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Forthcoming
Moses MP, Abungu NO. "REDUCING REAL AND REACTIVE POWER LOSSES IN THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM BY DFIG PLACEMENT AND SIZING USING ORDINARY PSO AND HGAPSO : A COMPARISON." International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering. Forthcoming. Abstractijetae_paper_forthcoming_paper.pdf

Due to the increased importance of DFIGs in optimization of real and reactive power losses and the maintenance of voltage profile, the general methods of DG placement and sizing in the existing literature cannot be of practical importance in DFIG .In this paper a pure PSO method used in general DG is compared with a HGAPSO in the siting and sizing of DFIG with the objective of minimizing power losses. The corresponding Combined participation factors are assigned using the DFIG Domain Distributed Slack Bus Model and a comparison made on the two schemes of loss minimization.

ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "Reviewer, Marcel Rutten et al eds 1997 Elections and Prospects for Democracy in Kenya' (Kampala: Fountain Publishers, 2001) 652pp (forthcoming).". In: Acta Crystallographica C. International Union of Crystallography; Forthcoming. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
Submitted
Ndungu MN. "The Role of Kiswahili in Promoting Peace and Unity in Kenya.". In: National Symposium on Post Election Peace Building . Catholic University of Eastern Africa; Submitted.
Bhatt B, Angeyo KH, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A. Rapid Nuclear Forensics Analysis via Laser Based Microphotonic Techniques Coupled with Chemometrics. Hangzhou, China; Submitted.
MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, NJIHIA JM. "Road Maintenance in Kenya: A Soft Systems Approach.". In: Conference Proceedings, all Africa Conference of Engineers,. IBIMA Publishing; Submitted. Abstract

Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi, Kenya.

Rajab JA. The role of trephine needle bone marrow biopsy in the evaluation of various haematological and non-haematological diseases At Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract

This is a descriptive retrospective and prospective
study of 101 patients admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital
(KNH) between 1st October, 1985 and 30th January, 1990 and
had bone marrow examination done by aspiration and trephine
needle biopsy. At KNH trephine needle bone marrow (TNBM)
biopsy has been performed over the years when aspiration
results in 'dry tap'. It is only available for the use by a
few specialists (haematologists) and it is rarely performed
in staging malignant lymphomas or as a routine diagnostic
technique in various other diseases. The study was done to
evaluate the role of the technique in patient care at this
hospital. The relevant data and the diagnostic outcome of
50 patients admitted to the hospital between 1st October,
1985 and 30th June, 1989 were collected retrospectively.
Trephine needle biopsies were performed by the investigator
on 51 patients during the last 7 months of the study. Data
collected included: the age and sex, the indications for
bone biopsy, the quality of the specimen, the reporting
format and the final diagnosis on the trephine biopsies.
The 101 patients studied were between 2 and 75 years of
age. The mean age was 23.9 years. There were 62 males and
39 females. A 'dry tap' aspirate, the commonest indication
for TNBM biopsy was reported in 37 (36.6%) cases. In twelve
cases, the aspirate and needle biopsy were performed at the
same time using the same needle. Ten of these were in the
staging of malignant lymphomas. Good or satisfactory
specimens were obtained in at least 86% of the biopsies

performed. Aplastic anaemia, the commonest abnormality
detected was found in 28 (27.7%) of the patients studied. A
review of the reporting format showed that in only 20% cases
in the retrospective study was a full report of the biopsy
given by the haematologist.
This study shows that TNBM biopsy is a simple and safe
procedure yielding a good or satisfactory specimen in most

instances. The biopsy will most likely provide a diagnosis
when bone marrow aspirate fails due to 'dry tap' or scanty
yield. The procedure may be of value in routine
investigation of various diseases such as aplastic anaemia
and in staging of malignant lymphomas although larger
studies need to be done in this area (only ten cases in this
study). A standard format should be formulated and adhered
to by haematologists and pathologists reporting on the TNBM
biopsies in this hospital.

MWANIA MJM, GATARI MJ, MAINA MDM, KINYUA R. "Recycled waste plastics composite: Possible construction material for wind turbine blades." promitheasnet.kepa.uoa.gr. Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Electrical power supply in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) is expensive and very low, and most families have no chance of accessing clean lighting and cooking power. Off grid systems are the best viable solution in SSA and wind energy has a potential. However, the components …

JAMES DRMWAURA, JAMES DRMWAURA, JAMES DRMWAURA. "Relationship between Psychoactive Substance use and High-risk Sexual Practices of Persons Living with HIV/AIDS in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal volume 33. National Nurses Association of Kenya; Submitted.
M PROFOGUTUGILBERTE. "Religion and Societal Harmony in Africa: The case of Dialogue, Dialogue & Alliance, Vol. 2 No. 4.". In: The African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries Vol. 5 No. 2.; Submitted. Abstract
n/a
Ndurumo MM. "Research Methods: A thesis building skills Approach." Nairobi: Longhorn; Submitted. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Residual Red Soils of Kenya as construction materials For earthen Dams and Embankments.". In: Conference on Materials for Dams.; Submitted. Abstract
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OLIMA PROFWASHINGTONASEMBO. "Revenue Autonomy and Property Taxation in Anglophone East Africa: Opportunities, Emerging Trends and Challenges.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology . VLIR; Submitted.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "A Review of Spectral Line Shapes and Widths in Plasmas.". In: Kenya Journal of Sciences. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
n/a
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "River Pollution profile: A case Study of Thika River. Proceedings of National Seminar on Technological Solutions for Economic Development in Kenya now and in the 21st Century,.". In: Canadian and International Education Journal. VOL: 19, No:1'1990. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

MULU NATHANIEL. "Rock art sites of Wajir and Laikipia Districts." For International News on Rock Art (INORA); Submitted. Abstract
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KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "ROLES OF MEDICAL EDUCATORS IN THE ADVANCEMENT OF HEALTH PROFESSIONS .". In: Kenya Nursing Journal - KNJ Vol. 41(2) 65-67. Impress Communications; Submitted. Abstract

Health care professionals are absorbed daily in the practices of their professional areas of specialization. Medical Educators,  spend their time catering to the educational needs of all health care professionals, whatever their specialization. A recent area of concern in the medical education curricula has been the inclusion of the topic

NYABOKE DROBAEMOSOTIROSE. "Rose Mosoti-Obae, Achieving full enrolment in Kenya. A projection by Dr. Gravinir and R. Mosoti Obae.: Maseno Journal of Education, Art and Science Vol. No.1.". In: Maseno Journal of Education, Art and Science Vol. No.1. Opuscula Mathematica,; Submitted. Abstract
Most economically developing countries, after having implemented the democratization of primary education, are now setting their sights on the goal of achieving full enrolment in countries a gradual approach of increasing enrolment annually into secondary schools is perhaps the only realistic option available. This study attempts to project, given this gradual approach, in how many years full enrolment will be achieved not only in each of the 6 provinces in Kenya but also in Kenya as a whole. The results obtained show two distinct categories of provinces: the educationally advantaged provinces which are likely to achieve full enrolment about twenty years before the group of educationally disadvantaged provinces do so.
In Press
Nzimbi BM, Kiratu BN, Sitati IN, Kipkemoi ST. "Remarks on the Murray-von Neumann equivalence of projections." International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(IJPMAS)-accepted June 6, 2016. In Press.
"Revamping early childhood teacher education and professional development: Nuts and bolts for effective literacy and numeracy instruction." University of Dar es Salaam School of Education Journal of Education and Development. In Press.
2022
Cohen AS, Campisano CJ, Arrowsmith RJ, Asrat A, Beck CC, Behrensmeyer AK, Deino AL, Feibel CS, Foerster V, Kingston JD, Lamb HF, Lowenstein TK, Lupien RL, Muiruri V, Olago DO, Owen BR, Potts R, Russell JM, Schaebitz F, Stone JR, Trauth MH, Yost CL. "Reconstructing the Environmental Context of Human Origins in Eastern Africa Through Scientific Drilling." Annual Review of Earth and Planetary SciencesAnnual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 2022. AbstractWebsite

