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D.W. Gakuya, D.Muasya. "Management of clinical mastitis in dairy cows.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association-SEVET branch,CPD scientific seminar . PCEA Nyamacaki Church hall, Nyeri ; 2014.management_of_clinical_mastitis.pdf
Bore M, Choudhari N, Chaurasia S. "Management of complications of cosmetic iris implants in a phakic eye: a case report and literature review." Int Ophthalmol. 2019;39(5):1141-1146. Abstract

To report the intricacies of managing complications that arose out of cosmetic iris implants (BrightOcular) placement.

Bore M. "Management of complications of cosmetic iris implants in phakic eyes: a case report and literature review.". In: Ophthalmological Society of Kenya Congress. Naivasha, Kenya; 2019.
T.M. D. "Management of Curved root Canal Systems: irrigation and preparation." Kenya Dental Association. 2014;6(1):248.
Burezq H, Williams B, Chitte SA. "Management of cystic hygromas: 30 year experience." Journal of Craniofacial Surgery. 2006;17:815-818. AbstractWebsite
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W. DRGATHECELOICE. "management of Dental waste by dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya. L.A. Osamong, L. W. Gathece, B. K. Kisumbi, R. J. Mutave.". In: journal. L.A. Osamong, L. W. Gathece, B. K. Kisumbi, R. J. Mutave; 2004. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

Osamong LA, Gathece LW, Kisumbi BK, Mutave RJ. "Management of dental waste by practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya." African Journal of Oral Health. 2005;2. Abstract
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MUTAVE DRJAMESREGINA. "Management of Dental Waste by Practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: African Journal of oral Health Volume 2 Numbers 1 & 2 2005: 24-29. Osamong LA, Gathece LW, Kisumbi BK, Mutave RJ; 2005. Abstract
ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.
Bore M. "Management of dry eye disease in clinical practice.". In: Ophthalmological Society of Kenya Congress. Naivasha, Kenya; 2019.
Magoha GAO. "The Management of Early Prostate Cancer: A Review." East African Medical Journal. 2007;Vol 84 (No. 9). Abstract

Objective: To carry out a review of the management of early (clinically localised) prostate cancer.
Data Source: Review of all published literature on the management of early prostate cancer was carried out through medline and index medic us searches.
Data Selection: Published data of the management of early prostate cancer over the last three decades were included in the review.
Data Extraction: Abstracts of articles identified were assessed, read and analysed to determine their relevance to the title under review.
Data Synthesis: After establishing relevance from the abstract, the entire paper was read, and the significant points included in the review.
Conclusion: Greater number of men are currently being diagnosed with early prostate cancer. This is due to widespread use of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) screening available worldwide. Radical treatment including radical prostatectomy and radical radiation therapy have proven curative value for a significant number of men with localised disease. Survival outcomes indicate that radical prostatectomy offers more reliable cure than radiation therapy for clinically localised disease.

Immediate treatment related morbidity of radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy is currently quite low. Both treatment methods have similar impact on erectile function and continence. Rectal complications are however unique to radiation therapy. Surgical and radiation therapy delivery techniques should be further improved to reduce treatment related morbidity and quality of life outcomes.

Magoha GAO. "Management of Fournier's gangrene at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". In: East Afr Med J. 1998 Jun;75(6):370-3. EAMJ; 1998. Abstract

A prospective study involving the management of forty six patients with Fournier's gangrene was carried out at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi over a period of two years. The age range was nine to 81 years with a mean of 40.27 years indicating that the lesion is common and affects all age groups in this locality. The majority of patients (60.86%) presented with advanced lesions involving scrotal ulcers (45.65%) and gangrene (15.22%). Results of bacterial culture from scrotal wound swabs isolated multiple organisms in 8.15% of the patients, a point which should be taken into consideration during antibiotic selection. Forty one patients (89.13%) had surgical procedures in addition to antibiotics and other supportive measures. Five other patients (10.87%) who presented with early lesions had medical treatment only with antibiotics, antipyretics and analgesics. The average duration of hospitalisation was sixteen days. Two patients (4.35%) one of whom was HIV positive died from septicaemia during the study period. Recurrent scrotal infection occurred in two patients (4.35%) after discharge from the hospital and were treated satisfactorily at the surgical outpatient clinic.

