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o Malonza, J. RART. "Mapping Socio-Cultural Influences in Contemporary Urban Public Open Space. The Case of Biryogo, Kigali City. ." International Journal of Creative Research and Studies,. 2018;2(9-september 2018).
omari HK, Makokha M, Abdalla S. My Arabic letters book. Nairobi: Chance Publishers; 2020.
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" "JAO, " "EO, Junga" "JO, " "WOO, " "MNN, " "QW, " "AVN, Saif" "LJ, Djikeng" "A. "Molecular detection and genetic characterization of kobuviruses and astroviruses in asymptomatic local pigs in East Africa." Archives of Virology. 2014;159(6):1313-1319.
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(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Mulei, C.M. (1990). Micro-organisms associated with clinical mastitis in dairy cows in Kiambu District of Kenya.". In: . Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 38: 331-334.; 1990.
(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Mulei, C.M. and Daniel, R.C.W. (1990). Changes in plasma and erythrocyte sodium and potassium concentrations in dairy heifers during starvation.". In: Acta Veterinarian (Beograd), 40: (2-3) 59-64.; 1990.
(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Mbuthia, P.G., Karioki, D.I. and Mulei, C.M. (1994). Generalized Demodicosis in a zero-grazed Friesian heifer.". In: Vet. Parasit. 51: 337-343.; 1994.
(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Mulei, C.M. and Ngatia, T.A. (1999). An unusual presentation of a suspected oedema disease of Swine in Kenya.". In: J. S. Afr. Vet. Ass. 70 (2): 100-101.; 1999.
(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Maina, A. K. and Mulei, C.M. (1993). The prevalence of udder and teat lesions in dairy cows in Kenya.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 41: 161-162.; 1993.
(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Mulei, C.M. (2000). Micro organisms associated with non-functional mammary gland quarters in small scale dairy farms in Kenya.". In: Indian J. Anim. Sci. 70 (9) 897-898.; 2000.
(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Mulei, C.M. (1990). The use of clinical pathology in the diagnosis of urinary tract diseases in animals.". In: The Kenya Vet. 14:7-9.; 1990.
(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Maina, A.K. and Mulei, C.M. (1994). Mammary quarter infection rate in smallholder dairy farms in Kiambu District of Kenya.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 42: 69-70.; 1994.
(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Mulei, C.M. and Daniel, R.C.W. (1990). The value of magnesium loading in detecting magnesium deficiency in young calves.". In: Indian J. Anim. Sci. 60 (2): 173-174.; 1990.
(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Mulei, C.M., Gitau, G.K. and Mbuthia, P.G. (1995). Causes of calf mortality in Kabete area of Kiambu District of Kenya.". In: . Onderstepoort J. Vet. Research. 62 : 181-185.; 1995.
(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Mulei, C.M. (1989). Evaluation of fertility of dairy cows using blood chemistry.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian, 13: 27-30.; 1989.
(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Mulei, C.M. (1999) Teat lesions and their relationship to intramammary infections in small scale dairy farms in Kenya.". In: . J. S. Afr. Vet. Ass. 70 (4):156-157.; 1999.
(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Mulei, C.M. and Munyua, S.J.M. Urea poisoning in a commercial Jersey Herd.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 36: 279-280.; 1988.
(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Mulei, C.M. (1990). Blood chemistry changes during starvation and their possible relationship with growth rate in dairy heifers.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 38: 331-334.; 1990.
(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Mulei, C.M. (1990). Relationship between plasma and erythrocyte magnesium concentrations in dairy cattle.". In: Metal Ions Biol. Med. 1: 168-171.; 1990.
(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Mbuthia, P.G., Runyenje, P.E.N., Ngatia, T.A. and Mulei, C.M. (1992). Occurrence of poultry chemical poisoning in Kenya.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 41: 45-50.; 1992.
(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Mulei, C.M., (1989). The effect of short fasting period on blood chemistry of dairy heifers.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian, 13: 31-32.; 1989.
(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Mulei, C.M. and Atwell, R.B. (1989). A case of lymphoedema in a Friesian-Aryshire crossbreed female calf.". In: Aust. Vet. J. 66: 227-228.; 1989.
co-authored with and(ed) AOWOAI. "Marginalization and the Rise of Militia Groups in Kenya; The Mungiki and the Sabaot Land Defence Force.". In: ) Militias, Rebels and Islamist Militants. Human Insecurity and State Crisis in Africa,. South Africa: Institute for Security Studies; 2010.
(Eds.) L& GPRHD. "Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV through Breastfeeding: Strategies for prevention.". In: HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care in Resource-Constrained Settings: A Handbook for the Design and Management of Programs. Arlington, VA: Family Health International. ; 2001.
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.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Mechanical Properties of Fibre Reinforced Concrete Roofing tiles. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Paper No. 90-5011.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1990. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Mechanical Properties of Blue-gum Timber. Landwards, 25(4): 24-26.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1997. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Mechanical Properties of Coffee. Agricultural Engineering. A Balkema. Rotterdam, Netherlands. 4: 2467 - 2470. Proceedings of the CIGR Congress.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1989. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Mechanics of Cereal Grains. Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress on Engineering and Food. 13 -17 April Brighton, England.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1997. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Mutai, E. B. K and L. O. Gumbe. Environmental Modelling of Poultry Structures. JEAE(3):24-31.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Material Characterisation and Prediction Equations for Loads in Silos Containing Granular Materials En-masse. African Journal of Science and Technology, Series A: 8(1): 1-5.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1990. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Mechanization of Small farms: A Partial Solution to Poverty and Food Security in Kenya. Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and the Environment (2)1:34-43.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2002. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
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10. Gathumbi JK. "Mycotoxin status in Kenya. .". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Nairobi Branch Scientific Conference . Nairobi, Kenya ; 2003.
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and 2. Clive O. Ondari, Lilly Gathu NKFAIO. "Microbial contamination of oral dosage forms." The New African Journal of Medicine . 1995;1(2):5-8.
2013 PMK; PS; LM-V; JK; AKADEK &. "Missed Opportunities for early HIV Diagnosis: Critical insights from the stories of Kenyan women living with HIV." International Journal of health Promotionand Education. Submitted;(10/3/2013).
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3) Adede CO &, Oboko RO. "Model for Predicting the Probability of Event Occurrence Using Logistic Regression: The Case of Credit Scoring for a Kenyan Commercial Bank." International Journal of Societal Applications of Computer Science. 2013;2(3):216-223.
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8. KYALO DN, OBANDO A(. Maswali na Majibu (sample papers) for form four KCSE revision. Nairobi,: Jomo Kenyatta Publishers; 2006.
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A DRMASIGAMARY. "Masiga, M.A. Presenting chief complaints and clinical characteristics among patients attending the Department of Paediatric Dentistry clinic at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital. (accepted December 2005, EAMJ).". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12):652-5. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the chief complaints and clinical presentation among patients attending the Department of Paediatric Dentistry clinic at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UONDH). DESIGN: A retrospective survey of hospital records. SETTING: The University of Nairobi Dental Hospital. SUBJECTS: Patients who attended the Department of Paediatric Dentistry clinic during a three year period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Chief complaint, dental caries, gingivitis, traumatic injuries, treatment at first visit. RESULTS: The records of 800 patients were examined, including 391 male and 400 female. The average age of the patients was 9.0 years. The presenting complaint for most patients was dental pain (31.5%), orthodontic related complaints (25.4%) and dental decay (19.7%). Very few children attended for dental check-up (3.9%). Five hundred ninety (73.8%) children suffered from dental caries, while 275 (34.4%) children manifested gingivitis. The average number of teeth decay was 3.71 (SD+/-3.76). Only 51 (6.4%) children attended with traumatic injuries to the dentition. Treatment performed at the first visit mainly consisted of dental extractions (21.8%), oral prophylaxis and dental health education (20.5%) and restorative treatment (20.0%). CONCLUSIONS: The presenting complaint for most patients was pain. However, there was an almost equal demand for orthodontic treatment. Dental caries was the most prevalent dental disease. Oral prophylaxis and dental health education (DHE) constituted a significant component of treatment offered at first visit.
A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1985) Mechanical drying of Arabien Coffee . Proceedings of the Annual Coffee Seminar, Eldoret, Kenya.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1985. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1988)Infiltrating solar collectors for crop drying . Proceedings of the Annual Postgraduate Research Conference, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, England.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1988. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A MRKABURIAHF. "Motile aeromonads associated with Rainbow Trout (Onchoryncus mykiss) mortality in Kenya. Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol.: 18(1). 7.". In: Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, August 30th-31st, 2000. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1998. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Marenya, M.O., Kaumbutho, P.G., Mutuli, D.A. and Kamau J.N. (1993) Simulation of the Materials Handling Systems in a Sugarcane Mill Yard - A case study . Paper accepted for publication in the AMA Journal.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1993. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A DRODHIAMBOWALTER. "Maxillary obturator prosthesis rehabilitation following maxillectomy for ameloblastoma: case series of five patients. Int J Prosthodont. 2004 Jul-Aug;17(4):464-8.". In: Int J Prosthodont. 2004 Jul-Aug;17(4):464-8. Journal of Public Health Policy; 2004. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern and characteristics of patients admitted with firearm injuries (FAIs) and establish the morbidity and mortality associated with these injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), January 2004 to December 2005. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted with physically evident firearm injury. RESULTS: There were a total of 717 patients recorded with FAIs constituting 0.6% of the total number of patients seen in the casualty. Of these, 421 (58.7%) were admitted and treated as in- patients. A firearm was used in 6.7% of the 6300 assault cases recorded in 2004 and in 9.7% of the 3079 cases recorded in 2005. The increase from 6.7% in 2004 to 9.7% in 2005 was statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were 370 (87.9%) males and 49 (11.6%) females giving a male to female ratio of 7.5:1. The mean age was 29.7 +/- 10.9 years with a range of 3 to 66 years. At least 262 (62.2%) of the 421 admitted FAI casualties were treated under general anaesthesia (GA). The average duration of operation per patient was 2 +/- 1.5 hours. CONCLUSION: FAIs are on the increase and affect all age groups but is largely a disease of a young male adult in the 3rd and 4th decade of life. Mortality is higher with increasing age while female victims are fewer but on average six years younger than males. The lower extremities are the commonest target among the survivors. However, abdominal wounds tend to be the most lethal, accounting for greater mortality.