Paleoanthropologists have long speculated about the role of environmental change in shaping human evolution in Africa. In recent years, drill cores of late Neogene lacustrine sedimentary rocks have yielded valuable high-resolution records of climatic and ecosystem change. Eastern African Rift sediments (primarily lake beds) provide an extraordinary range of data in close proximity to important fossil hominin and archaeological sites, allowing critical study of hypotheses that connect environmental history and hominin evolution. We review recent drill-core studies spanning the Plio?Pleistocene boundary (an interval of hominin diversification, including the earliest members of our genus Homo and the oldest stone tools), and the Mid?Upper Pleistocene (spanning the origin of Homo sapiens in Africa and our early technological and dispersal history). Proposed drilling of Africa's oldest lakes promises to extend such records back to the late Miocene. ?High-resolution paleoenvironmental records are critical for understanding external drivers of human evolution. ?African lake basin drill cores play a critical role in enhancing hominin paleoenvironmental records given their continuity and proximity to key paleoanthropological sites. ?The oldest African lakes have the potential to reveal a comprehensive paleoenvironmental context for the entire late Neogene history of hominin evolution. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Volume 50 is May 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.Paleoanthropologists have long speculated about the role of environmental change in shaping human evolution in Africa. In recent years, drill cores of late Neogene lacustrine sedimentary rocks have yielded valuable high-resolution records of climatic and ecosystem change. Eastern African Rift sediments (primarily lake beds) provide an extraordinary range of data in close proximity to important fossil hominin and archaeological sites, allowing critical study of hypotheses that connect environmental history and hominin evolution. We review recent drill-core studies spanning the Plio?Pleistocene boundary (an interval of hominin diversification, including the earliest members of our genus Homo and the oldest stone tools), and the Mid?Upper Pleistocene (spanning the origin of Homo sapiens in Africa and our early technological and dispersal history). Proposed drilling of Africa's oldest lakes promises to extend such records back to the late Miocene. ?High-resolution paleoenvironmental records are critical for understanding external drivers of human evolution. ?African lake basin drill cores play a critical role in enhancing hominin paleoenvironmental records given their continuity and proximity to key paleoanthropological sites. ?The oldest African lakes have the potential to reveal a comprehensive paleoenvironmental context for the entire late Neogene history of hominin evolution. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Volume 50 is May 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

Wango GM. "Rejection: What Happens and Why Rejection Hurts so Deeply - and What to do About it." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2022;2(1):25-30.
2021
Harmsen H, Wang’ondu VW, Mbau JS, Muthama NJ. "Randomized hotspot strategy is effective in countering bushmeat poaching by snaring." Biological Conservation. 2021;253.
Harmsen H, Wangondu V, Mbau JS, J M, J M. "Randomized hotspot strategy is effective in countering bushmeat poaching by snaring." Biological conservation. 2021;253(108909).
Kitata M. "Re-narrating the Eastern Africa Coast through music on YouTube: Vitali Maembe’s Little Town Bagamoyo." African Identities. 2021:1-16. Abstract

The Eastern Africa coast has been a complex contact theatre between overseas peoples and the local population. These interconnections have over time produced mixed identities and cultural adaptation processes, expression, and transmission which are foundations of present-day Eastern Africa histories. The musician – historian’s account reflects the coastal identities as not simply painful and isolated historical creations upon a place, but also a part of global processes of cultural productions and affirmation. Through YouTube video, the coastal musician retells the coast’s history thereby preserving memory and lessons leant. The creative artist unveils the history – in an effort to gain inspiration from a cultural and commercial identity formation process. This paper, through Vitali Maembe’s YouTube music video, Little Town Bagamoyo, seeks to highlight the narrative that music exposes in retelling East African coast

Polline M, Mutua JM, MBUYA TO, Kyekyere E. "Recipe Development and Mechanical Characterization of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Recycled Polypropylene 3D Printing Filament." Open Journal of Composite Materials. 2021;11(3):47-61. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.4236/ojcm.2021.113005

Recycled polypropylene filaments for fused filament fabrication were investigated with and without 14 wt% short fibre carbon reinforcements. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the filaments and 3D printed specimens were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and standard tensile testing. It was observed that recycled polypropylene filaments with 14 wt% short carbon fibre reinforcement contained pores that were dispersed throughout the microstructure of the filament. A two-stage filament extrusion process was observed to improve the spatial distribution of carbon fibre reinforcement but did not reduce the pores. Recycled polypropylene filaments without reinforcement extruded at high screw speeds above 20 rpm contained a centreline cavity but no spatially distributed pores. However, this cavity is eliminated when extrusion is carried out at screw speeds below 20 rpm. For 3D printed specimens, interlayer cavities were observed larger for specimens printed from 14 wt% carbon fibre reinforced recycled polypropylene than those printed from unreinforced filaments. The values of tensile strength for the filaments were 21.82 MPa and 24.22 MPa, which reduced to 19.72 MPa and 22.70 MPa, respectively, for 3D printed samples using the filaments. Likewise, the young’s modulus of the filaments was 1208.6 MPa and 1412.7 MPa, which reduced to 961.5 MPa and 1352.3 MPa, respectively, for the 3D printed samples. The percentage elongation at failure for the recycled polypropylene filament was 9.83% but reduced to 3.84% for the samples printed with 14 wt% carbon fiber reinforced polypropylene filaments whose elongation to failure was 6.58%. The SEM observations on the fractured tensile test samples showed interlayer gaps between the printed and the adjacent raster layers. These gaps accounted for the reduction in the mechanical properties of the printed parts.

FMA B, SW G. "Reconstruction of midface defect with temporalis myofascial pedicle flap: a review and case series." MedCrave Online Journal of Surgery (MOJ Surg.). 2021;2021; 9(1)(2021; 9(1)):15-19.
Inyega H, Inyega J. "Reflections on potential of collaboration between kenyan universities and ministry of education to implement basic education reforms." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice(ISSN: 2708-261X),. 2021;2(1):69-89.
S W, A K, S K, Irene MG. "Reflective abilities of nursing students: A thematic analysis of reflection journals." Journal of Nursing Education and Practice. 2021;12(5).
Ebrahim YH. Regional micro-bioclimatic architecture 1.0: Tropical scientific design and planning guidance. Chisinau, Moldova: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2021.
P MO, N MJ, O AS, N MG. "The Relationship Between Bond Strength and Critical Penetration Depth of Rust in Reinforced Concrete Structures." Journal of Materials Science Research. 2021;Vol 10(2).
Too, R., Kidombo, H., Gakuu C. "Relationship between Participatory Decision-Making and Environmental Sustainability in Oil and Gas Projects." Journal of International Business, Innovation and Strategic Management, . 2021;5(3):181-196.
Maina, ndugu. "RELATIVITY OF INDIGENOUS EAST AFRICAN DESIGN CHAMPIONS: JACQUE NJERI, MARC VAN RAMPELBERG." Design For All Journal of India. 2021;16(1):75-111.
Maina, ndugu. "RELATIVITY OF INDIGENOUS EAST AFRICAN DESIGN CHAMPIONS: JACQUE NJERI, MARC VAN RAMPELBERG." Design For All Journal of India. 2021;16(1):75-111.
Mugo, N, Nancy N. Karanja, Gachene CS, Klaus Dittert, Harun I. Gitari, Schulte-Geldermann E. "Response of potato crop to selected nutrients in central and eastern highlands of Kenya." Cogent Food & Agriculture. 2021;7(1):1898762.
Nalyanya KM, Rop RK, Onyuka AS, Birech Z. "A Review of Natural Plants as Sources of Substances for Cleaner Leather Tanning Technologies. ." Textile & Leather Review. 2021;4(3):137-148.
Chemonges CC, Joshua N, Granai M, Lazzi S, Ndungu JR, Leoncini L. "A review of the sub-classification of lymph node biopsies reported as reactive lymphadenitis at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Int. J Pathol Clin Res. . 2021;7(1):120.
Olufemi Adelowo, Girish M. Mody, Mohammed Tikly, Omondi Oyoo, Samy Slimani. "Rheumatic diseases in Africa." Nature reviews. 2021;s41584(021):00603-4. Abstract

