Publications

Found 4182 results

Sort by: Author Title Type [ Year  (Desc)]
Filters: First Letter Of Title is M  [Clear All Filters]
Forthcoming
Jayne M. "Multilinguality and Bilingualism in Education: The Kenyan Experience .". In: Kiswahili and Globalisation. University of Dar es Salaam; Forthcoming.
Prof. Wamutiso K. "Maisha ya majagina wa kifasihi, kidini na kimapisi.". Forthcoming.
Ayiemba EHO. "Marriage and Family Patterns.". In: Kenya Population Situation Analysis, Nairobi. Nairobi: UNFPA; Forthcoming.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui and Kamau, Paul Kuria (forthcoming), 'Production and Trade Systems.". In: Hemisphere. University of Nairobi.; Forthcoming.
Mashtaka ya Baba . Focus publishers; Forthcoming.
Mashtaka ya Baba. . Focus publishers; Forthcoming.
Mungania G. Maudhui Mbalimbali Katika Ushairi wa Mathias E. Mnyampala (Penda-Chako). Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; Forthcoming.
Amatsimbi M, Wambui K. "Media Veterans in Kenya: Archival Records.". In: Voices of Media Veterans: Reflections over 70 Years on Communication and Media in Kenya . University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; Forthcoming.
Ngugi M, Wambui K. "Media, Memory, History and the Evolution of Free Expression in Kenya.". In: Voices of Media Veterans: Reflections on 70 Years of Communication and Media in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; Forthcoming.
Bailasha NK, Nteere JS, Rintaugu EG, Wanderi PM. Motivation orientation in sports - A study of athletes in Kenya .; Forthcoming.
Mto wa Mawe . Focus publishers; Forthcoming.
MARY DROMOSA. "M. Omosa, D. McCormick & P. Alila (Forthcoming) Business in Kenya: Institutions, Interactions and Strategies. In: D. McCormick, P. Alila & M. Omosa [Eds] African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Pres.". In: African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "McCormick; D.; P. Alila & M. Omosa (Forthcoming) [Eds] African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.". In: African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
Submitted
Weinstein, A. EORTALWAGMCSS, Ebinger, C. ORTALWAGMSSC, Oliva, S. RTALWAGMSCM, Roecker, S. TALWAGMCMC, Tiberi, C. ALWAGMMCE, Aman, M. LWAGMCEJ, Lambert, C. WAGMEJS, Witkin, E. AGMJS, Albaric, J. GMS, Gautier, S. M, Muzuka, A. MKHI-KMFPMRGGR, Mulibo, G. KG, Kianji, G., Hadfield, R. I-KMFPMRFMR, Illsley-Kemp, F. MFPMRMRS, Msabi, M. FPMRRSJ, Ferdinand, R. PMRSJ, Peyrat, S. MRJ, Muirhead, J. R, Rodzianko, A., Fischer T. "Magmatic Co2 assisted rifitng in East Africa : seismicity of the Magadi-Natron-Manyara basins, Africa. Submitted to Tectonics." tectonics. Submitted.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Kilonzo P. Matata (Play). Nairobi: E.A. E. P; Submitted.
J.S.OLIECH. "Medical Treatment on Bening Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) with Combination Drug Therapy.". In: East African Medical JOURNAL. East African Medical Journal; Submitted. Abstract

Obective:To carry out an overview of the medical treatment of the benign prostatic hyperplasia using the combination drugs of alpha adrenergic uro-selective blockers(tamsulocin,alfuzocin) and the 5 alpha reductase iso-enzymes 1&2 inhibitor dutasteride . Data source :Review of researches don and those ongoing especially those sponsored and financed by GlaxoSmithcline in the multicenter international control trials. Data selction: Selected data from international researches on BPH from the following research groups MTOPS,PREDICT,PLESS,VCOOP,ALFIN,DUTASTERIDE 4-DATA 2004/PHASE 111a studies,COmbAT2007,SMART-1, also from GlaxoSmithkline data files.Data Extraction:Selection of research conclusions from various researches tested for clinical use by the international researchers.Data synthesis:From these the advantages of drug compliance  on clinical use on BPH was analysed.                                                                           

Omonge E;, Kyateesa; J, Otieno FCF;, Kayima, Lule G;, McLigeyo AA. Metabolic factors associated with the development of lipodystrophy in patients on long-term highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART).; Submitted. Abstract

Dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes are frequent in patients on highly active anti-retroviral
therapy (HAART) and especially in patients with lipodystrophy, and may lead to atherosclerosis. This
study described the metabolic alterations associated with lipodystrophy in adults on chronic HAART in
Kenya. The prevalence of dyslipidaemia amongst the study participants was (211) 79.6%. Elevated total
cholesterol was found in 129, high low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in 107, low High-density
lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in 110 and high triglycerides in 131 participants. Lipodystrophic
patients were more likely to have dyslipidemia than normal lipids (55.4 versus 35.1%, p = 0.007 OR 2.2
CI 1.3 to 4.6) with 57, 45.9, 65.9 and 45.2% having elevated total cholesterol, elevated LDL-C, elevated
triglycerides and low HDL-C, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia were
significantly associated with lipodystrophy (OR 3.8 CI 2.3 to 6.4; p = 0.000) and (OR 1.94 CI 1.2 to 3.2; p
= 0.008), respectively. The odds of lipodystrophy was 2.913 times higher for patients with elevated
triglycerides than for those with normal triglycerides (p < 0.001). Sixty-four (24.3%) participants had
dysglycemia, with 3.5% having diabetes and 20.8% having impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Among
patient with lipodystrophy, 69.8% had normal fasting glucose, 25.1% had IFG and 5.1% were diabetic.
Lipodystrophic patients were not more likely to have abnormal blood sugars than normal blood sugars
(p value 0.125).

2013 PMK; PS; LM-V; JK; AKADEK &. "Missed Opportunities for early HIV Diagnosis: Critical insights from the stories of Kenyan women living with HIV." International Journal of health Promotionand Education. Submitted;(10/3/2013).
Rintaugu EG, Ngetich EDK. "Motivational gender differences in sport and exercise participation among university sport science students." Journal of Physical Education and Sport (JPES) . Submitted;12(2):180-187.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Ms Chore Jane Njambi; Prof. Anna Karani Dr. Margaret Chege. Assessment of Challenges Facing Preceptors at Kenyatta National Hospital Specialized Units.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, vol. 40:1: 6-13. Impress Communication Printers and Stationers; Submitted. Abstract

The main aim of this cross-sectional descriptive study was to assess challenges faced by preceptors at Kenyatta National Hospital specialized units. The study was conducted among preceptors with more than one year experience at Kenyatta National Hospital specialized units and combined both quantitative and qualitative methods. Data was collected using a self administered semi-structured questionnaire distributed to 113 randomly sampled preceptor nurses and an interview guide was used to collect qualitative data from five unit managers. The data was coded, computed and analyzed by SPSS version 17 (qualitative data was analyzed manually).Commonly reported challenges by preceptors included; heavy patient workload 85.71%, lack of adequate resources 59.52% and a high number of students attached to a preceptor 59.52%. Chi square was used to establish relationships between variables. Motivation to serve as a preceptor was strongly associated with the number of years a participant had served as a nurse. (X=11.30; p=0.01).

