an indigenous female from Kenya.". 1985.
Lule GN;, Okoth F;, Ogutu EO;, Mwai SJ. "HBV markers (HBsAg, HBSAb, HBCAb in 160 medical students at Kenyatta National Hospital.". 1985. Abstract

In an exercise to study the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the Engerix B vaccine, 160 medical students were screened for Hepatitis B Markers (HBsAg, HBsAb and HBcAb) with a view to vaccinating those that were negative. 18% were HBsAg + ve, 33% were HBsAb + ve and 38% were positive for the HBcAb. These figures were extremely high and obviated the need to vaccinate the students as they begin their clinical years

Chrysant, SG; Gollub DMI; BIS; DKJRS; R;. "Hemodynamic and metabolic effects of enalapril in patients with heart failure.". 1985. Abstract

Placebo and enalapril were added on a double-blind basis to conventional treatment in 14 patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), New York Heart Association class II-III. The patients were followed for 14 weeks and their performance was evaluated by a treadmill test, ejection fraction by nuclear scan, cardiothoracic ratio, and Yale Scale score. Metabolic studies were done to test any adverse effects of the drugs. Enalapril decreased arterial pressure and cardiothoracic ratio, and increased ejection fraction. Placebo exerted no significant effects. However, both drugs improved treadmill time and Yale Scale score. No adverse metabolic or clinical effects were observed with either drug. Based on these limited observations we conclude that: Enalapril is a useful ancillary agent to conventional treatment of CHF; it exerts its effects through afterload and preload reduction; and it is safe and well tolerated and has a prolonged duration of action.

de Cock, K. M; Hodgen LSLRAN; JE;. "Hepatosplenic schistosomiasis in Kenya: an assessment of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).". 1985. Abstract

Sera from 124 adult Kenyan patients with chronic splenomegaly and from 93 geographically matched controls without splenomegaly were tested for evidence of Schistosoma mansoni infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ova of S. mansoni were detected on stool or rectal snip examination in 23.4% of all patients, whereas 57.3% had a positive ELISA. All patients with parasitological or histological evidence of schistosomal infection had a positive ELISA, and a negative test reliably excluded schistosomiasis. On the basis of liver histology, 23 patients (18.5%) were considered to have hepatosplenic schistosomiasis, of whom 17 (73.9%) had a positive stool or snip. The ELISA was positive in 47.5% of cases of non-schistosomal splenomegaly, and in 52.7% of apparently normal controls. This high seropositive rate in the latter two groups emphasizes that schistosomal infection does not signify disease, and limits the diagnostic value of the test in individual cases of splenomegaly. Marked tribal and, therefore geographical, differences were noted in the prevalence of infection.

Adam, A.M; Rogers HJ, Bradbrook ID;, Rogers HJ. "High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for simultaneous estimation of aminoglutethimide and acetylaminoglutethimide in biological fluids.". 1985. Abstract

A simple rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for simultaneous estimation of aminoglutethimide and its acetylated metabolite acetylamidoglutethimide in plasma, saliva, and urine is described. This assay is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies in normal subjects and patients receiving other medication in addition to aminoglutethimide.

I.O. Kibwage (1985). A study on new metabolites of streptomyces erythreus and on the metabolism of erythromycin. Doctor of Pharmaceutical Sciences Thesis, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium..; 1985. Abstract

The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.

"I.O. Kibwage , G. Janssen, E. Roets, J. Hoogmartens and H. Vand erhaeghe. Isolation of erythromycins and related substances f rom fermentation residues of Streptomyces erythreus by high performance liquid chromatography on silica gel. ." J. Chromatogr. . 1985;346:309-319. Abstract

Preparative high-performance liquid chromatography on silica gel allows the
isolation of erythromycins and related substances from mother-liquor concentrates.
Three mobile phases were used consecutively: A. ethyl acetate-methanol-25% ammonia
(100:8: I, v v); B. diethyl ether-methanol-25% ammonia (100:7: I. vjv) and C.
dichloromethane-methanol-25% ammonia (100:5:0.5. v v), The separation and purification
was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography. Thirteen pure substances were
isolated among which are erythromycins A. S, C and D. 8,9-anhydroerythromycin
A-6.9-hemiketal. erythromycins A and C-6.9;6.12-spiroketals and N-demethylerythromycin
A-6.9:9,12-spiroketaL

"I.O. Kibwage , J. Hoogmartens, E. Roets, H. Vanderhaeghe, L. Ver bist, M. Dubost, C. Pascal, P. Petitjean and G. Levol. Antibacterial activity of erythromycins A,B,C and D and some of their derivatives. J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 28(5) : 630 - 633.". 1985. Abstract

The MICs of erythromycins A, B, C, and D and some of their derivatives wcrc determined against 21
gram-positive and 15 gram-negative microorganisms. Antibacterial activity was conlined 10 gram-positive and
very few gram-ncgative bacteria. Erythromycin It was somewhat less active than crythromycin A, and
erythromycin C and D showed about half Ihal activity or even less. Most olher derivatives had negligible
activity. Determination of potency by diffusion and turbidimetric assays were in line with MICs. The
cxuminauon of Ihe results of these assays, however, revealed that Ihere are differences between thc data of
dittcrent laboratories, depending on the microorganisms and conditions used,

Omara-Opuene AI, Varma S. "Immunotherapy of Bovine Squamous Cell Carcinoma." Kenya Veterianarian. 1985;9(1):25-28.
Sinei KA;, Mwangi JW;, Munenge RM;, Mwaura AM. "An In Vitro Study On The Oxytocic Action Of Adenia Globosa Engl.". 1985.
Magoha GAO. "Incidental carcinoma in surgically resected prostates in Nigerians. ." Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine. 1985;(3):9-12. Abstract

A histological analysis of 306 prostates resected for benign hyperplasis at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital revealed incidental carcinoma in 10.46% by routine sectioning technique. Carcinoma in situ of the prostate accounted for 59.4%, well differentiated adenocarcinoma 18.7%, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma 9.4% each, and squamous cell carcinoma 3.1.%. Treatment was expectant for carcinoma in situ while stilboestrol and or orchidectomy was used for all other histological types. The results show that expectant treatment is effective and adequate for in situ carcinoma, and that poorly differentiated and undifferentiated prostatic carcinoma has poor prognisis compared to well differentiated carcinoma after similar treatment