Riungu GM, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Wagacha JM, Gathumbi JK. "Management of Fusarium head blight of wheat and deoxynivalenol accumulation using antagonistic microorganisms." Plant Pathology Journal. 2008;7:13-19.
and Riungu G. M., J. W. Muthomi NWGRDJM. "Management of Fusarium head blight of wheat and deoxynivalenol accumulation using antagonistic microorganisms." Plant Pathology Journal . 2008;7(1):13-19.
NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Management of Future Cities (2000) A paper presented ;it he AAK 2000 Convention. Safari Park I Intel. 21-29 June 2000.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2000. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "The Management of Generic Resources: Developments in the 1997 Sessions of the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agricultre, Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law & Policy 1997 Yearbook p. 78 (With Philippe Cullet).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1998. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
Magoha GAO, Jani GP. "Management of Haemorrhoids." Journal of Discovery and Innovation . 2005;18(3):269-274. Abstract

Management of Haemorrhoids – A local experirnce; East and Central African Journal of Surgery, submitted for publication. To be published in their December 2005 issue.

Jani PG. "The management of Haemorrhoids – A local experience." East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 2005;(10):24.
Nkonge AN, Magambo JK, Kithinji J, Mayabi AO, Taratisio N. "Management of healthcare waste in national teaching and referral hospitals in Kenya." International Journal of Environment and Waste Management. 2014;14(2):199-209. AbstractWebsite

Abstract

Healthcare waste management in health facilities should include quantification of all categories to support minimisation strategies. The hazardous healthcare waste categories under study, infectious, pathological, sharps and chemical waste were weighed in the two teaching and referral institutions, Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Moi Teaching Hospital (MTRH) during the wet and dry season. The comparison for the two hospitals, during the wet season was significant for infectious waste (0.0001) but not so for pathological waste (p = 0.7393) and sharps waste (p = 0.3363). During the dry season, coefficient of variation for the two hospitals was significantly different, infectious waste (p = 0.0027) and pathological waste (p = 0.0086). Sharps waste was not significant (p = 0.3615). The studied hazardous healthcare waste generation rate was 0.61 kg/bed/day for KNH and 1.03 kg/bed/day for MTRH. The two institutions should practice healthcare waste minimisation and segregate their waste accurately.
Keywordshealthcare waste, segregation in categories, quantification, referral hospitals

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Management of hepatocellular carcinoma: many ways to skin a cat. Trop Gastroenterol. 1999 Apr-Jun;20(2):59-60.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1999 Apr-Jun;20(2):59-60. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1999. Abstract
Acute hepatic failure (AHF) in India almost always presents with encephalopathy within 4 weeks of the onset of acute hepatitis. Further subclassification of AHF into hyperacute, acute and subacute forms may not be necessary in this geographical area, where the rapidity of onset of encephalopathy does not seem to influence survival. Viral hepatitis is the cause in approximately 95-100% of patients, who therefore constitute a more homogeneous population than AHF patients in the West. In India, hepatitis E (HEV) and hepatitis B (HBV) viruses are the most important causes of AHF; approximately 60% of cases are caused by to these viruses. Hepatitis B virus core mutants are very important agents in cases where hepatitis B results in AHF in this country. Half of the patients with AHF admitted to our centre are female, one-quarter of whom are pregnant. Therefore, pregnant females who contract viral hepatitis constitute a high-risk group for the development of AHF. However, the outcome of AHF in this group is similar to that in non-pregnant women and men. No association with any particular virus has been identified among sporadic cases of AHF. In our centre, approximately one-third of AHF patients survive with aggressive conservative therapy, whereas two-thirds of deaths occur within 72 h of hospitalization. Cerebral oedema and sepsis are the major fatal complications. Both fungal and gram-negative bacteria are major causes of sepsis. Among patients with AHF, despite the presence of sepsis, its overt clinical features (i.e. fever, leucocytosis) may be absent and objective documentation of the presence of sepsis in such patients is achieved by repeated culture of various body fluids. It should be possible to develop simple, clinical prognostic markers for AHF in this geographical region, in order to identify patients suitable for liver transplantation.
NZUVE SNM. Management of Human Resources: A Kenyan Perspective, Revised Edition. Nairobi: Basic Modern Management Consultants; 2010.
Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Murphy MB, Barrett EJ, Kreisberg RA, Malone JI, Wall BM. "Management of hyperglycemic crises in patients with diabetes." Diabetes Care. 2001;24:131-153. Abstract
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C.K. M. "Management of infectious diseases in closed and semi closed communities." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2011;14(1):1-2.
Schmeltz LR. "Management of inpatient hyperglycemia." Lab Medicine. 2011;42:427-434. AbstractWebsite
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OTIENO DRJOWI. "Management of Instructional Resource in Teacher Colleges.". In: A paper presented in Ministry of Education Workshop for Principals of Teacher Colleges on Teacher Education Management. The Kenya Medical Association; Submitted. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
Bloom DC, Perkins JA, Manning SC. "Management of lymphatic malformations." Current opinion in otolaryngology & head and neck surgery. 2004;12:500-504. AbstractWebsite
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Magoha GAO. "The Management of male erectile dysfunction: A review. .". In: East African Medical Journal, 75: 623-627, 1998. EAMJ; 1998. Abstract