P.G. J. "Mucosal changes at the oesophago-gastric junction as visualized at Endoscopy–A prospective pilot study." MEDICOM-The African Journal of Hospital Medicine . Submitted;17(1):5-8.
FRANCIS DRNJUI. "M.Sc. Project on Kenya's Domestic Export.". In: . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; Submitted. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
B DRSINGHCHANDRA. "Magneto-hydrodynamic Steady Flow of Liquid Between Two Parallel Plates.". In: Proceedings of Kenya Mathematical Society. Materials Research Society; Submitted.
OTIENO DRJOWI. "Management of Instructional Resource in Teacher Colleges.". In: A paper presented in Ministry of Education Workshop for Principals of Teacher Colleges on Teacher Education Management. The Kenya Medical Association; Submitted. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K. "Optimal Long-term Reactive Power Planning Using Decomposition Techniques", Ph.D. Thesis. The Pennsylvania State University, U.S.A., Dec. 1991.". In: Published in a Journal Kenyan Geographer. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; Submitted. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
N DRGITHANGAJESSIE. "Master of Medicine (in Pathology) dissertation entitled "Chromosomal abnormalities in childhood acute leukaemia at K.N.H., Nairobi, Kenya.".". In: Book. Douglas McLean Publishing; Submitted. Abstract
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O. PROFMBECHEOYUKO. "Mbeche, O. O., "Energy Needs in Africa", Proceedings: International Conference on Alternative Energy and the Offer of the Sun and the Sea, Milano, 18-20 April 1980.". In: International Conference on Alternative Energy and the Offer of the Sun and the Sea, Milano, 18-20. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; Submitted. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
O. PROFMBECHEOYUKO. "Mbeche, O. O., "Energy Use in Kenya", Proceedings: International Workshop on Energy Survey Methodologies for Developing Countries, US AID/National Academy of Sciences, Jerkyll Island, Georgia, USA, January 1980.". In: International Workshop on Energy Survey Methodologies for Developing Countries, US AID/National Academy of Sciences, Jerkyll Island, Georgia, USA, January 1980. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; Submitted. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
O. PROFMBECHEOYUKO. "Mbeche, O. O., "The Hydraulic Ram Pump in Kenya", ZDRC-MRl02e, Proceedings of a Workshop on Hydraulic Ram Pump (hydrant) Technology, Arusha, Tanzania, May 1984.". In: of a Workshop on Hydraulic Ram Pump (hydrant) Technology, Arusha, Tanzania, May 1984. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; Submitted. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
S. PROFMBINDYOBENJAMIN. "Mbindyo, B.S. Snake bite in Kenya Dissertation presented in part fulfilment of MMed. in Surgery university of Nairobi.". In: MMed. in Surgery university of Nairobi. University of Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
S. PROFMBINDYOBENJAMIN. "Mbindyo, B.S., Malibo, J. Some considerations in cases of fractures of he femur treated by intramedullary nailing. Proc. Ass. of Surgeons of E.A.". In: Proc. Ass. of Surgeons of E.A. University of Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
S. PROFMBINDYOBENJAMIN. "Mbindyo, B.S., Okelo, G.B.A. Common Venomous Bites and Stings in Kenya A book published by Health Education Division and audio-visual Centre, Serial No. 1/79.". In: A book published by Health Education Division and audio-visual Centre, Serial No. 1/79. University of Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Misingi Ya Hisabati1,2,3.". In: E.A.E.P. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "A model for the establishment of an integrated regional geodetic datum.". In: Survey Review, Vol. 32, No 250,. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; Submitted. Abstract
A model for the establishment of an integrated geodetic datum covering a region is treated. The integrated geodetic datum is understood here to comprise the geoid, the reference ellipsoid, and the positional coordinates. A comprehensive unified solution model including the three parameters comprising the datum is considered. The estimation model adopted rigorously incorporates determined prior information in the estimation of the datum parameters. Mathematical models together with the pertinent observation equations are presented, followed by a description of the procedure for the aetual setting up of the datum. The observational scheme is based on a system of modular traverses anchored on a trilateration of GPS baselines.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Moindi, S.K., Pokhariyal, G.P. and Nzimbi, B.M., W_4-Curvature tensor on a A-Einstein Sasakian manifold, Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS), accepted Feb 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS). Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS); Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Moindi, S.K., Pokhariyal, G.P. and Nzimbi, B.M., W_4-Curvature tensor on a A-Einstein Sasakian manifold, Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS), accepted Feb 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS). Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS); Submitted.
WARUE MRSKARIUKICATHERINE. "Mr. Nicky Nzioki,Mrs.Catherine Kariuki: An Investigation into the process of Compulsory Acquisition and suggestions on the choice of valuation methodology in making claims for compensation for land for various infrastructure.". In: African Journal of Ecology 46(1):22-29. uon press; Submitted. Abstract
Over the last six years there has been a tremendous development of infrastructure projects in virtually all corners of Kenya. This has taken the form of Road Improvement Project, Water and sewerage improvement project and the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project as envisioned in the Kenya Vision 2030. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the principles of compulsory land acquisition and way leaves in the three sectors in Kenya by looking at the current legislative framework governing the entire process of acquisition. In considering the process, the paper explores the various provisions of the relevant act which governs the particular utility envisaged for improvement project component in the Kenya Vision 2030. A critical evaluation of the procedures adopted is outlined in each case and the general public apprehensions towards such acquisitions. The second part of the paper focuses on suggestions on the choice of valuation methodology in making claims for compensation for land for various infrastructure projects in Kenya. This is borne out of the fact that there appear to be very little standardization in the methods adopted by the various bodies. The paper cites several cases under the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project where a large proportion of way leaves are dealt with at local level, with little consistency. Coupled to this is the public concern that electricity lines have potentially serious health effects that continue to attract research and media interest. The paper concludes with a description of the various cases on how to improve compensation paid to those affected by compulsory acquisition in cases of land and way leaves.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Ms Emma Matheka, Prof. Anna Karani, Mr. L.P.Oteba, Mr. M.F. Otieno, Prof. Simon Kangehte THE ROLE OF HORMONAL CONTRACEPTIVES IN HIV INFECTION AMONG ANTENATAL MOTHERS IN MACHAKOS DISTRICT HOSPITAL.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, vol. 40:1: 6-13. Ms Emma Matheka, Prof. Anna Karani, Mr. L.P.Oteba, Mr. M.F. Otieno, Prof. Simon Kangehte; Submitted. Abstract

This study was done at Machakos District Hospital in the Eastern province of Kenya between May and August 2007.Aim was to find out the role of hormonal contraceptives in HIV infection among antennal mothers. Analytical cross- sectional study design was used. Methodology. The sample size consisted of 144 antenatal mothers visiting the MCH clinic for PMTCT services among other services. The simple random sampling technique included every 8th antenatal mother visiting the PMTCT clinic who had no history of consisted condom use. All antenatal mothers who had not used condoms consistedly both contraceptive and non-contraceptive users who fell in the sampling frame acted as study subjects. This was on condition that they consented to participate in the study. A self

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Ms Gichigi Esther, Prof. Anna Karani Dr Margaret Chege .". In: Kenya Nursing Journal June, Vol. 39(1) 57-61. Ms Gichigi Esther, Prof. Anna Karani Dr Margaret Chege; Submitted. Abstract

Mentorship programs are offered to support students in program completion, confidence building and transitioning to further education or the work force. However mentoring relationships have been faced by challenges such as inadequate knowledge and negative attitude. This study aimed at evaluating knowledge, attitude and perceived benefits on mentorship among the nursing students in Kenyan universities. The study was conducted in September, 2009.  A descriptive cross sectional survey  used both qualitative and quantitative methods to gather information. The study participants were students from University of Nairobi (U.O.N) and Kenya Methodist University (K.E.M.U). A sample of 188 students was selected from a total population of 403 in both universities. The data were coded, entered and analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). Presentation of data was done in form of descriptive statistics, frequency distribution and graphs. Pearsons chi square tests were used to compare the two groups. The tests level of significance was set at 5%. Results showed that there was a significance difference between mentorship programmes in the two institutions ( χ 2= 17.02,  d.f=1 , p < 0.001)           . Fourty four (72%) of the students at K.E.M.U felt that the program had positive impact on students

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Ms Grace Gachuiri, Prof. Anna Karani, Dr Margaret Chege THE ROLE OF CLINICAL PLACEMENT ON KRCHN GRADUATES PERFORMANCE IN THE NCK REGISTRATION EXAMINATION.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal 1st.July 2010. Ms Grace Gachuiri, Prof. Anna Karani, Dr Margaret Chege; Submitted. Abstract

The study sought to establish the factors affecting the diploma graduates performance in the Nursing registration examination. Necessitated by poor performance recorded in recent years, this study was aimed at seeking to establish the reasons why. This was a descriptive study. Quantitative data was collected using self-administered semi structured questionnaires from 75 KRCHN graduates working at Kenyatta National Hospital. The study areas were purposively selected and the study subjects selected through simple random sampling. Qualitative data was collected using a study from lecturers

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Ms Grace Wangechi Gachuiri, Prof. Anna Karani, Dr Margaret Chege IMPACT OF STUDENTS AND TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS ON PERFORMANCE OF DIPLOMA NURSE GRADUATES.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal June, Vol. 39(1) 57-61. Ms Grace Wangechi Gachuiri, Prof. Anna Karani, Dr Margaret Chege; Submitted. Abstract

Necessitated by poor performance recorded in recent years, this descriptive study sought to establish the impact of students and teacher characteristics on performance in the Nursing registration examination. The study combined both qualitative and quantitative methods. Quantitative data was collected using self-administered semi structured questionnaires from 75 KRCHN graduates working at Kenyatta National Hospital. The study areas were purposively selected and the study subjects selected through simple random sampling. Qualitative data was collected using a study guide from lecturers

KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Mungai T.C. Kisumbi B.K Wakiaga J.M and Ireri S.K : Patients.". In: Journal of Dental Research. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA. "Mutave R.J. and Kisumbi B.K: Attitude of urban Kenyan population towards replacement of teeth. Preliminary findings. Journal of Dental Research.". In: Journal of Dental Research. Taylor & Francis; Submitted. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to study dimensional time-dependence of resin/ionomer formulations from 5 min age to one month and to separate out the intrinsic setting shrinkage and hygroscopic expansion effects, by using non-aqueous and aqueous storage media, respectively. METHODS: Materials studied included: A: resin-, B: metal- and C: polyphosphonate-modified glass-ionomer cements [GICs]; and controls of D: poly-acid modified composite [compomer]; and E: resin-composite. Separate specimen groups (n = 5) were stored in different storage-media: (i) silicone fluid; (ii) de-ionized water. Experiments were repeated at 23 and 37 degrees C. Volumetric changes of specimens (4 mm diameter x 6 mm height) were obtained via accurate mass measurements (to 10(-4) g), using Archimedes principle, with silicone or water also used as the Archimedean fluid. These measurements were made periodically over a 30 day period, post fabrication. RESULTS: In silicone at 23 degrees C, all materials underwent further gradual intrinsic shrinkage (after 5 min from mix). This was highly significant (p < 0.05) for the RM-GIC (A). At 37 degrees C, however the RM-GIC expanded, indicating that its cure is temperature-sensitive. In water, at 23 and 37 degrees C, the shrinkage was either partially offset (materials C, D, E), or replaced by appreciable expansions (materials A and B). Differences between RM-GIC (A) and MM-GIC (B) were significant (p < 0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: The deployment of dual storage media made an important contribution to the separate analysis of the volumetric changes due to the on-going setting chemistry in these systems and the time-dependent effects of an aqueous environment.
2021
Japheth NR, Rukwaro PR, Wachira-Towey IN. "Management of Steel Reinforcement Works Procedures Impact on the Health of Workers in Building Construction Sites Case study of Nairobi County, Kenya." Journal of Entrepreneurship & Project management. 2021;Volume 5(1).
Mulei IR, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Nyaga PN, Mutoloki S, Evensen Ø&. "Management practices, farmers’ knowledge of diseased fish and their occurrence in fish farms in Nyeri County, Kenya ." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2021;2021(Article ID 8896604).
Mulei, I., Mbuthia, P.G., Waruiru, R.M., Nyaga, P. N., Mutoloki, Evensen. "Management practices, farmers’ knowledge of diseased fish and their occurrence in fish farms in Nyeri County, Kenya." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2021.
Ong’ang’a MA, Indangasi H, Kitata M. "Manipulation of Narrative Paradigm in Ngugi wa Thiong’o’s Wrestling with the Devil." Hybrid Journal of Literary and Cultural Studies. . 2021;3(1).
MD Wanjere, Iraki XN, MO Ogutu, Kinoti M. "Mediating Role of Absorptive Capacity on the Relationship between Foreign Direct Investment and Local Firm’s Performance." European Journal of Business and Management Research. 2021;6(5):256-263. Abstractmediating_role_of_absorptive_capacity_on_the_relationship_between_foreign_direct_investment_and_local_firms_performance.pdf

There is little documentation on the role of absorptive capacity on the relationship between FDI and performance of firms. This paper investigates the mediating role of absorptive capacity on the relationship between FDI and performance of manufacturing firms in Kenya. The population of study comprised 100 companies registered with Kenya Association of Manufacturers that had over 10 percent foreign ownership as at the time of data collection in 2019. The respondents were the CEOs of organization or their designated officers. The study used a structured questionnaire to collect primary data. The respondent were required to indicate how the introduction of FDI impacted on organizations capital flow, advanced production technology, marketing expertise and management knowhow. They were also to indicate the extent their Organisation had invested in absorptive capacity and the effect absorptive capacity had on the relationship between FDI and local firm performance. Descriptive and inferential statistics were both used to analyze the data. The results revealed that absorptive capacity has statistically significant mediating effect on the relationship between FDI and firm performance. This imply that an incremental change in the absorptive capacity would generate growth in company’s performance. As such Kenyan and other sub-Sahara African countries government need to come up with polices geared to supporting improvement of firms absorptive capacities so as to spur the growth of their key sectors of the economy.