Abstract | Historically, rheumatic diseases have not received much attention in Africa, particularly
in sub- Saharan Africa, possibly owing to a focus on the overwhelming incidence of infectious
diseases and the decreased life span of the general population in this region. Global attention
and support, together with better health policies and planning, have improved outcomes for
many infectious diseases; thus, increasing attention is being turned to chronic non- communicable
diseases. Rheumatic diseases were previously considered to be rare among Africans but there is
now a growing interest in these conditions, particularly as the number of rheumatologists on the
continent increases. This interest has resulted in a growing number of publications from Africa
on the more commonly encountered rheumatic diseases, as well as case reports of rare diseases.
Despite the limited amount of available data, some aspects of the epidemiology, genetics and
clinical and laboratory features of rheumatic diseases in African populations are known, as is some
detail on the use of therapeutics. Similarities and differences in these conditions can be seen
across the multi- ethnic and genetically diverse African continent, and it is hoped that increased
awareness of rheumatic diseases in Africa will lead to earlier diagnosis and better outcomes
for patients.

Adelowo O, Mody GM, Tikly M, Oyoo O, Slimani S. "Rheumatic diseases in Africa." Af r ic a n J o u r n a l o f R h e u mat o l o g y. 2021;7(1):1-6. Abstracts41584-021-00603-4_1_2.pdf

Abstract
|
Historically, rheumatic diseases have not received much attention in Africa, particularly
in sub- Saharan Africa, possibly owing to a focus on the overwhelming incidence of infectious
diseases and the decreased life span of the general population in this region. Global attention
and support, together with better health policies and planning, have improved outcomes for
many infectious diseases; thus, increasing attention is being turned to chronic non- communicable
diseases. Rheumatic diseases were previously considered to be rare among Africans but there is
now a growing interest in these conditions, particularly as the number of rheumatologists on the
continent increases. This interest has resulted in a growing number of publications from Africa
on the more commonly encountered rheumatic diseases, as well as case reports of rare diseases.
Despite the limited amount of available data, some aspects of the epidemiology, genetics and
clinical and laboratory features of rheumatic diseases in African populations are known, as is some
detail on the use of therapeutics. Similarities and differences in these conditions can be seen
across the multi- ethnic and genetically diverse African continent, and it is hoped that increased
awareness of rheumatic diseases in Africa will lead to earlier diagnosis and better outcomes
for patients.

Ochieno DMW, Karoney EM, Muge EK, Nyaboga EN, Baraza DL, Shibairo SI, Naluyange V. "Rhizobium-linked nutritional and phytochemical changes under multitrophic functional contexts in sustainable food systems." Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems. 2021;4:283. Abstract
n/a
2020
Bishop RP, Odongo D, Ahmed J, Mwamuye M, Fry LM, Knowles DP, Nanteza A, Lubega G, Gwakisa P, Clausen P-H, Obara I. "A review of recent research on Theileria parva: Implications for the infection and treatment vaccination method for control of East Coast fever." Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020;67 Suppl 1:56-67. Abstract

The infection and treatment (ITM) live vaccination method for control of Theileria parva infection in cattle is increasingly being adopted, particularly in Maasai pastoralist systems. Several studies indicate positive impacts on human livelihoods. Importantly, the first detailed protocol for live vaccine production at scale has recently been published. However, quality control and delivery issues constrain vaccination sustainability and deployment. There is evidence that the distribution of T. parva is spreading from endemic areas in East Africa, North into Southern Sudan and West into Cameroon, probably as a result of anthropogenic movement of cattle. It has also recently been demonstrated that in Kenya, T. parva derived from cape buffalo can 'breakthrough' the immunity induced by ITM. However, in Tanzania, breakthrough has not been reported in areas where cattle co-graze with buffalo. It has been confirmed that buffalo in northern Uganda national parks are not infected with T. parva and R. appendiculatus appears to be absent, raising issues regarding vector distribution. Recently, there have been multiple field population genetic studies using variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) sequences and sequencing of antigen genes encoding targets of CD8+ T-cell responses. The VNTR markers generally reveal high levels of diversity. The antigen gene sequences present within the trivalent Muguga cocktail are relatively conserved among cattle transmissible T. parva populations. By contrast, greater genetic diversity is present in antigen genes from T. parva of buffalo origin. There is also evidence from several studies for transmission of components of stocks present within the Muguga cocktail, into field ticks and cattle following induction of a carrier state by immunization. In the short term, this may increase live vaccine effectiveness, through a more homogeneous challenge, but the long-term consequences are unknown.

Obara I, Githaka N, Nijhof A, Krücken J, Nanteza A, Odongo D, Lubembe D, Atimnedi P, Mijele D, Njeri A, Mwaura S, Owido G, Ahmed J, Clausen PH, Bishop RP. "The Rhipicephalus appendiculatus tick vector of Theileria parva is absent from cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) populations and associated ecosystems in northern Uganda." Parasitol Res. 2020;119(7):2363-2367. Abstract

Rhipicephalus appendiculatus is the major tick vector of Theileria parva, an apicomplexan protozoan parasite that causes the most economically important and lethal disease of cattle in East and central Africa. The African cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the major wildlife host of T. parva from southern Uganda and Kenya to southern Africa. We show herein that R. appendiculatus appears to be absent from the two largest national parks in northern Uganda. Syncerus caffer is common in both of these national parks, specifically Murchison falls (MFNP) and Kidepo Valley (KVNP). We re-confirmed the previously reported absence of T. parva in buffalo sampled in the two northern parks based on RLB data using a nested PCR based on the T. parva p104 gene. By contrast, T. parva-infected R. appendiculatus ticks and parasite-infected buffalo were present in Lake Mburo (LMNP) in South central Uganda. This suggests that the distribution of R. appendiculatus, which is predicted to include the higher rainfall regions of northern Uganda, may be limited by additional, as yet unknown factors.

Mbaabu PR, Olago D, Gichaba M, Eckert S, Eschen R, Oriaso S, Choge SK, Linders TEW, Schaffner U. "Restoration of degraded grasslands, but not invasion by Prosopis juliflora, avoids trade-offs between climate change mitigation and other ecosystem services.". 2020;10(1):20391. AbstractWebsite

Grassland degradation and the concomitant loss of soil organic carbon is widespread in tropical arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Afforestation of degraded grassland, sometimes by using invasive alien trees, has been put forward as a legitimate climate change mitigation strategy. However, even in cases where tree encroachment of degraded grasslands leads to increased soil organic carbon, it may come at a high cost since the restoration of grassland-characteristic biodiversity and ecosystem services will be blocked. We assessed how invasion by Prosopis juliflora and restoration of degraded grasslands in a semi-arid region in Baringo, Kenya affected soil organic carbon, biodiversity and fodder availability. Thirty years of grassland restoration replenished soil organic carbon to 1 m depth at a rate of 1.4% per year and restored herbaceous biomass to levels of pristine grasslands, while plant biodiversity remained low. Invasion of degraded grasslands by P. juliflora increased soil organic carbon primarily in the upper 30 cm and suppressed herbaceous vegetation. We argue that, in contrast to encroachment by invasive alien trees, restoration of grasslands in tropical semi-arid regions can both serve as a measure for climate change mitigation and help restore key ecosystem services important for pastoralists and agro-pastoralist communities.