Magoha GAO. "Incidental carcinoma in surgically resected prostates in Nigerians.(3): 9-12, 1985.." Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine . 1985;(3):9-12. Abstract

A histological analysis of 306 prostates resected for benign hyperplasis at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital revealed incidental carcinoma in 10.46% by routine sectioning technique. Carcinoma in situ of the prostate accounted for 59.4%, well differentiated adenocarcinoma 18.7%, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma 9.4% each, and squamous cell carcinoma 3.1.%. Treatment was expectant for carcinoma in situ while stilboestrol and or orchidectomy was used for all other histological types. The results show that expectant treatment is effective and adequate for in situ carcinoma, and that poorly differentiated and undifferentiated prostatic carcinoma has poor prognisis compared to well differentiated carcinoma after similar treatment

Magambo MJS;, Waithaka K. "The Influence Of Plant Density On Dry Matter Production And Partitioning And Yield In Young Clonal Tea In Kenya."; 1985. Abstract

Dry matter production and partitioning and yields in clonal tea bushes planted at 3 different spacings (0.30 x 0.30 m; 0.61 x 0.61 m; and 1.22 x 1.22m) and brought into plucking at 2 different heights (0.25 m and 0.50 m) were investigated. After 36 months of growth the bushes at close spacing (0.30 x 0.30 m) produced 1.1 and 2 times dry matter than bushes grown at medium (0.61 x 0.61 m) and wide (1.22 x 1.22 m) spacings, respectively. The bushes at close spacing had less leaf percentage of total dry matter than those at medium and wide spacings. However, the bushes at wide spacing had less frame percentage of total dry matter than those at close spacing. There were no significant differences in the root percentages between bushes at the 3 spacings. The harvest index of the bushes grown at close spacing was 13% and 16% higher than those of the bushes at medium and wide spacings, respectively. Similarly, bushes at close spacing produced yields 2 and 3 times more than bushes at medium and wide spacings, respectively. The bushes at wide spacing had significantly higher leaf/frame ratio than those bushes at close spacing. Lowering the plucking surface height reduced total dry matter in all bushes grown at the 3 spacings. The results suggest that the harvest index and yields of tea bushes can be greatly increased by reducing the size of individual bushes through increasing plant density per unit area.

Gichaga FJ, Rangasami KS. "Introduction To Building And Civil Engineering Drawing."; 1985.
Bell, TM; Tukei PM; AGR; MFM; GGW; MJM; KMHDT; AP; J; J, et al. "Investigation of the effectiveness of measles vaccination in children in Kenya.". 1985. Abstract

Laboratory studies were performed on 128 children clinically diagnosed as measles when seen at the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kenyatta National Hospital (IDH), Nairobi (86 cases) and the Rural Health Training Centre, Maragua, Central Province (42 cases) between 9 July and 31 August 1984. A concurrent measles infection was confirmed in 95% of the children seen at IDH and in 85% of those seen at Maragua, with similar proportions of confirmations in children who had, and who had not, received measles vaccine. No differences in the number of sero-conversions nor in the absolute levels of acute or convalescent HI antibody titres could be detected between vaccinated and unvaccinated children. Analysis of the cases seen at Maragua indicates that about two thirds of the children who had received vaccine were protected. A pilot study of vaccinating children at 8 months and again at 12-13 months is suggested in an attempt to eradicate measles

MUGA JACOBNYAMILA. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE MOTOR VEHICLE INSURANCE PREMIUMS IN KENYA (1966 – 1981). Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1985. Abstract

This was an exploratory study to investigate some of the factors that influence motor vehicle premiums. The factors that were chosen for investigation were the number of accidents, the amount of claims paid and the number of operating vehicles (licensed).
These factors were chosen after reading through some press reports. They are not usually included directly in underwriting and rating factors considered by motor vehicle insurers.
The main objectives of the study were:-
1. To investigate the extent of the relationship between motor vehicle insurance premiums and motor vehicle accidents.
2. To investigate the extent of the relationship between motor vehicle insurance and claims incurred.
3. To investigate the extent of the relationship between motor vehicle insurance premiums and the number of cars licensed to operate.
The findings were that there is no significant relationship between motor insurance premiums and the number of accidents. There was also no significant relationship between motor insurance premiums and the number of vehicles operating. But there was quite a significant relationship between motor insurance premiums and claims incurred.

Ruvuna F;, Cartwright TC;, Okeyo AM. "The Kenya Dual-Purpose Goats: its development and utility."; 1985.
Kabira WM, Adagala K. Kenyan oral literature : a selection.; 1985.Website
Kabira WM, Adagala K. Kenyan oral literature : a selection.; 1985.Website
Kabira WM, Adagala K. Kenyan oral narratives.; 1985.Website
Wahome EW. Later Iron Age in Nyeri District, Kenya.. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 1985.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Les Classes Sociales en Afrique de Iquest Pre-Coloniale in He-CHI Revue dEtudes Francaises de Iuniversite de Nairobi.". In: P. 47-53 Editorship: African in Time Perspective. Weekly Radio Talks on African History, V.O.K. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1985. Abstract

The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.

Waithaka K. "Liatris forcing in Kenya."; 1985.
Klauss, V; Bhatt SM. "Lipaemia retinalis: a case report.". 1985.
NZUVE SNM. Management Decision - Making: The Debate About Workers Participation. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 1985.
Mbugua SK. "Mbugua."; 1985.
Ndetei DM. "Mental Health at Primary Care.". 1985.
M ENGDROGOLAJULIUS. "National workshop on farm tools and equipment technology, basic needs and employment, Nairobi, Kenya 15.". In: E.A. Medical J. 58: 593-600. The Kenya Medical Association; 1985. Abstract

The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.

Keya SO, Ssali H. "Nitrogen level and cultivar effects on nodulation, dinitrogen fixation and yield of grain legumes: I. Cowpea cultivars.". 1985. Abstract

N fixation was studied by the 15N method in Vigna unguiculata cv. ERI-2, Vita 4 and Machakos 74 grown in a field which had been fallow for 3 years and given 20 or 100 kg N/ha. The higher N rate reduced nodulation in all cv., with effects differing somewhat between cv., and increased DM and N yield/plant and uptake of non-fertilizer soil N, with least and greatest effect in cv. ERI-2 and Machakos 74, resp. The amount of N fixed was 50.5, 73.7 and 60.7 kg/ha at the low N rate and was 69.7, 74.5 and 100% lower at the high N rate in the 3 cv., resp.