Mwangi AN, Njogu PM, Maru SM, Njuguna NM, Njaria PM, Mathenge AW. "Meloxicam emulgels for topical management of rheumatic diseases: Formulation development, in vitro and in vivo characterization." Saudi Pharmaceut. Jour. 2021;29(4):351-360.
Rahman M, Ahmed R, Moitra M, Damschroder L, Brownson R, Chorpita B, Idele P, Gohar F, Huang KY, Saxena S, Lai J, Peterson SS, Harper G, McKay M, Amugune B, Esho T, Ronen K, Othieno C, Kumar M. "Mental Distress and Human RightsViolations During COVID-19: A RapidReview of the Evidence InformingRights, Mental Health Needs, andPublic Policy Around VulnerablePopulations." Front. Psychiatry . 2021;11:603875.
Kerubo JO, Muthumbi AWN, Onyari JM, Robertson-Andersson D, Kimani E. "Microplastics pollution in the sediments of creeks and estuaries of Kenya, western Indian Ocean." African Journal of Marine Science. 2021;43(3):337-352. AbstractAfrican Journal of Marine Science

Description
Microplastic pollution has been recognised as a global threat in marine environments and a danger to prey, predators and humans. Yet, there have been few studies in the western Indian Ocean, specifically along the Kenyan coast, which makes it difficult to estimate the extent of such pollution in the region. This is the first study on microplastics (MPs) in the sediments within creeks and estuaries (Tudor, Port Reitz and Mida creeks) on the Kenyan coast. In January/February and September 2018 sediment samples were collected for MPs analysis. The concentration of MPs differed between the sampling seasons and was distinctively higher in the second sampling season across particle sizes, suggesting that there were more MPs from larger terrestrial discharges due to increased runoff. The concentrations of total MPs, and the occurrence of different sizes, shapes and colours, were established under a microscope …

Irene Wakio Mwakesi, Wahome RG, Ichang’i DW. "Mining Impacts on Society: A Case Study of Taita Taveta County, Kenya." Journal of Environmental Protection. 2021;11(11):986-997.
Irene Wakio Mwakesi, Wahome RG, Ichang’i DW. "Mining Impacts on Society: A Case Study of Taita Taveta County, Kenya." Journal of Environmental Protection. 2021;11(11):986-997.
P.K N. "Mitigating Engineering Profession Regulatory Gaps." Kenya Policy Briefs. 2021;2(2):73-74.
Purity MJ, Opere AO, Mutemi JN, Mutua FM. "Modeling climate change impacts on water resources in the upper tana catchment of Kenya." J. Meteorol. Relat. Sci. . 2021;in press.
Gatimu J, Gakuu C, Ndiritu A. "Moderating Influence of Contextual Determinants on Relationship between Monitoring and Evaluation Practices and Performance of County Maternal Health Programmes in Kenya. Public Administration Research journal Vol. 10, No. 2 (2021).". 2021. Abstract

Effective monitoring and evaluation practices is widely known to help improve performance, the quality and effectiveness of planning and decision making and achievement of results. This is because monitoring focuses on the implementation process and progress towards the achievement of project objectives. Despite the Kenya Government’s effort to promote County Maternal Health programmes through legal frameworks such as the county integrated monitoring and evaluation practices tool, and while there is empirical evidence that monitoring and evaluation practices contributes to enhanced performance, actual performance of county health sector across Kenya remains poor. The purpose of the study was to establish moderating influence of contextual determinants on the relationship between monitoring and evaluation practices and performance of County Maternal Health programmes in Kenya. The paradigm that is suitable for this study is pragmatism. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The study targeted 8 regional blocks in Kenya (Central,, Western Coast, Eastern, Rift Valley, North Eastern, Nyanza, Nairobi) where one county from each block was selected. From these counties the target population was 1165 respondents including Medical officers, Clinical Officers, Trained Community health workers, Nurses, County Health Management Team and County Delivery Unit officers from level 4 and 5 hospitals. Sampling procedure for this study was guided by the research design which is descriptive survey design. Stratified random sampling was used to obtain 282 respondents from which information was obtained for this study. The research instruments that were used for data collection are: a self-administered structured questionnaire and interview guides. Descriptive and inferential data analysis techniques were used in this study. Regression was conducted for testing the study hypothesis. The research established that there was a strong correlation between the performance of county maternal health programmes and contextual determinants (r=0.638, p=0.000<0.05). The study found that after introduction of contextual determinants into the relationship, and the interaction term in model 2 increased the R square by 0.08. This implies that the interaction between contextual determinants and monitoring and evaluation practices explains 8.0% variations in performance of county maternal health programmes. The study concluded that contextual determinants significantly moderate the relationship between monitoring and evaluation practices and performance of County Maternal Health Programmes in Kenya. The study recommends investing in robust and dynamic technical coordination platforms that can sustain the agenda for change. and at all levels is necessary to ensure the sustainability of M&E reforms in the health sector.

Makau CM, Towett PK, Abelson KSP, Kanui TI. "Modulation of nociception by amitriptyline hydrochloride in the Speke’s hinge‐back tortoise (Kiniskys spekii)." Veterinary Medicine and Science. 2021;early view. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Background: There are limited studies on the utilization of analgesics in testudines.
Management of pain in reptiles is by use of analgesics generally used in other vertebrate species. Evidently, some analgesics considered to be generally effective in
reptiles are not effective in certain reptile species.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of amitriptyline hydrochloride on nociceptive behaviour in Speke's hinge-back tortoise.
Methods: Twenty-four adult Speke-hinged tortoises weighing 500–700 g were used.
The effects of amitriptyline hydrochloride on nociception were evaluated using the
formalin, capsaicin and hot plate nociceptive tests. Amitriptyline was administered
intracoelomically at doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg.
Results: The higher doses of amitriptyline hydrochloride caused an increase in nociceptive behaviour (time spent in hindlimb withdrawal) on the formalin and capsaicin
nociceptive tests, suggesting a potentiating effect. However, the doses used had no
significant change in nociceptive behaviour on withdrawal response in the hot plate
test.
Conclusions: The study showed that amitriptyline hydrochloride which is widely used
in management of neuropathic pain potentiates nociceptive effects in the formalin
and capsaicin nociceptive tests in the Speke's hinge-back tortoise. The hot plate test,
which previously has not been reported in these animals, gave results not in line
with the other tests and therefore more testing and validation of the test is required.
Amitriptyline modulates chemical and thermal pain differently

Gatimu J, Gakuu C, Ndiritu A. "Monitoring and Evaluation Practices and Performance of County Maternal Health Programmes October 2021European Scientific Journal 17(37):39 DOI:10.19044/esj.2021.v17n37p39.". 2021. Abstract

The study sought to establish the relationship between monitoring and evaluation practices and performance of County Maternal Health programmes in Kenya. The combined monitoring and evaluation practices included planning for M&E, stakeholder engagement, capacity building for M&E, and M&E data use. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. To obtain 282 respondents, stratified random sampling was used. A self-administered structured questionnaire was the study's research instrument. Using descriptive narratives, qualitative data was analyzed within specific themes. Quantitative data was analyzed descriptively using measures of central tendencies and measures of dispersion. Regression was conducted for testing the study hypotheses. Data was presented using frequency tables. The study found that stakeholders’ engagement in M&E and capacity building for M&E influenced the performance of County Maternal Health Programmes in Kenya. The study also found that the respondents agreed that planning for M&E and the data management for M&E. This implied that the combined monitoring and evaluation practices influence performance of County Maternal Health Programmes in Kenya.The study found a strong correlation between the performance of county maternal health programmes and combined monitoring and evaluation practices. The study concluded that combined planning for M&E monitoring and evaluation practices influenced the performance of county maternal health programmes. The study suggests that management develop an effective methodology as well as raise awareness of M&E activities for the success of the project. The study also suggests that human resources issues such as workers charged with monitoring and evaluation ought to have technical capabilities, and roles and duties of monitoring and evaluation personnel should be outlined at the start of projects. To ensure M&E sustainability health sector reforms, investments in strong and vibrant technical harmonization platforms that can sustain the change agenda at all times and every required level.