A MRMAKACHIAPETER. "A Manual For Organized Self-Help Densification Of Eastlands.". In: International Course Of Organized Self-Help Housing Planning & Development. Housing Development & Management, Lund University, Sweden.; 2005. Abstract
Heavily glazed office buildings in the Kenyan Capital City Nairobi, common in recent times does not augur well for a micro and macro architectural environment. This has a consequent negative impact on energy use in office spaces. By use of computer simulations, traditional tools and literature review glazing use in office fenestration is analysed and its implications for architectural design investigated. The results indicate a direct relationship between the variable parameters of glazing type and size, glazed opening orientation, shading devices and control of energy loads within the office spaces and the objective of human comfort in the office spaces. In conclusion it is recommended that optimum levels of glazing size and type as well as suitable glazing orientations for architectural use in office buildings in Nairobi.
A DRMASIGAMARY. "Masiga MA, Holt RD. The prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis and their relationship to social class amongst nursery-school children in Nairobi, Kenya. Int J Paediatr Dent. 1993 Sep;3(3):135-40.". In: Int J Paediatr Dent. 1993 Sep;3(3):135-40. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract

Four hundred and forty-six children attending nursery schools in Nairobi were examined for caries and gingivitis. Assessment of social class was based on the occupation of the head of the child's household. Amongst 3-year-old children, 62% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.35. Amongst 5-year-olds 50% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.88. Thirty-seven per cent of the children had evidence of gingivitis, with the proportion changing little with age. There was no evidence of either caries or gingivitis being significantly related to social class, although children in the higher classes had more filled teeth.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1994) Agricultural Mechanization in Kenya: A Review of Policies and Strategies to date . In Proceedings International Conference August, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1994. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A DROBONDOANNE. "Mwanda W. O., Abdallah F. K., Obondo A.A., Musau F., .". In: East African Medical Journal 2004; 81: 341 . International Psychiatry Vol.6 No. 1; 2004. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The quality of life of cancer patients is likely to be influenced by psychological reactions of the cancer patients yet there are no documented issues related to quality of life in cancer patients in Kenyan hospitals. OBJECTIVE: To investigate issues which affect the quality of life in male cancer patients. DESIGN: Prospective cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS AND SUBJECTS: Cancer patients above 12 years of age were interviewed during the course of their stay in the hospital, specifically to gather information on; semi structured questions and a modified Beck's 24 item depression inventory with a view to solicit for their reaction on issues which pertains to quality of life. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age group, level of education, tribe, geographical place (province) of birth, chief complains, main concerns, views on doctors, contact with psychiatrist and psychologist, the anatomic site of cancer, treatment given and responses on modified Beck's depression inventory. RESULTS: Forty two patients were studied, their age range 13-72 years, mean 43.2 and peak 13-26 years. Forty seven per cent of cases had no formal education. The cancers were gastrointestinal tract 33%, blood and lymphoid tissue (26%), bone and muscle (11.9%), skin (9.4%) and genitourinary tract (4.8%). Treatment given was chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Ninety three per cent were unable to cope. Chief complaints were pain, inability to work, feeling miserable and concerns were families, health and work retardation. Modified Beck's depression score was 20%, with major issues being; work retardation, insomnia, weight loss, and anorexia. Most affected were, age group 27-35 years (and least 13-26 years), uneducated, living in Nairobi (city), having carcinomas, treatment with combined surgery and radiotherapy. Low education level and residence in Nairobi coped poorly. Radiation therapy group appeared to cope better than other modalities. CONCLUSION: The issues affecting the quality of life of male cancer patients stated were pain, inability to work, poor coping with cancer and psychological reactions of work retardation, insomnia, weight loss, fatigability and depression. Gambling, suicidal ideas and social withdrawal were minimal. Other concerns were families, health and work.

A DRMASIGAMARY. "Masiga, M.A. Iatrogenic hypodontia following traditional excision of decidous canine tooth buds: case reports. Afri. J. of Oral Health Sciences. 2003; 4 (1): 173-174.". In: Afri. J. of Oral Health Sciences. 2003; 4 (1): 173-174. University of Nairobi.; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics, chief complaints and clinical presentation of children attending a private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: A retrospective survey of dental clinic records. SETTING: A private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: All patients aged 0-18 years who were first-time attenders at the dental clinic during a three year period. RESULTS: The records of 800 patients were examined, comprising 395 males and 405 female children. The average age was 7.2 years (95%CI, 6.9-7.4). Referral to the clinic for treatment was mostly by self (81.4%). Most patients (57.9%) were self-sponsored for their dental treatment. Majority of the patients attending (86.8%) did not clinically have any underlying medical conditions. The major complaints for most patients were dental decay (27.4%) and dental pain (21.6%). Very few children (7.6%) attended for dental check-up. Five hundred and forty nine (68.6%) of the children suffered from dental decay while 294 (36.8%) suffered from gingivitis. The average number of teeth decayed was 4.02, SD +/- 2.4 (95% CI 3.8-4.2). Most carious lesions occurred in the younger children. There was a significant increase in the occurrence of decay over the three year period of the study. Significantly higher levels of gingivitis was observed in the prepubertal and pubertal age group. Attendance for traumatic injuries was relatively low with only 46 (5.8%) children reporting traumatic injuries to their dentitions. Most traumatic injuries involved the anterior teeth as a result of falls. Treatment given at the first visit was mainly restorative (28.6%) followed by dental extractions (25.4%). CONCLUSION: The average are of patients attending the clinic was 7.2 years. Interdisciplinary referral was low since most patients were self-referred and self sponsored for treatment. Dental caries was prevalent, necessitating a high demand for restorative treatment. Although gingivitis was less prevalent, it was significant among children in the prepubertal years.
A DROBONDOANNE, M PROFNDETEIDAVID. "Mrumbi K, Rono R, Ngare D, Obondo A.A, Olademije Y, & Ndetei D.M. .". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al (2006). International Psychiatry Vol.6 No. 1; 2006.
A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1980). Design of a solar supplemented continuous flow dryer for coffee . Third year design project dissertation. University of Nairobi (unpublished).". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1980. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Makawiti DW, Konji VN, Omwandho CA and Olowookere JO. Altered 3,5,3.". In: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 65, 132-136.; 1995. Abstract

Immunoglobulins were eluted from ovine placentae and characterized by immunoprecipitation, electrophoresis, western blotting and ELISA.IgG was shown to comprise the bulk of placental-bound immunoglobulins while smaller amounts of IgM and only trace amounts of IgA were demonstrated.Results suggest that ovine placental IgG eluted by surgical cannulation of the uterine blood vessels in situ is similar to that eluted from postpartum placentae in vitro, implying that there may be some transfer of antibodies across the maternal side of the placental barrier to the trophoblast.These antibodies are rich in IgG1 and IgG2, have a relative molecular weight of 158 kDa, and bind to an 80 kDa peptide prepared from pre-acidified ovine placental cotyledons.We propose that the binding of placental IgG to the 80 kDa antigen may prevent immunological rejection of the foetus by competitively excluding cytotoxic cells of maternal origin such as NK cells.Also, given that a similar antigen (80 kDa) has been reported in humans and equines, and shown to be saturated with IgG in term placentae, we propose that this antigen may be conserved in several mammalian species for reproductive purpose.Consequently, we suggest that the ovine placental IgG and the 80 kDa antigen may be suitable as models for the study of maternal-foetal interactions in mammalian pregnancies.