J.N.Muriuki. Non-linear prognoses of Markov's process. Kharkov,; 1985.
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "P. M. F. Mbithi (1985) The use of skin grafts in the treatment of wounds of the distal limbs in cattle; M.Sc.Thesis in Clinical Studies, University of Nairobi.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1985. Abstract

Five plasters and one fiberglass casting bandages available on the Kenyan market were evaluated for breaking strength and resistance to abrasion. Under the test conditions, scotch cast was found to be 2.6 times stronger than the strongest plaster of Paris preparation when the load per unit thickness was compared and was significantly different from the plaster casts in terms of maximum load (p=0.0001). Among the plaster products, there were significant statistical differences (p=0.029) in maximum strength with Helm and Plasrum-gyps withstanding the greatest load. Scotchcast was the most resistant to abrasion while among the plaster product, Salvaplast and POP-Nairobi Enterprises showed satisfactory resistance Heal, Plasrun-gyps and Veronese proved least resistant under the testing conditions.

OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Pamba H.O. and Kioni P.:Comparison of Ameobic Latex Slide Agglutination and Indirect Haemagglutination Tests in the Diagnosis of Invasive Amoebiasis.Medcom 7: 7, 1985.". In: Medcom 7: 7, 1985. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1985. Abstracteffectiveness_of_latex_agglutination_slide_test_in_the_diagnosis_of_imported.pdf

This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.

N.M.Monyonko. "THE PHASE SPACE DISTRIBUTIONS AND THE CORRESPONDENCE PRINCIPLE." KENYA JOURNAL OF SCIENCE ,SERIES A. 1985;11(2):9-13.
Ayiemba EHO. "The Physical Background.". 1985.Website
Magoha GAO. Primary carcinoma of the prostate in Nigerians as seen at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. . Lagos: Lagos University Teaching Hospital; 1985. Abstract

A prospective study of serial serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations was made on 21 patients who had received renal allografts. CRP was raised during 27 of 32 rejection episodes and in all of five episodes of rejection associated with infection. CRP values were persistently elevated in three irreversible rejection episodes. Significantly raised CRP concentrations were documented in 14 of 20 episodes of infection. In some cases CRP was a predictive indicator of rejection or infection. In all cases of infection or rejection associated with a rise in CRP, CRP values fell following successful treatment with appropriate agents. Serial CRP measurement used in conjunction with other clinical and biochemical parameters appears to be valuable clinically following renal transplantation.

Oyugi WO;, Leonard DK. "Procedures for decentralized programming, budgeting and work planning: Lessons from Kenyan mistakes.". 1985. AbstractWebsite

In 1980 Kenya's Ministry of Agriculture instituted a new Management Manual, designed to improve the quality of district participation in programme identification, budgeting and implementation. Despite the fact that the Manual drew on modern programme budgeting techniques and was based on several years' experience with the management of Kenya's multi-district Integrated Agricultural Development Project, the new procedures have not taken hold. This experience is analysed in order to suggest lessons for the reform of management procedures elsewhere in the developing world.

Guthua SW. "protection against AIDS." (1985).
Mitaru BN, Reichert RD, Blair R. "Protein and Amino Acid Digestibilities for Chickens of Reconstituted and Boiled Sorghum Grains Varying in Tannin Contents.". 1985. Abstract

Two high and one low tannin sorghum type grains were used to study the effect of reconstitution (high moisture storage) and boiling treatments of the grain on protein and amino acid digestibilities. One lot of the grains was untreated. The second lot was reconstituted by adding distilled water at a 25% level (w/w) and stored for 20 days at 25 C with an acetic-propionic acid mixture added at 2% to deter fungal growth. The third lot of the grains was boiled in distilled water for 50 min. The true ileal protein and amino acid digestibilities of the treated grains for broiler chickens were determined. The high tannin sorghum cultivars showed protein digestibility values of 45.5 and 66.7% and the low tannin sorghum had a value of 89.9%. The amino acid digestibility values ranged from 43.1 to 73.7% and 84.8 to 93.0% in high and low tannin sorghums, respectively. Reconstitution improved (P<.05) the protein and amino acid digestibilities in high, but not low, tannin sorghums. The reconstituted high tannin sorghums showed protein digestibilities of 77.4 and 84.5% and the amino acid digestibilities ranged from 73.5 to 90.9%. Boiling treatment had a detrimental effect on the protein and amino acid digestibilities in both high and low tannin sorghums. The protein digestibility values of boiled high tannin sorghums were 25.4 and 46.9% and the amino acid digestibility values ranged from 21.1 to 62.8%. The boiled low tannin sorghum had a protein digestibility value of 58.4% and the amino acid digestibility values ranged from 54.2 to 74.0%.

NZUVE SNM. Recruitment - Organization and Individuals Attracting and Rettaining Each Other. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 1985.
Mr.Ikinya. Replacement Models in Developing Countries. University of Lancaster ,UK; 1985.
and Mukras, M.S. OBJOM. "Resource Mobilization and Household Economy in Kenya." Canadian Journal of African Studies. 1985;19(2):409-421.
Patel, NB XZ-p, et al. "Response of nerve growth cone to focal electric currents." J. Neuroscience Res. 1985;13:245-256.
Njokah JMM. Review Of Omphaloceles (Exomphalos) In Kenyatta National Hospital 1976-1985.; 1985. Abstract

A retrospective study of the omphlocele has been done. The study was carried out at Kenyatta National Hospital which is the referral hospital for the Republic of Kenya and the teaching hospital for the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Nairobi.

This study covers a ten year period from 1976 ~ 194.

A total of 34 cases have been studied. The yearly incidence has 'heen static notwithstanding our high populati~n growth.

Among the 34 cases there were 18 males and 16

females. Of the 34 cases there were 19 survivals arid15 deaths.

12 deaths (80%) among the 15 followed early surgery.

Only 3 patients ha.dsurgery among 19 survivals. Tne 'major cause of death (6 out of 12) among the surgical cases was respiratory complications. Surgery had been performed within
1-3 days of birth.

Surgical management consisted of excision and repair of the o,mphalocele. Non-surgical regime entailed painting
i'
the omphalocele with mercurochrome (1 patient) or simply

daily clensing with antiseptics followed by sofratule
",
dressing (18 patients).