Male erectile dysfunction is common although some patients are embarrassed and delay seeking medical advice. Recent improvements in the understanding of the anatomy, physiology and pharmacotherapy of penile erections, and the introduction of intracavernosal pharmacotherapy has resolved most of the controversies regarding the aetiology of erectile dysfunction. Impotence is equally divided into organic and psychogenic causes. Arterial insufficiency, alcoholism, venosinusoidal, neurological and endocrine disorders are known to cause organic erectile dysfunction. Two most popular options in the management of erectile dysfunction are intracavernosal injections with vasoactive drugs like papavarine, phentolamine, and prostaglandin EI with discontinuation rates of 40-50%, and the use of external vacuum devices whose limitations include failure to achieve and maintain full erection. The use of inflatable penile prostheses is successful but limited with periprosthetic infection and cylinder erosion through the skin or urethra. Surgical procedures have included revascularisation of penile vessels without good results. Surgical ligation of penile veins for venosinusoidal incompetence has been successful compared to excision and embolisation which has disappointing results. Currently the role of oral medications in the treatment of erectile dysfunction is limited. However, there are now several new agents including sildenafil, a phosphodiasterase inhibitor, which is undergoing clinical trials that appear to be effective.

Kega VM, Kasina M, Olubayo F, Nderitu JH. "Management of Maliarpha separatellA Rag Using Effective Entomopathognic Nematodes and Resitant Rice Cultivars." Journal of Entomology. 2013:1-7.
S P, Simiyu BN, JY S, K T, FI W, KG DL, GES D, LV I. "Management of Mandibular Lateral Incisors with Vertucci Type II Canal Configuration." Journal of the Endodontic Society of the Philippines . 2018;11:19-23.
Guthua SW, Kamau M, ABINYA N. "Management of Maxillofacial of Osteosarcomas in Kenya: A case Series." The Annals of African Surgery. 2020;17 (1).
Guthua SW, Kamau MW, ABINYA N, Khainga S. "Management of Maxillofacial Osteosarcomas: A Kenyan experience (case series)." Annuals of African Surgery Journal. 2019.
EM N. "Management of Orbital Retinoblastoma; Kenyatta National Hospital experience.". In: The 2nd Colllege Of E Ophthalmologistsof Eastern, Southeren and Central Africa COECSA confere. Livingstone, Zambia; 2014. Abstractorbital_retinoblastoma_2.ppt

Approximately 30-40% of retinoblastoma patients Sub-Saharan Africa have orbital disease at presentation. This presents the ophthalmologist with several challenges among them if to do a primary excentaration or not, if to aim at cure or palliation and which adjuvant therapy to give. At Kenyatta National Hospital, Protocol based management of retinoblastoma developed by the Kenya National Retinoblastoma society has been used to manage these cases with promising success in terms of survival and cosmesis. All retinoblastoma cases with orbital disease are evaluated for distant metastases and if free, then aim to cure treatment started with Chemoreduction. After the proptosis reduces, enucleation with primary orbital implant is done. Chemotherapy is then continued to a total of six courses then radiotherapy upto 40 Grays.