A DRMASIGAMARY. "Muriithi HM, Masiga MA, Chindia ML. Dental injuries in 0-15 year olds at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005 Nov;82(11):592-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Nov;82(11):592-7. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of occurrence of dental injuries in the 0-15 year-olds. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Five hundred and five patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. RESULTS: A total of 505 patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. Most of the injuries were recorded in the year 1999 (22.2%). Boys were more affected (63.0%) than girls (37.0%). The main presenting complaint recorded was pain (75.8%).The majority of the patients (69.5%) presented for treatment during the same day or the day after trauma. Falls were the leading cause of injuries (73.5%). Most injuries involved two teeth (47.1%) and the maxillary central incisors were the most affected teeth both in the primary (67.5%) and permanent (64.0%) dentitions. Luxation injuries were the most common type of dental trauma with 47.5% occurring in the permanent teeth and 77.3% in the primary teeth. The main radiographic investigation performed was intraoral periapical views (52.9%) following which dental extraction (34.4%) was the main treatment modality offered. CONCLUSION: Prospective cross-sectional studies to determine the prevalence of dental injuries are needed. Furthermore improving the knowledge of dental practitioners through continuing dental education programmes would help in updating them on current trends in managing these injuries.
A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1985) Small holder Coffee Processing in Kenya . Proceedings of the Annual Coffee Seminar, Meru, Kenya.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1985. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A MRNYANDEGAISAIAH. "Mosi. R.O. and Nyandega, I.A.: Farming in the Tsetse Controlled Areas: A Veterinary census of Selected Districts in Western Kenya. A Consultancy Report for FITCA-Kenya, October 2001, Nairobi Kenya.". In: EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. Association of Africa Universities; 2001. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1988) The performance of an air-infiltrating solar collector M. Phil thesis. University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, England.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1988. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1992) Advances in Agricultural Machinery Technology Towards Sustainable Development. Proceedings of the KSAE Annual Seminar, 5-7th August.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1992. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A DRMASIGAMARY. "Muriithi, H., Masiga, M.A., Chindia, M.L. Paediatric dental injuries at Kenyatta N. Hospital.(EAMJ 82: 592-597).". In: (EAMJ 82: 592-597). University of Nairobi.; 1982. Abstract

Four hundred and forty-six children attending nursery schools in Nairobi were examined for caries and gingivitis. Assessment of social class was based on the occupation of the head of the child's household. Amongst 3-year-old children, 62% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.35. Amongst 5-year-olds 50% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.88. Thirty-seven per cent of the children had evidence of gingivitis, with the proportion changing little with age. There was no evidence of either caries or gingivitis being significantly related to social class, although children in the higher classes had more filled teeth.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1994) The Role of Agricultural Engineering in Food Manufacturing . In Proceedings for the Kenya Institute of Food Science and Technology Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, November 7th.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1994. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A DRMASIGAMARY. "Masiga, M.A. Demographic characteristics of patients attending for surgical treatment of unerrupted canines. Afri. J. of Oral Health Sciences. 2002; 3 (2): 129 .". In: Afri. J. of Oral Health Sciences. 2002; 3 (2): 129 . University of Nairobi.; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics, chief complaints and clinical presentation of children attending a private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: A retrospective survey of dental clinic records. SETTING: A private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: All patients aged 0-18 years who were first-time attenders at the dental clinic during a three year period. RESULTS: The records of 800 patients were examined, comprising 395 males and 405 female children. The average age was 7.2 years (95%CI, 6.9-7.4). Referral to the clinic for treatment was mostly by self (81.4%). Most patients (57.9%) were self-sponsored for their dental treatment. Majority of the patients attending (86.8%) did not clinically have any underlying medical conditions. The major complaints for most patients were dental decay (27.4%) and dental pain (21.6%). Very few children (7.6%) attended for dental check-up. Five hundred and forty nine (68.6%) of the children suffered from dental decay while 294 (36.8%) suffered from gingivitis. The average number of teeth decayed was 4.02, SD +/- 2.4 (95% CI 3.8-4.2). Most carious lesions occurred in the younger children. There was a significant increase in the occurrence of decay over the three year period of the study. Significantly higher levels of gingivitis was observed in the prepubertal and pubertal age group. Attendance for traumatic injuries was relatively low with only 46 (5.8%) children reporting traumatic injuries to their dentitions. Most traumatic injuries involved the anterior teeth as a result of falls. Treatment given at the first visit was mainly restorative (28.6%) followed by dental extractions (25.4%). CONCLUSION: The average are of patients attending the clinic was 7.2 years. Interdisciplinary referral was low since most patients were self-referred and self sponsored for treatment. Dental caries was prevalent, necessitating a high demand for restorative treatment. Although gingivitis was less prevalent, it was significant among children in the prepubertal years.
A DROBONDOANNE, M PROFNDETEIDAVID. "Mrumbi K, Obondo A.A, Rono R, Ngare D, & Ndetei D.M. .". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al (2006). International Psychiatry Vol.6 No. 1; 2006.
A DRMASIGAMARY. "Masiga, M.A. Sociodemographic characteristic and clinic features among patients attending a private paediatric clinic in Nairobi, Kenya E.A Med. J. 2004: 8 ; 577 .". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Nov;81(11):577-82. University of Nairobi.; 2004. Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry/Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, PO Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics, chief complaints and clinical presentation of children attending a private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: A retrospective survey of dental clinic records. SETTING: A private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: All patients aged 0-18 years who were first-time attenders at the dental clinic during a three year period. RESULTS: The records of 800 patients were examined, comprising 395 males and 405 female children. The average age was 7.2 years (95%CI, 6.9-7.4). Referral to the clinic for treatment was mostly by self (81.4%). Most patients (57.9%) were self-sponsored for their dental treatment. Majority of the patients attending (86.8%) did not clinically have any underlying medical conditions. The major complaints for most patients were dental decay (27.4%) and dental pain (21.6%). Very few children (7.6%) attended for dental check-up. Five hundred and forty nine (68.6%) of the children suffered from dental decay while 294 (36.8%) suffered from gingivitis. The average number of teeth decayed was 4.02, SD +/- 2.4 (95% CI 3.8-4.2). Most carious lesions occurred in the younger children. There was a significant increase in the occurrence of decay over the three year period of the study. Significantly higher levels of gingivitis was observed in the prepubertal and pubertal age group. Attendance for traumatic injuries was relatively low with only 46 (5.8%) children reporting traumatic injuries to their dentitions. Most traumatic injuries involved the anterior teeth as a result of falls. Treatment given at the first visit was mainly restorative (28.6%) followed by dental extractions (25.4%). CONCLUSION: The average are of patients attending the clinic was 7.2 years. Interdisciplinary referral was low since most patients were self-referred and self sponsored for treatment. Dental caries was prevalent, necessitating a high demand for restorative treatment. Although gingivitis was less prevalent, it was significant among children in the prepubertal years.
A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1982) The general position paper for the coffee factories section of the Ministry of Agriculture. Government Working Paper (unpublished).". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1982. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. et al. (1985) The joint GOK/IDA/CDC/Smallholder Coffee Improvement Project supervision and review mission report. Report of findings submitted to the project steering committee.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1985. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1990) An Investigation into the effect of Cultivator Design on seedbed preparation . Proceedings of the Annual Postgraduate Research Conference, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, England.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1990. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1994) Some Engineering opportunities for the Sustainable Development of African Agriculture. Proceedings of the FAOE/IEK All African Engineers Conference, December,.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1994. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A DRODHIAMBOWALTER. "Maxillary obturator prosthesis rehabilitation following maxillectomy for ameloblastoma: case series of five patients. Int J Prosthodont. 2004 Jul-Aug;17(4):464-8.". In: Int J Prosthodont. 2004 Jul-Aug;17(4):464-8. Journal of Public Health Policy; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern and characteristics of patients admitted with firearm injuries (FAIs) and establish the morbidity and mortality associated with these injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), January 2004 to December 2005. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted with physically evident firearm injury. RESULTS: There were a total of 717 patients recorded with FAIs constituting 0.6% of the total number of patients seen in the casualty. Of these, 421 (58.7%) were admitted and treated as in- patients. A firearm was used in 6.7% of the 6300 assault cases recorded in 2004 and in 9.7% of the 3079 cases recorded in 2005. The increase from 6.7% in 2004 to 9.7% in 2005 was statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were 370 (87.9%) males and 49 (11.6%) females giving a male to female ratio of 7.5:1. The mean age was 29.7 +/- 10.9 years with a range of 3 to 66 years. At least 262 (62.2%) of the 421 admitted FAI casualties were treated under general anaesthesia (GA). The average duration of operation per patient was 2 +/- 1.5 hours. CONCLUSION: FAIs are on the increase and affect all age groups but is largely a disease of a young male adult in the 3rd and 4th decade of life. Mortality is higher with increasing age while female victims are fewer but on average six years younger than males. The lower extremities are the commonest target among the survivors. However, abdominal wounds tend to be the most lethal, accounting for greater mortality.
A DRMASIGAMARY. "Masiga, M.A., Holt, R. The prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis and their relationship to social class amongst nursery school children in Nairobi, Kenya. Int. J. of Paed. Dent. 1993; 3: 135 .". In: Int J Paediatr Dent. 1993 Sep;3(3):135-40. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract

Department of Dental Surgery, University of Nairobi. Four hundred and forty-six children attending nursery schools in Nairobi were examined for caries and gingivitis. Assessment of social class was based on the occupation of the head of the child's household. Amongst 3-year-old children, 62% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.35. Amongst 5-year-olds 50% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.88. Thirty-seven per cent of the children had evidence of gingivitis, with the proportion changing little with age. There was no evidence of either caries or gingivitis being significantly related to social class, although children in the higher classes had more filled teeth.

A DROBONDOANNE, M PROFNDETEIDAVID. "Mrumbi K, Obondo A.A, Rono R, Ngare D, & Ndetei D.M. .". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al (2006). International Psychiatry Vol.6 No. 1; 2006.
A DRRAJABJAMILLA. "Mwanda WO, Rajab JA. Granulocytic sarcoma: report of three cases.East Afr Med J. 1999 Oct;76(10):594-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Oct;76(10):594-6. VDM Verlag; 1999. Abstract
Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. Granulocytic sarcoma (GS) is a rare extramedullary solid tumour composed of malignant immature cells of the granulocytic series. It may herald, accompany or signal acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or chronic granulocytic leukaemia (CGL). GS may also occur in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) where it is a sign of imminent disease progression. Three cases of GS are presented; the first one involving the pancreas and preceding AML, the second case affecting uterine cervix in stable phase CGL and the third case is GS of the breast accompanying AML. Any site of the body may be involved by the GS, and morbidity depends on the local organ/tissue affected in addition to the attending primary leukaemia or MDS. Treatment of GS involves surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The objective of this communication is to enhance awareness in personnel providing health care. Further, early diagnosis and treatment affects overall outcome.
A DRMASIGAMARY. "Masiga MA. Socio-demographic characteristics and clinical features among patients attending a private paediatric dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2004 Nov;81(11):577-82.". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Nov;81(11):577-82. University of Nairobi.; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics, chief complaints and clinical presentation of children attending a private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: A retrospective survey of dental clinic records. SETTING: A private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: All patients aged 0-18 years who were first-time attenders at the dental clinic during a three year period. RESULTS: The records of 800 patients were examined, comprising 395 males and 405 female children. The average age was 7.2 years (95%CI, 6.9-7.4). Referral to the clinic for treatment was mostly by self (81.4%). Most patients (57.9%) were self-sponsored for their dental treatment. Majority of the patients attending (86.8%) did not clinically have any underlying medical conditions. The major complaints for most patients were dental decay (27.4%) and dental pain (21.6%). Very few children (7.6%) attended for dental check-up. Five hundred and forty nine (68.6%) of the children suffered from dental decay while 294 (36.8%) suffered from gingivitis. The average number of teeth decayed was 4.02, SD +/- 2.4 (95% CI 3.8-4.2). Most carious lesions occurred in the younger children. There was a significant increase in the occurrence of decay over the three year period of the study. Significantly higher levels of gingivitis was observed in the prepubertal and pubertal age group. Attendance for traumatic injuries was relatively low with only 46 (5.8%) children reporting traumatic injuries to their dentitions. Most traumatic injuries involved the anterior teeth as a result of falls. Treatment given at the first visit was mainly restorative (28.6%) followed by dental extractions (25.4%). CONCLUSION: The average are of patients attending the clinic was 7.2 years. Interdisciplinary referral was low since most patients were self-referred and self sponsored for treatment. Dental caries was prevalent, necessitating a high demand for restorative treatment. Although gingivitis was less prevalent, it was significant among children in the prepubertal years.
A DROBONDOANNE, M PROFNDETEIDAVID. "Mrumbi K, Ndetei D.M, Ovuga E, Obondo A.A, Gakinya B, Ongecha .". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al (2006). International Psychiatry Vol.6 No. 1; 2006.
A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1981) Draft proposals for the practical training programme for graduate engineers serving the coffee industry in the Ministry of Agriculture . Government Working Paper (unpublished)Mutuli, D.A. (1982).". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1981. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Mecha EO 1, Mukuria JC 1 , Foglia G 2 and Omwandho C.A.O 1. NATURAL KILLER CELLS, CD4+/CD8+ CELL RATIOS AND SELECTED LIVER AND KIDNEY FUNCTION ENZYME AND METABOLITE LEVELS IN HIV INFECTION AND PROGRESSION TO AIDS.". In: In Proc. 16th World AIDS conference, August 2006, Toronto, Canada.; 2006. Abstract

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus is currently estimated to have infected 40 million people globally, 28.5 million of whom reside in sub Saharan Africa. It has affected all sectors of society. Identification of indices associated with clinical progression of HIV to AIDS would facilitate development of effective management strategies. We evaluated the relationship between Natural killer, N cell counts to CD4+/CD8+ cell rations during HIV infection and clinical progression to AIDS and measured with activities of selected liver and kidney function enzymes and metabolites with the view of determining the cause of anaemia in AIDS patients. Methods: Blood samples (10mls) were drawn twice by veni-puncture at six months intervals from 17 anti-retroviral na

A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Mirza NB, Estambale BB, Wamola IA, Kariuki N, Onyono E, Kabiru P, Piollet M.Bacterial meningitis in children admitted in hospitals within Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 1998 Feb;75(2):73-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1998 Feb;75(2):73-6. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
Four hundred and ninety nine children (aged between one month and five years) admitted with clinical features of meningitis were recruited in cross-sectional survey of bacterial meningitis in hospitals within Nairobi. Lumbar punctures were done on all of them and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysed bacteriologically and serologically for the common causative organisms. Two hundred and fifty (50.1%) cases were diagnosed clinically as having meningitis. Of these, 132 (52.8%) had turbid CSF specimens, while 118 (47.2%) were clear. When turbid CSF specimens were cultured, 83 (62.8%) yielded three common bacterial micro-organisms namely; Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in that order of frequency. The implications of these findings in paediatric meningitis together with the drug sensitivity patterns is presented and discussed.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Management of Academic Programmes with special Reference to the Examination Process".". In: The Senate Workshop held at the Kenya School of Monetary Studies, Ruaraka, Nairobi. Kenya. 23 August 2002. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2002. Abstract

 

 

A. DRKITAAJAFREDM. "Mande JD and Kitaa JMA. Microbial profile and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates from dogs with otitis externa in Kenya.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Conference. 2004 Kabete Nairobi. au-ibar; 2004. Abstract
   