"Mr Hassler: The Hassle and Pain of being a Male Bachelor." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2021;1(1):36-41.
FW N, K O, A A, J O, GW A. "Multiple Cytokines Elevated in Patients with Keloids: Is It an Indication of Auto-Inflammatory Disease?" J. Inflam Res. 2021;14(7):2465-2470. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Background: Inflammation seems to play a major role in the pathophysiology of keloids. However, the role of cytokines in keloid pathophysiology has not been fully evaluated with only a few cytokines studied. We undertook this study to compare various cytokines in patients with keloids and a control group of patients without keloids nor family history of keloids so as to determine which cytokines are elevated and could thus be critical in keloid formation.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of patients with keloids and a control group of those without. Patients in both groups were matched for age, sex and body mass index. Their plasma was analyzed for both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines using the Bio-flex ElisaTM method. Comparisons of cytokines means in both groups were done using Student's t-test.

Results: A total of 84 participants with 42 participants in each group were followed during the study. Male to female ratio was 1:2. Age ranges were similar with a mean of 29.6 years. A total of 28 cytokines were assayed. Statistically significant differences were noted in 15 of the 28 cytokines assayed with 11 being elevated more in keloid patients with only four in the non-keloid forming group. Among elevated cytokines in keloid patients were granulocyte colony-stimulating factors, granulocyte-monocyte-colony-stimulating factors, interleukins 4, 6 and 13.

Conclusion: Patients with keloids have significantly higher cytokines compared with non-keloid forming patients. This finding suggests that keloid formation could be influenced by multiple inflammatory cytokines, an indication that the patient's immune system could play a role in keloid formation akin to auto-inflammatory disease.

Wakhungu CN, Okoth S, Wachira P, N.A O. "Mycotoxins contaminating herbs and spices in Africa: A review." African Journal of Biological Sciences. 2021;3(3):10-28.
Mwangi HN’u, Muge EK, Wagacha PW, Ndakala A, Mulaa FJ. "Methods for Identifying Microbial Natural Product Compounds that Target Kinetoplastid RNA Structural Motifs by Homology and De Novo Modeled 18S rRNA." International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021;22:4493. Abstract
n/a
2020
Ogutu K. "Media owes everyone accurate reporting of court decisions." The Standard, May 4, 2020.
Nyatuka DM, Ralwala AO. "The moderating influence of employees attitude on the relationship between Occupation Health and Safety Training and Kenya Power Last Mile Connectivity Project performance in Nakuru County, Kenya.". In: Scarcity and Creativity: Addressing Critical Spatial Needs. Sub-theme: Transportation Integration: Ports, Railways, Roads; Other Types of Mega-projects and their Impacts Contiguous Societies and their Resources. School of Architecture and Building Sciences (SABS) online conference, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology (JKUAT); 2020.
Peter SG, Aboge GO, Kariuki HW, Kanduma EG, Gakuya DW, Maingi N, Mulei CM, Mainga AO. "Molecular prevalence of emerging Anaplasma and Ehrlichia pathogens in apparently healthy dairy cattle in peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya." BMC Vet Res. 2020;16(1):364. Abstract

Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species are tick-borne pathogens of both veterinary and public health importance. The current status of these pathogens, including emerging species such as Ehrlichia minasensis and Anaplasma platys, infecting cattle in Kenya, remain unclear, mainly because of limitation in the diagnostic techniques. Therefore, we investigated the Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species infecting dairy cattle in Nairobi, Kenya using molecular methods.

Bishop RP, Odongo DO, Spooner PR, Morzaria SP, Oura CAL, Skilton RA. "Multilocus genotyping of Theileria parva isolates associated with a live vaccination trial in Kenya provides evidence for transmission of immunizing parasites into local tick and cattle populations." Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020;67 Suppl 1:88-98. Abstract

The live infection and treatment (ITM) vaccination procedure using the trivalent Muguga cocktail is increasingly being used to control East Coast fever, with potential implications for Theileria parva population genetic structure in the field. Transmission of the Kiambu V T. parva component to unvaccinated cattle has previously been described in Uganda. We monitored the T. parva carrier state in vaccinated and control animals on a farm in West Kenya where an ITM stabilate derived from the Kenyan T. parva Marikebuni stock was evaluated for field efficacy. A nested PCR-based Marikebuni-specific marker identified a carrier state in nine of ten vaccinated animals, detectable for a period of two years. We used 22 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) markers to determine multilocus genotypes (MLGs) of 19 T. parva schizont-infected lymphocyte isolates derived from cattle and field ticks. Two isolates from unimmunized cattle were identical to the Marikebuni vaccination stock. Two cattle isolates were identical to a Muguga cocktail component Kiambu V. Seven isolates from ticks exhibited MLGs that were identical to the Serengeti/Muguga vaccine stocks. Six cattle and two tick-derived stocks exhibited unique MLGs. The data strongly suggest transmission of immunizing genotypes, from Marikebuni vaccine-induced carrier cattle to unimmunized cattle. It is possible that genotypes similar to those in the Muguga cocktail are present in the field in Western Kenya. An alternative hypothesis is that these parasites may have originated from vaccine trial sites in Eastern Uganda. If correct, this suggests that T. parva stocks used for immunization can potentially be disseminated 125 km beyond the immediate vaccination site. Regardless of their origin, the data provide evidence that genotypes similar to those in the Muguga cocktail are circulating in the field in East Africa, alleviating concerns about dissemination of 'alien' T. parva germplasm through live vaccination.

Lubembe DM, Odongo DO, Salih DA, Sibeko-Matjila KP. "Microsatellite and minisatellite genotyping of Theileria parva population from southern Africa reveals possible discriminatory allele profiles with parasites from eastern Africa." Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2020;11(6):101539. Abstract

The control of Theileria parva, a protozoan parasite that threatens almost 50% of the cattle population in Africa, is still a challenge in many affected countries. Theileria parva field parasites from eastern Africa, and parasites comprising the current live T. parva vaccine widely deployed in the same region have been reported to be genotypically diverse. However, similar reports on T. parva parasites from southern Africa are limited, especially in Corridor disease designated areas. Establishing the extent of genetic exchange in T. parva populations is necessary for effective control of the parasite infection. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite and minisatellite loci were targeted for genotypic and population genetics analysis of T. parva parasites from South Africa, Mozambique, Kenya and Uganda using genomic DNA prepared from cattle and buffalo blood samples. The results revealed genotypic similarities among parasites from the two regions of Africa, with possible distinguishing allelic profiles on three loci (MS8, MS19 and MS33) for parasites associated with Corridor disease in South Africa, and East Coast fever in eastern Africa. Individual populations were in linkage equilibrium (VL) was observed. Genetic divergence was observed to be more within (AMOVA = 74%) than between (AMOVA = 26%) populations. Principal coordinate analysis showed clustering that separated buffalo-derived from cattle-derived T. parva parasites, although parasites from cattle showed a close genetic relationship. The results also demonstrated geographic sub-structuring of T. parva parasites based on the disease syndromes caused in cattle in the two regions of Africa. These findings provide additional information on the genotypic diversity of T. parva parasites from South Africa, and reveal possible differences based on three loci (MS8, MS19 and MS33) and similarities between buffalo-derived T. parva parasites from southern and eastern Africa.

Guthua SW, Kamau M, ABINYA N. "Management of Maxillofacial of Osteosarcomas in Kenya: A case Series." The Annals of African Surgery. 2020;17 (1).
Owen, Dulo, Thine. "Mapping of Feasible Artificial Groundwater Recharge Areas: Case of Nairobi City County,." Journal of Engineering and Architecture. 2020;8(2)::9-16.
Thiong’o SM, Kinoti M, Kibera F. "Market Entry Strategies And Performance Of Multinational Corporations In Kenya." African Journal Of Business And Management. 2020;6(1):52-66. Abstractmarket_entry_strategies_and_performance_of_multinational_corporations_in_kenya.pdf

The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between market entry strategies and organisational performance of multinational corporations in Kenya. The specific objective is to establish the relationship between market entry strategies and organisational performance of multinational companies in Kenya. The study employed descriptive cross-sectional research design. The study established that market entry strategies explained 43.1% of the variance in organizational performance of multinational companies measured using financial performance parameters and 52.5% of the variance in organizational performance measured using nonfinancial parameters. The hypothesis that there is a significant relationship between market entry strategies and organisational performance was therefore supported. The study recommends that multinational corporations should carry out research on the market entry strategies before venturing into international market. This will ensure that they use the appropriate market entry strategy to enhance their performance. The study also recommended that the management evaluate the factors influencing the choice of market entry modes in order to choose the best alternative. The results makes a contribution to theory development, policy and marketing practice in relation to the effect of market entry strategy and organisation performance The limitation of the study is that it used top management as the respondents, may be if other cadre of employees were studied they could have contributed to more exhaustive results for generalization, this however did not compromise on study results. Therefore, the study suggests that there is room for further research incorporating a large population approach, using longitudinal designs and using group discussion to get more information from the respondents.