Njiru FM, Siriba DN, Karanja FN. "Review of GIS System Audit Parameters in an Organization.". In: Architecture and Engineering Conference. University of Nairobi; 2020.
Njiru FM, Siriba DN, Karanja FN. "Review of GIS System Audit Parameters in an Organization.". In: Architecture and Engineering Conference. University of Nairobi; 2020.
Gitao, C.G. Reviewer, Transboundary and Emerging diseases. Trsansboundary and Emerging Diseases; 2020.tbed_reviewer_certificate_1_1.pdf
Abraham Kipchumba Cherwon, Margaret Mwihaki Wanyoike, Gachuiri CK. "Rabbit production practices in Kiambu County, Kenya." International Journal of Livestock Production. 2020;11(4):114-121.
Mutala TM, Onyambu CK, Angeline Anyona Aywak. "Radiology practice during COVID 19 outbreak: Points to consider." Panafrican Journal of Medicine. 2020;37(28).
Mutala TM, Onyambu CK, Aywak AA. "Radiology practice in sub-Saharan Africa during the COVID-19 outbreak: points to consider." Pan African Medical Journal. 2020;37(28):doi: 10.11604/pamj.2020.37.28.23081.
Mugo JW, Opijah F, Ngaina J, Karanja F, Mburu M. "Rainfall variability under present and future climate scenarios using the Rossby Center Bias-corrected Regional Climate Model." American Journal of Climate Change. 2020;9(1):243-265.
Walter Onchere, Richard Tinega, Weke P, Otieno JAM. "The Reciprocal Generalized Inverse Gaussian Frailty with Application in Life Annuity Business." Journal of Advances in Mathematics and Computer Science. 2020;35(6):112-131. AbstractWebsite

Aims: As shown in literature, several authors have adopted various individual frailty mixing distributions as a way of dealing with possible heterogeneity due to unobserved covariates in a group of insurers. This research contribution is to generalize the frailty mixing distribution to nest other classes of frailty distributions not in literature and apply the proposed distributions in valuation of life annuity business.

Methodology: A simulation study is done to assess the performance of the aforementioned models. The baseline parameters is estimated using Bayesian Inference and a better model is suggested for valuation of life annuity business.

Results: As a result of generalizing the frailty some new classes of frailty distributions are constructed such as; the Reciprocal Inverse Gaussian Frailty, the Inverse Gamma Frailty, the Harmonic Frailty and the Positive Hyperbolic Frailty.

From the simulation study, the proposed new frailty models shows that ignoring frailty leads to an underestimation of future residual lifetime since the survival curve shifts to the right when heterogeneity is accounted for. This is consistent with frailty literature.

The Reciprocal Inverse Gaussian model closely represents the Association of Kenya Insurers graduated rates with a slight increase in survival due to longevity risk.

Conclusion: The proposed new frailty models show an increase in the insurers expected liability when unobserved heterogeneity is accounted for. This is consistent with frailty literature and thus can be applied to avoid underestimating the insurer’s liability in the context of life annuity business.

The RIG model as proposed in estimating future liability by directly adjusting the AKI mortality rates shows an increase in longevity risk. The extent of heterogeneity of the insured group determines the level of risk. The RIG frailties should be considered for multivariate cases where the insureds are clustered in groups.

Ebrahim YH. Regional bioclimatic architecture 1.0: In the beginning and introduction. Nairobi, Kenya: Ebenergy Enterprises; 2020.
Opiyo R, Muketha S, Omollo W, Mwaniki D. "Responsive Infrastructure and Service Provision Initiatives Framing Smart Environment Attainment in Nairobi.". In: Smart Environment for Smart Cities. Singapore; 2020.
Gathumbi JK, Kemboi DC, Antonissen G, Ochieng PE, Croubels S, Kangethe EK, Okoth S, Faas J, Lindahl JF. "A Review of the Impact of Mycotoxins on Dairy Cattle Health: Challenges for Food Safety and Dairy Production in Sub-Saharan Africa." Toxins 2020. 2020;12(4).
Gitari HI, Nyawade SO, Kamau S, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Raza MA, Maitra S, Schulte-Geldermann E. "Revisiting intercropping indices with respect to potato-legume intercropping systems.". 2020.
C O, K KC, N MJ. "Rice Straw and Egg Shell as Partial Replacements of Cement in Concrete." Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research. 2020;Vol 10(6):6481-6487.
Udahemuka JC, Aboge GO, George O Obiero, Lebea PJ, Onono JO, Paone M. "Risk factors for the incursion, spread and persistence of the foot and mouth disease virus in Eastern Rwanda." BMC Vet Res. 2020;16 (1):387.
Udahemuka JC, Aboge GO, Obiero GO, Lebea PJ, Onono JO, Paone M. "Risk factors for the incursion, spread and persistence of the foot and mouth disease virus in Eastern Rwanda." BMC Veterinary Research. 2020;6(1):1-10.
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "A River from Rivulets? A Study of Sheng vis-à-vis Indigenous Kenyan Languages and Modern Technology - Expected." Asian Journal of African Studies (AJAS), Hankuk University. 2020.
Ang'u C, Muthama NJ, Oludhe C, Chitedze I. "The role of diversity, reserve margin and system structure on retail electricity tariffs in Kenya." Heliyon. 2020;6(8):1-11.
J.O'Connell P, Brown M, Chan TM, Granado RC-D, J.Davies S, Eiam-Ong S, H.Hassan M, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Levin A, E.Martin D, Muller E, Ossareh S, Tchokhonelidze I, Trask M, Twahir A, J.O.Were A, Yang C-W, Zemchenkov A, N.Harden P. "The role of kidney transplantation as a component of integrated care for chronic kidney disease." Science Direct. 2020.Website
Nyapela MA. "The Role of Knowledge Management in Life-Saving Initiatives: Case of COVID-19 Pandemic." The Role of Knowledge Management in Life-Saving Initiatives: Case of COVID-19 Pandemic . 2020.
Kithuka, J.M., Irandu EM, Moronge JM. "The role of periodic markets in provision of manufactured goods and creation of income in rural areas: a case study of selected markets in Mukaa Sub County; Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2020;7(5 ):65-79.
Twalib MH. "Rules of Engagement; A Case of Employees in Jubilee Insurance." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2020;10(1):496-509.
Mujuka E, Mburu J, Ogutu A, Ambuko J. "Returns to investment in postharvest loss reduction technologies among mango farmers in Embu County, Kenya." Food and Energy Security. 2020;9:e195. Abstract
n/a
Jekayinoluwa T, Tripathi L, Tripathi JN, Ntui VO, Obiero G, Muge E, Dale J. "RNAi technology for management of banana bunchy top disease." Food and Energy Security. 2020;9:e247. Abstract
n/a
2019
Gitao C. "Role of Academia and Researchers in the Agricultural sector in Kenya’.". In: Kenya Private Sector Agricultural sector. Intercontinental Hotel, Nairobi; 2019.
Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Gichuhi S, Onyango J, Ayebazibwe B, Newton R, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Risk Factors of Microbial Keratitis in Uganda: A Case Control Study." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2019:1-7. AbstractWebsite

Purpose: Microbial keratitis (MK), is a frequent cause of sight loss worldwide, particularly in low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors of MK in Uganda.
Methods: Using a nested case control, we recruited healthy community controls for patients presenting with MK at the two main eye units in Southern Uganda between December 2016 and March 2018. Controls were individually matched for age, gender and village of the cases on a 1:1 ratio. We collected information on demographics, occupation, HIV and Diabetes Mellitus status. In STATA version 14.1, multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios for risk factors of MK and a likelihood ratio test used to assess statistical significance of associations.
Results: Two hundred and fifteen case-control pairs were enrolled. The HIV positive patients among the cases was 9% versus 1% among the controls, = .0003. Diabetes 7% among the cases versus 1.4% among the controls, = .012. Eye trauma was 29% versus 0% among the cases and controls. In the multivariable model adjusted for age, sex and village, HIV (OR 83.5, 95%CI 2.01-3456, = .020), Diabetes (OR 9.38, 95% CI 1.48-59.3, = .017) and a farming occupation (OR 2.60, 95%CI 1.21-5.57, = .014) were associated with MK. Compared to a low socio-economic status, a middle status was less likely to be associated with MK (OR 0.29, 95%CI 0.09-0.89, < .0001).
Conclusion: MK was associated with HIV, Diabetes, being poor and farming as the main occupation. More studies are needed to explore how these factors predispose to MK.