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Mirza NB, WAMOLA I.A and Bubi J. Resistance Patterns of Gram Negative Pathogens from Clinical Material. Medicom Vol 3 (4): 105. 1981.". In: Medicom Vol 3 (4): 105. 1981. IBIMA Publishing; 1981. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Muriuki SM, McDermott JJ, Arimi SM, Mugambi JT, Wamola IA.Criteria for better detection of brucellosis in the Narok District of Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1997 May;74(5):317-20.". In: East Afr Med J. 1997 May;74(5):317-20. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
Monthly disease summary sheets from 1986-1992 of 60 dispensaries, clinics and hospitals in Narok district, Kenya were reviewed for the occurrence of brucellosis and other diseases with "flu-like symptoms". Diseases with these symptoms accounted for about 52% of the 1,037,875 cases reported for the time period. These were classified as malaria (79.3%), rheumatism (7.1%), PUO (2.4%), and brucellosis (0.8%). Brucellosis was diagnosed by a positive Rose Bengal (RB) test routinely conducted in seven out of the 60 health units. In these units, 55% of flu-like cases were classified as malaria and 21.2% as brucellosis. Individual case records of patients at four dispensaries using the RB test during 1991-92 were assessed for specific predictor symptoms. For 625 RB tested patients, a positive test result was associated with joint pain, headache, and the combinations of joint pain with headache and lameness with headache. A logistic regression model correctly predicted the RB test result in 62.3% of the time. For the 465 patients examined by the blood smear examination, identification of malaria parasites was associated with, headache, joint pain and combinations of emesis with pale mucous membranes. This regression model correctly predicted positive results 67.2% of the time. Both models indicate that selected clinical predictors represented significantly increased odds of being positive to the respective tests. However, for both diseases, clinical signs alone appear insufficient for reliable diagnosis and differentiation probably due to resemblance in symptomatology between these two and other diseases.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Mapping out Directions in Formal Education for the Girl Child in Kenya".". In: Technical Workshop on Mapping out Direction for the Girl Child in Kenya. 13th to 15th October 1993 at the Mary Ward - Karen. Nairobi. Kenya. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1993. Abstract

 

 

A. HASHIM. "Muslim-State Relations in Kenya after the Referendum on the Constitution." African Association for the Study of Religions Bulletin. 2005;24(1):21-27.muslims-state_relations_in_kenya.pdf
A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Malek A.K.A, Ogeng.". In: Clin Anat. 2007 Nov;20(8):943-5. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 2007. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Mirza and WAMOLA I.A. Meningococcal meningitis over the past thirteen years (1967-79) at Kenyatta National Hospital, EAMJ 57: 883-890, 1980.". In: EAMJ 57: 883-890, 1980. IBIMA Publishing; 1980. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Mutanda LN, Omari AM and WAMOLA I.A. Adaptation of a method of measuring zone diameters of bacterial growth inhibition by antibiotics to suit developing countries. East Afr Med J. 1989 Jul;66(7):441-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Jul;66(7):441-7. IBIMA Publishing; 1989. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. MRJALEHAALEXC. "Managing Risk and Insurance for Small Business Entrepreneurs: (Published by Stellagraphics).". In: Department of Clinical Studies University of Nairobi 2008. Departmental seminar; 1986. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Mirza NB, Wamola IA, Estambale BA, Mbithi E, Poillet M.Typhim Vi vaccine against typhoid fever: a clinical trial in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1995 Mar;72(3):162-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Mar;72(3):162-4. IBIMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract
Safety, tolerance and immunogenicity of the purified Vi polysaccharide vaccine (Typhim Vi) against typhoid fever was evaluated in primary school children aged 5-15 years. A total of 435 children were vaccinated, each with a single intramuscular injection in the left deltoid muscle. One hundred and ten children were randomly selected for blood samples on day 0 (pre vaccination) and day 30 (post vaccination). Vi antibodies studied by Radio immuno assay (RIA) on 97(88%) paired sera showed a seroconversion rate of 76.2% and seroprotection rate after vaccination was 74.2%, while 6.2% of children already had protective immunity before vaccination. The vaccine was well tolerated. Most commonly reported reactions were mild pain at site of injection (83%), and a few complained of mild swelling (4.6%), induration (1.1%), itching (1.1%) and headaches (1.4%). All reactions were of mild severity and disappeared within 24 to 48 hours.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Mapping out Directions in Formal Education for the Girl Child in Kenya".". In: Technical Workshop on Mapping out Direction for the Girl Child in Kenya. 13th to 15th October 1993 at the Mary Ward - Karen. Nairobi. Kenya. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1993. Abstract
   
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Management of Academic Programmes with special Reference to the Examination Process".". In: The Senate Workshop held at the Kenya School of Monetary Studies, Ruaraka, Nairobi. Kenya. 23 August 2002. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2002. Abstract
   
A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Mungai JM, Ogeng.". In: Clin Anat. 2007 Nov;20(8):943-5. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 2001. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DRSWAZURIMUHAMMED. "M. A.,Thesis entitled "An Estimation of Housing Needs: A Case Study of Malindi Town in Kenya", 1986.". In: Key issues for Developing Countries. 1992 Ed., Bhatnagar S.C., pp. 103-114. Tata-Mcgraw-Hill. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 1986. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Mutanda, Kaviti and WAMOLA I.A. Patterns of Shigella Species and Serotypes in East Africa. EAMJ 56: 381, 1979.". In: EAMJ 56: 381, 1979. IBIMA Publishing; 1979. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. OF. Mechanical Transmission of Trypanosoma evansi steele, by Stomoxys calcitrans.. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi ; 1983.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Mutanda LN, WAMOLA I.A and Kaviti JN. The Relationship Between the most commonly occurring Shigella serotypes and ages of patients. Medicom 4: 147, 1982.". In: Medicom 4: 147, 1982. IBIMA Publishing; 1982. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A.A. McLigeyo, G. Lule, C.F.OTIENO, J.K. Kayima, Omonge E. "Metabolic factors associated with the development of lipodystrophy in patients on long-term highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART)." Academic journals. 2013;5(5):142-148. Abstract

Dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes are frequent in patients on highly active anti-retroviral
therapy (HAART) and especially in patients with lipodystrophy, and may lead to atherosclerosis. This
study described the metabolic alterations associated with lipodystrophy in adults on chronic HAART in
Kenya. The prevalence of dyslipidaemia amongst the study participants was (211) 79.6%. Elevated total
cholesterol was found in 129, high low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in 107, low High-density
lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in 110 and high triglycerides in 131 participants. Lipodystrophic
patients were more likely to have dyslipidemia than normal lipids (55.4 versus 35.1%, p = 0.007 OR 2.2
CI 1.3 to 4.6) with 57, 45.9, 65.9 and 45.2% having elevated total cholesterol, elevated LDL-C, elevated
triglycerides and low HDL-C, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia were
significantly associated with lipodystrophy (OR 3.8 CI 2.3 to 6.4; p = 0.000) and (OR 1.94 CI 1.2 to 3.2; p
= 0.008), respectively. The odds of lipodystrophy was 2.913 times higher for patients with elevated
triglycerides than for those with normal triglycerides (p < 0.001). Sixty-four (24.3%) participants had
dysglycemia, with 3.5% having diabetes and 20.8% having impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Among
patient with lipodystrophy, 69.8% had normal fasting glucose, 25.1% had IFG and 5.1% were diabetic.
Lipodystrophic patients were not more likely to have abnormal blood sugars than normal blood sugars
(p value 0.125).