Otieno SP, S. W. Masks. (Mrs) ANM, ed. Talent Empire; 2020.
N MJ. "Mechanical Properties, Column Buckling Behavior, and Concrete Beam and Slab Reinforcement Behavior of Bamboo." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2020;Vol 10(3):836-848.
Jedidah Nankaya, Nathan Gichuki, Lukhoba C, Balslev H. "Medicinal Plants of the Maasai of Kenya: A Review." Plants. 2020;9(44).
Brown B, Culp M, Olabu BO, Mwango GN, magabe PC, Baigorri BF, Dixon RG. "Meeting the Need for IR Training in Kenya." Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. 2020;31(11):1929-1932.
Morris Ogero, Rachel Sarguta, Malla L, Aluvaala J, Agweyu A, Akech S. "Methodological rigor of prognostic models for predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in low-and middle-income countries: a systematic review protocol." Wellcome Open Research. 2020;5:106. AbstractWebsite

Introduction: In low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) where healthcare resources are often limited, making decisions on appropriate treatment choices is critical in ensuring reduction of paediatric deaths as well as instilling proper utilisation of the already constrained healthcare resources. Well-developed and validated prognostic models can aid in early recognition of potential risks thus contributing to the reduction of mortality rates. The aim of the planned systematic review is to identify and appraise the methodological rigor of multivariable prognostic models predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in LMIC in order to identify statistical and methodological shortcomings deserving special attention and to identify models for external validation.
Methods and analysis: This protocol has followed the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for Protocols. A search of …

Luvai AK, Obiero JPO, Omuto. CT. "Methods for Erosion Estimates in Assessment of Soil Degradation: A Review for Catchments in Kenya." . International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT). 2020;Vol. 9 (Issue 05):489-494.
Catherine Mawia Musyoka, Anne Mbwayo, Dennis M. Donovan, Mathai M. "mHealth-based peer mentoring for prevention of alcohol and substance abuse among first year university students: protocol for quasi-experimental intervention." Journal of Substance Use. 2020:53-59.
Kerubo JO, Muthumbi AWN, Onyari JM, Kimani EN, Robertson-Andersson D. "Microplastic pollution in the surface waters of creeks along the Kenyan coast, Western Indian Ocean (WIO)." WIO Journal of Marine Science. 2020;19(2):75-88.
Kerubo JO, Muthumbi AW, Onyari JM, Kimani EN, Robertson-Andersson D. "Microplastic pollution in the surface waters of creeks along the Kenyan coast, Western Indian Ocean (WIO)." Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. 2020;19(2):75-88. AbstractWestern Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science

Description
Microplastic pollution has been recognized as a global threat in marine environments and a danger to prey, predators and humans. Yet there have been limited studies in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) and along the Kenyan coast making it difficult to estimate the extent of such pollution. This is the first study on microplastics (MPs) in the surface waters within creeks (Tudor, Port-Reitz and Mida creeks) in Kenya. Sampling was done in January/February and September 2018 to collect microplastics from surface water. Neuston nets of 500 μm (large) and 250 μm (medium) size were towed for ten minutes and 50 litres of seawater sieved through a 20 μm net (small) in three replicates. The samples were digested in 10% Potassium Hydroxide, sieved, and then filtered with cellulose nitrate membrane microfilters. Concentrations of total microplastics, different shapes and colours were established under a microscope. High concentrations of small size (20-250 μm) MPs were encountered and Tudor and Port Reitz had higher concentrations compared to Mida Creek. The study provides data on microplastic concentrations within the creeks and recommends focussing on small size microplastics for monitoring purposes, which due to their high concentrations can be hazardous to organisms.

Alhasan H, abuaffan A, AM K. "MIH prevalence, pattern and distribution in Sudanese children." BMC Oral Health. 2020;2021, 21:9.(2021, 21:9.):2021, 21:9.
AL S, T DR, M C, J L, P P, A K, J C, W P. "Mitigating Global Oral Health Inequalities: Research Training Programs in Low- and Middle-Income Countries." Annals of Global Health.. 2020;2020; 86(1): 141, 1–5.(2020; 86(1): 141, 1–5.):2020; 86(1): 141, 1-5.
Nyambura M, Anne N. "Mobilization of Domestic Savings in Formal Financial Institutions: The Missing Link to Economic Growth. International Journal of Business and Social Science, Vol. 11 • No. 3 • March 2020.". 2020. Abstract

The purpose of the study was to examine factors that affect a Kenyan household’s decision to save in formal financial
institutions. This is because domestic saving finances investment and therefore economic growth. A non-experimental
research design was utilized using secondary data collected from a national-wide household survey in Kenya in 2009.
Cluster stratified probability sampling was used in selecting regions and households that were included in the survey.
A total of 6,598 households were used in the survey, using a questionnaire to gather information on financial access.
Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. The results indicated the factors that influence
household’s decision to save in formal financial institutions were availability of loans, level of financial information,
location of household, sector of employment, expectations about future economic conditions, level of income, number
of banks in district of residence, transaction cost and time to nearest bank branch.
Keywords: household savings, formal financial institutions, economic growth,

Ronoh M, Chirove F, Wairimu J, Ogana W. "MODELING DISPROPORTIONAL EFFECTS OF EDUCATING INFECTED KENYAN YOUTH ON HIV/AIDS." Journal of Biological Systems. 2020;28(2):311-349. AbstractWebsite

We formulate an age and sex-structured deterministic model to assess the effect of increasing comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS disease in the infected Adolescent Girls and Young Women (AGYW) and, Adolescent Boys and Young Men (ABYM) populations in Kenya. Mathematical analysis of infection through sub-network analysis was carried out to trace various infection routes and the veracity of various transmission routes as well as the associated probabilities. Using HIV data in Kenya on our model, disproportional effects were observed when dispensation of comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS was preferred in one population over the other. Effective dispensation of comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS in both the infected AGYW and ABYM populations significantly slows down the infection spread but may not eradicate it.

Pokhariyal GP. "Modeling influence of business excellence parameters on sustainable high performance of organizations." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(3):134-139. AbstractWebsite

Organizations aspire to have sustainable high performance in order to have competitive advantage in the
market. Business excellence models provide frameworks to be applied by organizations in order to
develop thoughts, so that adequate actions be taken in a systematic and structured way to accomplish
sustainable high financial as well as non-financial performance. Various business excellence models
proposed by organizations as well as researchers are discussed. In this paper a mathematical model is
proposed in which independent variables are: top management team characteristic, mission vision and
core values, technology and innovation, and customer focus. Motivation and culture are moderating
variables. Government policies and global economy are intervening variables. The financial and nonfinancial performance, are dependent variables. The proposed model would yield corresponding
regression equations, representing stated hypotheses to be tested for the collected data from the field for
the chosen business organization. Further correlation coefficient can also be computed to check the
relationship between variables. From the estimated regression equations, through various tests, the
elasticity of the coefficients of model parameters and their statistical significance can be investigated.
Adequate recommendations can then be made to achieve the sustainable high performance for the
selected organization.

Ouko E, Omondi S, Mugo R, Wahome A, Kasera K, Kiema JBK, Flores A, Adams EC, Kuraru S, Wambua M. "Modeling Invasive Plant Species in Kenya’s Northern Rangelands." Front. Environ. Sci.. 2020:1-10.
Joab Odhiambo, Weke P, Ngare P. "Modeling Kenyan economic impact of corona virus in Kenya using discrete-time Markov chains." Journal of Finance and Economics. 2020;8(2):, 80-85. AbstractWebsite

Since the outbreak of pandemic COVID-19 (Corona virus), many countries have continued to suffer
economically leading to massive losses in terms of trillions of dollars globally in terms of trade loses. In reaction to
this effect, many countries in the world have taken emergency measures to ensure that the impact does not lead to
huge economic and financial implications in terms of rapid recession. In Africa, where many countries have taken
measures to deal with global recession to the citizens especially through fiscal and monetary policies, which includes
Kenya. In addition, the social economic statues have continued to change instantaneously and stochastically
more so after huge number of populations losing their daily informal jobs with new measures to stop the spread of
COVID-19 virus. This paper seeks to model the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on Kenyan Gross Domestic Product
(GDP) contributors using a Discrete-time Markov Chain Analysis. In addition, the paper seeks to find the ultimate
effect of the Covid-19 to the top five key sectors of the Kenyan economy that contributes massively to GDP growth
by looking at the proportion of the contributors at steady state. Moreover, the results from this paper should help the
government of Kenya as well as global investors to understand different economic stimulus planning packages to
launch in the “hard-hit” sectors of the economy to reduce the impact of the potential economic recession. Ultimately,
the information should be help in formulating a post COVID-19 economic recovery plan for the Kenyan economy
but also act as a benchmark strategy for many other countries in Africa that has economic and financial dynamics
similar to that of Kenya

Joab Odhiambo, Weke P, Wendo J. "Modeling of Returns of Nairobi Securities Exchange 20 Share Index Using Log-Normal Distribution ." Research Journal of Finance and Accounting. 2020;11(8). AbstractWebsite

Nairobi Securities Exchange 20 Index Share (NSE-20 Share Index/ An Exchange Traded Fund) has been one of
the investment avenues for both Kenyans and foreign investors look whenever they want to make sound
investments decisions in the market. However, the assumption that the daily securities index prices follows a
normal distribution has been disputed by data in several cases. This means new statistical distributions must be
used to discern the distribution of NSE-20 Share Index thus enabling investors make prudent financial decisions
to avoid financial loses. In this research paper, we will model the prices of daily securities index using a log-normal
distribution. This is because the distribution follows a positive trend before we can ascertain on how well it fits
the already available data at the NSE market. This research paper recommends that a log-normal distribution best
fits data of the daily prices of NSE-20 Share Index for those investors who would like to model the future of the
market before making financial decisions.

Joab O Odhiambo, Ngare P, Weke P, Otieno RO. "Modelling of covid-19 transmission in kenya using compound poisson regression model." Journal of Advances in Mathematics and Computer Science. 2020; 35(2):101-111. AbstractWebsite

Since the inception of the novel Corona Virus Disease-19 in December in China, the spread has been massive leading World Health Organization to declare it a world pandemic. While epicenter of COVID-19 was Wuhan city in China mainland, Italy has been affected most due to the high number of recorded deaths as at 21st April, 2020 at the same time USA recording the highest number of virus reported cases. In addition, the spread has been experienced in many developing African countries including Kenya. The Kenyan government need to make necessary plans for those who have tested positive through self-quarantine beds at Mbagathi Hospital as a way of containing the spread of the virus. In addition, lack of a proper mathematical model that can be used to model and predict the spread of COVID-19 for adequate response security has been one of the main concerns for the government. Many mathematical models have been proposed for proper modeling and forecasting, but this paper will focus on using a generalized linear regression that can detect linear relationship between the risk factors. The paper intents to model and forecast the confirmed COVID-19 cases in Kenya as a Compound Poisson regression process where the parameter follows a generalized linear regression that is influenced by the number of daily contact persons and daily flights with the already confirmed cases of the virus. Ultimately, this paper would assist the government in proper resource allocation to deal with pandemic in terms of available of bed capacities, public awareness campaigns and virus testing kits not only in the virus hotbed within Nairobi capital city but also in the other 47 Kenyan counties.