Ipara BO, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA, Makokha SN. "The role of chicken production systems and management practices on Newcastle Disease outbreaks in Kenya .". In: Tropentag Conference at Universities of Kassel & Goettingen. Germany; 2019.
Olali T. "Ritual and Spectacle: The Grandiloquent Display of Paradoxical Metamessage during the Lamu Maulidi Festival.". In: Institutions of African Literature: Future, Present, Past. Columbus, Ohio, USA ; 2019.
Sorensen, Olago, D. O., Dulo, Kanoti, Gaye, Faye, Pouye, Owor. "Real-time indication of faecally contaminated drinking water with fluorescence spectroscopy: towards understanding the causation.". In: 10th International Groundwater Quality Conference (GQ 2019). Liège, Belgium; 2019.
Ipara BO, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA, Makokha SN. "The role of unregulated chicken marketing practices on the frequency of Newcastle Disease outbreaks in Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research . 2019;12(24):2093-2100. AbstractWebsite

In developing countries, chicken trade is characterized by complex chains comprising of many actors with limited biosecurity. This increases the spread of chicken diseases like Newcastle disease (ND). In Kenya, there is lack of uniformity in practices used in live bird markets, leading to increased disease outbreaks. This study aimed at assessing the effects of the chicken marketing practices on the frequency of ND outbreaks. A Poisson regression (PRM) was used on data collected from 336 traders selected using multi-stage sampling in Kakamega, Machakos, and Nairobi. Results highlight the low access of trainings and credit by traders. From the PRM results, breed composition, market channel, transportation, origin of birds, mixing of birds, slaughter of birds, disposal of waste, and housing as well as trader attributes like ND awareness, licensing, gender, and age had significant effects on the frequency of ND outbreaks. The study recommends that County governments collaborate with development partners to develop innovative ways of disseminating information on ND. The County governments should invest in market infrastructure such as slaughter facilities, special shelters and waste disposal equipment. There is also need for enforcement of biosecurity and hygiene measures through regular market inspections.

Keywords: biosecurity; live bird market; marketing channel; unregulated practice.

Ntampaka P, Nyaga PN, Gathumbi JK, Tukei M. "Rabies serosurvey of domestic dogs in Kigali City, Rwanda." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2019;11:64-72.
Angeyo KH, Bhatt B, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A. "Rapid nuclear forensics analysis via machine-learning-enabled laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)." AIP Conference Proceedings 2109. 2019;2019(1). Abstract

Nuclear forensics (NF) is an analytical methodology that involves analysis of intercepted nuclear and radiological materials (NRM) so as to establish their nuclear attribution. The critical challenge in NF currently is the lack of suitable microanalytical methodologies for direct, rapid, minimally invasive detection and quantification of NF signatures. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has the potential to overcome these limitations with the aid of machine-learning (ML) techniques. In this paper, we report the development of ML-enabled LIBS methodology for rapid NF analysis and attribution in support of nuclear security. The atomic uranium lines at 385.464 nm, 385.957 nm, and 386.592 nm were identified as NF signatures of uranium for rapid qualitative detection of trace uranium concealed in organic binders and uranium-bearing mineral ores. The limit of detection of uranium using LIBS was determined to be 34 ppm. A multivariate calibration strategy for the quantification of trace uranium in cellulose and uranium-bearing mineral ores was developed using an artificial neural network (ANN, a feed forward back-propagation algorithm) and spectral feature selection: (1) uranium lines (348 nm to 455 nm), (2) uranium lines (380 nm to 388 nm), and (3) subtle uranium peaks (UV range). The model utilizing category 2 was able to predict the 48 ppm of uranium with a relative error prediction (REP) of 10%. The calibration model utilizing subtle uranium peaks, that is, category 3, could predict uranium in the pellets prepared from certified reference material (CRM) IAEA-RGU-1, with an REP of 6%. This demonstrates the power of ANN to model noisy LIBS spectra for trace quantitative analysis. The calibration model we developed predicted uranium concentrations in the uranium-bearing mineral ores in the range of 54–677 ppm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the LIBS spectra (200–980 nm) utilizing feature selection of the uranium-bearing samples collected from different regions of Kenya clustered into groups related to their geographic origins. The PCA loading spectrum revealed that the groupings of these samples were mainly due to rare earth elements, namely, cerium, dysprosium, praseodymium, promethium, neodymium, and samarium. ML-enabled LIBS therefore has utility in field NF analysis and attribution of uranium in NRM under concealed conditions.

Nalyanya KM, Rop RK,, Onyuka AS, Birech Z. "Recent use of selected phytochemistry to mitigate environmental challenges facing leather tanning industry: a review." Phytochemistry Reviews. 2019;18(5):1361-1373.
Wangombe DN, Mose BR, Maranga SM, Nganga SP, MBUYA TO. "Recycling of Aluminium scrap in Kenya: A Survey of Foundry Enterprises and Mechanical Properties of Resultant Alloys." Journal of Sustainable Research in Engineering. 2019;5(1):25-33. Abstracthttps://jsre.jkuat.ac.ke/index.php/jsre/article/view/84

Small and medium scale foundry enterprises occupy an important position in the economic growth and development in our societies. They are the main force behind a large number of innovations and contribute significantly to the nation’s growth through employment creation, investments and exports. Their contribution to poverty reduction and wealth creation is enormous. This study investigated the aluminium scrap recycling practices through a survey of 45 foundry enterprises in Kenya; and evaluated the effectiveness of scrap segregation, melt cleanliness and post cast processing in reducing failures of load bearing products using commonly used cylinder head scrap. Survey data was acquired through a questionnaire, onsite observations and individual interviews with the foundry men. Three alloys were developed from carefully segregated cylinder head scrap; which include BA (base alloy), BA + 0.6%Fe and BA + 0.6%Fe + 0.3%Mn. Analysis of microstructure and mechanical properties was done on as cast and T6 heat treated alloys. The foundries involved in the survey were classified into ‘‘jua kali’’(micro), small, medium and large enterprises based on capital investment, number of employees, volume of castings produced and level of technology. It was found that ‘‘jua kali’’ enterprises were majority at 44%. Their operations were limited by low capital base, low level technology and inadequate skills; forcing them to operate below 40% capacity. Further, the approaches adopted for sorting scrap were found to lead to unpredictable chemical composition and uncertainties in mechanical performance. Use of alloying additives to adjust the alloy chemistry and improve properties of load bearing castings was utilized by 10% of the enterprises. This resulted in production of low quality and unreliable castings. BA had composition similar to that of parent cylinder head alloys. A small increase of Fe by 0.2 % as an inclusion in the as cast alloy, resulted in a drop of strength and ductility by 7 and 20 % respectively. Mn mitigated the harmful effects of Fe by increasing strength and ductility by 5 and 12 % respectively. T6 heat treatment of as cast alloy improved the strength and decreased ductility by 40 and 18 % respectively. It was shown that sorting separately the aluminium scrap component by component, observation of melt cleanliness, use of additives, and post cast processing can yield good mechanical performance of the resulting alloy. International market requirements have set quality standards, which local foundries must fulfill through adoption of scrap segregation, casting and melt control procedures in order to ensure high quality products.