A.N G, C.K. M. "Metabolism of cathinone to d- norpseudoephedrine in humas." J. Pharm Sci. 1983;72(10):1217-8.
Abate A;, Wanyoike M;, Said AN. "Milk Production Under Integrated Farming Systems in Kenya."; 1987.
ABDEL PROFMALEKADELKAMEL. "Matta WM, Saleh MM, Shamikh R, Ali SS, Abdel Malek AK. 1986. The influence of deprivation of light on the brain. Intern Conf Anatom Society W Africa. Nigeria, Nov. 1986.". In: Intern Conf Anatom Society W Africa. Nigeria, Nov. 1986. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1986. Abstract
A sample of 166 normal adult males and females was taken from different colleges of Assiut representing those living in upper Egypt. Each subject has been studied for measurements of stature (S), hand length (HL) and hand breadth (HB). The data were statistically analysed in order to assess the relationship between stature and hand measurements. The correlation matrix of the study indicates close similarity of the relationship between stature and hand measurements in both sexes and in both sides. A generalized multiple regression equation has been designed to estimate stature from values of hand length and hand breadth regardless of sex or side in the form: S = 34.5 + 5.77 HL + 2.7 HB +/- 5.1. This equation may be helpful to obtain approximate stature when there is difficulty in obtaining a direct measurement or where there is a chance print of a criminal or an amputated hand or arm.
ABDEL PROFMALEKADELKAMEL. "Mathias K, Abdel Halim S, Karin B, Helga G, Adel K Malek et al. 1999. MtDNA analysis of Nile River valley populations: A genetic corridor or barrier to migration?. Am J Hum Genet. 64:1166-1766. U.S.A.". In: Am J Hum Genet. 64:1166-1766. U.S.A. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1766. Abstract
A sample of 166 normal adult males and females was taken from different colleges of Assiut representing those living in upper Egypt. Each subject has been studied for measurements of stature (S), hand length (HL) and hand breadth (HB). The data were statistically analysed in order to assess the relationship between stature and hand measurements. The correlation matrix of the study indicates close similarity of the relationship between stature and hand measurements in both sexes and in both sides. A generalized multiple regression equation has been designed to estimate stature from values of hand length and hand breadth regardless of sex or side in the form: S = 34.5 + 5.77 HL + 2.7 HB +/- 5.1. This equation may be helpful to obtain approximate stature when there is difficulty in obtaining a direct measurement or where there is a chance print of a criminal or an amputated hand or arm.
ABDULLAH DRHASSANMOHAMMED. "Modelling of irrigation Water Movement in a Distributed Runoff Model, Proceedings of the 51st Annual Conference of the Japanese Society of Irrigation, Drainage and Reclamation Engineering, Mie, Japan p. 558-559.". In: High Ridge Teachers College, Nairobi, Kenya for Ministry of Education, Kenya. University of Birmingham; 2002.
ABDULLAH DRHASSANMOHAMMED. "Modelling snowmelt in Thiba catchment in central Kenya, Proceedings of the 50th Annual Conference of the Japanese Society of Irrigation, Drainage and Reclamation Engineering, Iwate, Japan p. 98-99.". In: High Ridge Teachers College, Nairobi, Kenya for Ministry of Education, Kenya. University of Birmingham; 2001.
Aboge GO, Jia H, Kuriki H, Zhou J, Nishikawa Y, Igarashi I, Fujisaki K, Suzuki H, Xuan X. "Molecular characterization of a novel 32-kDa merozoite antigen of Babesia gibsoni with a better diagnostic performance by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.". 2007. Abstract

We cloned and expressed 3 novel gene encoding a 32-kDa merozoite protein of Babesia gibsoni (BgP32). The length of nucleotide sequence of the cD;\' A \\'3. 1-1-6-1 bp with an open reading frame of 969 bp. The truncated recombinant BgP32 (rBgP32) without a signal peptide and Cvterrninal hydrophobic sequence was expressed in Escherichia coli as a oluble glutathione- -rran ferase (GST) fusion protein. We stern blotting demonstrated that the native protein was 32-kDa, consistent with molecular weight of thc predicted mature polypeptide. Enzyme-linked irnmunosorbent assay (ELISA) using rBgP32 detected specific antibodi s from 8 days to 541 days post-infection in the sequential sera from a dog experimentally infected wirh B. gibsoni. Moreover. the antigen did not cross-react with B. canis subspecies and closely related protozoan parasites, indicating that rBgP32 is a specific diagnostic antigen. Analysis of 47 era taken from dogs with anaemic signs re ealed that rBgP32 detected a higher proportion of B. gibson! seroposirive sample' (77%) than its previou Iy identified rBgPSO (68%) homologue. These results indicate that the BgP32 is a novel immunodominant antigen of B. gibsoni, and rBgP32 might be useful for diagno is of B. gibsoni infection

and Abok O. Elisha, Okoth W. Michael. KCANOB. "Microbiological Quality and Contamination Level of Water Sources in Isiolo County in Kenya." Journal of Environmental and Public Health. 2018;2018:1-10.
Abubakar LU, Bulimo WD, Mulaa FJ, Osir EO. "Molecular characterization of a tsetse fly midgut proteolytic lectin that mediates differentiation of African trypanosomes." Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;36:344-52. AbstractWebsite

Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.

U
UWESO DRABUBAKARLAILA, Abubakar LU, Kenya EU, Muhoho A. Microalgae species biodiversity and abundance and their potential for biofuel in Kenya. Nairobi, KENYA; 2011. Abstractabstract-ncst.pdf

Background:
Marine invertebrates rely solely on innate immune mechanisms, the cellular component of which is characterized by hemocytes that phagocytize microbes and secrete soluble antimicrobial and cytotoxic substances. In this regard, marine invertebrates are a potential source of promising antimicrobial compounds with novel mechanisms of action.
Objective:
The objective of this study was to evaluate extracts of the gut, gonad, spines and mouth parts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla for antimicrobial and haemolytic activities in vitro.
Methods:
Potentially bioactive metabolites were extracted using methanol and chloroform and tested for activity against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium spp. using the agar disc diffusion method. Toxicity was determined by assaying for hemolysis against human red blood cells.
Results:
Bioactivity against the tested bacteria was observed mainly with the methanol and chloroform extracts of the gonads and gut. Higher antibacterial activity was present in the methanol extracts compared to chloroform extracts.
Activity against the Penicillium spp was detected only in the methanol extracts, while the chloroform extracts showed no activity. The various extracts of the sea urchin lacked any detectable hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes.

Discussion:
These research findings suggest that marine echinoderms are a potential source of novel antimicrobial compounds.
Key words:
Tripneustes gratilla, antimicrobial activity, marine invertebrates

