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NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ. "Mapenay, I. M. Kikuvi, GM., Mitema, E. S and Ombui, J. N (2006). Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from Healthy Animals in Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian 30(1): 22 -26.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian 30(1): 22 -26. University of Nairobi Press; 2006. Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance profile of 204  Escherichia coli isolates of bovine, swine and poultry origin to eight (8) antimicrobial agents was studied. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were determined using the disk diffusion technique. Full sensitivity to all the eight antimicrobial agents in the test panel was observed in 46 % of all isolates. Resistance to at least one antimicrobial was observed in 10% of the isolates, while multi-drug resistance (resistance to two or more antibiotics) was observed in 26% of the isolates. Generally, resistance was significantly higher for isolates from swine and poultry than in cattle. The overall prevalence was 22% for sulphamethoxazole, 21% for cotrimoxazole, 19% for  ampicillin, 14% for tetracycline, 9% for stretomycin, 4.4% for chloramphenicol and 2.5% for kanamycin. No resistance was observed for gentamycin. It was concluded from the study that healthy food animals form a reservoir of multiple resistant E. coli which may be transmitted to  humans through the food chain. Thus, continued surveillance of E. coli obtained from food production continuum is merited to identify emerging antimicrobial-resistant phenotypes.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Mapesa O J, S K Mbugua and S M Mahungu 2010; Sensory evaluation of dried beef strips treated with Acetic Acid, Brine and Monosodium Glutamate.Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 34: pp 272 .". In: Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 34: pp 272 . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2010. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
MBATIAH PMWENDA. ""Mapitio ya Riwaya ya Walenisi" - published in KIOO CHA LUGHA, journal of the Kiswahili Department, University of Dar-es-Salaam.". In: Journal of the Kiswahili Department, University of Dar es Salaam.; 1995. Abstract
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MBATIAH PMWENDA. ""Mapito ya Riwaya ya Walenisi"- Published in KIOO CHA LUGHA, Journal of the Kiswahili Department, University of Dar-es-Salaam.". In: Journal of the Kiswahili Department, University of Dar es Salaam.; 1995. Abstract
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Marre O, Amodei D, Deshmukh N, Sadeghi K, Soo F, Holy TE, Berry MJ. "Mapping a {Complete} {Neural} {Population} in the {Retina}." The Journal of Neuroscience. 2012;32:14859-14873. AbstractWebsite

Recording simultaneously from essentially all of the relevant neurons in a local circuit is crucial to understand how they collectively represent information. Here we show that the combination of a large, dense multielectrode array and a novel, mostly automated spike-sorting algorithm allowed us to record simultaneously from a highly overlapping population of {\textgreater}200 ganglion cells in the salamander retina. By combining these methods with labeling and imaging, we showed that up to 95% of the ganglion cells over the area of the array were recorded. By measuring the coverage of visual space by the receptive fields of the recorded cells, we concluded that our technique captured a neural population that forms an essentially complete representation of a region of visual space. This completeness allowed us to determine the spatial layout of different cell types as well as identify a novel group of ganglion cells that responded reliably to a set of naturalistic and artificial stimuli but had no measurable receptive field. Thus, our method allows unprecedented access to the complete neural representation of visual information, a crucial step for the understanding of population coding in sensory systems.

Marre O, Amodei D, Deshmukh N, Sadeghi K, Soo F, Holy TE, Berry MJ. "Mapping a {Complete} {Neural} {Population} in the {Retina}." The Journal of Neuroscience. 2012;32:14859-14873. AbstractWebsite

Recording simultaneously from essentially all of the relevant neurons in a local circuit is crucial to understand how they collectively represent information. Here we show that the combination of a large, dense multielectrode array and a novel, mostly automated spike-sorting algorithm allowed us to record simultaneously from a highly overlapping population of {\textgreater}200 ganglion cells in the salamander retina. By combining these methods with labeling and imaging, we showed that up to 95% of the ganglion cells over the area of the array were recorded. By measuring the coverage of visual space by the receptive fields of the recorded cells, we concluded that our technique captured a neural population that forms an essentially complete representation of a region of visual space. This completeness allowed us to determine the spatial layout of different cell types as well as identify a novel group of ganglion cells that responded reliably to a set of naturalistic and artificial stimuli but had no measurable receptive field. Thus, our method allows unprecedented access to the complete neural representation of visual information, a crucial step for the understanding of population coding in sensory systems.

Ochungo P, Lindahl JF, T K, Sirma AJ, Senerwa DM, Kiama TN, Grace D. "Mapping aflatoxin risk from milk consumption using biophysical and socio-economic data:A case study in Kenya. ." African Journal of Food Nutrition and Development. 2016;16:11066-11085(16):11066-11085.
Ochungo P, Sirma AJ, Senerwa DM, Lindahl J, Kiama TN, and Grace. D. "Mapping Aflatoxin Risk Using Biophysical and Socio-economic data: A case study of Kenya.". 2016.
Nyabuga G, Booker N. "Mapping Digital Media: Kenya." London: Open Society; 2013.
Atonya SC. Mapping Geological Structures in Western Mutomo, Kitui County: A Remote Sensing approach. Karanja FN, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2014.
MBATHI MRMUSYIMIMUTHOKA. "Mapping indicators within Kibera Informal Settlement, Nairobi. Paper presented during the World Urban Forum, Nairobi, May 2002.". In: Unpublished. University of Nairobi.; 2002. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
Yarmoshuk AN, Guantai AN, Mwangu M, Cole DC, Zarowsky C. "Mapping International University Partnerships Identi fi ed by East African Universities as Strengthening Their Medicine, Nursing, and Public Health Programs." Annals of Global Health. 2016;82(5):665-677. Abstract2016_-_mapping_international_university_partnerships.pdf

Background: International university partnerships are recommended for increasing the capacity of sub-Saharan African universities. Many publications describe individual partnerships and projects, and tools are available for guiding collaborations, but systematic mappings of the basic, common characteristics of partnerships are scarce.

Objective: To document and categorize the international interuniversity partnerships deemed significant to building the capacity of medicine, nursing, and public health programs of 4 East African universities.

Methods: Two universities in Kenya and 2 in Tanzania were purposefully selected. Key informant interviews, conducted with 42 senior representatives of the 4 universities, identified partnerships they considered significant for increasing the capacity of their institutions' medicine, nursing, and public health programs in education, research, or service. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed. Partners were classified by country of origin and corresponding international groupings, duration, programs, and academic health science components.

Findings: One hundred twenty-nine university-to-university partnerships from 23 countries were identified. Each university reported between 25 and 36 international university partners. Seventy-four percent of partnerships were with universities in high-income countries, 15% in low- and middle-income countries, and 11% with consortia. Seventy percent included medicine, 37% nursing, and 45% public health; 15% included all 3 programs. Ninety-two percent included an education component, 47% research, and 24% service; 12% included all 3 components.

Conclusions: This study confirms the rapid growth of inter-university cross-border health partnerships this century. It also finds, however, that there is a pool of established international partnerships from numerous countries at each university. Most partnerships that seek to strengthen universities in East Africa should likely ensure they have a significant education component. Universities should make more systematic information about past and existing partnerships available publicly.

Baariu SN, Mulaku GC. "Mapping Khat (Miraa) by Remote Sensing in Meru County, Kenya." International Journal of Remote Sensing Applications (USA). 2015;Vol. 5(ISSN 2226-4353):54-61 .
Leitich RK, Arinaitwe W, Mukoye B, Omayio DO, Osogo AK, Were HK, Muthomi JW, Otsyula RM, Abang MM. "Mapping of Angular Leaf Spot Disease Hotspot Areas in Western Kenya Towards Its Management." American Journal of Applied Scientific Research. 2016;2(6):75-81.
Owen, Dulo, Thine. "Mapping of Feasible Artificial Groundwater Recharge Areas: Case of Nairobi City County,." Journal of Engineering and Architecture. 2020;8(2)::9-16.
"Mapping of Hydrothermal Minerals Related to Geothermal Activities Using Remote Sensing and GIS: Case Study of Paka Volcano in Kenyan Rift Valley." International Journal of Scientific Research and Management. 2017;8(5):711-725. AbstractFull Text

Remote sensing investigations combined with Geographical investigation systems (GIS) provide a rapid and cost-effective method for prospecting hydrothermal and geothermal systems. Most geothermal systems in Kenya are found in remote areas where accessibility is difficult. This study was carried out on Paka volcano which is located in the Kenyan rift valley. The aim of the study was to use remote sensing and GIS to investigate hydrothermal minerals and structures associated with geothermal activities. The study involves use of Landsat TM image classification using ENVI 5.1 and ArcGIS. Lineament extraction was done using PCI geomatics 2015 while Rose diagrams were generated using Rockworks 16. The research has shown that lithological, hydrothermal mineralization and structural maps can be generated form Landsat TM images using remote sensing and GIS. It has been shown that faults trend in the Northeast, North and Northwest direction. Hydrothermal minerals that are rich in iron and clays occur on Paka volcano mountain and its neighbouring areas.

A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Mapping out Directions in Formal Education for the Girl Child in Kenya".". In: Technical Workshop on Mapping out Direction for the Girl Child in Kenya. 13th to 15th October 1993 at the Mary Ward - Karen. Nairobi. Kenya. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1993. Abstract
   
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Mapping out Directions in Formal Education for the Girl Child in Kenya".". In: Technical Workshop on Mapping out Direction for the Girl Child in Kenya. 13th to 15th October 1993 at the Mary Ward - Karen. Nairobi. Kenya. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1993. Abstract

 

 

J.SITUMA, F.ATOHO JNDOHVU. "Mapping out the identity of Africa." Thoughts and Practice. 2015;1:77-102.
Situma J, Attoh F, Ndohvu J. "Mapping Out the Identity of African Arts and Aesthetics." Thought and Practice. 2016;7(1):77-102.
J Situma, F Atoh NJ. "Mapping out the Identity of African Arts and Aesthetics." Thought and Practice, 2015. 2015;7(1):77-102.
Amadi JA, Ong'amo GO, Olago DO, Oriaso SO, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "Mapping potential Anopheles gambiae s.l. larval distribution using remotely sensed climatic and environmental variables in Baringo, Kenya." Medical and veterinary entomology. 2018.
JA A, GO O'amo, DO O, SO O, IK N, BBA E. "Mapping potential Anopheles gambiae s.l. larval distribution using remotely sensed climatic and environmental variables in Baringo, Kenya." Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 2018;1(1):417-426. AbstractWebsite

Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) is responsible for the transmission of the devastating Plasmodium falciparum (Haemosporida: Plasmodiidae) strain of malaria in Africa. This study investigated the relationship between climate and environmental conditions and An. gambiae s.l. larvae abundance and modelled the larval distribution of this species in Baringo County, Kenya. Mosquito larvae were collected using a 350-mL dipper and a pipette once per month from December 2015 to December 2016. A random forest algorithm was used to generate vegetation cover classes. A negative binomial regression was used to model the association between remotely sensed climate (rainfall and temperature) and environmental (vegetation cover, vegetation health, topographic wetness and slope) factors and An. gambiae s.l. for December 2015. Anopheles gambiae s.l. was significantly more frequent in the riverine zone (P < 0.05, r = 0.59) compared with the lowland zone. Rainfall (b = 6.22, P < 0.001), slope (b = - 4.81, P = 0.012) and vegetation health (b = - 5.60, P = 0.038) significantly influenced the distribution of An. gambiae s.l. larvae. High An. gambiae s.l. abundance was associated with cropland and wetland environments. Effective malaria control will require zone-specific interventions such as a focused dry season vector control strategy in the riverine zone.

o Malonza, J. RART. "Mapping Socio-Cultural Influences in Contemporary Urban Public Open Space. The Case of Biryogo, Kigali City. ." International Journal of Creative Research and Studies,. 2018;2(9-september 2018).
K'AKUMU OA. "Mapping stakeholder positions in the Kenyan land reform process." International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development . 2016;15(1):15-36.Mapping stakeholder positions in the Kenyan land reform process
DR DAVIDNYIKA. "Mapping the Earth by Use of Artificial Satellites.". In: Department of Surveying; University of Nairobi. Nairobi.; 1972.
Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Maps in Environmental Monitoring.". 2013.
MARANI DRMARTIN. "Marani M., Tole Mwakio P., Ogallo Laban J. 2000. Concentrations of Hydrogen in Air around the Olkaria Geothermal Power Plant, Kenya. Discovery and Innovation 12(3):169-178.". In: Respir Physiol Neurobiol. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
MARANI DRMARTIN. "Marani Martin & Gottsmann Frank (2006). Presenting Geography: from complexity to simplicity? A Paper presented at a PhD Conference on "From GIS to GIScience", University of Salzburg.". In: Respir Physiol Neurobiol. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2006. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
MARANI DRMARTIN. "Marani Martin (2002). Stimulating and Encouraging Clean Production in Africa. A Paper presented at a Skillshare and Workshop on "Ratifying and Implementing the Stockholm Convention" on Persistent Organic Pollutants, Arusha, Tanzania. UNIDO/IPEN.". In: Respir Physiol Neurobiol. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
MARANI DRMARTIN. "Marani Martin (2002).Stimulating and Encouraging Clean Production in Africa. A Paper presented at Skillshare and Workshop on Ratifying the Stockholm Convention on the Eimination of Persistent Organic Pollutants, Arusha, Tanzania.". In: Respir Physiol Neurobiol. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
MARANI DRMARTIN. "Marani Martin (2004). The Role of Participation in Planning Processes with an Emphasis on the Role of Geoinformation. A Paper presented at a PhD Conference on "Public Participation and Collaborative Decision Support Systems within a Geoinformation Framewo.". In: Respir Physiol Neurobiol. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
MARANI DRMARTIN. "Marani Martin (2010). Pastoral Regimes for Scarce Water Management in Drylands - the Boran of Kenya. A paper presented at a Workshop on ``Land Grab." HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2010. Abstract

In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.

MARANI DRMARTIN. "Marani Martin and Ouma Oscar Kambona (2008). The Role of Watershed Research in Policy Change for Increased Uptake of Millennium Development Goals in Developing Countries. A Paper presentec at the First National Conference on Environment, held in Nairobi, .". In: Respir Physiol Neurobiol. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
MARANI DRMARTIN. "Marani, M., Tole, M. P., and Ogallo, L. J. (2000). Concentrations of Hydrogen Sulphide in the air around the Olkaria geothermal field, Kenya. Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress, Japan. CD ROM Proceedings.". In: Respir Physiol Neurobiol. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
O MROUKOKENNEDY. "March 2002: Healthy Futures: An Evaluation. A report on the "Healthy Futures" project. Published on behalf of "Maendeleo ya Wanawake" organization by Pritman, 2003.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; 2003. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Marchesini S., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Goi G.,Lombardo A. Plasma lysosomal hydrolase in normal malaria parasitized and sickle cell subjects. A study of a sample of Liberian population J. Res. Lab. Med x 5 493-497, 1983.". In: J. Res. Lab. Med x 5 493-497, 1983. uon press; 1983. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid.
Wasamba P. "Marching Backwards into the Future: Oral Literature in the Cyberspace,." Chemchemi: The Journal of the School of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2007;Vol.4(No. 1):114-118.abstract.pdf
W DRKURIAMARY, M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Mareko G M, Othieno C J, Kuria M W, Kiarie J N & Ndetei D M (2007). Body Dysmorphic Disorder: a case report. East African Medical Journal. Vol. 84 no, 9 450-452.". In: East African Medical Journal, Vol. 84 no, 9 450-452. Equinet; 2007. Abstract
The desire for self-mutilation in the absence of any discernible psychopathology is relatively rare. Self-mutilation is most commonly a manifestation of an underlying psychopathology such as depression, schizophrenia, personality disorder, transexuality, body dysmorphic disorder and factitious disorder. In this article, a case in which a 29-year-old single Kenyan lady of African origin demanded a surgical operation to modify and reduce the size of her external genitalia is presented. Although female genital mutilation is still widespread in the country, this case is of interest in that the woman did not seek the usual circumcision but sought to specifically reduce the size of her labia minora so that she could feel like a normal woman. The unique challenges in her management are discussed. Possible aetiological factors in patients who demand surgical removal or modification of parts of their bodies without an obvious cause is discussed.
W DRKURIAMARY, M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Mareko G M, Othieno C J, Kuria M W, Kiarie J N & Ndetei D M (2007). Body Dysmorphic Disorder: a case report. East African Medical Journal. Vol. 84 no, 9 450-452.". In: East African Medical Journal, Vol. 84 no, 9 450-452. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2007. Abstract
The desire for self-mutilation in the absence of any discernible psychopathology is relatively rare. Self-mutilation is most commonly a manifestation of an underlying psychopathology such as depression, schizophrenia, personality disorder, transexuality, body dysmorphic disorder and factitious disorder. In this article, a case in which a 29-year-old single Kenyan lady of African origin demanded a surgical operation to modify and reduce the size of her external genitalia is presented. Although female genital mutilation is still widespread in the country, this case is of interest in that the woman did not seek the usual circumcision but sought to specifically reduce the size of her labia minora so that she could feel like a normal woman. The unique challenges in her management are discussed. Possible aetiological factors in patients who demand surgical removal or modification of parts of their bodies without an obvious cause is discussed.
A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Marenya, M.O., Kaumbutho, P.G., Mutuli, D.A. and Kamau J.N. (1993) Simulation of the Materials Handling Systems in a Sugarcane Mill Yard - A case study . Paper accepted for publication in the AMA Journal.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1993. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

WANAMBISI PROFMWESELIMONICA. "Margaret Muthwii, MONICA MWESELI, Juliana Nzomo, Agnes M.W. Gathumbi, Joshua Okumbe, Manuel J.K. Marangu_ Elizabeth Opit, William G. Wagamba, Okot Benge and Titus Ogavu, Research Case Studies on Language, Published as a Consolidated report entitled: LANGU.". In: A poem published in WAJIBU: A JOURNAL OF SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS ISSUES Ed. By Dr. Wanjohi. REFEREED BY DR. WANJOHI AND DR.JUSTUS MBAE.; 2002. Abstract

Okot p'Bitek, a novelist, sociologist, philosopher, theologian, footballer, dancer, and above all human being, is internationally recognised as one of Africa's finest poets. He is the author of original poetry, translations of traditional literature, anthropological studies, and other essays. Edward Blishen writes: The biographical facts are themselves remarkable. He was born in 1931 at Gulu in Northern Uganda, and was educated first at Gulu High School and later at one of the most high-flying of Ugandan schools, King's College, Budo. He went on to read education at Bristol, law at Aberystwyth and social anthropology at Oxford: returning to Uganda, he lectured at the University College at Makerere. This academic versatility was matched by considerable athletic skill: among other achievements, he played football for Uganda. A drummer and a dancer, he founded an annual festival of African arts at Gulu. For a while he was Director of the National Cultural Centre in Kampala. From 1952 to 1954, Okot attended a teacher training course at the government training college, Mbarara. While at college, he wrote and produced a student opera. When he completed the training, he taught English and Religious Studies for three years at Sir Samuel Backer's School near Gulu. He liked singing, and was choirmaster at the school.

GICHOVI PROFMBOGOHSTEPHEN. "Margaret Ngigi's Ph. D. Research and Thesis: Student graduated with a Ph.D. degree in 2002.". In: 25th International Conference of the International Association of Agricultural Economists (IAAE), Durban, South Africa. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2002. Abstract
Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Red blood cells and lysate products (erythrolysate) are observed consistently in lymph draining acute and chronic inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. Using hemoglobin as a marker for erythrolysate, we have measured hemoglobin in lymph up to the 10(-6) M range in a number of pathophysiological states. Data demonstrate that erythrolysate alters the pumping characteristics of lymphatic vessels. To test the effects of erythrolysate on lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure that stimulated pumping activity could be applied to the vessels. With a fixed transmural pressure of 6 cm H2O applied to the ducts, sheep erythrolysate depressed pumping activity between 40% and 100%, with dilutions containing between 10(-8) and 10(-5) M hemoglobin. Although the active principle in the red blood cells has not been characterized, evidence from precipitation purification experiments suggests that hemoglobin is an important component. Once suppressed, pumping could be restored in many but not all vessels (often to control levels) by elevating the distending pressure above 6 cm H2O. The relation between transmural pressure and fluid pumping is expressed as a bell-shaped curve, with pumping increasing up to a peak pressure (usually 8 cm H2O) and declining at pressures above this level. By comparing pressure/flow curves, we were able to ascertain that hemoglobin shifted the lymphatic function curve to the right and, on average, reduced the maximum pumping capability of the vessels. We speculate that the presence of erythrolysate/hemoglobin in lymph may modulate the ability of lymphatic vessels to drain liquid and protein from the tissue spaces.
"Margaret Njeri Mbugua, MaryW.Kuria,andDavidM.Ndetei. The Prevalence of Depression among Family Caregivers of Children with Intellectual Disability in a Rural Settingin Kenya." International Journal of Family Medicine. 2011. Abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons
AttributionLicense,whichpermitsunrestricteduse,distribution,andreproductioninanymedium,providedtheoriginalworkis
properlycited.
Caregivers of children with intellectual disability have a great responsibility that may be stressful. The psychological well-being of
the care giver may affect the quality of care given to children with intellectual disability. Objective. The objective of the study was
todeterminetheriskofdepressionincaregiversofchildrenwithintellectualdisability.Setting.ThestudywasconductedatGachie
Catholic Parish, Archdiocese of Nairobi (Kenya). Design. Cross sectional, descriptive study. Method. The study was conducted
among 114 caregivers registered at the Gachie Parish program (in Kenya) for the intellectual disabled children. A researcher-designed
social demographic questionnaire and the Beck depression inventory were administered to those that met the inclusion
criteria. Results. Seventy-nine percent (79%) of the caregivers were at risk of clinical depression. Conclusion. Majority of the caregiversofchildrenwithintellectualdisabilitywereatriskofdevelopingclinicaldepression