5

Complication of the ~mphaloceles occured in ~ cases only (Table 4). Malformations co-existing with omphalocele occured in 12 cases of which 7 died. In our series non-surgical regime produced more survival (84.2%) 16 out of 19

Samanta P. "SADCC Mining Sector Five - year Strategy, 1986 - 90.". In: Mining Sector Coordinating Unit. Lusaka, Zambia; 1985.
Mirza NB, Wamola IA. "Salmonella typhimurium outbreak at Kenyatta National Hospital (1985).". 1985. Abstract

A total of 560 Salmonellae species were isolated from Jan-Dec 1985. Of these, 347 (62%) were from blood cultures, 180 (32%) from stools and 33 (6%) were from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and other body aspirates. S. typhimurium were the highest isolated. These were, 291 (52%) from blood cultures, 94 (17%) from stool cultures and 32 (6%) from CSF. S. typhimurium was also multi-drug resistant. More than 50% strains of S. typhimurium were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, kanamycin and chloramphenicol. The need for coordination between the laboratory and clinical staff to prevent the spill-over of infection with S. typhimurium and its epidemic spread is discussed.

Kibwage IO, Roets E, Hoogmartens J, Vanderhaeghe H. "Separation of erythromycin and related substances by high-performance liquid chromatography on poly (styrene-divinylbenzene) packing materials.". 1985. Abstract

A comparative evaluation of three brands of polyrstyrene-divinylbenzene) co¬polymers, Hamilton PRP-I (10 ,um), Rogel (8 ,um) and TSK-Gel (10 Jim), as column packing materials for high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of eryth¬romycins is presented. Erythromycins A, Band C, anhydroerythrornycin A, eryth¬rornycin A enol ether, Nvdcmcthylerythromycin A, anhydro Nvdemethylerythro¬myci n A and Nvdemethylerythromycin A enol ether were chromatographed. The effects of column temperature, concentration of organic modifier in the mobile phase, concentration of phosphate buffer, the addition of quaternary ammonium salts and pH are described. The best separations were obtained on TSK-Gel with the mobile phase acetonunle-methanot-uz M tetramethylammonium hydroxide pH 8.0-0.2 M phosphate buffer pH 8.0-water (30:15:25:5:25). PRP-l and Rogel gave equally good separations but with higher retention volumes .

E.N. PN. "Sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya.". 1985. Abstract

Kenya Nurs J. 1985 Dec;13(2):5-9.
Sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya.
Ronald AR, Ngugi EN, Da Costa.
PMID:
3854890
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Chandravanshi BS, Yenesew A, Kebed Z. "Simultaneous determination of iron(III) and vanadium(V) with N-phenylcinnamohydroxamic acid and thiocyanate by extraction-spectrophotometry.". 1985. AbstractWebsite

N-Phenylcinnarnohydroxamic acid (PCHA) reacts with iron(III) and vanadium(V) in the presence of thiocyanate to form water-insoluble orange and green complexes, respectively. The iron(III)-PCHA and vanadium(V)-PCHA-thiocyanate complexes can be quantitatively extracted into toluene and other common organic solvents at pH 1.5–2.0. The absorption spectra and composition of both complexes are described. The effects of foreign ions and of experimental variables on the extraction and determination of the two metal ions are studied. A simple, selective method is described for the simultaneous determination of iron(III) and vanadium(V) by extraction-spectrophotometry; absorbances are measured at 440 and 580 nm. Mixtures can be determined over the range 10−4–10−5 M in each metal. The method was applied successfully to the analysis of standard steels for iron and vanadium.

Adolf W, Dossaji SF, Seip EH, Hecker E. "Skin irritant deterpene orthoesters of the daphanane type fropm Peddiea africana and P. Volkensii,." Phytochemistry. 1985;24:2047-2049. AbstractWebsite

From roots of Peddiea volkensii (Thymelaeaceae) the irritant factors and and from roots of P. africana
the irritant factor Aj were isolated. Their structures are the 9,13,14-ort/io-(2,4,6-decatrienoates) of 5/8-
hydroxyresiniferonol-6a,7a-oxide (Vi) and of 5^,12iS-dihydroxyresiniferonol-6a,7a-oxide (Aj) and the 12-0-acetate of the latter (Vj). Factors V i and do not exhibit tumour-promoting activity in the standard initiation-promotion protocol on mouse skin, although is a moderate irritant.

Ayiemba EHO. "Socio Strata and Categories .". 1985.Website
DR. Ogola ESN. Some Aspects Of Dilated Cardiomyopathy As Seen At Kenyatta National Hospital With Emphasis On Echocadiographic Features.; 1985. Abstract

A total of 37 patients were studied, 16 males and 21 females. The ages ranged from 13-78 (mean!
Almost all the males (except

one) were 30 years and above, while the females showed a peak in the twenties followed by another from the fifties.
A11 the patients presented in severe heart

failure, most (81%) being in New York Heart

Association (NYHA) class 4. Third heart sound

was universal, while murmur of mitral regurgitation was heard in about two thirds. Chest pain was present in 10 patients (27%) but only in one case was it angina-like. Embolic phenomena occured in two patients, both in association with pregnancy.
Mean rate(velocity) of circumferential fibre

shortening (Mean Vcf) was depressed in a~l patients, range, 0018-0095 circ/sec, Mean ± 5.0, = 0048
+ 0.22 circ/sec.