A
Achola MA. "Maternal and Child Welfare in Nairobi to 1960.". In: Maternal and Child Welfare in Nairobi to 1960. Ruaraka,Nairobi; 2006.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A M ADAM; Unusual cause of severe muscle stiffness: Historical aspects of genetics. The Nairobi Hospital Proceedings. IV: 142-145. 2000.". In: The Nairobi Hospital Proceedings. IV: 142-145. 2000. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To find out if there is any association between serum uric acid level and positional vertigo. DESIGN: A prospective, case controlled study. SETTING: A private neurological clinic. SUBJECTS: All patients presenting with vertigo. RESULTS: Ninety patients were seen in this period with 78 males and 19 females. Mean age was 47 +/- 3 years (at 95% confidence level) with a standard deviation of 12.4. Their mean uric acid level was 442 +/- 16 (at 95% confidence level) with a standard deviation of 79.6 umol/l as compared to 291 +/- 17 (at 95% confidence level) with a standard deviation of 79.7 umol/l in the control group. The P-value was less than 0.001. CONCLUSION: That there is a significant association between high uric acid and benign positional vertigo.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "Mukhtar MM, Sharief AH, el Saffi SH, Harith AE, Higazzi TB, Adam AM, Abdalla HS.Detection of antibodies to Leishmania donovani in animals in a kala-azar endemic region in eastern Sudan: a preliminary report. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2000 Jan-Feb;94(1):33.". In: Environ Manage. 2000 Nov;26(5):585. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2000. Abstract
The prevalence of antibodies against Leishmania donovani in selected domestic and wild animal species in 2 villages in Sudan with active L. donovani transmission in humans was investigated. Screening of domestic animals (donkeys, cows, sheep, goats, camels and dogs) with the direct agglutination test (DAT) detected reaction rates above the cut-off titres in donkeys (68.7%), cows (21.4%) and goats (8.5%), and which were also found in wild rats (5.5%). Sera of sheep, camels and dogs had a weak agglutination reaction below the cut-off titre. Testing of the same sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), against a lysate of L. donovani promastigotes, showed reaction rates above the cut-off optical density in cows (47.6%), goats (13.6%), and in rats (4.1%). No Leishmania parasite was isolated from spleen, liver, bone-marrow or spleen of Nile rats.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A M ADAM Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Kenya. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 10: 710-712, 2005.". In: Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2005 Jul;10(7):710-2. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study the pattern of occurrence of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in Kenya. Study design Prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study of clinical, encephalographic and natural history of CJD, backed by histology in as many patients as possible. METHODS: Consecutive patients presenting with the criteria laid down by WHO expert committee for diagnosis of CJD were recruited between January 1990 and May 2004. We analysed the clinical features and electroencephalography of all participants and took brain biopsies from four patients. RESULTS: There were four definite, seven probable and two possible cases. The electroencephalographic and histological features were typical of sporadic CJD. CONCLUSION: Sporadic CJD occurs in Kenya and the clinical, encephalographic and histological features were no different to those described elsewhere. Although we did not see variant, hereditary and iatrogenic forms of CJD, neurologists should not exclude these in making diagnoses
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A M ADAM, Hyperuricaemia as a cause of benign positional vertigo: European Journal of Neurology. 6: s85. 1999.". In: European Journal of Neurology. 6: s85. 1999. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1999. Abstract
The prevalence of antibodies against Leishmania donovani in selected domestic and wild animal species in 2 villages in Sudan with active L. donovani transmission in humans was investigated. Screening of domestic animals (donkeys, cows, sheep, goats, camels and dogs) with the direct agglutination test (DAT) detected reaction rates above the cut-off titres in donkeys (68.7%), cows (21.4%) and goats (8.5%), and which were also found in wild rats (5.5%). Sera of sheep, camels and dogs had a weak agglutination reaction below the cut-off titre. Testing of the same sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), against a lysate of L. donovani promastigotes, showed reaction rates above the cut-off optical density in cows (47.6%), goats (13.6%), and in rats (4.1%). No Leishmania parasite was isolated from spleen, liver, bone-marrow or spleen of Nile rats.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A M ADAM; Benign Positional Vertigo as a clinical manifestation of Hyperuricaemia- RECENT DISCOVERY Journal of Neurological Sciences 187: s222. 2001.". In: RECENT DISCOVERY Journal of Neurological Sciences 187: s222. 2001. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To find out if there is any association between serum uric acid level and positional vertigo. DESIGN: A prospective, case controlled study. SETTING: A private neurological clinic. SUBJECTS: All patients presenting with vertigo. RESULTS: Ninety patients were seen in this period with 78 males and 19 females. Mean age was 47 +/- 3 years (at 95% confidence level) with a standard deviation of 12.4. Their mean uric acid level was 442 +/- 16 (at 95% confidence level) with a standard deviation of 79.6 umol/l as compared to 291 +/- 17 (at 95% confidence level) with a standard deviation of 79.7 umol/l in the control group. The P-value was less than 0.001. CONCLUSION: That there is a significant association between high uric acid and benign positional vertigo.
Addis Teshome, Onyari JM, Raina SK, Kabaru JM, Vollrath F. "Mechanical and thermal degradation properties of silks from African wild silkworms." Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 2012;DO:1.0.1002/APP.37873:1-9.
Addis Teshome, Onyari JM, Raina SK, Kabaru JM, Fritz Vollrath, Suresh K. Raina. "Mechanical and thermal degradation properties of silks from African wild silkworms." Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 2012;DOi 1.0.1002/APP.37873:1-9.
Addis Teshome, Onyari JM, Raina SK, Jacques M. Kabaru, Fritz Vollrath, Suresh K. Raina. "Mechanical and Thermal Degradation Properties of Silk from African Wild Silkmoths." J. APPL. POLYM. SCI. 2012;(DOI: 10.1002/APP.37873):5-15.
Adebambo AO, G. Bjørnstad, W. Bulimo, H. Jianlin, G. Kierstein, L. Mazhani, B. Podisi, J. Hirbo, K. Agyemang, C. Wollny, T. Gondwe, V. Zeuh D, Tadelle, G. Abebe, P. Abdoulaye, S. Paco, L. Serunjogi, M. Abrerrahman, R. Sow, S. Weigend, R. Sanfo, F. Gaye, E. Ssewanyana, M. D. Coulibaly, B. Teme, VSF(Sudan), Hanotte. O. "Mitochondrial DNA D-Loop Analysis of South Western Nigerian Chicken." Archivos de Zootecnia. 2009;58:637-643. Abstract

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop segment was sequenced for a total of 98 individuals of domestic chicken from South Western Nigeria. Domestic chicken populations were: Anak titan (Israeli breed,n= 1), Frizzle (n= 16), Opipi (n= 5), FrizzleXOpipi (n= 5), Fulani (n= 4), Giriraja (Indian breed,n= 3), Normal (n= 55), Naked neck (n= 8), Yaffa (n= 1). The sequences of the first 397 nucleotides were used for the analysis. Seventeen haplotypes were identified in the samples, 15 for Nigerian indigenous chicken population, 1 for Giriraja and 1 for Anak titan from 23 polymorphic sites. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Nigerian indigenous and Anak titan chicken were all grouped under clade IV, while the Indian Giriraja was under clade IIIc. Clade IV had 16 haplotypes, while clade IIIc had one haplotype. AMOVA analysis indicates that 97.32% of the total sequence variation between haplotypes was present within population and 2.68% between populations. Our results suggest single multiple maternal origins for the South Western Nigerian domestic chicken.

Adeka R, Lukhoba C, Odhiambo J, Maundu P. "Morphological Traits as Indicators of Bitterness in Traditional Vegetables: The Case of Spider Plant (Gynandropsis gynandra) in Kenya." Asian Journal of Research in Botany. 2019;2(3):1-15.
Aduda BO. "Material Science." Promotion of Science and Technology . 2006;XII(1):19-22. Abstract

In this short article we discuss what Material Science is, its scope, relevance to technological development, its present status in Kenya, and finally propose a way forward. Materials science has been defined as that study that focuses on the material property-structure relationship. It is concerned with how the nano- or micro- or macrostructure determines the various functional properties of the materials desired or of interest. Materials science thus deals with, in an interactive manner, processing, structure, properties, and performance of materials, a relationship which has been summarized as the Materials Science Tetrahedron. It is a multi-and transdisciplinary subject as it is intimately related to basic science subjects like applied physics, chemistry, biology and to various engineering disciplines such as mechanical, electrical, or civil, engineering.

Aduda, J, Ndaita SB. "Management Accounting changes and Practices adopted by Large Manufacturing Companies in Nairobi, Kenya." The Operations Research Society of Eastern African Journal,. 2013;3(2).
ADUDA JO. "MARKET REACTION TO STOCK SPLITS Empirical Evidence from the Nairobi Stock Exchange.". In: African Journal of Business & Management (AJBUMA). AIBUMA Publishing; 2010.market_reaction_to_stock_split.pdf
Aghov T, Sumbera R, Pialek Lır, Mikula Orej, McDonough MM, Lavrenchenko LA, Meheretu Y, Mbau JS, Bryja J. "Multilocus phylogeny of East African gerbils (Rodentia, Gerbilliscus) illuminates the history of the Somali-Masai savanna." Journal of Biogeography. 2017:1-13.aghov-_et_al-2017-journal_of_biogeography.pdf
Agot KE, Kiarie JN, Nguyen HQ, Odhiambo JO, Onyango TM, Weiss NS. "Male circumcision in Siaya and Bondo Districts, Kenya: prospective cohort study to assess behavioral disinhibition following circumcision." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2007;44(1):66-70. Abstract

Evidence for efficacy of male circumcision as an HIV prevention measure is increasing, but there is serious concern that men who are circumcised may subsequently adopt more risky sexual behaviors.

Agwanda A. Maternal health and well being in Kenya. 8-10th December 2004: Society for International Development (SID). Round table meeting on Maternal Health and Well being in Eastern Africa. Strategies for Meeting the Millennium Development Goals; 2005.
Agwata JF, Wamicha WN, Ondieki CM. "Modelling of Hydrological Drought Events in the Upper Tana Basin of Kenya." Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering. 2014;Volume 11, (Issue 1 Ver. III):41-48. Abstractmodelling_of_hydrological_drought_events.pdfWebsite