Kanyinga K. "Marginalisation in Kenya: Origins, trends, and policy solutions.". In: Commission on Allocation of Revenue (CRA), Kenya. Nairobi; 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Marginalisation’ no longer a presidential campaign issue." Sunday Nation, July 16, 2017.
co-authored with and(ed) AOWOAI. "Marginalization and the Rise of Militia Groups in Kenya; The Mungiki and the Sabaot Land Defence Force.". In: ) Militias, Rebels and Islamist Militants. Human Insecurity and State Crisis in Africa,. South Africa: Institute for Security Studies; 2010.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Margo CM, Crowson AN, Alfa M, Nath A, Ronald A, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nasio J A Morphological Study of Penile Chancroid Lesions in Human Immunodeficiency Virus(HIV)- Positive and .". In: Human Pathl. 27: 1066-70, 1996. IBIMA Publishing; 1996. Abstract
Chancroid, the most common cause of genital ulceration in Africa, is known to be associated epidemiologically with heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The pathophysiological mechanisms by which chancroid might facilitate the spread of HIV are obscure. To investigate the role of chancroid in HIV transmission, the authors studied the histological features of biopsies from 11 men with penile chancroid lesions including five who were serologically positive for HIV. The histomorphologic and immunophenotypic nature of the inflammatory infiltrates suggests that there is a significant role for cell-mediated immunity in the host response to Hemophilus ducreyi infection. This response may be critical to the role of chancroid in HIV transmission.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Margrethe Serek, Kimani Waithaka, Rodney B. Jones and Michael S. Reid, 1994. Senescence of florets in the gladiolus inflorescence.". In: Paper presented at XVII Congress of the Scandinavian Society for PlantPhysiology. Physiology Plantarum, 91 (3) A-A22. EAMJ; 1994. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
MATHENGE PROFMARIBEIJAMES. "Maribei J.M., (1985). The efficacy of .". In: Presented at the Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, 28-30 April, 1996. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract
The pathology of calves that died from experimental water intoxication was investigated. Oedema of the brain and urinary bladder, and renal damage were significant pathological findings in these calves. The findings were attributed to positive water balance in calves suffering from water intoxication
M DRNJOROGEERNEST. "Maribei J.M., Njoroge E.M., and Mbugua P.N. (1998) Clinical Manifestation of Experimental Water Intoxication in Calves.". In: Indian Journal of Animal Science 68(6): 531 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1998. Abstract

Few chemotherapeutic agents are available for the medical management of hydatid disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus. In order to test the potential of oxfendazole for the treatment of infection with this parasite, nine infected goats and four sheep were given oxfendazole twice weekly at a dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight for 4 weeks and monitored by ultrasound for an additional 4 weeks. Efficacy was finally evaluated by postmortem examination, including determination of protoscolex viability and cyst wall histology. In treated animals, protoscolices were dead or absent in 97% of cysts from oxfendazole-treated animals compared to 28% of cysts from untreated control animals. On postmortem examination, 53% of cysts from treated animals were found to be grossly degenerate. A sample of those cysts that appeared potentially viable all demonstrated evidence of severe damage to the cyst wall. By light microscopy, cysts showed severe disorganization of the adventitial layer with invasion of inflammatory cells and in some cases frank necrosis with no apparent adventitial layer. The follow-up period for assessment of the drug's ability to cause complete degeneration and resorption of cysts was relatively short. This study, however, indicates that oxfendazole is at least as effective as and is easier to administer than albendazole for the treatment of hydatid disease.

M DRNJOROGEERNEST. "Maribei J.M., Njoroge E.M., and Njiro S. (1998) A Case of Ovine Lymphosarcoma in Kenya.". In: Journal of South African Veterinary Association 69(3): 105-107. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1998. Abstract

Few chemotherapeutic agents are available for the medical management of hydatid disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus. In order to test the potential of oxfendazole for the treatment of infection with this parasite, nine infected goats and four sheep were given oxfendazole twice weekly at a dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight for 4 weeks and monitored by ultrasound for an additional 4 weeks. Efficacy was finally evaluated by postmortem examination, including determination of protoscolex viability and cyst wall histology. In treated animals, protoscolices were dead or absent in 97% of cysts from oxfendazole-treated animals compared to 28% of cysts from untreated control animals. On postmortem examination, 53% of cysts from treated animals were found to be grossly degenerate. A sample of those cysts that appeared potentially viable all demonstrated evidence of severe damage to the cyst wall. By light microscopy, cysts showed severe disorganization of the adventitial layer with invasion of inflammatory cells and in some cases frank necrosis with no apparent adventitial layer. The follow-up period for assessment of the drug's ability to cause complete degeneration and resorption of cysts was relatively short. This study, however, indicates that oxfendazole is at least as effective as and is easier to administer than albendazole for the treatment of hydatid disease.

NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Maribei, J. M., E. M Njoroge and P. N Mbugua (1998). Clinical Manifestation of experimental water intoxication in calves. Indian J. Anim sci. 68:531-532.". In: In proceedings 4th biennial Faculty of veterinary Medicine, university of Nairobi, conference. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1998.
MATHENGE PROFMARIBEIJAMES. "Maribei, J.M., (1981). Histopathological changes of liver and kidney in sheep chronically poisoned with copper. The Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 5(2).". In: Presented at the Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, 28-30 April, 1996. au-ibar; 1981. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
MATHENGE PROFMARIBEIJAMES. "Maribei, J.M., B.C. Tennant and B. Baldwin (1979). Effects of intravenous administration of D-penicillamine on Liver Copper stores of housed sheep. The Kenya Veterinarian 3(1), 7-9.". In: Presented at the Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, 28-30 April, 1996. au-ibar; 1979. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
MATHENGE PROFMARIBEIJAMES. "Maribei, J.M., E.M. Njoroge, and P.N. Mbugua, (1996). Factors that contribute to occurrence of water intoxication in calves.". In: Presented at the Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, 28-30 April, 1996. au-ibar; 1996. Abstract
The pathology of calves that died from experimental water intoxication was investigated. Oedema of the brain and urinary bladder, and renal damage were significant pathological findings in these calves. The findings were attributed to positive water balance in calves suffering from water intoxication
MATHENGE PROFMARIBEIJAMES. "Maribei, J.M., E.M. Njoroge, and S.M. Njiro (1998). A case of ovine lymphosarcoma in Kenya. A case report. J. of S. Africa Vet. Ass. 69(3): 105-107.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference 26th . au-ibar; 1998. Abstract
Water intoxication is a condition that is common in cattle, and has also been reported in other domestic animals and man. A comprehensive description of the condition is lacking. For a better understanding of the condition, this paper reviews work that has been reported previously by various authors
MATHENGE PROFMARIBEIJAMES. "Maribei, J.M., J.K. Wabacha, and E.M. Njoroge, (1999). Streptococcal meningitis in a five-month old male lamb. Tydskr. S. Afr. Vet. Ver. 7(2): 2-4.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference 26th . au-ibar; 1999. Abstract
Water intoxication is a condition that is common in cattle, and has also been reported in other domestic animals and man. A comprehensive description of the condition is lacking. For a better understanding of the condition, this paper reviews work that has been reported previously by various authors
MATHENGE PROFMARIBEIJAMES. "Maribei, J.M., Njoroge E.M. and Mbugua, P.N. (1998). Clinical manifestation of experimental water intoxication in calves Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 68(6): 531 .". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference 26th . au-ibar; 1998. Abstract
Water intoxication is a condition that is common in cattle, and has also been reported in other domestic animals and man. A comprehensive description of the condition is lacking. For a better understanding of the condition, this paper reviews work that has been reported previously by various authors
Wamitila KW. Marina's Voice. Nairobi: Vide~Muwa Publishers Ltd.; 2018.
Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Marine and Coastal Resources.". 2013.
K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Maritim M. C., Joshi M. D., Kayima J. K., Amayo A. and Jowi J. O. Prevalence of Peripheral arterial disease among chronic kidney disease patients at Kenyatta National Hospital. (Abstract) Cardiovasc J. Afr (Abstract) 2007; 18 (2): 112.". In: Cardiovasc J. Afr. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the status of environmental and occupational lead exposure in selected areas in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Kariobangi North, Babadogo, Waithaka and Pumwani for assessment of environmental exposure to lead (Pb) and Ziwani Jua Kali works for assessment of occupational lead exposure. Olkalou in Nyandarua District was the covariate study area. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and eight children and adults participated. RESULTS: Blood lead levels (BLLs) obtained for the entire sample (n = 308) ranged from 0.4 to 65 microg/dl of blood. One hundred and sixty nine (55%) of the total sample had levels equal to or below 4.9 microg/dl, while 62 (20%) of the sample had levels ranging from 5.0 to 9.9 microg/dl. Blood lead levels above 10 microg/dl were recorded in 77 (25%) of the total sample. Within Nairobi, 32 (15.3%) of the study subjects in areas meant for assessment of environmental lead exposure had levels above the WHO/CDC action levels of 10 microg/dl of blood. The mean BLL for the occupationally exposed (Ziwani Jua kali) was 22.6 +/- 13.4 microg/dl. Among the workers, 89% had BLLs above 10 microg/dl. In general, 15% of the entire sample (for both environmental and occupational groups) in Nairobi had BLLs above 15 microg/dl. The covariate group at Olkalou had a mean BLL of 1.3 +/- 0.9 microg/dl. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of environmental lead exposure to the general public is high in Nairobi compared to Olkalou where non exposure was reported. Occupational lead exposure has been identified to be at alarming levels and urgent intervention measures are recommended.
M PROFIRANDUEVARISTUS. "The Maritime Infrastructure and Economic Development in Kenya, Proceedings of the 50th Anniversary of Engineer and Infrastructure, KICC, Nairobi,22-24th November.". In: in the JOURNAL OF AFRICAN AND ASIAN STUDIES, Vol.32, No.4: 409-410. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995.
WAMBUA MUSILI. "Maritime security.". In: issues in piracy and terrorism. Neptune Hotel, Mombasa; 2010.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Mark A Luscher, Greory Choy, Ephanta Njagi, Bwayo JJ, ANZALA AO, Ndinya-Achola J, Kelly MacDonald et al. Naturally Occuring IgG Anti-HLA Alloantibody Does not Correlate with HIV Type 1 Resistance in Nairobi Prostitutes. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998 Jan.". In: AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998 Jan 20;14(2):109-15. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1998. Abstract
In an effort to identify an immunological basis for natural resistance to HIV-1 infection, we have examined serum antibody responses to HLA class I antigens in female prostitutes of the Nairobi Sex Workers Study. Anti-HLA antibodies are known to block HIV infectivity in vitro and can be protective against SIV challenge in macaques immunized with purified class I HLA. Thus, it was postulated that broadly cross-reactive alloantibodies recognizing common HLA alleles in the client population might contribute to the prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV. In fact, 12% of the women were found to have serum IgG antibodies against class I alloantigens. However, this alloantibody did not correlate with the HIV status of the women and was found in a similar proportion of HIV-positive and HIV-resistant women. The observed levels of alloantibody did not increase with HIV infection in susceptible individuals, suggesting that potential antigenic mimicry between HIV and host HLA class I antigens does not significantly increase levels of anti-class I antibodies. The lack of correlation between serum anti-allo-class I HLA antibodies and the risk of sexual transmission indicates that this humoral immune response is unlikely to be the natural mechanism behind the HIV-resistance phenotype of persistently HIV-seronegative women. This result, however, does not preclude the further investigation of alloimmunization as an artificial HIV immunization strategy.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "Mark O. Nanyingia, Bernard K. Langat, Cyrus G. Wagate, Fred N Andayi, Kipsengeret B Koros, Benard C. Rono,Lucas L. Asaava, James M. Mbaria (2008). Antiplasmodial activity of some plants traditionally used in treatment of malaria in Samburu district of Ken.". In: 1st National conference and Exhibition for Dissemination of Research Results and Review of innovations. Held at Kenyatta International Conference Centre on 28th to 30th April, 2008. E; 2008.
Silverstein E, Friedland J, Lyons HA, Gourin A. "Markedly elevated angiotensin converting enzyme in lymph nodes containing non-necrotizing granulomas in sarcoidosis." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.. 1976;73(6):2137-41. Abstract