ONDOH MRNYABOLALAMBERT. "Management of Patients with Breast Cancer at Kenyatta hospital. EastAfrican Medical Journal,.". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Sep;81(9):450-8. UoN; 2002. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinico-pathologic and prognostic factors, treatment and outcome of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas as seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital in the 1990s. DESIGN: Retrospective study of patients with non-Hodgkin's Iymphoma. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, between January 1990 and January 2000 inclusive. SUBJECTS: Patients aged 13 years and above, with non-Hodgkin's Iymphomas. RESULTS: Case records were available for 207 patients, 146 males and 60 females, with one having had gender not clarified. Fifty two per cent of the patients were aged less than 40 years and 18.4% over 60 years. Forty one per cent were not properly classified histologically, seventy patients out of 190 evaluable (36.8%) had stages IVA and IVB disease at diagnosis. Twenty five out of 77(32.5%) tested positive for HIV infection, none of them being of the indolent variety. Up to 57.1% of cases of Burkitt's lymphoma tested positive for HIV infection. Cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone, (CHOP) chemotherapy was given to 68.7% of the patients with complete remission rates of 55.6% for those who got a minimum of six courses of chemotherapy. Only 15.3% of 105 patients evaluable were followed up for 36 months and above, the majority of patients having been lost to follow-up. Poor performance status at diagnosis correlated with shorter follow-up durations (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: A good percentage of the patients were not comprehensively characterized pathologically. Standard treatment was offered to the majority of patients, and those who could afford to purchase the medicines stood good chance of achieving complete remission. Poor performance status at diagnosis correlated with shorter follow-up durations and early stage disease correlated with longer follow-up durations. Overall, the outlook for NHLs treated at KNH in the 1990s appears to have improved tremendously.

Muthomi JW;, Nderitu JH;, Olubayo FM;, Kabira JN;, Cheminin’wa GN;, Kiretai SM;, Aura JA;, Muindi EM. "Management Of Potato Viruses In Seed Potato Production Using Border Crops."; 2013. Abstract

Field experiments were conducted over two croppi ng seasons to investigate the effectiveness of border crops in managing potato aphids and the associated viruses in seed potato production. Potato plots were surrounded with maize, sorghum and wheat borde rs. Aphid population was monitored on leaves and on yellow sticky traps. Other data collected included virus disease incidence and tuber yield. The border crops reduced aphid popula tion on leaves compared to non-bordered potato plots. More alate aphids we re caught on yellow sticky traps placed inside potato plots than on traps placed inside the border crops. In addition, virus disease incidence was reduced in all plots surrounded by the border cr ops. However, plots surrounded by border crops had reduced tuber yield, although the yield of s eed grade was increased. The results indicated that use of border crops would be beneficial in the management of virus diseases in small-holder seed potato production.

Muthomi JW;, Nderitu JH;, Olubayo FM;, Kabira JN;, Cheminin’wa GN;, Kiretai SM;, Aura JA;, Muindi EM. "Management Of Potato Viruses In Seed Potato Production Using Border Crops."; 2013. Abstract

Field experiments were conducted over two croppi ng seasons to investigate the effectiveness of border crops in managing potato aphids and the associated viruses in seed potato production. Potato plots were surrounded with maize, sorghum and wheat borde rs. Aphid population was monitored on leaves and on yellow sticky traps. Other data collected included virus disease incidence and tuber yield. The border crops reduced aphid popula tion on leaves compared to non-bordered potato plots. More alate aphids we re caught on yellow sticky traps placed inside potato plots than on traps placed inside the border crops. In addition, virus disease incidence was reduced in all plots surrounded by the border cr ops. However, plots surrounded by border crops had reduced tuber yield, although the yield of s eed grade was increased. The results indicated that use of border crops would be beneficial in the management of virus diseases in small-holder seed potato production.

Muthomi JW;, Nderitu JH;, Olubayo FM;, Kabira JN;, Cheminin’wa GN;, Kiretai SM;, Aura JA;, Muindi EM. "Management Of Potato Viruses In Seed Potato Production Using Border Crops."; 2013. Abstract

Field experiments were conducted over two croppi ng seasons to investigate the effectiveness of border crops in managing potato aphids and the associated viruses in seed potato production. Potato plots were surrounded with maize, sorghum and wheat borde rs. Aphid population was monitored on leaves and on yellow sticky traps. Other data collected included virus disease incidence and tuber yield. The border crops reduced aphid popula tion on leaves compared to non-bordered potato plots. More alate aphids we re caught on yellow sticky traps placed inside potato plots than on traps placed inside the border crops. In addition, virus disease incidence was reduced in all plots surrounded by the border cr ops. However, plots surrounded by border crops had reduced tuber yield, although the yield of s eed grade was increased. The results indicated that use of border crops would be beneficial in the management of virus diseases in small-holder seed potato production.