undefined. "Reforming the Duties of Directors under the Kenyan Company Law: A Critique." European Business Law Review. 2019;30(4):617.
Cyr JL, Gawriluk TR, Kimani JM, Rada B, Watford WT, Kiama SG, Seifert AW, Ezen VO. "Regeneration-Competent and -Incompetent Murids Differ in Neutrophil Quantity and Function.". 2019.
Cyr JL, Gawriluk TR, Kimani JM, Rada B, Watford WT, Kiama SG, Seifert AW, Ezenwa VO. "Regeneration-competent and-incompetent murids differ in neutrophil quantity and function.". 2019.
Siriba DN. "The Relationship between the Mining and Property Cadastre in Kenya." African Journal of Land Policy and Geospatial Sciences. 2019;2(2):1-9.
Ogeng’o J, Obimbo M, Munguti J, Cheruiyot I, Olabu B, Kariuki BN. "Remembering Prof. Hassan Saidi: The Pillar for Young Anatomists and Trainee Doctors." Ann Afr Surg. 2019;16(1):38-39. Abstractremembering_prof._hassan_saidi_the_pillar_for_young_anatomists.pdfThe ANNALS of AFRICAN SURGERY

The late Prof. Hassan Saidi (rest in peace) was a father, husband, an administrator and a surgeon. To many in the medical fraternity, he was a teacher and a mentor. As a mentor, many know of the impact he had on resident surgeons in training, but his contribution to shaping the minds of young anatomists and trainee doctors is often underestimated (1). Prof. Saidi taught in the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, for 28 years (7 of which he was the chairman). He had also served previously as the coordinator for the Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery (MBChB) and Intercalated Bachelor of Science, Human Anatomy programs (BSc Anat) (2).

Shem Otoi Sam, Pokhariyal GP, Manene MM, Kipchumba IC. "Reparameterization of vector error correction model from auto-regressive distributed lag to analyze the effects of macroeconomic shocks on youth employment in Kenya." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2019;4(1):: 05-17. AbstractWebsite

This study analyzes the effects of reparameterization of autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) to vector error correction model (VECM) through cointegration of time series. It further verifies the effects of macroeconomic shocks on youth unemployment in Kenya using VECM. First, the unit root test has been done on youth unemployment (YUN), gross domestic product (GDP), external debt (ED), foreign direct investment (FDI), private investment (PI), youth literacy level (LR), and youth population (POP) to verify stationarity. The Johansen Cointegration Test has been employed and revealed three long run relationships which can be interpreted as a GDP effect, External Debt effect and Foreign Direct Investment effect relations. A structural VECM has been described through restrictions derived from the Cointegration Analysis. Based on the results of the Impulse-Response Function analysis and variance decomposition analysis of the Structural VECM, it is concluded that GDP, literacy level, population, Private Investment, External and FDI shocks have significant effects on Kenyan youth unemployment in the long run. Based on the results of the Impulse-Response Function and variance decomposition analyses of the Structural VECM, it is concluded that GDP, literacy level, population, and FDI shocks have significant effects on Kenyan youth unemployment in the long run. Whereas population, external debt, private investment, and GDP have positive effects, foreign direct investment and literacy rate have negative effects on youth unemployment in the long run. The results provide a statistical basis for assessing and prioritising investment policies and …

Constance B, Makori EO, Sellina K. "Research Data Management and Scientific Evidence: A Strategic Imperative for SDGs.". In: Africa and the Sustainable Development Goals. New York: Springer International Publishing AG; 2019.
Ombongi FO, Absaloms HO, Kibet PL. "Resource Allocation in Millimeter-wave Device-to-Device Networks." Mobile Information Systems. 2019;2019.
Ondicho TG. "Rethinking the New world order and its Implications for Africa.". In: Contemporary Africa and the Foreseeable World Order. London: Lexington Books; 2019.
Otieno SP. The Return . (Mrs) ANM, ed.; 2019.
Mujuka E, Mburu J, Ogutu A, Ambuko J. "Returns to investment in postharvest loss reduction technologies among mango farmers in Embu County, Kenya." Food and Energy Security . 2019;10.1002/fes3.195.abstract.pdf
Gikunju M, Nyamato-Kwenda R, Kwanya T. "A review of citizen librarianship in academic libraries in Kenya.". In: Digital Technologies for Information and Knowledge Management. Nairobi: Technical University of Kenya; 2019.
Owade JO, Abong’ G, Okoth M, Mwang’ombe AW. "A review of the contribution of cowpea leaves to food and nutrition security in East Africa." Food Science & Nutrition published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.. 2019;(DOI: 10.1002/fsn3.1337).a_review_of_the_contribution_of_cowpea_leaves_to_food_and.pdf
Muketha SM. "Riparian Zones and Their Role in Enhancing Resilience to Flooding in Urban Areas: A Case Study of Nairobi River Basin." Africca Habitat Review Journal. 2019;Volume 13 Issue 1 (December 2019) (ISSN: 2524-1354 (Online), ISSN: 2519-7851 (Print)):1615-1625.
Yohannis M, Agnes Wausi, Waema T, Hutchinson M. "The Role of ICT Tools in the Access of Climate Information by Rural Communities." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019;1(2):32-38. AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT
This paper, seeks to explore how rural communities especially women in Kitui county use
ICT tools to access localized climate information and how Digital Capital facilitates or
impedes the process. Our view is that the continued access to, and use of, ICT tools like
the mobile phone and radios offer diverse opportunities for rural communities to use
timely and relevant climate information to enhance their livelihood strategy. We
hypothesize that rural communities’ use ICT tools such as mobile phones and the
community radios to access localized climate information (weather, seasonal forecasts
and agro-advisories). A household survey of 419 respondents was adopted for data
collection and analysis, guided by the sustainable livelihood framework. The research
findings disclosed that the radios combined with the mobile phone are commonly
available, accessible and cost-effective ICT tools that have played a role in improving
rural women’s access to real-time, relevant climate and agro-advisory information
reducing information asymmetry in rural settings. The study is motivated by the
increasing challenges of climate variability and climate change that are global. Kitui
County has had its share of climate variability and climate change related problems such
as drought which create problems such as food insecurity.

Kinyungu TN, Muthomi JW, Subramanian S, Miano DW, Olubayo FM’mogi, Maobe MA. "Role of maize residues in transmission of maize chlorotic mottle virus and effect on yield." International Journal of Biosciences. 2019;14( 4): 338-349.Role of maize residues in transmission of maize chlorotic mottle virus and effect on yield
Kinyungu TN, Muthomi JW, Subramanian S, Miano DW, Olubayo FM’mogi, Maobe MA. "Role of maize residues in transmission of maize chlorotic mottle virus and effect on yield." International Journal of Biosciences. 2019;14(4):338-349.
Karema FM, Irandu EM, Mbatia P. "Role of Walking and Cycling in Promotion of Mobility in Kenya: A Case Study of Laikipia County, Kenya." International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science,. 2019;Vol. IV(Issue VIII):49-61.
Karema FM, Irandu EM, Mbatia P. "Role played by Bicycles in Rural Employment diversification in Laikipia County. Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology. 2019;Vol. 4 (7):770-772.
2018
Kiragu H, Mwangi E, Kamucha G. "A rapid MRI reconstruction method based on compressive sampling and concomitant artifacts suppression.". In: 19th IEEE Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference (MELECON). Marrakesh, Morocco ; 2018.
Wasamba P. "The Role of Books in Defining a People’s Future in Africa.". In: Indaba. Harare; 2018.
Kaniu MI, Angeyo KH, Darby IG, Muia LM. "Rapid in-situ radiometric assessment of the Mrima-Kiruku high background radiation anomaly complex of Kenya." J. Environ. Radioact.. 2018;188:47-57. Abstract

n/a

Angeyo KH, Bhatt B, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A. "Rapid nuclear forensics analysis via machine-learning-enabled laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).". 2018;(Published Online: 03 June 2019). Abstract