Sarcoidosis is a disease of unknown etiology that is characterized by the generalized formation of granulomas and is accompanied by elevation in the serum in less than half the patients of angiotensin converting enzyme, a dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the conversion of the decapeptide, angiotensin I, to the pressor octapeptide, angiotensin II, and L-histidyl-L-leucine. Mean activity of angiotensin converting enzyme was elevated generally more than 10-fold in granuloma-containing lymph nodes, but not in lung in which normally it is abundant, in 19 of 20 patients with sarcoidosis. Angiotensin converting enzyme in lymph nodes from subjects with sarcoidosis was similar to the enzyme from normal lung and lymph node with respect to activity as a function of pH, inhibition of activity by EDTA and o-phenanthroline, gel filtration on Sephadex G-200, and requirement for chloride for activity, but appeared to be more heat labile. The data suggest that the granulomas in sarcoidosis may be the source of the elevated serum enzyme and that cells of the granulomas, particularly the epitheloid cells which appear by electron microscopy to have active protein biosynthesis, may be actively synthesizing the enzyme.

"Markers and disease outcome in breast cancer." East Afr Med J. . 2006;83(8):409-10.
Otieno DJ. "Market and Non-market Factors Influencing Farmers’ Adoption of Improved Beef Cattle in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas of Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

This study assessed various market and non-market factors that might have a considerable bearing on farmers’ adoption of improved beef cattle breeds in dry areas of Kenya. A binomial (binary) logit model was applied to analyse survey data from a multistage area sample of beef cattle farmers. Results showed that about 53% of farmers in the arid and semi-arid areas of Kenya have adopted improved beef cattle. The main factors that were found to have significant influence on farmers’ probability of adoption of improved beef cattle are peri-urban location, sale of cattle to abattoirs rather than in open air markets, and practise of agro-pastoral or ranch production systems. On the contrary, practice of nomadic production system, possession of experience in cattle production and larger farms did not have a favourable influence on adoption of improved cattle breeds. These findings offer important insights to development policy on provision of requisite services and institutional support in order to enhance the adoption of improved cattle breeds for better livelihoods in the typically resource-constrained arid and semi-arid areas.

HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Market and the State in Economic Change: Some Kenyan Experiences.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
Paul Kamau, Dorothy McCormick. "Market Diversification Strategy and Success of Food Processing Firms in Kenya.". In: 3rd Joint Nordic Conference on Development Research at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden, 5 - 6 . Gothenburg, Sweden; 2015.
Thiong’o SM, Kinoti M, Kibera F. "Market Entry Strategies And Performance Of Multinational Corporations In Kenya." African Journal Of Business And Management. 2020;6(1):52-66. Abstractmarket_entry_strategies_and_performance_of_multinational_corporations_in_kenya.pdf

The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between market entry strategies and organisational performance of multinational corporations in Kenya. The specific objective is to establish the relationship between market entry strategies and organisational performance of multinational companies in Kenya. The study employed descriptive cross-sectional research design. The study established that market entry strategies explained 43.1% of the variance in organizational performance of multinational companies measured using financial performance parameters and 52.5% of the variance in organizational performance measured using nonfinancial parameters. The hypothesis that there is a significant relationship between market entry strategies and organisational performance was therefore supported. The study recommends that multinational corporations should carry out research on the market entry strategies before venturing into international market. This will ensure that they use the appropriate market entry strategy to enhance their performance. The study also recommended that the management evaluate the factors influencing the choice of market entry modes in order to choose the best alternative. The results makes a contribution to theory development, policy and marketing practice in relation to the effect of market entry strategy and organisation performance The limitation of the study is that it used top management as the respondents, may be if other cadre of employees were studied they could have contributed to more exhaustive results for generalization, this however did not compromise on study results. Therefore, the study suggests that there is room for further research incorporating a large population approach, using longitudinal designs and using group discussion to get more information from the respondents.

K'AKUMU OA, JONES B, BLYTH A. "The market environment for artisanal dimension stone in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Habitat International, 34(1): 96-104. Elsevier; 2010. Abstract

This paper reports on a study involving the market environment for artisanal dimension stone in Nairobi, Kenya. Taking the point of view of exchange relationships within a market systems framework it maps out economic interactions involving actors in this market such as suppliers of raw materials, producers, marketers and users of artisanal dimension stone. This strategy enabled the study to understand the enabling environment for the production and use of artisanal dimension stone that is characterized by the following factors: a rising population that sustains the demand for the built environment products, a vibrant construction market, building regulations that favour the use of stone, availability of cheap and abundant unskilled labour and low standards of stone finish involved, availability of natural rock, a regulatory system that can compromise, lack of support by government institutions and an informal system of transaction that is non-compliant with conventional requirements such as labour and environmental laws but ensures ease of entry into the market environment. Such understanding brings potential for rectifying the negative perceptions about this market environment through policy development and change. Keywords: Artisans; Dimension stone; Exchange relationships; Market environment; Micro-enterprise; Nairobi; Kenya; Artisanal and small scale mining

Otieno DJ, Omiti J, Nyanamba T, McCullough E. "Market participation by vegetable farmers in Kenya: A comparison of rural and peri-urban areas.". 2009. Abstract

Transformations in agri-food systems provide prospects for improving livelihoods of many farmers through enhanced participation in commercial agriculture. Indeed, various studies have been undertaken to establish factors that influence the level of market orientation in different areas. However, those studies do not show appropriate objective criteria to support decisions for either separating or merging data and the subsequent analyses for different sites. Consequently, policy inferences made from such studies may be misleading due to failure to statistically account for site-specific variations in data. This study fills the analytical gap evident in literature by using the Chow test and descriptive measures of statistical difference to compare the intensity of market participation among rural and periurban vegetable farmers in Kenya. Results show that there are significant differences in the percentage of output sold, distance from farm to market, and the unit price of sale for output between the Rural and Peri-Urban areas. These findings demonstrate the urgent need for appropriate statistical evidence to improve disaggregated analyses of agricultural market participation in different systems and environments. This would enable targeting of development strategies to effectively address the changing agricultural landscape; particularly enhancing food supply and ensuring better farm incomes. There is need to improve market information provision, develop farmers’ business skills, improve roads and or support establishment of high value vegetable market outlets at different scales in Rural and Peri-Urban areas.

ADUDA JO. "MARKET REACTION TO STOCK SPLITS Empirical Evidence from the Nairobi Stock Exchange.". In: African Journal of Business & Management (AJBUMA). AIBUMA Publishing; 2010.market_reaction_to_stock_split.pdf
Okoth SA, Kola MA. "Market samples as a source of chronic aflatoxin exposure in Kenya." African Journal of Health Sciences. 2012;(20):56-61. Abstract

Surveillance of food and feed quality in Kenya has not reached effective level due to the expensive procedures of mycotoxin analysis and poor structures in quality control. Most foodstuffs and feeds sold in local markets do not go through any quality control measures. The outbreaks of aflatoxicoses every year since the major outbreak that occurred in 2004 (CDC, 2004; Muture and Ogana, 2005, Azziz-Baumgartner et al., 2005) suggests that the population is exposed to aflatoxins in their diet. Chronic exposure could be a more serious problem than the outbreaks of aflatoxicosis that attract attention at the time they occur. This paper analyses the extent to which market food and feed samples expose the residents of urban Nairobi Province to aflatoxins. Using TLC method of aflatoxins analysis, maize for food and feed samples collected randomly as part of routine surveillance between the years 2006-2009 were tested. Only 17% of the total maize sampled and 5% of feed were fit for human and animal consumption respectively. Maize Grain Grade 11 and maize milled products were significantly highly contaminated compared with Maize Grain Grade 1 throughout the period of sampling. There was no significant difference in level of contamination among the feeds tested

Okoth S. "Market samples as a source of chronic aflatoxin exposure in Kenya." Afr. J. Health Sci. 2012;20(1-2):56-61. Abstractf3wl6opuldm.pdfWebsite

Surveillance of food and feed quality in Kenya has not reached effective level due to the expensive procedures of
mycotoxin analysis and poor structures in quality control. Most foodstuffs and feeds sold in local markets do not
go through any quality control measures. The outbreaks of aflatoxicoses every year since the major outbreak
that occurred in 2004 (CDC, 2004; Muture and Ogana, 2005, Azziz-Baumgartner et al., 2005) suggests that the
population is exposed to aflatoxins in their diet. Chronic exposure could be a more serious problem than the
outbreaks of aflatoxicosis that attract attention at the time they occur. This paper analyses the extent to which
market food and feed samples expose the residents of urban Nairobi Province to aflatoxins. Using TLC method
of aflatoxins analysis, maize for food and feed samples collected randomly as part of routine surveillance
between the years 2006-2009 were tested. Only 17% of the total maize sampled and 5% of feed were fit for
human and animal consumption respectively. Maize Grain Grade 11 and maize milled products were
significantly highly contaminated compared with Maize Grain Grade 1 throughout the period of sampling.
There was no significant difference in level of contamination among the feeds tested.