Muthomi JW;, Nderitu JH;, Olubayo FM;, Kabira JN;, Cheminin’wa GN;, Kiretai SM;, Aura JA;, Muindi EM. "Management Of Potato Viruses In Seed Potato Production Using Border Crops."; 2013. Abstract

Field experiments were conducted over two croppi ng seasons to investigate the effectiveness of border crops in managing potato aphids and the associated viruses in seed potato production. Potato plots were surrounded with maize, sorghum and wheat borde rs. Aphid population was monitored on leaves and on yellow sticky traps. Other data collected included virus disease incidence and tuber yield. The border crops reduced aphid popula tion on leaves compared to non-bordered potato plots. More alate aphids we re caught on yellow sticky traps placed inside potato plots than on traps placed inside the border crops. In addition, virus disease incidence was reduced in all plots surrounded by the border cr ops. However, plots surrounded by border crops had reduced tuber yield, although the yield of s eed grade was increased. The results indicated that use of border crops would be beneficial in the management of virus diseases in small-holder seed potato production.

Mulinde E;, Muthomi JW;, Olubayo FM, Nderitu JH;, Kabira. "Management of potato viruses in seed potato production using border crops.". In: KARI Scientific Conference, Nairobi,. Nairobi; 2008.management_of_potato_viruses.pdf
R DROWITIFREDRICK. "Management of psychiatric disorders in Kenya (1963-1996)Owiti FR. East Afr Med J. 1996 Oct;73(10):629-30.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Oct;73(10):629-30. University of Nairobi; 1996. Abstract
United States International University-Africa, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and pattern of substance use among an undergraduate population in a Kenyan university. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey, cluster sampling of classrooms, self-administered questionnaires. SETTING: Private international university in Nairobi province, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred fifty eight undergraduate students of both sexes, age range 16-50 and mean age (S.E) of 21.1 +/- 0.2. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported use of psychoactive substances. RESULTS: Percentages of lifetime prevalence rates of commonly used substances were tobacco, 54.7%; alcohol, 84.2%; cannabis, 19.7% and inhalants, 7.2%. The corresponding "past use" and "current use" rates were relatively lower but followed the same pattern. The percentage rates were significantly higher in males than females (p < 0.005). Rates for regular use (> 20 days/month) were higher for tobacco (24.7%) than alcohol (11.5%). The lifetime prevalence rates of other drugs (heroin, cocaine, mandrax, amphetamines and LSD) were low (< 5%), while modest rates were recorded for tranquilizers (10.8%), local brews (13.6%) and cough mixtures (35.1%). Less than 20% of respondents initiated substance use in lower primary school, while more than 50% started using in upper primary and secondary school and 11% to 25% started using substances at university. CONCLUSION: Substances most commonly used by respondents studied were of the licit variety (alcohol and tobacco). The rate of use of the two substances is rather high. The use of illicit drugs seems to be growing and may soon escalate to alarming levels. The findings suggest an urgent need to gather more data, which can be used to guide formulation of health promotion and prevention programmes.
Mwangi  WE, Kimeli P, Mathai LW, Muasya DW, Kipyegon AN. "Management of Puff Adder (Bitis Arietans) Snake Bite and Envenomation in Dogs: A Case Report.". 2014.
Mwangi WE, Kimeli P, Mathai LW, Muasya DW, Kipyegon AN. "Management of Puff Adder (Bitis Arietans) Snake Bite and Envenomation in Dogs: Case Report." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2014;3(3):160-162.
Mwangi WE, Kimeli P, Mathai LW, Muasya DW, Kipyegon AN, others. "Management of puff adder (Bitis arietans) snake bite and envenomation in dogs: case report." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2014;3:160-162. Abstract
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KANINI MRMBWESAJOYCE. "Management Of Records And Information As Part Of Learner Support Systems Paper Presented At a Workshop Of E- Content Development For University Staff, Merica Hotel Nakuru.". In: Workshop Of E- Content Development For University Staff, Merica Hotel Nakuru. au-ibar; 2003. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
NJAMBI MSKINYUNGUALICE, WARUE MRSKARIUKICATHERINE. "The Management of Residential Property Under the Sectional Properties Act in Kenya .". In: African Journal of Ecology 46(1):22-29. uon press; 2001. Abstract