"Molecular Detection of Cucumber Mosaic Virus and Tobacco Mosaic Virus Infecting African Nightshades (Solanum scabrum Miller)." International Journal of Agronomy Volume . 2020;Article ID 8864499:7 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8864499.
Oluoch JO, Rambo CM, Ganesh P. "Monitoring and Evaluation Work Plan on Provision of Curative and Preventive Tuberculosis Healthcare Services in Institutions of Public Health in Kisumu County, Kenya." European Journal of Business and Management Research. 2020;5(1). AbstractWebsite

This research was focused on assessing how monitoring and evaluation work plan influence provision of curative and preventive tuberculosis healthcare practices in institutions of public health in Kisumu County, Kenya. The study unit of analysis was public health institutions that practice M&E system on provision of health care services. The target population consisting of doctors, M&E officers, clinical officers, nurses and patients in four public health institutions in Kisumu county, Kenya. The study was guided by pragmatism paradigm. A descriptive survey research design was employed to collect both quantitative and qualitative data and correlational design was used to test the hypothesis. A sample of 221 respondents was selected from a population of 517 using stratified random sampling. A structured questionnaire with both open and close ended with Likert type on 1-5 five point scale and interview schedule was used to collect data. A descriptive survey research design was employed to collect both quantitative and qualitative data and correlational design was used to test the hypothesis. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and data presented in frequency tables using means and standard deviations while qualitative data was presented in in narrative statements. Hypothesis was tested using linear regression at 0.05 level of significance to determine the degree and direction of relationships among variables. The study attained reliability of instruments using Cronbach Alpha coefficient of 0.735 for all items implying that the instrument was reliable. The results indicated that showed that M&E work plan regression was (r2=0.028, p<0.05). The study results indicated that present results for quantitative data based on composite mean score of 3.90 and 0.447 standard deviation for this variable. M&E system therefore, contributes significantly to the effective provision of curative and preventive tuberculosis health care services in public health institutions

Makunda CS, Anyamba TJC. "Morphological Transformation of Kileleshwa, Nairobi." Africa Habitat Review Journal. 2020;14(3):1975-1998.
Makanya A, Mills-Thompson AN, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Oduma J, Ojoo R. "Morphometric and stereological methods for quantifying the coarse structural parameters of the ruminal tissues in sheep." International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine. 2020;8(1):59-70.
"Motivations for a career in dentistry among dental students and dental interns in Kenya." International Journal of Dentistry. 2020;Jul 29(1017979).
Cynthia Ikamari, Ngare P, Weke P. "Multi-asset option pricing using an information-based model." Scientific African. 2020;10:00564. AbstractWebsite

Diversification of assets by an investor offers reduced exposure to risk compared to investing in a single asset. A multi-asset option gives an investor this advantage as its payout depends on the overall performance of several underlying assets. This study uses an information-based model to derive an approximate price for European call multi-asset options. The single asset price is derived using the risk-neutral pricing approach, and the multi-asset case uses the notion of comonotonicity. A numerical illustration is looked at to validate the theoretical results and to show the accuracy of the information-based model. The results show that prices from the information-based model provide a close fit to the empirical prices using a suitable information flow rate parameter. Hence, by making use of the information available in the market, an investor can price multi-asset European call options.

Mwazighe FM. "Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for the Detection of Anthracene." Int. J. of Electrochem.Sci. . 2020;15(11):11058-11069. Abstract

The electrochemical oxidation of anthracene on a bare glassy carbon electrode results in electrode fouling and reduced sensitivity in its detection. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were used to modify a glassy carbon electrode for the electrochemical detection of anthracene because of their antifouling and peak enhancement properties. The peak current for anthracene oxidation was enhanced by 73.64%, and the peak potential shifted by 53 mV to a slightly less positive value. The electrochemical process was determined to be mixed diffusion- and adsorption-controlled, and a preconcentration or accumulation time was necessary in the analysis of anthracene. Square wave voltammetry was used to analyze increasing concentrations of anthracene; a dynamic linear range of 50–146 μM (R2 = 0.98452) and a limit of detection of 42 μM were established. The sensor platform was used to detect anthracene in a spiked sample of tap water, albeit at lower than expected concentrations because of its low solubility in water.

Nambati EA, Njoka M, Eyase F, Majanja J, Njuguna N, Gitonga SM, Mwikwabe N, Lelo E, Mwangi M, kingoro A, Kimani F, Lubano K, Bulimo W. "Multidisciplinary approach towards training of the next generation of forensic DNA analysts in Africa; a Kenyan perspective." Forensic Science International: Synergy. 2020;2:123-125. Abstract1-s2.0-s2589871x20300267-main.pdfWebsite

The uptake of forensic DNA testing technologies in Africa has been slow despite the revolutionary technology being discovered and adopted 3 decades ago. African governments and partners have invested in construction and equipping of forensic laboratories in Africa but the benefits are yet to be realised as the laboratories are still faced with the challenge of shortage of adequately trained personnel. This paper describes an innovative multidisciplinary training approach that was developed and used to train officers from the Directorate of Criminal Investigations Kenya. We report on the structure, implementation and effectiveness of the training. It is expected that with the increased number of trained forensic DNA analysts, there will be an improvement in quality of forensic DNA evidence presented in courts and a reduction in backlog in the forensic biology laboratories in Kenya.

Nanji, "Gichuhi", Nyenze, Kherani, damji, Kiage. "The muranga teleophthalmology study: A comparison of virtual (teleretina) assessment with in-person clinical examination to diagnose diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration in kenya." MEAJO. 2020;27(2):91-99. AbstractWebsite

PURPOSE: This study compares a web-based teleophthalmology assessment with a clinical slit lamp examination to screen for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among diabetic patients in a rural East African district.
METHODS: Six hundred and twelve eyes from 306 diabetic patients underwent both a clinical slit lamp examination and a teleretina (TR) assessment by an experienced ophthalmologist. Both assessments were compared for any DR and AMD using the early treatment diabetic retinopathy study and age-related eye disease study grading scales, respectively.
RESULTS: Of the 612 TR assessment photos, 74 (12%) were deemed ungradable due to media opacities, poor patient cooperation, or unsatisfactory photographs. The ability to detect DR and AMD showed a fair agreement (kappa statistic 0.27 and 0.23, respectively) between the TR and clinical slit lamp examination. Relative to a clinical slit lamp evaluation, a positive TR diagnosis carried a 75.0% positive predictive value when diagnosing DR and a 27.3% positive predictive value when diagnosing AMD. A negative TR diagnosis carried a 97.2% negative predictive value for the diagnosis of DR and a 98.1% negative predictive value for the diagnosis of AMD.
CONCLUSION: When comparing TR assessments to clinical slit lamp examinations to diagnose DR and AMD, there was a fair agreement. Although further validation is needed, the TR approach provides a promising method to diagnose DR and AMD, two major causes of ocular impairment worldwide.

Keywords: Age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, slit lamp examination, teleretina, teleophthalmology

omari HK, Makokha M, Abdalla S. My Arabic letters book. Nairobi: Chance Publishers; 2020.
Nambati EA, Njoka M, Eyase F, Majanja J, Njuguna N, Gitonga SM, Mwikwabe N, Lelo E, Mwangi M, kingoro A, Kimani F, Lubano K, Bulimo W. "Multidisciplinary approach towards training of the next generation of forensic DNA analysts in Africa; a Kenyan perspective." Forensic Science International: Synergy. 2020;2:123-125. Abstract
n/a
2019
F.M M, D.O M, Gitau. A.N. "Modelling and Prediction of Drying Kinetics in a Hybrid Solar Desiccant Drier.". In: Kenya Society of Environmental, Biological and Agricultural Engineers Annual Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2019.
MWANGI IK. "Making Devolution and Decentralization Work n Kiambu through Institutional Framework of Boards of Municipalities.". In: Training Workshop for Capacity Building for Boards of Municipalities. Organized by Kiambu County Government and Kenya Urban Support Programme (KUSP). Lake Naivasha Resort, Naivasha; 2019.
Gitao, C.G., Toroitich, K, Khalif, Field, C, Wario, S. Mass Livestock Deaths In EL-HADI Of North-Horr Sub-County, MARSABIT COUNTY. Nairobi: RPLP; 2019.marsabit_camel_deaths-paper_-1.docx
Bore M, Choudhari N, Chaurasia S. "Management of complications of cosmetic iris implants in a phakic eye: a case report and literature review." Int Ophthalmol. 2019;39(5):1141-1146. Abstract

To report the intricacies of managing complications that arose out of cosmetic iris implants (BrightOcular) placement.

Karuga, SW, MJ G, Kelder EM, JCM M. "Morphological control of thin films: Application of electrospray technique.". In: European Aerosol Conference (EAC) 2019 . Gothenburg, Sweden; 2019.
Bore M. "Management of complications of cosmetic iris implants in phakic eyes: a case report and literature review.". In: Ophthalmological Society of Kenya Congress. Naivasha, Kenya; 2019.
Bore M. "Management of dry eye disease in clinical practice.". In: Ophthalmological Society of Kenya Congress. Naivasha, Kenya; 2019.
Njeru GW, Maina SM, Munene M. "Mainstreaming “Adaptive Standards for Multi-Purpose Interior Design In Low-Cost Housing Projects: A Case Study of the Kibera Soweto East Housing Project in Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal Of Innovative Research & Development . 2019;8(DOI No.: 10.24940/ijird/2019/v8/i10/OCT19076).
Makhanu N, Simiyu NB, Luna KDG, Alcorta PP. "Management of a Combined Endodontic-Periodontal Lesion: A Case Report." Endodontic Society of the Philippines journal . 2019;12(1):11-16.
Guthua SW, Kamau MW, ABINYA N, Khainga S. "Management of Maxillofacial Osteosarcomas: A Kenyan experience (case series)." Annuals of African Surgery Journal. 2019.
"Masculine and Feminine Constructions of Migration in Swahili Literature: Mbali na Nyumbani and Mhanga Nafsi Yangu." Mwanga wa Lugha, Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika, Chuo Kikuu cha Moi. 2019;Juzuu 4, (Na.1, September 2019, ):Pages 235-258, .
Maina. "Matatu Design Culture: An Iconographic Analysis." Africa Habitat Review. 2019;1(1):74-86.
M W, G P, GJ H, G C, A C, I G, S G, AM G, S LL, P L, K M. "Maternal characteristics and causes associated with refractory postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal birth: a secondary analysis of the WHO CHAMPION trial data." BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology.. 2019;127(5):628-634. AbstractWebsite

Objective: To assess the maternal characteristics and causes associated with refractory postpartum haemorrhage (PPH).