Maalu J, Mshenga P, Owuor G. "Market segmentation and Micro and small Business Growth. The Case of Furniture Manufacturers in Mombasa." Egerton Journal of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education. 2004;2(july): Egerton University Press. AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT
Despite the significant role played by micro- and small –scale enterprises (MSEs) in Kenya’s economic development, the furniture sub-sector has over the years experienced constraints that have limited it from realizing its full potential. This paper uses data from a clustered random sample of 60 furniture manufacturers from Mombasa District to identify market segmentation strategies used by these MSEs, and to establish the effects of these strategies on business growth. A chi-square statistical method is used to analyse the data. Results reveal that a 62% of the respondents employed market segmentation in their businesses, and that the business owners’ education level and the age of the business significantly influenced the market segmentation strategy employed. Further, the segmentation marketing strategy leads to growth in a firm’s market share. The results also indicate that the most commonly used segmentation variables include: income, benefit sought, and social classification. The implication of this result is the critical importance of empowering the MSE owners with knowledge of market segmentation that would facilitate the production of furniture items that are determined by consumer demand.

Key words: segmentation, micro and small business, growth

Musyoka SM, Mutyauvyu SM, Kiema JBK, Karanja FN, Siriba DN. "Market Segmentation using Geographic Information System (GIS): A Case Study of the Soft Drink Industry in the Eastern Part of Nairobi, Kenya." Market Intelligence. 2007;25(6):632-642.
Musyoka SM, Mutyauvyu SM, Kiema JB, Karanja FN, Siriba DN. "Market segmentation using geographic information systems (GIS): a case study of a soft drink industry in Kenya." Marketing Intelligence & Planning. 2007;25(6 and 7):632-642.
KYALO PROFKIEMAJOHNBOSCO. "Market Segmentation using Geographic Information Systems (GIS): A Case Study of the Soft Drink Industry in Kenya.". In: Journal of Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 25, No. 6, pp. 632-642. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2007. Abstract
The analytical and visualization capabilities of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) greatly enhance the communication, understanding and utility of data and information as opposed to when the data is simply presented in form of texts and tables. Combining geospatial methods with conventional marketing techniques enables users to visualize the spatial distribution of data on maps and visualize spatial data in various statistical graphs and diagrams. This may yield more insights into the nature of distributions leading to better understanding of diverse markets. In this study a digital map of the study area is created from which the various market zones are delineated. A multiple regression model for predicting sale of soft drink products is then developed. This takes into account sales figures from specific distribution outlets and demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the population served by the distribution outlets for the identified market zones. The study demonstrates the important role that GIS can play in supporting market segmentation.
Kinoti MW. Market segmentation, profiling and targeting customers. University of Nairobi; 2015.
K'Obonyo PP, M'Nchebere DGK. "Market Strategy and Corporate Performance: The Contextual Application of PIMS Principles in Kenya." DBA Africa Management Review. 2011;Vol.1(Issue 1):Pp 1-24. Abstract

The influence of market strategy on corporate performance has been and still is a central issue in Strategic Management Discipline. In spite of immense academic curiosity in this area, exemplified by extensive empirical research, results still remain inconclusive. Some argue that performance differences across firms is as a result of strategic choice the firm makes regarding the market and its subsequent positioning while others argue that firm performance is influenced by the context within which it operates. Besides, empirical studies that forge these propositions in an African setting and specifically in Kenya using empirically grounded PIMS(Profit Impact of Market Strategy) principles, are scanty. This study examined the influence of PIMS principles on corporate performance in Kenya. Primary data were collected vide a structured close ended Likert type questionnaire administerd to all 56 CEOs of quoted companies in a census survey. Secondary data were collected on financial performance of the same companies for a period of five years between 2002 and 2006. Data were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate techniques. Theory testing show that Kaplan and Norton's Balanced Score Card(BSC) conforms to Kenyan context and remains a viable measure of Corporate performance. Further, the study provides additional support for the linkages between PIMS principles and corporate performance, suggetsitn that PIMS principles are generalizable across a broad spectrum of contexts though the veracity of prediction varies across the principles and the model is also context specific. In Kenyan context, the PIMS model explains up to 53.9% of variation in corporate performance. These findings hold implications for corporate managers. They should pay special attention to market positioning strategies especially product quality and market share. These strategies should be specifically targeted to cash generating portfolios calibrated in such a manner as to avoid investment intensity that acts as a drag to profitability. Future studies should seek to replicate the findings of this study to Small and Micro Enterprises. Also open to further study is extension of this study results by employing optimization methodology procedures to address the limitation of spuriousness.

P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Market Study Report on Bamba - Ganze -Vitengeni water Supply Project: Kilifi District Kenya Ministry of Water Development with S.M Ngola.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1982. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
AOSA E. "'Marketing and Strategy'.". In: Marketing Review. Nairobi: Kisipan, M.L.; 2010. Abstract

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Munyoki JM. Marketing Management: Theory and Practice. . Nairobi: Downtown Publishers and printers, Nairobi; 2011.
VERONICA MISSMWENDE. "Marketing of Information in Information Centres:A case study of School of Journalism/African Council for Communication Education (ACCE/SOJ DOC Centre).". In: Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2002. Abstract
The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.
Karuri EE, Mbugua SK, Karugia J, Wanda K, Jagwe J. "Marketing Opportunities for cassava based products: An Assessment of the Industrial Potential in Kenya.". 2001. Abstract

Since the era of development aid in Africa, research efforts have been focused on increasing agricultural productivity mainly through improved technology at the farm level. In spite of such programs, rural household incomes have largely remained low thereby perpetuating the relatively higher poverty level with all its negative consequences notably, low savings, low investment, low productivity and low incomes. It has now been increasingly realized that real benefits to rural communities are going to come from forward linkages of rural producers to more stable and higher value industrial markets. In turn industry too stands to benefit from increased rural household incomes in terms of higher effective demand for industrial products. Therefore, this report presents findings on the current state of the Kenyan market for starch, starch-based adhesives and high quality cassava flour for industrial purposes. An assessment of the potential for locally made cassava-based products to substitute for existing raw materials has also been attempted. KEY FINDINGS The total market for starch-based products in Kenya is estimated to be over 12,000 MT per annum. A bigger portion, about 60%, goes into the brewery industry. Other major consumers include paperboard, paper and the food sector. Native maize starch dominates the market for starch. This is mainly produced locally. Modified starches are not significant. Cassava starch has the potential to substitute maize starch in the paperboard industry. Some of the industry in this sector had used cassava starch before which they found preferable. However, use was discontinued due to inconsistency in quality and erratic supply. The manufacturing costs are high in the local scene because of inefficiencies in the production chain. At the moment production and supply of cassava starch is low and not timely. This was attributed to higher costs of local production, poor infrastructure and low raw material production The potential use of cassava in animal feeds has not been exploited in Kenya. This is mainly due to lack of information especially in terms of the processing steps and the rate of substitution of cassava for maize in the commercial animal feeds.

W MSNGAHUCATHERINE. "Marketing Research Teaching Manual and Audio Cassettes.". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 1991.
Munyoki JM. "Marketing Research; A Theoretical approach. A manual awaiting publication." University of Nairobi; 2001. Abstract

Department of Medical Physiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
Finding a simple and easily reproducible formula for assessing fitness and growth for human body has been one constant search over the ages. It was the aim of this project to try and add to this search. Most formulae in this field have complex calculations. Most of them have been derived using single system measurements. To delineate our factor, multisystem measurements were used; metric and imperial. This yielded a factor for describing the relationship between weight and height over the ages. The height is in inches and weight in kilograms. This produced factors (D) and (G) which have childhood, adolescent, adult and old age values. A total of 368 black Kenyans were studied. The age range was 3-85 years.

Mbatia OLE. "The marketing system for horticultural crops in Kenya."; 1981. Abstract

The basic problem of farming in developing countries is the lack of proper incentives for farmers. Prices paid for farmers' produce are too low, even to cover operational costs. The horticultural crops are much affected due to an unstructured market, and the Horticultural Crops Development Authority (HCDA) has not effectively assisted small-scale farmers. This paper evaluates the marketing systems for horticultural crops in relation to major ingredients affecting marketing. These variables are: the products to be marketed such as french beans, avocados, pineapples, mangoes; the place of the market and the prices to be paid. Some policies which could be adopted to improve the marketing of horticultural crops are considered.

Sharma TC, Gichuki FN, Mungai DN, Gachene CKK. "A Markov model for critical dry and wet days in Kibwezi, Kenya.". 2000. Abstract

The role of probability theory in providing information on the critical dry and wet periods using daily rainfall data was studied. The methodology was illustrated using the daily rainfall data from Kibwezi rainfall station, Kenya, with 55 years of records. The theory of runs, conditional probability, Poisson probability density and Chi-square statistics were used in the analysis. The model performed well and simulated the critical dry and wet periods (days) adequately. Results showed that one may expect the critical dry period to be about 24 and 12 days during the long and short rainy seasons, resp. Similarly, the critical wet spell is expected to last for 5 and 6 days, resp. It is suggested that drought analysis in the Kibwezi region should be based on the dry periods of the long rainy season, and runoff, soil erosion and rain harvesting analysis on the wet periods of the short rainy season.

WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Marriage and Family in Africa.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Marriage and Family in Africa, in D. W. Waruta and H.W. Kinoti, Eds., Pastoral Care in African Christianity: Challenging Essays in Pastoral Theology, Nairobi: Uzima Press.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Ayiemba EHO. "Marriage and Family Patterns.". In: Kenya Population Situation Analysis, Nairobi. Nairobi: UNFPA; Forthcoming.
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Marriage and the Changing Values in the African Family.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1990. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
N DRGITHANGAJESSIE. "Marsh S, Ameyaw MM, Githang'a J, Indalo A, Ofori-Adjei D, McLeod HL.Novel thymidylate synthase enhancer region alleles in African populations. Hum Mutat. 2000 Dec;16(6):528.". In: Hum Mutat. 2000 Dec;16(6):528. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2000. Abstract
Thymidylate synthase (TS) regulates the production of DNA synthesis precursors and is an important target of cancer chemotherapy. A polymorphic tandem repeat sequence in the enhancer region of the TS promoter was previously described, where the triple repeat gives higher in vitro gene expression than a double repeat. We recently identified ethnic differences in allele frequencies between Caucasian and Asian populations. We now describe assessment of genotype and allele frequencies of the TS polymorphism in 640 African (African American, Ghanaian and Kenyan) and Caucasian (UK, USA) subjects. The double and triple repeat were the predominant alleles in all populations studied. The frequency of the triple repeat allele was similar between Kenyan (49%), Ghanaian (56%), African American (52%), American Caucasian (54%) and British Caucasian (54%) subjects. However, two novel alleles contained 4 and 9 copies of the tandem repeat. These novel alleles were found at a higher allele frequency in African populations (Kenyan 7%, Ghanaian 3%, African American 2%) than Caucasians (UK 1%, USA 0%). The novel alleles identified in this study decrease in frequency with Western migration, while the common alleles are relatively stable. This is a unique example suggesting the influence of multiple selection pressures within individual populations. Hum Mutat 16:528, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Martin HL Jr, Stevens CE, Richardson BA, Rugamba D, Nyange PM, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Kreiss JK.Safety of a nonoxynol-9 vaginal gel in Kenyan prostitutes. A randomized clinical trial.Sex Transm Dis. 1997 May;24(5):279-83.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 1997 May;24(5):279-83. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and toxicity of once-daily administration of Advantage-24 (Columbia Research Laboratories, Inc., Rockville Centre, NY), a vaginal gel containing 52.5 mg of nonoxynol-9 (N-9), including the effects of this gel on the vaginal and cervical epithelium. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial, with a 2-week product application period and a 2-week washout period. METHODS: Female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya were randomized to one of two sequences, N-9 followed by placebo, or vice versa. Women were instructed to apply one applicator of N-9 or placebo gel vaginally once each day. During each of the two product periods, subjects were evaluated by questionnaire and physical examination, including colposcopy, after 7 and 14 days of product use. The primary outcome was genital epithelial disruption. RESULTS: Sixty subjects were randomized, of whom 52 (87%) had complete follow-up. There were four episodes of epithelial disruption, three of which occurred during the placebo period and one during the N-9 period. The estimated risk of epithelial disruption associated with N-9 use was 0.33 (95% confidence interval, 0.03-3.26). There was no increased frequency of other, nondisruptive epithelial lesions during N-9 use. CONCLUSIONS: No genital epithelial toxicity of N-9 vaginal gel was observed. This safety profile suggests that this N-9 product is appropriate for evaluation for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 prevention in a phase III efficacy trial.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Martin HL, Richardson BA, Nyange PM, Lavreys L, Hillier SL, Chohan B, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo J, Kreiss J.Vaginal lactobacilli, microbial flora, and risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and sexually transmitted disease acquisition.J In.". In: J Infect Dis. 1999 Dec;180(6):1863-8. IBIMA Publishing; 1999. Abstract

A prospective cohort study was conducted to examine the relationship between vaginal colonization with lactobacilli, bacterial vaginosis (BV), and acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and sexually transmitted diseases in a population of sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. In total, 657 HIV-1-seronegative women were enrolled and followed at monthly intervals. At baseline, only 26% of women were colonized with Lactobacillus species. During follow-up, absence of vaginal lactobacilli on culture was associated with an increased risk of acquiring HIV-1 infection (hazard ratio [HR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-3.5) and gonorrhea (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.6), after controlling for other identified risk factors in separate multivariate models. Presence of abnormal vaginal flora on Gram's stain was associated with increased risk of both HIV-1 acquisition (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.1) and Trichomonas infection (HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-2.4). Treatment of BV and promotion of vaginal colonization with lactobacilli should be evaluated as potential interventions to reduce a woman's risk of acquiring HIV-1, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Martin Jr. HL, Jackson DJ, Mandalya K, Bwayo J, Rakwar JP, Nyange P, Moses S, Ndinya-Achola JO, Holmes K, Plummer F, Ngugi E, Kreiss JPreparation for AIDS Vaccine Evaluation in Mombasa, Kenya: Establishment of Seronegative Cohorts of Commercial Sex Worker.". In: AIDS Resesearch and Human Retroviruses Vol. 10 S235-S237 1994. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract

{ Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are highly prevalent in pregnant women in many developing countries and have been associated with poor obstetric outcomes. Case detection and treatment of STDs in women is problematic and expensive, underscoring the need for other strategies. To explore the potential benefits of routine antimicrobial therapy on pregnancy outcome, we carried out a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial in one of the antenatal clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. Four hundred pregnant women between 28 and 32 weeks' gestation were given a single dose of 250 mg ceftriaxone intramuscularly or a placebo. There was a significant difference between ceftriaxone and placebo-treated women in infant birth weight (3,209 versus 3,056 g

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Martin Jr. HL, Nyange PM, Richardson BA, Lavreys L, Mandalya K, Kackson DJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss JK Hormonal Contraception, Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Risk of Heterosexual Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency virus Type-1 J. Inf. Dis. 178: 10.". In: Inf. Dis. 178: 1053-9, 1998. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
To examine associations between method of contraception, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and incident human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, a prospective observational cohort study was done among female sex workers attending a municipal STD clinic in Mombasa, Kenya. Demographic and behavioral factors significantly associated with HIV-1 infection included type of workplace, condom use, and parity. In multivariate models, vulvitis, genital ulcer disease, vaginal discharge, and Candida vaginitis were significantly associated with HIV-1 seroconversion. Women who used depo medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) had an increased incidence of HIV-1 infection (hazard ratio [HR], 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.4). In a multivariate model controlling for demographic and exposure variables and biologic covariates, the adjusted HR for HIV-1 infection among DMPA users was 2.0 (CI, 1.3-3.1). There was a trend for an association between use of high-dose oral contraceptive pills and HIV-1 acquisition (HR, 2.6; CI, 0.8-8.5).
Mitei HK. "Martin Luther’s theology of ‘Freedom of a Christian’ and its implications for 21st Century African Church." International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development. 2015;2(2):86-90.
MARANI DRMARTIN. "Martin Marani and Oscar Kambona Ouma (2008). The Role of Watershed Research in Policy Change for Increased Uptake of Millennium Development Goals in Developing Countries.". In: Respir Physiol Neurobiol. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
GICHOVI PROFMBOGOHSTEPHEN. "Martin Upton, S. G. Mbogoh and J Rushton, .". In: Nairobi, Catholic University in Eastern Africa, 2002. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2004. Abstract
Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Red blood cells and lysate products (erythrolysate) are observed consistently in lymph draining acute and chronic inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. Using hemoglobin as a marker for erythrolysate, we have measured hemoglobin in lymph up to the 10(-6) M range in a number of pathophysiological states. Data demonstrate that erythrolysate alters the pumping characteristics of lymphatic vessels. To test the effects of erythrolysate on lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure that stimulated pumping activity could be applied to the vessels. With a fixed transmural pressure of 6 cm H2O applied to the ducts, sheep erythrolysate depressed pumping activity between 40% and 100%, with dilutions containing between 10(-8) and 10(-5) M hemoglobin. Although the active principle in the red blood cells has not been characterized, evidence from precipitation purification experiments suggests that hemoglobin is an important component. Once suppressed, pumping could be restored in many but not all vessels (often to control levels) by elevating the distending pressure above 6 cm H2O. The relation between transmural pressure and fluid pumping is expressed as a bell-shaped curve, with pumping increasing up to a peak pressure (usually 8 cm H2O) and declining at pressures above this level. By comparing pressure/flow curves, we were able to ascertain that hemoglobin shifted the lymphatic function curve to the right and, on average, reduced the maximum pumping capability of the vessels. We speculate that the presence of erythrolysate/hemoglobin in lymph may modulate the ability of lymphatic vessels to drain liquid and protein from the tissue spaces.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Marufu, L., Karanja, N.K. and Ryder, M. 1995. Legume inoculant Production and Use in Eastern and Southern Africa. Soil Biol. Biochem., 27 (4/5), 735-738.". In: First Crop Science Conference Proceedings 3, 323-330. ISBN: 1023-70x.; 1995. Abstract
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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Marufu, L., Karanja, N.K. and Ryder, M. 1995. Legume inoculant Production and Use in Eastern and Southern Africa. Soil Biol. Biochem., 27 (4/5), 735-738.". In: First Crop Science Conference Proceedings 3, 323-330. ISBN: 1023-70x.; 1995. Abstract
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N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Kinyanjui and Felix Kiruthu " Globalization Experience in East Africa Region: A Search for theory in Cornelissen,s (eds) What is globalization critical regional perspectives.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui " From Home to Micro and Small Enterprises: Entrepreneurship and Female Gender Identities".". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui "Governance and its Implications for Gender Inequalities in the Jua Kali economy" IDS working Paper No. 543, Nairobi IDS university of Nairobi.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 'Knowledge, Technology and Growth: The case study of Kamukunji Jua Kali Enterprise Cluster, World bank Institute, Washington.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1987, "The Spatial Linkages Of Manufacturing Industries In Thika." in Journal of East Africa Development and Research, Vol. 17 pp. 147-167.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1988 "'The Intra-Urban Location Of Manufacturing Industries In Thika", in Journal of East African Development and Research, Vol. 18 pp. 67-87.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1988.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1992, "Finance And Availability of Capital for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Central Kenya", in Journal of East African Development and Research, Vol. 23. Pp. 63-87.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1996, "Small and Medium Manufacturing Enterprises Formation and Development in Central Kenya: Entrepreneurship or Plodding Along?" in McCormick, D. and Pedersen, P.O. (editors.), Small Enterprises: Flexibility and Networking in Africa.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1996.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1997, with McCormick, Dorothy and Ongile, Grace, "Growth and Barriers to Growth Between Nairobi's Small and Medium Sized Garment Producers" in World Development, Vol.25 No.7 pp 1095-1111.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1997.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1998, "Ziwani and Kigandaini Jua Kali Enterprises Cluster: Do Small Business Gain by Being in Close Proximity to Each Other", in Journal of African Research and Development, vol. 27&28, 1997/98 pp 270-298.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1998.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1999, 'The Search for a Gender Sensitive Development Policy.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1999.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 2000 and Munguti, Kaendi, "Gender Equity in Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya" in Mullei, A. and Bokea, C (editors). Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre f.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 2000.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 2002, "Peasant Organisations in the Development Process: Opportunities and Constraints", in Romdhame, Mahmoud Ben and Moyo, Sam.(editors) Peasant Organisations and the Democratisation Process in Africa, Dakar: CODESRIA. Pp 293-313.". In: How to Cooraborate: Associations and other Community Based Organizations Among Micro and Small Enterprises. IDS Occasional Paper No. 70. University of Nairobi.; 2002.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 2003, "A Gender Analysis of Small Scale Garment Producers.". In: Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. University of Nairobi.; 2003.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui and Kamau, Paul Kuria (forthcoming), 'Production and Trade Systems.". In: Hemisphere. University of Nairobi.; Forthcoming.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui and Khayesi, Meleckidzedeck 2005 Social Capital, Micro and Small Enterprise and Poverty Alleviation. Addis Ababa: OSSREA.". In: Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. University of Nairobi.; 2005.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui and McCormick, Dorothy. and Kimuyu, Peter , 'Textiles and Clothing: Global Players and Local Struggles.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui and Munguti, Kaendi, 'Unlocking Women.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui with Ligulu, Peter and McCormick, D., 2004 "Policy and Footwear in Kenya.". In: Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. University of Nairobi.; 2004.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui with Munguti, Kaendi, 2002 'Gender Concerns in Sustainable Community Development: A Research Agenda for the UNESCO Chair. In UNESCO Women: Basic Education, Community Health and Sustainable Development. Nairobi: UNESCO pp.33-48.". In: A Research Agenda for the UNESCO Chair. In UNESCO Women: Basic Education, Community Health and Sustainable Development. Nairobi: UNESCO pp.33-48. University of Nairobi.; 2002.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, 1999.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1999.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, 1999, with McCormick, D. and Kimuyu, P., Institutions and Industrialisation Process: A Proposal for a Study of the Textile and Textile Products Industry in Kenya, IDS Working Paper No 527, IDS University of Nairobi.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1999.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, 1999, with Mitullah, Winnie V., 'Inter-Firm Dynamics in the Construction Sector.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1999.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, 2000, Tapping Opportunities in Jua Kali Enterprise Clusters: The Case of Ziwani and Kigandaini, IDS Working Paper No 525, IDS University of Nairobi.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 2000.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, 2001, and Dorothy McCormick and Kimuyu, P., 'Kenya.". In: A Research Agenda for the UNESCO Chair. In UNESCO Women: Basic Education, Community Health and Sustainable Development. Nairobi: UNESCO pp.33-48. University of Nairobi.; 2001.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, and Dorothy, McCormick, 'Industrializing Kenya: Building the Productive Capacity of Micro and Small Enterprise Clusters.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, Dorothy McCormick, and Mitullah, Winnie. How to Cooraborate: Associations and other Community Based Organizations Among Micro and Small Enterprises. IDS Occasional Paper No. 70.". In: How to Cooraborate: Associations and other Community Based Organizations Among Micro and Small Enterprises. IDS Occasional Paper No. 70. University of Nairobi.; 2003.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, with Dorothy McCormick, 2003, 'Value Chains in Small Scale Garment Producers in Nairobi: Challenges in Shifting from the Old Global Regime of Import Substitution to a More Liberalized Global Regime.". In: How to Cooraborate: Associations and other Community Based Organizations Among Micro and Small Enterprises. IDS Occasional Paper No. 70. University of Nairobi.; 2003.
"Mary W. Kuria, Yvonne Olando. Alcohol dependence: Does the composition of the available beverages promote it." Open Journal of Psychiatry. 2012; 2: 301-304. Abstract