Drought is a recurring hazard which affects many parts of Kenya. In most countries in Sub-Saharan
Africa, agriculture which is predominantly rain-fed is the main stay of the economies is highly prone to the
impacts of drought which, whenever it occurs, leads to serious socioeconomic challenges at various levels. The
study of drought duration, magnitude and severity have relevance in many areas such as waste load allocations,
issuance of pollution discharge permits, location of treatment plants and sanitary landfills, determination of
allowable water transfers and withdrawals both within, between and outside the affected areas and
determination of minimum downstream release requirements for hydropower water supply, cooling plants and
other facilities. Knowledge of the frequency distribution of the drought events is useful as it contributes to the
assessment of drought risks which have implications on the long term ecological, economic and social well
being of the biological and human communities that make use of water from the various streams in a basin. In
this study five frequency distributions were fitted to drought duration and severity as determined from discharge
data from representative river gauge stations in the upper Tana Basin of Kenya. The frequency distributions
fitted to the two drought events were the Generalized Normal (GN) or 3-parameter Lognormal, Generalized
Extreme Value (GEV) or the Extreme Value Type III, Generalized Pareto (GPA), Pearson Type III (P3) and
Generalized Logistic (GL). The distributions of best fit for the drought events were identified using the Z value
obtained from the average L-moment statistics of a particular candidate distribution and the average L-moment
statistics. The Z value for each homogenous region was determined from sample estimates of Lcv , Lcs and Lck that
were determined from probability weighted moment estimators and the weighted means of Lcv, Lcs and Lck using
records from the river gauging stations representing each hydrologically homogenous region. A frequency
distribution of best fit was selected if ׀ZDis׀ ≤ 1.64 and the one with the lowest ׀ZDis׀ value selected as the distribution
of best fit. Results showed that the frequency distribution of best fit for duration and severity was the Generalized
Normal while the Pearson Type III distribution was the distribution of worst fit for both duration and severity.
Key words: hydrological drought, drought events, frequency distribution, modeling

Akala, H.M. "Modernization versus culture resilience in education in east africa." Journal of curriculum studies. 2006;38(3):365-372.
AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. "The Maasai Cultural Dogmatism and the Scramble for Kajiado:, The Housing and Planning Dilemma (Forthcoming, 2003).". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 2003.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Macamo, J. L.; Ackello-Ogutu, C.; and P. Echessah - Editors (1998). Unrecorded Trade between Mozambique and her Neighbors: Proceedings of a Workshop held in Maputo, November, 1997. USAID SD Publication Series Technical Paper.". In: Proceedings of a Workshop held in Maputo, November, 1997. USAID SD Publication Series Technical Paper. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1998.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Mwambazi, E. and C. Ackello-Ogutu (1996). Women's Access to Land, Security of Tenure and Agricultural Productivity: A Case Study of Monze District, Zambia, in Mukhebi, A. et al (Eds.) Agricultural Policies and Food Security in Eastern and Southern Africa:.". In: Proceedings of a Workshop held at Mayfair Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, December 6, 1996. USAID, SD Publication Series, Technical Paper. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1994.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Mukhebi, A.W., C. Ackello-Ogutu, W. Nguyo, R. Hassan and W. Oluoch-Kosura (Editors) 1996. Agricultural Policies and Food Security in Eastern and Southern Africa: Proceedings of a Symposium Held at the Kenya Commercial Bank, Nairobi, Kenya, May 18 - 20, 19.". In: Proceedings of a Symposium Held at the Kenya Commercial Bank, Nairobi, Kenya, May 18 - 20, 1994. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1994.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Mwania, N. and C. Ackello-Ogutu, Editors (2002). Opportunities and Challenges of Intra-regional Trade in East and Southern Africa. Proceedings of a forum on regional integration of Ethiopian cereals markets held in Addis Ababa, 19th July 2002.". In: Proceedings of a forum on regional integration of Ethiopian cereals markets held in Addis Ababa, 19th July 2002. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2002.
Aketch NO, Masibo M, Olago DO. Mineral, Oil and Gas Resources: A natural Outlook-Geoenvironmental Resources and Hazards..; 2013. Abstract

The mineral, oil and gas sectors have not played an important role in the economy of Kenya in the past, but the recent discovery of mineral sands and rare earth elements at the coast and oil in the Lokichar Basin in the northern part of the country are proving to be game changers in the mining, oil and gas sectors. The most important minerals mined in the past have been mainly industrial minerals with soda ash and fluorspar being the most important products. Significant tonnage of gold was mined in western parts of Kenya, but currently only minor exploration and production from the old mine sites is taking place. However, with the increased interest and the government resolve to improve mineral exploration, new mineral finds are possible. Exploration for oil and gas has been taking place in Kenya since the 1950s, but it is only recently that significant oil finds have been reported. The findings have inspired several companies to explore for oil and gas within all the major sedimentary basins in Kenya, namely, the Lokichar Basin, Turkana Basin, the Kerio and Baringo Basin, the Anza Basin, and the Lamu Basin.

AL S, T DR, M C, J L, P P, A K, J C, W P. "Mitigating Global Oral Health Inequalities: Research Training Programs in Low- and Middle-Income Countries." Annals of Global Health.. 2020;2020; 86(1): 141, 1–5.(2020; 86(1): 141, 1–5.):2020; 86(1): 141, 1-5.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Major Causes of Calf Mortality in Peri-urban areas of Nairobi, (2010). Gitau, G.K., Aleri, J.W., Mbuthia, P.G. and Mulei, C.M.". In: Kenya. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 7th Biennial Scientific Conference 2010. KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Alexander RMN, Maloiy GMO, Njau R, Jayes AS. "Mechanics of running of the ostrich (Struthio camelus).". 2009. Abstract

Ostriches have been filmed running fast in their natural habitat. A female ostrich has been dissected and the principal bones, muscles and tendons in a leg have been measured. It is calculated that stresses up to 240 kN m−2 and 40 MN m−2, respectively, act in the digital flexor muscles and their tendons during running. Tensile and compressive stresses up to about 70MNm−2 and 110 MNm−2 act in the tibiotarsus. A large proportion of the energy which would otherwise be required for running is probably saved by elastic storage in tendons. Comparisons are made with the legs of flying birds and of antelopes

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. MPH Curriculum and Health.". In: Promotion Course, Dares-Salaam, Tanzania. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. A Proposal for Senior Manpower Development in Environmental Science in Kenya, International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:315-330, 1996.". In: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:315-330, 1996. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1996. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. and Kimani, N.V. Pesticides hazards.". In: An International Journal of Health Development WHO; Geneva, 11:430, 1990. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1990. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. MBChB Community Health Diagnosis Programme Perspective.". In: University of Aberdeen International Seminar, June 2009. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2009. Abstract
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ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A and Nyabola, L.O.; Tenambergen, T. The present and future status of municipal solid waste management in Nairobi. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:345-353, 1997.". In: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:345-353, 1997. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1997. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. Emerging effects of industrial revolution on 29 1993 Health and environment in developing countries.". In: Tanzania Public Health Association & the East Southern and Central Africa Public Health Association, Arusha, Tanzania. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1993. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. A safe adequate water supply and basic sanitation.". In: Health for All at The Year 2000: Wishful Thinking or Realistic Goal, 5-7 April 2000, Silver Springs, Nairobi. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2000. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. and Kimani, V.N. Patterns of agrochemical handling and community response in Central Kenya. Journal of Environmental Health, 55:11-16, 1993.". In: Journal of Environmental Health, 55:11-16, 1993. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1993. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A., Essien, E.J., Muchunga, E., Austin, J. and El Gamal, Y. Emerging effects of industrialization on health and environment in developing countries. Health Line: A Journal of Health, 5: (2). 26-29, 2001.". In: Health Line: A Journal of Health, 5: (2). 26-29, 2001. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2001. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Justification for senior environmental health specialists in Kenya.". In: International Seminar on "Environmental,Sustainable Development and Human Health". Banaras, Hindu University,India. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1995. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. and Mutua, G. N. Proposed Procedures for Management of Waste Generated by Health Care Facilities. African Journal of Environmental Assessment and Management, 4: (1). 39-45, 2002.". In: African Journal of Environmental Assessment and Management, 4: (1). 39-45, 2002. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
Alexander RMN, Maloiy GMO, Hunter B, Jayes AS, Nturibi J. "Mechanical stresses in fast locomotion of buffalo (Syncews coffer) and elephant (Loxodonta africana).". 2009. Abstract

Films of buffalo and elephant running, and detailed measurements on dissected legs, have been used to estimate the maximum stresses which occur in locomotion, in certain muscles, tendons and bones. These stresses are similar to stresses previously determined for some other, smaller mammals.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. The Status and Future of Applied Epidemiology Course for Anglophone (African) countries.". In: Benin. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. A Proposal for Senior Manpower Development in Environmental Science in Kenya, International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:315-330, 1996.". In: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:315-330, 1996. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1996. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. Environmental Pollution and its Impact on Eastern Africa.". In: Dar-es Salaam, Tanzania. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1989. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "MPH Curriculum and Health Promotion Course.". In: Promotion Course, Dares-Salaam, Tanzania. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.

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