Nuclear forensics (NF) is an analytical methodology that involves analysis of intercepted nuclear and radiological materials (NRM) so as to establish their nuclear attribution. The critical challenge in NF currently is the lack of suitable microanalytical methodologies for direct, rapid, minimally invasive detection and quantification of NF signatures. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has the potential to overcome these limitations with the aid of machine-learning (ML) techniques. In this paper, we report the development of ML-enabled LIBS methodology for rapid NF analysis and attribution in support of nuclear security. The atomic uranium lines at 385.464 nm, 385.957 nm, and 386.592 nm were identified as NF signatures of uranium for rapid qualitative detection of trace uranium concealed in organic binders and uranium-bearing mineral ores. The limit of detection of uranium using LIBS was determined to be 34 ppm. A multivariate calibration strategy for the quantification of trace uranium in cellulose and uranium-bearing mineral ores was developed using an artificial neural network (ANN, a feed forward back-propagation algorithm) and spectral feature selection: (1) uranium lines (348 nm to 455 nm), (2) uranium lines (380 nm to 388 nm), and (3) subtle uranium peaks (UV range). The model utilizing category 2 was able to predict the 48 ppm of uranium with a relative error prediction (REP) of 10%. The calibration model utilizing subtle uranium peaks, that is, category 3, could predict uranium in the pellets prepared from certified reference material (CRM) IAEA-RGU-1, with an REP of 6%. This demonstrates the power of ANN to model noisy LIBS spectra for trace quantitative analysis. The calibration model we developed predicted uranium concentrations in the uranium-bearing mineral ores in the range of 54–677 ppm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the LIBS spectra (200–980 nm) utilizing feature selection of the uranium-bearing samples collected from different regions of Kenya clustered into groups related to their geographic origins. The PCA loading spectrum revealed that the groupings of these samples were mainly due to rare earth elements, namely, cerium, dysprosium, praseodymium, promethium, neodymium, and samarium. ML-enabled LIBS therefore has utility in field NF analysis and attribution of uranium in NRM under concealed conditions.

Gikonyo C. "Rationalising the Use of the Anti-Money Laundering Regime in Tackling Somalia's Piracy for Ransoms." nternational Journal of Law, Crime and Justice. 2018:155-164.
E. "The Reality of African Religio-Cultural Identity in the context of Globalization.". In: Religion and Social Reconstruction in Africa. New York: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group; 2018.
Bulinda DM. "Reflections on management ethics and managemen integrityin Higher education management ." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(10).
Migosi JA. "Regional Representation at Higher Education Level in Kenya: A case of Moi University." International Journal of Education and Research. 2018;6(8):93-106.
Amuti TM, Butt F, Otieno BO, Ogeng'o JA. "The relation of the extracranial spinal accessory nerve to the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the internal jugular vein. Cranial Maxillofac Trauma Reconstruction." Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction. 2018;12(2):108-111. Abstract

The spinal accessory nerve (SAN) exhibits variant anatomy in its relation to the internal jugular vein (IJV) as well as the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). These variations are important in locating the nerve during surgical neck procedures to avoid its inadvertent injury. These variations, however, are not conserved among different populations and data from the Kenyan setting are partly elucidated. This study, therefore, aims to determine the variant anatomical relationship of the SAN to the SCM and IJV in a select Kenyan population. Forty cadaveric necks were studied bilaterally during routine dissection and the data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Means and modes were calculated for the point of entry of the SAN into the posterior triangle of the neck as well as for its relation to the SCM. Side variations for both of these were analyzed using Student's t -test. Data relating the SAN to the IJV were represented in percentages and side variations were analyzed using the chi-square test. The SAN point of entry into the posterior triangle of the neck was 5.38 cm (3.501-8.008 cm) on the left side and 5.637 cm (3.504-9.173 cm) on the right side ( p  = 0.785) from the mastoid process. The nerve perforated the SCM in four cases (10%) on the left side and in eight cases (20%) on the right ( p  = 0.253). The SAN lay predominantly medial to the IJV on both sides of the neck, 87.5% on the left side of the neck versus 82.5% on the right ( p  = 0.831). In conclusion, the variant relation of the SAN to the IJV and SCM as observed in this setting is an important consideration during radical neck procedures and node biopsies.

C.M. MM; GR;WO; HG &. "Relationship between Age Diversity and Employee Performance of Public Universities in Western Kenya. ." International Journal of Academic Research in Business & Social Sciences . 2018;8(11).
Kalai JM. "Relationship between administrative service quality and students’ satisfaction in public universities in Kenya. ." The Cradle of Knowledge: African Journal of educational and Social Science Research. 2018;6(1):20-30.
Kinuthia JW, Odiemo L. "RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ADULT EDUCATION AND SELF-ESTEEM OF WOMEN IN NAIROBI COUNTY, KENYA." International Journal of Social Science and Technology . 2018;3(3):39-53.joyce_kinuthia-adult_education_and_self-esteem4._may_2018.pdf
Katembu MS, Okunya LO. "Relationship between Alcohol Use Disorder and Expression Suppression among Youth Seeking Help in Rehabilitation Centers in Kiambu County, Kenya ." Triple A Research Journal of Social Science and Humanity . 2018;2(2).
Oketch-Oboth JWB, Okunya LO. "The Relationship Between Levels of Stress and Academic Performance Among University of Nairobi Students ." International Journal of Learning and Development . 2018;8(4):1-20.oketch-_adjustment_ijessr_01_92-1.pdf
Ogilo Fredrick, Omwoyo Jeremiah ZO3. "The Relationship between Liquidity Risk and Failure of Commercial Banks in Kenya." Universal Journal of Accounting and Finance . 2018;6(1)(2018):7-13.
Wangui M, Gitao C, Gathumbi P, Kinge S. "Relationship Between Serum IgM Levels and Liver Function in Rubella and Measles Infection of Children Below Five Years in Nairobi County." . Asian Journal of Medical Sciences . 2018;9(2(DOI:10.19026/ajms.9.5927)):10-15.
Mwangi, I.K. Mathenge MW, Gitao GC, Gathumbi PK, Waithaka SK. "Relationship between serum IgM Levels and liver function in rubella and measles infection of children below five years in Nairobi County." Asian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2018;9(2):10-15 .
Oketch-Oboth JWB, Okunya LO. "THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRESS AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT AMONG UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI STUDENTS ." International Journal of Education and Social Science Research . 2018;1(6).oketch-_adjustment_ijessr_01_92-1.pdf
Kalai, J.M.& Kara AM. "Relationship between teaching quality and students’ satisfaction in public universities in Kenya." The Cradle of Knowledge: African Journal of educational and Social Science Research. 2018;6(1):63-78.
Asingo PO. "Relative Deprivation, Protests and Voting in Kenya." Commonwealth and Comparative Politics . 2018;56(1):65-83.Relative Deprivation
Ganira, Khavugwi L, Odundo P, Gatumu JC, Muasya, Juliet N. "Relevance of Social Studies Curriculum Content for Enhancing Responsibility among Preschool Children in Nairobi County, Kenya." Journal of Education and Training. 2018;5(2):205-220.
and Ganira Khavugwi Lilian, Odundo Paul Amollo GJMJNC. "Relevance of Social Studies Curriculum Content for Enhancing Responsibility among Preschool Children in Nairobi County, Kenya." Journal of Education and Training. 2018.
Muriithi GM, Olago DO, Ouma GO, Oriaso SO. "Reliability of Indigenous Traditional Knowledge and Conventional Weather Forecasting in the Face of Climate Change and Variability in Baringo County, Kenya." . International Journal of Recent Scientific Research. 2018;9(7):28136-28141. Abstract10674-a-2018.pdfWebsite

The research study evaluated the reliability of Indigenous Traditional Knowledge (ITK) and conventional weather forecasts in the face of climate change and variability in Baringo County, Kenya. Systematic sampling technique was applied in drawing a sample size of 454 pastoralists and agro-pastoralists interviewed. Majority (68%) of the respondents have not been aware of blend/mixture of ITK and scientific forecasting techniques. Majority (78% ,77 %,74%, 61%,73%,73% and 71%) of the respondents perceived that conventional weather forecast approach is reliable on predicting short-rains season, long-rain season, rainfall intensity, landslide, thunder storm, expected rainfall onset and cessation, and El-Nino respectively. The majority (71%, 69%, 75% and 64%) of the pastoralists and agro-pastoralists professed that ITK weather forecast approach is reliable on predicting floods, seasonal rain distribution, temperatures and La-Nina respectively. None of the two weather forecasts approaches could exhaustively forecast the climate/weather events alone. The integration of the two approaches is ultimate for effective reliability.