Affordability and availability of alcohol are factors that have been associated with alcohol dependence.
Ethanol content in the alcoholic beverages is an important determinant in alcohol dependence. Quality
control of alcoholic beverages available in the market is important in safeguarding the health of alcohol
consumers. Few studies in Kenya have determined the chemical composition of alcohol used by the study
participants. Objective: To determine the chemicalcomposition of alcoholic beverages used by a group of
alcohol dependent study participants. Design: The study was a clinical trial with pre and post measure-
ments. Method: The CIDI and WHO-ASSIST were administered to 188 alcohol-dependent persons at
intake and after six months. A researcher-designed socio demographic questionnaire was also adminis-
tered at intake. Alcohol beverages were randomly collected from the location of the study area and their
chemical composition analyzed using gas chromatography. Results: The mean AUDIT score of the par-
ticipant was 28.6 for male and 26.6 for females. Three of the alcohol samples collected was illicit brews col-
lected while 11 were licit. Four out of the eleven licit brews had ethanol levels that did not complied with
the set government standards. Conclusion: Illicit brews with high ethanol content are available in the
Kenyan market, while some of the manufacturers of the licit brew do not comply with government set
content recommendations.

"Mary W.Kuria,David M.Ndete,Isodore S.Obot,Lincoln I.Khasakhala,Betty M.Bagaka,Margaret N.Mbugua,Judy Kama. The Association between Alcohol Dependence and Depression before and after Treatment for Alcohol Dependence.". 2012. Abstract

The presence of depression in alcohol-dependent persons is likely to influence treatment process and outcomes. Identification of depression is important though not every depressed alcohol-dependent person requires treatment with antidepressants. Understanding the association between depression and alcohol dependence is essential for proper management of alcohol dependence. Objectives. To determine the prevalence of depression among alcohol-dependent persons before and after alcohol detoxification and rehabilitation. Design. Clinical trial with pre-/postmeasurements. Method. The CIDI and WHO-ASSIST were administered to 188 alcohol-dependent persons at intake and after six months. A researcher-designed sociodemographic questionnaire was also administered at intake. Results. The prevalence of depression among alcohol-dependent persons is high (63.8%) with a significant association between depression and the mean AUDIT score. At posttest, depressed participants had a statistically significant craving for alcohol. Conclusion. Alcohol dependence is associated with major depression.

"Mary Wangari Kuria. Factors associated with relapse and remission of alcohol dependent persons after community based treatment.". 2013. Abstract

Knowledge of factors associated with relapse and remission after treatment for alcohol dependence en-
ables the clinician to offer better individualized treatment. It also enables the clinician to predict which
patients are likely to relapse and therefore offer appropriate and effective treatment to prevent relapse.
Objective: This study sought to determine the factors associated with remission and relapse in a group of
alcohol dependent persons undergoing Community Based Detoxification and Rehabilitation of alcohol
dependent persons. Method: One hundred and eighty eight (188) persons with Alcohol Use Disorder Identi-
fication Test (AUDIT) positive were subjected to outpatient detoxification for 10 days using a pair of
ampoules of high potency Vitamin B and C intravenously daily for 3 consecutive days, diazepam 5 mg
and carbamazepine 200 mg for 5 and 10 consecutive nights respectively on an outpatient basis. The par-
ticipants were visited twice a week (at home) by the community based health workers and reviewed once
a week by the principal investigator and attended a bimonthly group therapy session conducted in groups
of 20 s as part of the rehabilitation process. The groups were converted to self-help groups after 4
months to generate income for the participants. Results: Factors significantly associated with relapse to
alcohol use included severity of alcohol use and craving for alcohol at intake and the age of onset of alco-
hol drinking. Further there was a statistically significant predictive value in the mean score of alcohol re-
lated problems in the community based group (health,social, financial and legal). Conclusion: Identifying
factors that are associated with relapse after alcoholdependence treatment is likely to improve the effec-
tiveness of treatment and prevent relapse in persons at risk.

N PROFNYAGAP. "Mary, G. Binta, P.N. Nyaga, M. Valland and J.G. Tjaberg. Observations on some characteristics and Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from shell fish in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afric. Vol. 29 (2), 1981:187-192.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1981. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS. "Mary-Jo DelVecchio Good, Amayo E O, Machoki J. M, Mwaikambo E. Clinical realities and moral dilemmas. Contrasting perspectives from Academic medicine in Kenya, Tanzania and America Journal Of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 2000: Vol 128,6,167-1.". In: Journal Of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 2000: Vol 128,6,167-196. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
A case of primary intracerebral haemorrhage complicated by cerebral abscess is presented with a review of the literature.
NAMAN DRMIMUNYAJAMES. "Mary-jo Delvecchio Good, Esther Mwaikambo, M.". In: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.; 1999. Abstract

This paper describes the experiences of physicians-in-training at a public hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, where medical professionals practice in an environment characterized by both significant lack of resources and patients with HIV/AIDS in historically unprecedented numbers. The data reported here are part of a larger study examining ethical dilemmas in medical education and practice among physicians in East Africa. A questionnaire and semi-structured interview were completed by fifty residents in four medical specialties, examining social and emotional supports, personal and professional sources of stress, emotional numbing and disengagement from patients and peers, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress and depression. The factors affecting resident well-being are found in this study to be more complex than previous interviews suggested. This study highlights the fact that as a result of working in an environment characterized by poor communication among hospital staff as well as a lack of resources and high numbers of patients with HIV/AIDS, residents' perceptions of themselves–their technical proficiency, their ability to care and feel for others and themselves, and for some their entire sense of self–are significantly affected. Also affected are the patients they work to treat.

Masinde M. "MAS-DEWS: A multi-agent system for predicting Africa's drought ." IEEE . 2015:1-7. AbstractFull text link

Droughts continue to be the number one hydro- and meteorological natural disaster inflicting Africa. In the last decade alone, the Continent contributed 55% of the world's droughts and 64% of deaths emanating from these disasters. With over 24% of her population affected, Africa accounted for 47% of people affected by droughts in the same period. Given that rain-fed agriculture is a major source of food in most African countries, the droughts have contributed to the acute food-insecurity; this may explain why 35 of the 45 poorest countries are in the Continent. There is consensus that drought early warning systems that contextualize culture and risk, have higher chance of succeeding in reducing vulnerabilities and building resilience. A homegrown drought early warning system designed around cheaper wireless sensor weatherboards, mobile phones and weather lore has the ability to address Africa's unique challenges and opportunities. However, integrating these diverse components requires some level of intelligence that only found in multi-agent systems. We present the design, implementation and evaluation of a comprehensive system made up of seven sub-systems that are linked up together by intelligent agents that were implemented using the Java Agent Development. The system's evaluation, carried out in three locations in Africa, revealed the potential of the system.

"Masculine and Feminine Constructions of Migration in Swahili Literature: Mbali na Nyumbani and Mhanga Nafsi Yangu." Mwanga wa Lugha, Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika, Chuo Kikuu cha Moi. 2019;Juzuu 4, (Na.1, September 2019, ):Pages 235-258, .
Otieno-Omutoko L. Masculinity as a Gender Dimension in the Education of Boys, Discourse of Masculinities in Schools. Germany. : VDM Verlag Dr. Müller GmbH & Co. KGDudweiler Landstr; 2011.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Maseta, E.,Kogi-Makau, W. and Omwega, A.M. Childcare Practices and Nutritional Status of Children Aged 6-36 Months Among Short and Long Term Beneficiaries of the Child Survival Protection and Development Programmes (The Case of Morogoro, Tanzania).". In: Paper presented at the Inaugural National Nutrition Congress. 21st-23rd February 2005. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2005. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
Olali T. Mashetani wa Alepo. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2015.
Mashtaka ya Baba . Focus publishers; Forthcoming.
Mashtaka ya Baba. . Focus publishers; Forthcoming.
A DRMASIGAMARY. "Masiga MA, Holt RD. The prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis and their relationship to social class amongst nursery-school children in Nairobi, Kenya. Int J Paediatr Dent. 1993 Sep;3(3):135-40.". In: Int J Paediatr Dent. 1993 Sep;3(3):135-40. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract

Four hundred and forty-six children attending nursery schools in Nairobi were examined for caries and gingivitis. Assessment of social class was based on the occupation of the head of the child's household. Amongst 3-year-old children, 62% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.35. Amongst 5-year-olds 50% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.88. Thirty-seven per cent of the children had evidence of gingivitis, with the proportion changing little with age. There was no evidence of either caries or gingivitis being significantly related to social class, although children in the higher classes had more filled teeth.