Design: Secondary analysis of the WHO CHAMPION trial data.

Setting: Twenty-three hospitals in ten countries.

Population: Women from the CHAMPION trial who received uterotonics as first-line treatment of PPH.

Methods: We assessed the association between sociodemographic, pregnancy and childbirth factors and refractory PPH, and compared the causes of PPH between women with refractory PPH and women responsive to first-line PPH treatment.

Main outcome measures: Maternal characteristics; causes of PPH.

Results: Women with labour induced or augmented with uterotonics (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.35; 95% CI 1.07-1.72), with episiotomy or tears requiring suturing (aOR 1.82; 95% CI 1.34-2.48) and who had babies with birthweights ≥3500 g (aOR 1.33; 95% CI 1.04-1.69) showed significantly higher odds of refractory PPH compared with the reference categories in the multivariate analysis adjusted by centre and trial arm. While atony was the sole PPH cause in 53.2% (116/218) of the women in the responsive PPH group, it accounted for only 31.5% (45/143) of the causes in the refractory PPH group. Conversely, tears were the sole cause in 12.8% (28/218) and 28% (40/143) of the responsive PPH and refractory PPH groups, respectively. Placental problems were the sole cause in 11 and 5.6% in the responsive and refractory PPH groups, respectively.

Conclusion: Women with refractory PPH showed a different pattern of maternal characteristics and PPH causes compared with those with first-line treatment responsive PPH.

JM, Kivai &, JK K, AO W, Q Z. "Maternal characteristics of women with pregnancy related acute kidney injury at Kenyatta National hospital, Kenya." IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences. 2019;18(9):69-75. Abstract

Background: Pregnancy is a physiologic state that can becomplicated by pregnancy related acute
kidney injury (PRAKI)which may occur at any stage of pregnancy and in postpartum,in previously healthy
women.It is associated with variable obstetric outcomesoften with significant butpreventable foeto-maternal
morbidity and mortality.
Objective:To determine maternal characteristics of in-patients with PRAKI at Kenyatta National Hospital
(KNH), Nairobi, Kenya
Methods:We carried out a descriptive study on in-patient pregnant women with gestation age of 28 completed
weeks or more and postpartum women within six weeks after deliveryadmitted inlabour ward or the post-natal
wards at KNH. Study started after approval by the KNH- University of Nairobi Ethics and Research Committee.
Data was obtained from the patientthrough verbal interviews andfrom the medical records using a pretested
data capture form.The participants were followed up for a maximum of two weeks or until discharge. The
patient management wasleft at the discretion of attending clinician.
Results: We enrolled 66 (3.2%) participants out of 2068 admissions.The mean agewas 28(SD5.9)years with
peak age between 26-30 years.Forty-two were referred from other health facilities. Nineteen (27.8%) had prepregnancy medical conditions mainly cardiovascular and all participants developed obstetric complication(s).
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were the main associated factors. Sixty (91%) participants were delivered
within two weeks after enrollment. The average gestation age at delivery was 35 weeks.Twenty-one (35%) were
delivered through caesarian section.Live infants were 43(71.7%) and fresh still births were 17(28.3%). The
ratio of fresh still births among participantswas 1:4 while the ratio of fresh still births among women without
PRAKI was 1:23deliveries.
Conclusion and recommendations:This study demonstrated prevalence of pregnancy related acute kidney injury
was 3.2% at K.N.H. The main associated factors were hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Participants with
PRAKI were characterized with increased premature deliveries and a six (6) fold increase in fresh still births.
There is need for screening, monitoring and close follow-up of women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy
and related kidney complications.
Key Words: PRAKI, KNH,hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, still births,Kenya

Guthua SW, Kamau MW, NGANGA P. "Maxillary Alveolar cleft grafting in cleft lip and palate: Options of bone graft and soft tissue coverage." Kenya Dental Association Journal. 2019.
wa Mutiso K. "Mchango wa Wanawake wa Kiswahili katika Uongozi, Dini na Ushairi ." Mwanga wa Lugha . 2019;3(1):1-26.
Ralwala AO. Meaning in Kenyan Luo Vernacular Architecture.. Chisinau: LAMBERT Academic Publishers.; 2019.
Ambole A, Musango JK, Buyana K, Ogot M, Anditi C, Mwau B, Kovacic Z, Smit S, Lwasa S, Nsangi G, others. "Mediating household energy transitions through co-design in urban Kenya, Uganda and South Africa." Energy Research & Social Science. 2019;55:208-217. Abstract

Approaches to providing sustainable energy in cities have generated considerable interest in academic and policy circles. The development of this body of work, however, has not shed much light on the modes of intermediation that are needed to reconfigure urban energy systems towards sustainability in energy-poor countries. This paper focuses on the role of academics as knowledge intermediaries who can trigger cross-sector collaborations around innovations for a sustainable energy transition in African cities. The research presented here was generated by an interdisciplinary research team made up of partners in Kenya, Uganda and South Africa. The research partners set out to better understand how sustainable energy transitions can be achieved through collaborative efforts between community members, experts and policy actors in the three countries. This paper provides evidence-based reflections on how the research partners used participatory methods to facilitate solution co-design and knowledge co-production over a period of two years under the Leading Integrated Research for Agenda 2030 in Africa (LIRA 2030) program. A key knowledge outcome of the research partnership is an improved understanding of how transdisciplinary research across the sub-region can be used to unearth the socio-spatial, cultural and political dimensions of energy in relation to other urban services such as health and housing. Based on this understanding, the paper proposes transdisciplinary co-design as a promising approach to providing sustainable energy in urban informal settlements in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Ongarora D, Karumbi J, Minnaard W, Abuga K, Okungu V, Kibwage I. "Medicine prices, availability, and affordability in private health facilities in low-income settlements in Nairobi county, Kenya." Pharmacy. 2019;7(2):40. Abstract

Medicine prices are a major determinant of access to healthcare. Owing to low availability of medicines in the public health facilities and poor accessibility to these facilities, most low-income residents pay out-of-pocket for health services and transport to the private health facilities. In low-income settlements, high retail prices are likely to push the population further into poverty and ill health. This study assessed the retail pricing, availability, and affordability of medicines in private health facilities in low-income settlements within Nairobi County. Medicine prices and availability data were collected between September and December 2016 at 45 private healthcare facilities in 14 of Nairobi’s low-income settlements using electronic questionnaires. The International Medical Products Price Guide provided international medicine reference prices for comparison. Affordability and availability proxies were calculated according to existing methods. Innovator brands were 13.8 times more expensive than generic brands. The lowest priced generics and innovator brands were, on average, sold at 2.9 and 32.6 times the median international reference prices of corresponding medicines. Assuming a 100% disposable income, it would take 0.03 to 1.33 days’ wages for the lowest paid government employee to pay for treatment courses of selected single generic medicines. Medicine availability in the facilities ranged between 2% and 76% (mean 43%) for indicator medicines. Prices of selected medicines varied within the 14 study regions. Retail medicine prices in the low-income settlements studied were generally higher than corresponding international reference prices. Price variations were observed across different regions although the regions comprise similar socioeconomic populations. These factors are likely to impact negatively on healthcare access.

Ongarora D, Karumbi J, Minnaard W, Abuga K, Okungu V, Kibwage I. "Medicine Prices, Availability, and Affordability in Private Health Facilities in Low-Income Settlements in Nairobi County, Kenya." Pharmacy. 2019;7(2):40.
Muthoni KC. "Mental Health and Education in Kenya.Addressing Mental Health Problems through Schools." Journal in Humanities and Social Science. 2019;24(3).
Anne Wanjiru Mbwayo, Mathai M, Lincoln. I Khasakhala, Mary Wangari Kuria, Vander Stoep A. "Mental Health in Kenyan Schools: Teachers’ Perspectives." Global Social Welfare. 2019;7:157-163.
Ndungu MN, Marete GR. "Metaphorical Construction and Mappings at the Kiswahili Word Level." Jakiiki (Jarida La Kimataifa la Isimu ya Kibantu. 2019;Toleo Maalum (1):18-36 .
Ndungu MN, Habwe JH. "Metaphorical Construction of Kiswahili Compound and Complex Clauses." Mwanga wa Lugha. 2019;4(1):105-128.
Ndungu MN, IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Metonymical Interpretation of Conceptual Mappings in Kiswahili Metonymy." Mwanga wa Lugha. 2019;Special Edition(1):25-38.
Munialo S, Hall O, Francisca ABM, Boke-Olén N, Onyango MC, Oluoch-Kosura W, Marstorp H, D. G. "Micro-Spatial Analysis of Maize Yield Gap Variability and Production Factors on Smallholder Farms." Agriculture. 2019;9:219.
KANOTI JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dulo S, Ayah R. "Microbial and Physical Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination in Kenya: A Case Study of Kisumu Aquifer System, Kenya." Journal of Water Resource & Protection. 2019;11:404-418. Abstractjwarp_2019042514420797.pdfWebsite

Safe water of adequate quantity, and dignified sanitation, is vital for the sustenance of a healthy and productive human population. In the recognition of this, the United Nations formulated the Sustainable Development Goal No. 6 to ensure access to safe water and sanitation by all by 2030. Actualization of this Goal requires information on the existing status of water resources and sanitation levels. Knowledge on contamination of groundwater is essential to prevent risks to human health. The objective of this study was to determine groundwater contamination in Kisumu, Kenya. A total of 275 water samples were collected from 22 sites within the informal settlements between December 2016 and December 2017. The samples were analysed for bacterial contamination and physical chemical quality. Thermal tolerant coliform bacteria enumeration was used as a proxy to bacteria contamination, and the pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, salinity and temperature were used as physical chemical indicators of contamination. The results indicate that groundwater in Kisumu hosed coliform bacteria and therefore didn’t comply with contamination limits for domestic water proposed by WHO and local KEBS standards. The results further indicated that the levels of bacteriological contamination vary with water type, shallow well having the highest bacterial loads. The study concluded that there were potential risks to human health due to high content of coliform bacteria. The study attributed the contribution to pit latrines that were present in virtually all compounds. The pit latrines are located close to the water points. The study recommended the definition of minimum distance between the pit latrines and shallow wells to minimize contamination. The low income dwellers should be educated on simple ways of treating drinking water contaminated by microbial to minimize enteric infections.