Electrocardiographic abnormalities were present in all except one patient. ST - T changes were the most common (64.9%), followed by left bundle branch
block (LBBE) (24.3%)0

- 5 -

No single case of atrial fibrillation was seene

Pregnancy was a strong contributory factor

in the female population, being associated in

52% of the caseSe

Association with alcohol was observed

exclusively in the males. There was association in 6205% of the maleso
Elevated blood pressure was found in 6

patients (l6.20/0)e

Ochoro WE. "Some social costs of sugar production in Kenya.". In: seminar on Incentives for increased agricultural production: the case of Ken ya’s sugar industry, Kenyas Min isry of Agriculture and Livestock D evelopment with Friedrich Ebert Foundation. Kericho, Kenya; 1985.
Ongore D. A Study Of Malaria On The Kano Plains, Kisumu District, Kenya: A Community Study Of Currrent Knowledge, Attitudes And Control Practises; Parasite And Spleen Rates; Mosquito Bionomics And The Feasability Of Vector-control At The Community Level.; 1985. Abstract

A Study of Malaria on the Kano Plains, Kisumu District,
Kenya was carried out between April and August, 1985. The
study included the following:-
1. A Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) Survey
was conducted, it covered 187 households, representing 20%
of the total households in the study area. The responses
were analysed using the Statistical Packages for the Social
Sciences (SPSS) system on the ICL 2950 computer. In general
knowledge about malaria was found to be good, however knowledge
about the life cycle and habits of the mosquito was
found to be poor. Various plants with possible insecticidal
and/or repellent action were mentioned and are discussed.
2. During a clinical and parasitological survey 1216
people of all ages were examined for malaria parasites and

414 children aged 2-9 years were examined for splenomegaly
as well. Malaria was found to be highly endemic in the area
with an 84.1% parasite rate in children aged 2-9 years ..The

spleen rate in the same age group was found to be 50.2%. The

results and further analysis are given and fully discussed.
3. The Entomological Survey was base¢ upon six selected

collection stations. A total of 599 adult mosquitoes and

424 mosquito larvae were collected. All the import ant local
vectors of malaria were found in the area. In addition many
nuisance mosquitoes and potential arbovirus vectors were
found breeding. The species distribution is analysed and
discussed.

4. The validity of clinicaldiagnosis in malaria was
studied by comparing the clinical and blood film findings
in 1216 subjects. 43 people were found with symptoms
suggestive of clinical malaria. The practical usefulness
of clinical diagnosis is discussed on the basis of these
findings.
5. An Intervention Strategy is described based upon
the survey findings. The feasibility of·vector control at
community level is explored with emphasis on environmental
measures and the use of local resources.

WHITELAW, D.D., KAAYA, G.P., MOULTON, J.E., Moloo SK, MURRAY M. "Susceptibility of different breeds of goats in Kenya to experimental infection with Trypanosoma congolense. ." Tropical Animal Health and Production . 1985;17:155-165.
N.M.Monyonko, J.H.REID. "TEST OF QCD CORRECTIONS IN THE PROCESS q anti-q-w-gamma(jet)." Z.PHYSIK. 1985;C29(C):381-.
Abou-awad, B. A, El-Banhawy EM. "Toxicity of the organophosphate, methamidophos and pyridaphenthion, the synthetic pyrethroid, cypermethrin, and the systemic fungicide fenarimol to the adult and egg stages of the datura mite, Eriophyes datura (Acari : Eriophyidae). Bull. Ent. Soc. Egypt,.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1985. Abstract

We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten

Gichaga FJ. "Transportation in Large Towns of Kenya." Journal, Institution of Engineers of Kenya. 1985:29-31.
OLIECH JS. "Ureteric injuries at KNH (6 years experience) Assoc. of Surgeons of E.A. proceedings Dec. 1985.". In: Assoc. of Surgeons of E.A. proceedings Dec. 1985. PROF.J.S.OLIECH; 1985. Abstract

No abstract yet

Matanji P. Use of the off-the-shelf software in housekeeping activities in academic Libraries in Australia.. Australia.: RMIT, Department of Librarianship.; 1985.
SAMSON PROFMEMEJULIUS. "Visceral Leishmaniasis unresponsive to antimonial drugs: Clinical and Immunological studies. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. 79, 705, 1985. Bryceson A., Chullay J., May H. O., Mugambi J., Were J., Meme J.S. and Anabani G.". In: Clin. Invest. Med. 9: 14, 1986. au-ibar; 1985. Abstractvisceral_leishmaniasis_unresponsive_to_antimonial_drugs.pdf

Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Pulmonary oedema is a common sign of East Coast fever (ECF, Theileria parva infection) of cattle. A trial was conducted on farms in Uganda to compare a product containing both the antitheilerial compound parvaquone and the diuretic compound frusemide with one containing only parvaquone, in the treatment of ECF. The trial involved 40 clinical cases of ECF, some of them complicated by other infections, in cattle of all ages and on several farms. Confirmed cases were treated with either parvaquone+frusemide (P+F) or parvaquone alone (P). Survival after treatment with P+F was 77% compared with 71% with P. Five of the 10 fatalities were complicated cases. The cure rate for severe but uncomplicated ECF was 89% with P+F and 40% with P. Pulmonary signs were resolved within 24-48 h after treatment with P+F and clinical recovery was noticeably more rapid than with P. The antiparasitic effect of the two treatments was similar. P+F could be particularly useful when reporting, diagnosis or laboratory confirmation of ECF is delayed, because advanced cases are more likely to be encountered under these circumstances.