Mwinzi JM. "Religion Escalates Social and Ethical Diversity in Kenya." European Journal of Education Studies. 2018;4(1):323-343.
Wambu EW, Attahiru S, Shiundu PM, wabomba J. "Removal of heavy-metals from wastewater using a hydrous alumino-silicate mineral from Kenya." Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia. 2018;32(1):39-51. AbstractAJOL Journal

Description

Heavy metals’ discharge into the environment continues to pose grave concerns around the world. The efficacy of a hydrous alumino-silicate clay (AlSiM) coming obtained from some regions of Kenya to sorb heavy-metal ions from water has been evaluated in batch tests taking into account changes in adsorbent dose, pH, contact time, and temperature. Complete metal removals, from water containing up to 66 mg/L of Pb (II) was achieved using this material at pH value of 5 over a temperature range of 289–333 K. The adsorption data fitted both the Langmuir and the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms with R 2> 0.99. The DR adsorption energy (− 11.7 kJ/mol) indicated that chemisorption was the primary reaction in the adsorption process and the derived∆ G 0 value (− 7.45 kJ/mol) was consistent with the spontaneity of the adsorption process. The kinetic analyses indicated a film-diffusion and surface-chemisorption controlled process. Verification of the initial results on heavy metals-containing wastewaters obtained from a tannery and a leather processing industries revealed excellent adsorption efficacies of AlSiM for Cr 3+(99− 100%), Fe 3+(96− 98%), Mn 2+(85− 97%) and Zn 2+(78− 86%). The use of AlSiM as a plausible low-cost adsorbent for heavy-metal decontamination of industrial effluents has therefore been demonstrated.

Wambu EW, Attahiru S, Shiundu PM, wabomba J. "Removal of heavy-metals from wastewater using a hydrous alumino-silicate mineral from Kenya." Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia. 2018;32(1):39-51. AbstractBulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia

Description
Heavy metals’ discharge into the environment continues to pose grave concerns around the world. The efficacy of a hydrous alumino-silicate clay (AlSiM) coming obtained from some regions of Kenya to sorb heavy-metal ions from water has been evaluated in batch tests taking into account changes in adsorbent dose, pH, contact time, and temperature. Complete metal removals, from water containing up to 66 mg/L of Pb (II) was achieved using this material at pH value of 5 over a temperature range of 289–333 K. The adsorption data fitted both the Langmuir and the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms with R 2> 0.99. The DR adsorption energy (− 11.7 kJ/mol) indicated that chemisorption was the primary reaction in the adsorption process and the derived∆ G 0 value (− 7.45 kJ/mol) was consistent with the spontaneity of the adsorption process. The kinetic analyses indicated a film-diffusion and surface-chemisorption controlled process. Verification of the initial results on heavy metals-containing wastewaters obtained from a tannery and a leather processing industries revealed excellent adsorption efficacies of AlSiM for Cr 3+(99− 100%), Fe 3+(96− 98%), Mn 2+(85− 97%) and Zn 2+(78− 86%). The use of AlSiM as a plausible low-cost adsorbent for heavy-metal decontamination of industrial effluents has therefore been demonstrated.

Mwero JN, Abuodha SO. "Residual Strength of Reworked Steel Reinforcement Bars." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2018;Vol 8(6):66-76.
Mulwa  NN, Kitaa JMA, Muasya DW, Ngetich W. "Retrospective Study of Canine Hemoplasmosis in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2018.
Mwange C, Mulaku GC, Siriba DN. "Reviewing the status of national spatial data infrastructures in Africa." Survey Review. 2018;50(360):191-200.
Nemerimana M, Chege M, Odhiambo EA. "Risk Factors Associated with Severity of Nongenetic Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation) among Children Aged 2–18 Years Attending Kenyatta National Hospital." Neurology Research International. 2018. Abstract

Many of the nongenetic causal risk factors of intellectual disability (ID) can be prevented if they are identified early.
There is paucity on information regarding potential risk factors associated with this condition in Kenya.This study aimed to establish
risk factors associated with severity of nongenetic intellectual disability (ID) among children presenting with this condition at
Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted over the period between March
and June 2017 in pediatric and child/youth mental health departments of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Kenya. It included
children aged 2–18 years diagnosed with ID without underlying known genetic cause. Results. Of 97 patients with nongenetic
ID, 24% had mild ID, 40% moderate, 23% severe-profound, and 10% unspecified ID. The mean age of children was 5.6 (±3.6)
years. Male children were predominant (62%). Three independent factors including “labor complications” [AOR = 9.45, 95% CI =
1.23–113.29,

Wanjeri JK, Kinoti M, Olewe THAM. "Risk factors for burn injuries and fire safety awareness among patients hospitalized at a public hospital in Nairobi, Kenya: A case control study." Burns. 2018;Jan 29(pii: S0305-4179(17)):Burns. 2018 30611-3. doi: 10.1016/j.burns.2017.11.007.
Angima C, Wakobwa AM. "Risk management practices and marine premium growth of insurance firms in Kenya." nternational Journal of Creative Research And Studies. 2018;2(11):51-61.
Kariuki PM, Onyango CM, Lukhoba CW, Njoka JT. "The Role of Indigenous Knowledge on Use and Conservation of Wild Medicinal Food Plants in Loita Sub-county, Narok County." Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology. 2018;28(2):1-9.
Kariuki PM, Cecilia M Onyango, Catherine W Lukhoba JNT. "The Role of Indigenous Knowledge on Use and Conservation of Wild Medicinal Food Plants in Loita Sub-county, Narok County." Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology. 2018:1-9.
"Role Of Information Technology Skills On Youth Empowerment ProjectS: A Case of Nakuru Town, Kenya:." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management (IAJISPM) ISSN 2519-7711. 2018;Vol. 3(Issue 2):PP. 345-363.
"The Role of Kiswahili Children's Literature in Formulating their worldview." Contemporary Research Centre,Australia. 2018;6(2):129-140.
Maina, Allela. "THE ROLE OF MATERIAL RESEARCH IN PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY OF HANDICRAFT INDUSTRIES IN KENYA." CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION JOURNAL REVISTA CREATIVITATE ŞI INOVARE/. 2018.
Gichohi LNAN&. "The role of parents in promoting moral values amongst the youth." Kenya Literature Bureau. 2018.
Muricho DN, Otieno DJ, Oluoch-Kosura W. "The role of pastoralists’ indigenous knowledge and practices in reducing household food insecurity in West Pokot, Kenya: A binary probit analysis. ." Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics (JDAE). 2018;10(7)(ISSN: 2006-9774):236-245.
Wamitila KW. The Roses of Sir Kenyapesacus. Nairobi: Vide~Muwa Publishers Ltd.; 2018.
Mutekhele B; Rambo, C.M; Ongati NO; RO. "Routine Program Monitoring and Performance of Educational Building Infrastructural Projects: A Case of Bungoma County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Advanced Studies (IJIRAS). 2018;5(9).
Mulwa NN, Kitaa JMA, Muasya DW, Ngetich W, others. "A retrospective study of canine hemoplasmosis in Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2018;7:162-166. Abstract
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