Kanoti, Olago, D. O., Opiyo, P., Nyamai, C.M., Dulo, Ayah, Taylor, D. "Microbial and Physical Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination in Kenya: A Case Study of Kisumu Aquifer System, Kenya. ." Journal of Water Resource and Protection. 2019;11:404-418.
I.M M, D.M K, J. W, S. M. "Microbial Quality and Safety of Traditional Fermented Camel Milk Product Suusac Sampled from Different Regions in North Eastern, Kenya." Asian Food Science Journal. 2019;v8i229986(DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v8i229986).
Bauza V, Madadi V, Ocharo RM, Nguyen TH, Guest JS. "Microbial source tracking using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing identifies evidence of widespread contamination from young children’s feces in an urban slum of Nairobi, Kenya." Environmental science & technology. 2019;53(14):8271-8281. AbstractEnvironmental science &amp; technology

Description
Child exposure to fecal contamination remains common in low- and middle-income countries after sanitation interventions. Unsafe disposal of children’s feces may contribute to this continued exposure, but its relative importance to domestic fecal contamination is not well understood. To address this gap, we interviewed and collected environmental samples (drinking water, caregiver hands, child hands, surfaces, soil, open drainage ditches, standing water, streams) from 40 households in Kibera, an urban slum in Nairobi, Kenya. To track young children’s feces (<3 years old) separately from other human-associated fecal sources, we validated distance-based and Bayesian (SourceTracker) microbial source tracking methods using amplicon-based sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Contamination by young children’s feces could be identified and distinguished separately from older child/adult feces with high …

Serem EK, Abuom TO, Peter SG, Gakuya DW, Kirui GK, Mbuthia PG. "Microcardia Associated with Traumatic Reticulo Pericarditis (TRP) In an Adult Female Ayrshire Cow A Case Report." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2019;8(2):73-78.
Osiro OA, Kariuki DK, Gathece LW. "The Minamata Convention on Mercury and its implications for management of dental caries in low‐and middle‐income countries." International Dental Journal. 2019;69(4):247-251 doi: 10.1111/idj.12461.16163233_osiro_et_al._2019.pdf
Thanh BY, P L, Pattanittum P, Laopaiboon M, JP V, Oladapo OT, Pileggi-Castro C, Mori R, Jayaratne K, Z Q, J S. "Mode of delivery and pregnancy outcomes in preterm birth: a secondary analysis of the WHO Global and Multi-country Surveys." Scientific reports. 2019;9(15556):1-8. AbstractWebsite

Many studies have been conducted to examine whether Caesarean Section (CS) or vaginal birth (VB) was optimal for better maternal and neonatal outcomes in preterm births. However, findings remain unclear. Therefore, this secondary analysis of World Health Organization Global Survey (GS) and Multi-country Survey (MCS) databases was conducted to investigate outcomes of preterm birth by mode of delivery. Our sample were women with singleton neonates (15,471 of 237 facilities from 21 countries in GS; and 15,053 of 239 facilities from 21 countries in MCS) delivered between 22 and <37 weeks of gestation. We assessed association between mode of delivery and pregnancy outcomes in singleton preterm births by multilevel logistic regression adjusted for hierarchical data. The prevalences of women with preterm birth delivered by CS were 31.0% and 36.7% in GS and MCS, respectively. Compared with VB, CS was associated with significantly increased odds of maternal intensive care unit admission, maternal near miss, and neonatal intensive care unit admission but significantly decreased odds of fresh stillbirth, and perinatal death. However, since the information on justification for mode of delivery (MOD) were not available, our results of the potential benefits and harms of CS should be carefully considered when deciding MOD in preterm births.

Subject terms: Epidemiology, Outcomes research

IJMwaniki. "Modeling heteroscedastic, skewed and leptokurtic returns in discrete time." Journal of Applied Finance & Banking. 2019;9(5):1-14. AbstractWebsite

Popular models of finance, fall short of accounting for most empirically found stylized features of financial time series data, such as volatility clustering, skewness and leptokurtic nature of log returns. In this study, we propose a general framework for modeling asset returns which account for serial dependencies in higher moments and leptokurtic nature of scaled GARCH filtered residuals. Such residuals are calibrated to normal inverse Gaussian and hyperbolic distribution. Dynamics of risky assets assumed in Black Scholes model, Duans GARCH model and other benchmark models for contract valuation, are shown to be nested in the the proposed framework

Isinta, H, Aduda J, Magutu P. "The Moderating Effect of Sales Channels on the Relationship between Bancassurance and Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya." Journal of Finance and Investment Analysis. 2019;8(2):41-54 .
Lydia MS, Bulimo WD, Verani JR, Victor O, Ouma A, Kiplangat S, Opanda S, Imbuga M, Juma B, Godfrey B, Hunsperger E. "Molecular Characterization of Human Enteroviruses Detected in Children Under Five Years Old in Kenya 2009 - 2015." African Journal of Health Sciences. 2019;32(2):15-33. Abstract195711-article_text-494299-1-10-20200512.pdf195711-article_text-494299-1-10-20200512.pdf

INTRODUCTION
Human enterovirus (HEVs) infection is common, with an extensive array of clinical
displays ranging from asymptomatic to life-threatening. Presentation include nonspecific febrile
illness often accompanied by muscle pain, sore throat, abdominal discomfort, rash, headache,
encephalitis, aseptic meningitis and acute flaccid paralysis [2].
OBJECTIVES
The study objective was to investigate the natural selection and genetic variability of HEVs
and to identify HEV serotypes in circulation among children below 5 years old with diarrhea in
an informal settlement(Kibera) in Kenya.
METHODOLOGY
Specimens (n=628) from a prospective cohort study assessing the incidence and etiology of
diarrhea from 2009-2015 were analyzed. Enteric Taqman array cards (TAC) were used for initial
screening where two hundred and nine (78%) tested positive for HEVs.
Of these specimens, 72 (42%) had a cycle threshold (Ct) ≤30 and were tested by conventional
PCR targeting the 3’ regions of the viral protein 1 (VP1) gene. A total of 48 (67%) underwent
sequencing; 11 (23%) of which yielded nucleotide sequences. Phylogenetic analyses clustered
the Kenyan serotypes to HEVs groups C, B and A. Evaluation of the VP1 amino acid sequences
revealed numerous amino acid substitutions in relation to reference strains, which were confirmed
to be due to natural selection by negative or positive selection.
CONCLUSION
The Heterogeneous nature of stool samples is known to influence disparities in viral nucleic
acid yields. TAC detected 209 of which 171 (82%) were confirmed positive for HEVs by realtime
reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR), targeting the 5’ NTR regions.
Therefore, the results may not be a representative of all circulating HEVs in the study area. Since
this was a retrospective study of previously collected samples, it is possible that some HEVs strains
may have failed to amplify.

E Mulinge, SM Njenga OD, Magambo J. "Molecular identification of zoonotic hookworms in dogs from four counties of Kenya." Journal of helminthology. 2019:1-8.
Edouard Singirankabo, Ngare P, Ogutu C. "Moment–Matching Technique and General Mean Model in pricing Lookback Options." Communications of Mathematical Finance. 2019;8(1): 123-145.
Adeka R, Lukhoba C, Odhiambo J, Maundu P. "Morphological Traits as Indicators of Bitterness in Traditional Vegetables: The Case of Spider Plant (Gynandropsis gynandra) in Kenya." Asian Journal of Research in Botany. 2019;2(3):1-15.
Kaka RM, Jung’a JO, Badamana M, Ruwa RK, Karisa HC. "Morphometric length-weight relationships of wild penaeid shrimps in Malindi-Ungwana Bay: Implications to aquaculture development in Kenya." The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research. 2019;45(2):167-173.
Kaka RM, Jung'a JO, M. Badamana, Ruwa RK, Karisa HC. "Morphometric variations among populations of the wild Penaeid shrimps in Malindi–Ungwana Bay along the Northern Coast of Kenya." Journal of Aquaculture, Fisheries & Fish Science. 2019;2(2):155-164.
Ngugi CN, Haukeland S, Wachira PM, Mbaka JN, Okoth.S. "Morphometrics and morphological characterization of entomopathogenic nematode isolate TK1 from Kenya." International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch. 2019;4(2):80-90.
Ngugi CN, Haukeland S, Wachira PM, Mbaka JN, Okoth.S. "Morphometrics and morphological characterization of entomopathogenic nematode isolate TK1 from Kenya." International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch. 2019;4(2):80-90.
"Motifu ya safari katika kazi za M.S. Mohammed.". In: Mwanga wa Lugha. Eldoret: Moi University Press; 2019.
OKOTH V A, OLUOCH M F. "Motivation and Employee Performance at Avenue Hospital Kisumu County- Kenya." Business Management Dynamics. 2019;9(5):20-36.
Ma L, Li Z, Birech Z, Li S, Yang Y, Zhang W, Hu J. "Multi-Channel Optoelectronic Measurement System for Soil Nutrients Analysis." Electronics. 2019;8(4):451.

UoN Websites Search