A DRMASIGAMARY. "Masiga MA. Socio-demographic characteristics and clinical features among patients attending a private paediatric dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2004 Nov;81(11):577-82.". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Nov;81(11):577-82. University of Nairobi.; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics, chief complaints and clinical presentation of children attending a private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: A retrospective survey of dental clinic records. SETTING: A private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: All patients aged 0-18 years who were first-time attenders at the dental clinic during a three year period. RESULTS: The records of 800 patients were examined, comprising 395 males and 405 female children. The average age was 7.2 years (95%CI, 6.9-7.4). Referral to the clinic for treatment was mostly by self (81.4%). Most patients (57.9%) were self-sponsored for their dental treatment. Majority of the patients attending (86.8%) did not clinically have any underlying medical conditions. The major complaints for most patients were dental decay (27.4%) and dental pain (21.6%). Very few children (7.6%) attended for dental check-up. Five hundred and forty nine (68.6%) of the children suffered from dental decay while 294 (36.8%) suffered from gingivitis. The average number of teeth decayed was 4.02, SD +/- 2.4 (95% CI 3.8-4.2). Most carious lesions occurred in the younger children. There was a significant increase in the occurrence of decay over the three year period of the study. Significantly higher levels of gingivitis was observed in the prepubertal and pubertal age group. Attendance for traumatic injuries was relatively low with only 46 (5.8%) children reporting traumatic injuries to their dentitions. Most traumatic injuries involved the anterior teeth as a result of falls. Treatment given at the first visit was mainly restorative (28.6%) followed by dental extractions (25.4%). CONCLUSION: The average are of patients attending the clinic was 7.2 years. Interdisciplinary referral was low since most patients were self-referred and self sponsored for treatment. Dental caries was prevalent, necessitating a high demand for restorative treatment. Although gingivitis was less prevalent, it was significant among children in the prepubertal years.
PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Masiga, D.K., Okech, G., Irungu, P., Ouma, J.O., Wekesa, S., Ouma, B., Guya, S.O. and Ndung.". In: African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2006, 23(2): 99. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2002. Abstract
Trypanosomosis is a major impediment to livestock production and economic development in those areas of Africa where it is endemic. Although small ruminants appear to perform better than cattle in various agroecological zones, the importance of trypanosomosis has not been extensively investigated in these livestock. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of trypanosomosis in sheep and goats in an endemic area and to evaluate the performance of different breeds under high tsetse challenge and the potential role of chemoprophylaxis in the control of the disease. The results showed that tsetse flies feed readily on small ruminants, and that these animals are susceptible to trypanosomosis. The Small East African goats acquired fewer infections than the Black Head Persian and Dorper sheep used in the study. In both sheep and goats, chemoprophylaxis with isometamidium chloride (Samorin, Rhone Merieux, Annecy, France) was protective, resulting in fewer infections and higher body weight gain. Trypanosomosis caused anaemia in both sheep and goats, and animals whose PCV fell below 15% rarely recovered, even with trypanocidal drug treatment. The peak transmission period was between 1 and 3 months after the peak tsetse fly density, which raises the possibility of effective strategic prophylaxis
A DRMASIGAMARY. "Masiga, M.A. Demographic characteristics of patients attending for surgical treatment of unerrupted canines. Afri. J. of Oral Health Sciences. 2002; 3 (2): 129 .". In: Afri. J. of Oral Health Sciences. 2002; 3 (2): 129 . University of Nairobi.; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics, chief complaints and clinical presentation of children attending a private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: A retrospective survey of dental clinic records. SETTING: A private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: All patients aged 0-18 years who were first-time attenders at the dental clinic during a three year period. RESULTS: The records of 800 patients were examined, comprising 395 males and 405 female children. The average age was 7.2 years (95%CI, 6.9-7.4). Referral to the clinic for treatment was mostly by self (81.4%). Most patients (57.9%) were self-sponsored for their dental treatment. Majority of the patients attending (86.8%) did not clinically have any underlying medical conditions. The major complaints for most patients were dental decay (27.4%) and dental pain (21.6%). Very few children (7.6%) attended for dental check-up. Five hundred and forty nine (68.6%) of the children suffered from dental decay while 294 (36.8%) suffered from gingivitis. The average number of teeth decayed was 4.02, SD +/- 2.4 (95% CI 3.8-4.2). Most carious lesions occurred in the younger children. There was a significant increase in the occurrence of decay over the three year period of the study. Significantly higher levels of gingivitis was observed in the prepubertal and pubertal age group. Attendance for traumatic injuries was relatively low with only 46 (5.8%) children reporting traumatic injuries to their dentitions. Most traumatic injuries involved the anterior teeth as a result of falls. Treatment given at the first visit was mainly restorative (28.6%) followed by dental extractions (25.4%). CONCLUSION: The average are of patients attending the clinic was 7.2 years. Interdisciplinary referral was low since most patients were self-referred and self sponsored for treatment. Dental caries was prevalent, necessitating a high demand for restorative treatment. Although gingivitis was less prevalent, it was significant among children in the prepubertal years.
A DRMASIGAMARY. "Masiga, M.A. Iatrogenic hypodontia following traditional excision of decidous canine tooth buds: case reports. Afri. J. of Oral Health Sciences. 2003; 4 (1): 173-174.". In: Afri. J. of Oral Health Sciences. 2003; 4 (1): 173-174. University of Nairobi.; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics, chief complaints and clinical presentation of children attending a private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: A retrospective survey of dental clinic records. SETTING: A private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: All patients aged 0-18 years who were first-time attenders at the dental clinic during a three year period. RESULTS: The records of 800 patients were examined, comprising 395 males and 405 female children. The average age was 7.2 years (95%CI, 6.9-7.4). Referral to the clinic for treatment was mostly by self (81.4%). Most patients (57.9%) were self-sponsored for their dental treatment. Majority of the patients attending (86.8%) did not clinically have any underlying medical conditions. The major complaints for most patients were dental decay (27.4%) and dental pain (21.6%). Very few children (7.6%) attended for dental check-up. Five hundred and forty nine (68.6%) of the children suffered from dental decay while 294 (36.8%) suffered from gingivitis. The average number of teeth decayed was 4.02, SD +/- 2.4 (95% CI 3.8-4.2). Most carious lesions occurred in the younger children. There was a significant increase in the occurrence of decay over the three year period of the study. Significantly higher levels of gingivitis was observed in the prepubertal and pubertal age group. Attendance for traumatic injuries was relatively low with only 46 (5.8%) children reporting traumatic injuries to their dentitions. Most traumatic injuries involved the anterior teeth as a result of falls. Treatment given at the first visit was mainly restorative (28.6%) followed by dental extractions (25.4%). CONCLUSION: The average are of patients attending the clinic was 7.2 years. Interdisciplinary referral was low since most patients were self-referred and self sponsored for treatment. Dental caries was prevalent, necessitating a high demand for restorative treatment. Although gingivitis was less prevalent, it was significant among children in the prepubertal years.
A DRMASIGAMARY. "Masiga, M.A. Presenting chief complaints and clinical characteristics among patients attending the Department of Paediatric Dentistry clinic at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital. (accepted December 2005, EAMJ).". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12):652-5. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the chief complaints and clinical presentation among patients attending the Department of Paediatric Dentistry clinic at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UONDH). DESIGN: A retrospective survey of hospital records. SETTING: The University of Nairobi Dental Hospital. SUBJECTS: Patients who attended the Department of Paediatric Dentistry clinic during a three year period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Chief complaint, dental caries, gingivitis, traumatic injuries, treatment at first visit. RESULTS: The records of 800 patients were examined, including 391 male and 400 female. The average age of the patients was 9.0 years. The presenting complaint for most patients was dental pain (31.5%), orthodontic related complaints (25.4%) and dental decay (19.7%). Very few children attended for dental check-up (3.9%). Five hundred ninety (73.8%) children suffered from dental caries, while 275 (34.4%) children manifested gingivitis. The average number of teeth decay was 3.71 (SD+/-3.76). Only 51 (6.4%) children attended with traumatic injuries to the dentition. Treatment performed at the first visit mainly consisted of dental extractions (21.8%), oral prophylaxis and dental health education (20.5%) and restorative treatment (20.0%). CONCLUSIONS: The presenting complaint for most patients was pain. However, there was an almost equal demand for orthodontic treatment. Dental caries was the most prevalent dental disease. Oral prophylaxis and dental health education (DHE) constituted a significant component of treatment offered at first visit.
A DRMASIGAMARY. "Masiga, M.A. Sociodemographic characteristic and clinic features among patients attending a private paediatric clinic in Nairobi, Kenya E.A Med. J. 2004: 8 ; 577 .". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Nov;81(11):577-82. University of Nairobi.; 2004. Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry/Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, PO Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics, chief complaints and clinical presentation of children attending a private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: A retrospective survey of dental clinic records. SETTING: A private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: All patients aged 0-18 years who were first-time attenders at the dental clinic during a three year period. RESULTS: The records of 800 patients were examined, comprising 395 males and 405 female children. The average age was 7.2 years (95%CI, 6.9-7.4). Referral to the clinic for treatment was mostly by self (81.4%). Most patients (57.9%) were self-sponsored for their dental treatment. Majority of the patients attending (86.8%) did not clinically have any underlying medical conditions. The major complaints for most patients were dental decay (27.4%) and dental pain (21.6%). Very few children (7.6%) attended for dental check-up. Five hundred and forty nine (68.6%) of the children suffered from dental decay while 294 (36.8%) suffered from gingivitis. The average number of teeth decayed was 4.02, SD +/- 2.4 (95% CI 3.8-4.2). Most carious lesions occurred in the younger children. There was a significant increase in the occurrence of decay over the three year period of the study. Significantly higher levels of gingivitis was observed in the prepubertal and pubertal age group. Attendance for traumatic injuries was relatively low with only 46 (5.8%) children reporting traumatic injuries to their dentitions. Most traumatic injuries involved the anterior teeth as a result of falls. Treatment given at the first visit was mainly restorative (28.6%) followed by dental extractions (25.4%). CONCLUSION: The average are of patients attending the clinic was 7.2 years. Interdisciplinary referral was low since most patients were self-referred and self sponsored for treatment. Dental caries was prevalent, necessitating a high demand for restorative treatment. Although gingivitis was less prevalent, it was significant among children in the prepubertal years.
A DRMASIGAMARY. "Masiga, M.A., Holt, R. The prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis and their relationship to social class amongst nursery school children in Nairobi, Kenya. Int. J. of Paed. Dent. 1993; 3: 135 .". In: Int J Paediatr Dent. 1993 Sep;3(3):135-40. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract

Department of Dental Surgery, University of Nairobi. Four hundred and forty-six children attending nursery schools in Nairobi were examined for caries and gingivitis. Assessment of social class was based on the occupation of the head of the child's household. Amongst 3-year-old children, 62% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.35. Amongst 5-year-olds 50% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.88. Thirty-seven per cent of the children had evidence of gingivitis, with the proportion changing little with age. There was no evidence of either caries or gingivitis being significantly related to social class, although children in the higher classes had more filled teeth.

SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "Masinde Muliro: A biography. Nairobi:.". In: East African Educational Publishers. Taylor & Francis; 1996. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.

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