N.M.Monyonko, J.H.REID. "WHAT IS CHARGE RADIUS OF A NEUTRINO." PROGRESS IN THEORETICAL PHYSICS,. 1985;73:734-.
Varma S. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal. Nairobi: Kenya Veterinary Association; 1985.
Mwega F. "`The Incidence of Taxes and Transfers in Kenya: A General Equilibrium analysis'." Eastern Africa Economic Review. 1985;Vol 2(No 1).
M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "1985 - Retrospective study of morality in malaria during 1984 - 1985 at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). GBA Okelo, AK Kemtai, Bhatt K. M. .EAMJ Vol. 64 pg 21.". In: EAMJ Vol. 64 pg 21. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1985. Abstract
Rat bite fever has not been reported from Kenya previously. A case of 17 year old Kenyan male who was diagnosed to have rat bite fever after a bite of domestic rat is described. The history, clinical features and demonstration of spirillum like organisms from a thick blood film suggest infection due to spirillum minus. The patient recovered completely after a course of penicillin and gentamicin.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1985, February 1-4, Workshop on "The Role of The Judiciary In Plural Society", Eldoret, Kenya.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1985.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, I. D. Bradbrook, H. J. Rogers: The simultaneous assay of aminoglutethimide and Its acetyl metabolite by high performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology . 15: 176-178, 1985.". In: Journal of Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology . 15: 176-178, 1985. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1985. Abstract
A simple rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for simultaneous estimation of aminoglutethimide and its acetylated metabolite acetylamidoglutethimide in plasma, saliva, and urine is described. This assay is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies in normal subjects and patients receiving other medication in addition to aminoglutethimide
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM. And H. J. Rogers: Gas-liquid chromatographic assay of aminoglutethimide And high-performance liquid chromatographic assay of its acetyl metabolite in biological Fluids. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1985;15(2):176-8.". In: Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1985;15(2):176-8. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1985. Abstract
A simple rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for simultaneous estimation of aminoglutethimide and its acetylated metabolite acetylamidoglutethimide in plasma, saliva, and urine is described. This assay is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies in normal subjects and patients receiving other medication in addition to aminoglutethimide
SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "A.B.C. Ocholla-Ayayo and J. Akong'a - Eds. Family change and human development in Kenya Fertility, Mortality and Culture.". In: Gideon S. Were Press, Nairobi. Taylor & Francis; 1985. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
ABDEL PROFMALEKADELKAMEL. "Abdel Malek AK, Mukherjee D, Roche AF. 1985. A method of constructing an index of obesity. Hum. Biol. 57(3):415-430. USA.". In: Hum. Biol. 57(3):415-430. USA. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1985. Abstract
A sample of 166 normal adult males and females was taken from different colleges of Assiut representing those living in upper Egypt. Each subject has been studied for measurements of stature (S), hand length (HL) and hand breadth (HB). The data were statistically analysed in order to assess the relationship between stature and hand measurements. The correlation matrix of the study indicates close similarity of the relationship between stature and hand measurements in both sexes and in both sides. A generalized multiple regression equation has been designed to estimate stature from values of hand length and hand breadth regardless of sex or side in the form: S = 34.5 + 5.77 HL + 2.7 HB +/- 5.1. This equation may be helpful to obtain approximate stature when there is difficulty in obtaining a direct measurement or where there is a chance print of a criminal or an amputated hand or arm.
E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "Abstract of papers and posters. First International Conference on Geomorphology Manchester, 15-21 December.". In: John Wiley & Sons. Publishers Chichester. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1985. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Abwao, S.M., Wilson, A.J. and Munyua W.K. (1985): the economic effect of Trypanosomiasis in a herd of boran cattle. Kenya Veterinarian 9 (1): 14-17.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1985. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Abwao, S.M., Wilson, A.J. and Munyua W.K. (1985): the economic effect of Trypanosomiasis in a herd of boran cattle. Kenya Veterinarian 9 (1): 14-17.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey.; 1985. Abstract
n/a
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. The need for a new approach to fertilizer use and Food Production in the Less Developed Countries. Contributed Paper IAAE Occasional Paper No.4. Agriculture and Economic Instability, IAAE Conference, Malaga, Spain, 26th August - 4th Sept.". In: Contributed Paper IAAE Occasional Paper No.4. Agriculture and Economic Instability, IAAE Conference, Malaga, Spain, 26th August - 4th September,1985. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1985.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C., Q. Paris and W. A. Williams (1985). "Nutrient Non-Substitution in Crop Response. A Non -Nested Hypothesis Test". Working Paper No. 85-4, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of California, Davis.". In: A Non -Nested Hypothesis Test". Working Paper No. 85-4, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of California, Davis. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1985.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C., Q. Paris, William A. Williams (1985). Testing a Von Liebig Crop Response Function against Polynomial Specifications. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 67 No.4.". In: Testing a Von Liebig Crop Response Function against Polynomial Specifications. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 67 No.4. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1985.
Shilo S, Werner D, Hershko C. "Acute hemolytic anemia caused by severe hypophosphatemia in diabetic ketoacidosis." Acta Haematologica. 1985;73:55-57. Abstract

Hypophosphatemia in diabetic ketoacidosis is well recognized, but is believed to be usually of moderate severity. We describe 2 patients in whom acute hemolytic anemia secondary to severe (0.19-0.35 mmol/l) hypophosphatemia has developed 1-2 days following treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis. Our experience indicates that severe hypophosphatemia requiring phosphate supplementation does occur in diabetic patients, and calls for increased awareness for the clinical and laboratory manifestations of this complication of diabetic ketoacidosis.

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Advanced Study Companion to "A Grain of Wheat," Nairobi: Heinemann.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1985. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Agriculture Development Council activities in Aasia Lessons for Kenya Report to the ADC the Ford Foundation and the University of Nairobi. Written with W.M Mwnagi S.E. Migot-Adholla and G.M Ruigu.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1985. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. ""An excrept from a long poem titled "TheVillage Bride" Published inMusings a Massey Univeristy literary journal.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1985. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
MUNGAI DRMBUGUAPAUL. "Anderson A J Harvey A L and Mbugua P M (1985): Effects of fasciculin 2, an anticholinesterase polypeptide from green mamba venom, on neuromuscular transmission in mouse diaphragm preparations Neurosci. Lett. 54: 123.". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 1985. Abstract
Anderson AJ, Harvey AL, Mbugua PM. Fasciculin 2, a polypeptide from green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps) venom, causes an increase in the twitch response of mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations to indirect stimulation. Intracellular recording reveals that fasciculin 2 augments neuromuscular transmission by increasing the amplitude and duration of endplate potentials. Its action is not reversed by washing. Interactions with neostigmine confirm that fasciculin 2 acts as an anticholinesterase. It has no presynaptic actions on transmitter release or postsynaptic receptor blocking actions. On chicken muscle preparations, fasciculin 2 has no anticholinesterase actions. Because of this selectivity and its apparent irreversibility, fasciculin 2 should be useful in characterizing different forms of acetylcholinesterase. PMID: 2986055 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
H DRONYANGOWALTER. "Anti Pollution Poster Exhibition United Nations.". In: University of Lodz, Poland. IPPNW; 1985. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
A MRMAKACHIAPETER. "Appropriate Building Materials & Construction Technology For Primary Schools In Kerio Valley.". In: International Course Of Organized Self-Help Housing Planning & Development. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 1985. Abstract
Heavily glazed office buildings in the Kenyan Capital City Nairobi, common in recent times does not augur well for a micro and macro architectural environment. This has a consequent negative impact on energy use in office spaces. By use of computer simulations, traditional tools and literature review glazing use in office fenestration is analysed and its implications for architectural design investigated. The results indicate a direct relationship between the variable parameters of glazing type and size, glazed opening orientation, shading devices and control of energy loads within the office spaces and the objective of human comfort in the office spaces. In conclusion it is recommended that optimum levels of glazing size and type as well as suitable glazing orientations for architectural use in office buildings in Nairobi.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Appropriate Strategies for Industrial Developemnt in Kenya.". In: paper presented at Workshop on Parastatal Efficiency. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1985. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
J PROFBUOROIB. "Atwell R.B. and Buoro, I.B.J. (1985). Experimental Caval Sydrome. Australian VeterinaryPractitioner 15:120.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Vet Medicine. Taylor & Francis; 1985. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
J PROFBUOROIB. "Atwell R.B., Buoro, I.B.J. and Sutton, R.H. (1985). Experimental Production of Canine Pulmonary end arterial pathology similar to that produced by dirofilaria immitis. Veterinary Record 116:239-251.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Vet Medicine. Taylor & Francis; 1985. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Autrup H, Wakhisi J, Vahakangas K, Wasunna A, Harris CC. Detection of 8,9-dihydro-(7'-guanyl)-9-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 in human urine. Environ Health Perspect. 1985 Oct;62:105-8.". In: Environ Health Perspect. 1985 Oct;62:105-8. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1985. Abstract

A possible role of aflatoxin B1 (AFB) in the etiology of human liver cancer has been suggested from several epidemiological studies. This has been based upon the association between consumption of AFB-contaminated food and the liver cancer incidence in different parts of the world. To further establish the role of AFB as a major factor, we initiated a pilot study in three different districts of Kenya to determine the number of individuals exposed to significant amounts of AFB as measured by the urinary excretion of 8,9-dihydro-8-(7-guanyl)-9-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 (AFB-Gua), an adduct formed between the ultimate carcinogenic form of AFB and nucleic acids. This product has previously been detected in urine from rats treated with AFB. Urine collected at the outpatient clinics at the district hospitals were concentrated on C18 Sep-Pak columns and analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography under two different chromatographic conditions. The chemical identity of the samples showing a positive response in both chromatographic systems was verified by synchronous scanning fluorescence spectrophotometry. The highest number of individuals with detectable urinary AFB-Gua lived in either Murang'a district or the neighboring Meru and Embu districts. In Murang'a district a rate of 12% was observed in the January-March period, while only 1 of 32 patients (3%) had a detectable exposure in July-August.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O., 1985. Spectral analysis of the vertical gradient of the total magnetic field anomalies due to two-dimensional dykes,.". In: Kenya Journal of Science and Technology Series A, 6(1), 49-58. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1985. Abstract
n/a
O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O., Method for depth estimation on aeromagnetic vertical gradient anomalies.". In: Geophysics 50, 963-968. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1985. Abstract
n/a
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Bhargava DK, Acharya SK, Tandon BN, Nundy S.Endoscopic sclerotherapy for active variceal haemorrhage in patients not responding to balloon tamponade & vasopressin.Indian J Med Res. 1985 Feb;81:175-9.". In: Indian J Med Res. 1985 Feb;81:175-9. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1985. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Bhargava DK, Acharya SK.Endoscopic sclerotherapy (EST) in acute variceal bleeding.J Assoc Physicians India. 1985 Nov;33(11):704-6.". In: J Assoc Physicians India. 1985 Nov;33(11):704-6. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1985. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU, M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "Bhatt S.M. and Bhatt K.M.: Treatment of plasmodium falciparum malaria Medicus 1985; vol. 4 No. 8: 23 .". In: Medicus 1985; vol. 4 No. 8: 23 . Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1985. Abstract
PIP: Malaria is the most prevalent and devastating public health problem in Africa despite much research and control effort over the last two decades. In most parts of Africa, individuals should take 200 mg of Proguanil daily together with chloroquine 5 mg/kg per week as prophylaxis. Pregnant women and individuals with underlying disease such as sickle cell making them susceptible to severe or complicated malaria, however, should take just 200 mg Proguanil daily. In hard-core multi-drug resistance areas, mefloquine 250 mg once weekly together with chloroquine 300 mg weekly is recommended as prophylaxis. Since no anti-malarial drug confers absolute protection against infection, however, using mosquito nets impregnated with permethrin, insecticides, and mosquito repellents is also advocated for those at high risk of severe malaria. The need also exists to treat cases of malaria when prevention is unsuccessful. Chloroquine in total dose 25 mg/Kg over three days is the first choice treatment of uncomplicated malaria in 4-aminoquinoline sensitive areas. Amodiaquine 25 mg/Kg over three days is the second line treatment, while pyrimethamine/sulphonamide combinations are useful in areas where there is resistance to 4-aminoquinalines. Finally, quinine 10 mg/kg every eight hours for seven days is the treatment of choice for severe and complicated malaria.
M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU, M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "Bhatt S.M. and Bhatt K.M.: Treatment of plasmodium falciparum malaria Medicus 1985; vol. 4 No. 8: 23 .". In: Medicus 1985; vol. 4 No. 8: 23 . Taylor & Francis; 1985. Abstract
PIP: Malaria is the most prevalent and devastating public health problem in Africa despite much research and control effort over the last two decades. In most parts of Africa, individuals should take 200 mg of Proguanil daily together with chloroquine 5 mg/kg per week as prophylaxis. Pregnant women and individuals with underlying disease such as sickle cell making them susceptible to severe or complicated malaria, however, should take just 200 mg Proguanil daily. In hard-core multi-drug resistance areas, mefloquine 250 mg once weekly together with chloroquine 300 mg weekly is recommended as prophylaxis. Since no anti-malarial drug confers absolute protection against infection, however, using mosquito nets impregnated with permethrin, insecticides, and mosquito repellents is also advocated for those at high risk of severe malaria. The need also exists to treat cases of malaria when prevention is unsuccessful. Chloroquine in total dose 25 mg/Kg over three days is the first choice treatment of uncomplicated malaria in 4-aminoquinoline sensitive areas. Amodiaquine 25 mg/Kg over three days is the second line treatment, while pyrimethamine/sulphonamide combinations are useful in areas where there is resistance to 4-aminoquinalines. Finally, quinine 10 mg/kg every eight hours for seven days is the treatment of choice for severe and complicated malaria.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.,(1985). Editor, Proceedings of a Workshop on Soil Conservation on Grazing Lands. Ministry of Agriculture, Kenya.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1985. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.; Nyagah, C.R.J.,(1985). Proposed Integrated Rehabilitation Programme for the Chemeron Watershed Area, Central Baringo, Kenya. Project Proposal Document, Ministry of Agriculture,Nairobi,Kenya.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1985. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Birthweights of infants of teenage mothers in Nairobi. Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl . 1985; 319 : 89-94 . PMID: 3868931 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Bwibo NO.". In: Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl . 1985; 319 : 89-94 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1985. Abstract

Teenage pregnancies lower average birthweight. In the NBS, teenage mothers had significantly lower average birthweight of 2 920 +/- 553 g compared with 3 133 +/- 533 g among women in the general population. A high rate of LBW on the infants of the teenage mothers was the significant factor in lowering the average birthweight. In both NBS and the PMHS the incidence of LBW 18% and 15% respectively as well as the rate of preterm delivery of 24% and 23% respectively were high. In PMHS although the numbers were small, the incidence of LBW was high (13%) in the 14-year-olds and in the 15-year-olds it was 4.8% which was much lower than that for 17- and 18-year-olds. In a large series in Nigeria the incidence of LBW was 27% in mothers aged less than 15 years, 26% in mothers aged 15-19, 20% in those aged 20-24 and least (18%) in the 25-29 year age group. Many unfavourable socioeconomic circumstances and lack of adequate antenatal supervision contribute to these high rates. Some of the teenage mothers-particularly the very young, below 16 years-are physically immature and are still growing children themselves. Their nutrient intake is shared between their own growth needs and those of their foetuses. In the Nigerian study, administration of folic acid and iron together with antimalarials to pregnant mothers resulted in increased maternal height as well as foetal growth, thus stressing the importance of nutritional care for the teenage mothers.

PIP: Teenage pregnancies lower average birth weight. In the Nairobi Birth Survey (NBS), teenage mothers had significantly lower average birth weight of 2920 +or- 553 gm compared with 3133 +or- 533 gm among women in the general population. A high rate of low birth weight (LBW) in those infants born to teenage mothers was the significant factor in lowering that figure. In both the NBS and the Pumwani Maternity Hospital Study (PMHS), the incidence of LBW was 18% and 15%, respectively, and the rate of preterm delivery 24% and 23%, respectively. In the PMHS, although the numbers were small, the incidence of LBW was high (13%) in the 14-year-old group and it was 4.8% in the 15-year-old group; these figures were much lower than those for ages 17 and 18. In a large series in Nigeria, the incidence of LBW was 27% in mothers aged less than 15, 26% in mothers aged 15-19, 20% in those aged 20-24, and least (18%) in those 25-29. Many unfavorable socioeconomic circumstances and lack of adequate antenatal supervision contribute to these high rates. Some teenage mothers–particularly those under age 16–are physically immature and are themselves still growing. Their nutrient intake is shared between their own growth needs and those of their fetuses. In the Nigerian study, administration of folic acid and iron together with antimalarials to pregnant mothers resulted in increased maternal height as well as fetal growth, thus stressing the importance of nutritional care for teenage mothers. author's modified

PMID: 3868931 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

NGANGA DRWAWERUFRANK. "Blood volume, Erythrokinetics and Spleen Function in Thrombocythaemia. Waweru F.N., Lewis S.M. Acta haemat. 73:219 .". In: proceedings. East African Journal of Development Studies; 1985. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
S. PROFMBINDYOBENJAMIN. "Bovill EG Jr, Kung'u A, Bencivenga A, Jeshrani MK, Mbindyo BS, Heda PM. An epidemiological study of osteogenic sarcoma in Kenya: the variations in incidence between ethnic groups and geographic regions, 1968-1978. Int Orthop. 1985;9(1):59-63.". In: Int Orthop. 1985;9(1):59-63. University of Nairobi.; 1985. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
SAMSON PROFMEMEJULIUS. "Bryceson A., Chulay J., May H.O., Mugambi J., Were J., Meme J.S., Anabani G. Response of Leishmaniasis to High Dosage Sodium stibogluconate and prolonged treatment with Pentamidine. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. 79, 705, 1985.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod. 2004 Apr;36(3):233-45. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Pulmonary oedema is a common sign of East Coast fever (ECF, Theileria parva infection) of cattle. A trial was conducted on farms in Uganda to compare a product containing both the antitheilerial compound parvaquone and the diuretic compound frusemide with one containing only parvaquone, in the treatment of ECF. The trial involved 40 clinical cases of ECF, some of them complicated by other infections, in cattle of all ages and on several farms. Confirmed cases were treated with either parvaquone+frusemide (P+F) or parvaquone alone (P). Survival after treatment with P+F was 77% compared with 71% with P. Five of the 10 fatalities were complicated cases. The cure rate for severe but uncomplicated ECF was 89% with P+F and 40% with P. Pulmonary signs were resolved within 24-48 h after treatment with P+F and clinical recovery was noticeably more rapid than with P. The antiparasitic effect of the two treatments was similar. P+F could be particularly useful when reporting, diagnosis or laboratory confirmation of ECF is delayed, because advanced cases are more likely to be encountered under these circumstances.
M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU. "Brycesson A.D.M., Chulay J.D., Bhatt S.M., Mugambi M., Were J.B.: Visceral leishmaniasis unresponsive to antimonial drugs. I. Clinical and immunological studies. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1985; 79: 700 .". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1987; Vol. 64 No. 8: 558 . Taylor & Francis; 1985. Abstract
We studied 506 consecutive adult acute medical admissions to hospital in Nairobi; 95 (18.8%) were seropositive for HIV-1, and 43 new cases of active tuberculosis (TB) were identified. TB was clearly associated with HIV infection, occurring in 17.9% of seropositive patients compared with 6.3% of seronegatives [odds ratio (OR) 3.2; 95% confidence limits (CL) 1.6-6.5]. Extrapulmonary disease was more common in seropositive than seronegative TB patients (nine out of 17 versus five out of 26; OR 4.7; 95% CL 1.01-23.6); this accounted for most of the excess cases of TB seen in seropositive patients. Mycobacteraemia was demonstrated in two of eight seropositive TB patients but in none of 11 seronegative TB patients. No atypical mycobacteria were isolated. The World Health Organization (WHO) clinical case definition for African AIDS did not discriminate well between seropositive and seronegative TB cases. Five out of seven seropositive women with active tuberculosis had delivered children in the preceding 6 months and were lactating, compared with only one out of eight seronegative tuberculous women. An association between recent childbirth, HIV immunosuppression and the development of TB is suggested

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