Over the last six years there has been a tremendous development of infrastructure projects in virtually all corners of Kenya. This has taken the form of Road Improvement Project, Water and sewerage improvement project and the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project as envisioned in the Kenya Vision 2030. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the principles of compulsory land acquisition and way leaves in the three sectors in Kenya by looking at the current legislative framework governing the entire process of acquisition. In considering the process, the paper explores the various provisions of the relevant act which governs the particular utility envisaged for improvement project component in the Kenya Vision 2030. A critical evaluation of the procedures adopted is outlined in each case and the general public apprehensions towards such acquisitions. The second part of the paper focuses on suggestions on the choice of valuation methodology in making claims for compensation for land for various infrastructure projects in Kenya. This is borne out of the fact that there appear to be very little standardization in the methods adopted by the various bodies. The paper cites several cases under the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project where a large proportion of way leaves are dealt with at local level, with little consistency. Coupled to this is the public concern that electricity lines have potentially serious health effects that continue to attract research and media interest. The paper concludes with a description of the various cases on how to improve compensation paid to those affected by compulsory acquisition in cases of land and way leaves.
Paul O. "Management of roads maintenance levy fund at Agency level in Kenya: A focus on challenges, prospects and policy.". In: 2013 COSTA RICA GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BUSINESS 7 FIANANCE . COSTA RICA; 2013.
Miano DW;, Kimenju JW;, Mutitu EW;, Waudo SW;, Samson JM. "Management of Root-knob Nematodes(meloidogyne ssp)using organic amendments."; 2004.
Miano DW;, Kimenju JW;, Mutitu EW;, Waudo, S.W; Samson JM. "Management of Root-knob Nematodes(meloidogyne ssp)using organic amendments."; 2004.
Miano DW;, Kimenju JW;, Mutitu EW;, Waudo SW;, Samson JM. "Management of Root-knob Nematodes(meloidogyne ssp)using organic amendments."; 2004.
WANJIRA DRNJUGUNAPAMELA. "Management of severe falciparum malaria. Njuguna P, Newton C. J Postgrad Med. 2004 Jan-Mar;50(1):45-50.". In: J Postgrad Med. 2004 Jan-Mar;50(1):45-50. East African Medical Journal; 2004. Abstract
Plasmodium falciparum is the most common cause of severe and life-threatening malaria. Falciparum malaria causes over one million deaths every year. In Africa, a vast majority of these deaths occur in children under five years of age. The presentation of severe malaria varies with age and geographical distribution. The mortality rate is higher in adults than in children but African children develop neuro-cognitive sequelae following severe malaria more frequently. The management of severe malaria includes prompt administration of appropriate parenteral anti-malarial agents and early recognition and treatment of the complications. In children, the complications include metabolic acidosis (often caused by hypovolaemia), hypoglycaemia, hyperlacticacidaemia, severe anaemia, seizures and raised intracranial pressure. In adults, renal failure and pulmonary oedema are more common causes of death. In contrast, concomitant bacterial infections occur more frequently in children and are associated with mortality in children. Admission to critical or intensive care units may help reduce the mortality, and the frequency and severity of sequelae related to severe malaria.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK. "Management of shoulder dystocia. East Afr Med J. 1992 Jul;69(7):391-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Jul;69(7):391-3. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1992. Abstract
Shoulder dystocia is a rare obstetric emergency with which few clinicians have adequate experience. A case which was successfully managed is presented and current management procedures reviewed.
Muthomi J, Fulano AM, Wagacha JM, Mwang’ombe AW. "Management of Snap Bean Insect Pests and Diseases by Use of Antagonistic Fungi and Plant Extracts." Sustainable Agriculture Research. 2017;6(3):52.
Muthomi JW, Fulano AM, Wagacha JM, Mwang’ombe AW. "Management of Snap Bean Insect Pests and Diseases by Use of Antagonistic Fungi and Plant Extracts." Sustainable Agriculture Research. 2017;6(3):52-63.
Wandiga SO, Otieno JT. Management of solid waste in Nairobi city..; 1999.
simon munayi Janet chumba. "Management of sports in kenyan public and private universities:emerging trends.". In: Laikipia university international conference.; 2018.
Japheth NR, Rukwaro PR, Wachira-Towey IN. "Management of Steel Reinforcement Works Procedures Impact on the Health of Workers in Building Construction Sites Case study of Nairobi County, Kenya." Journal of Entrepreneurship & Project management. 2021;Volume 5(1).
OKELLO PROFODONGOWILLIAM, J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "Management of Technological Change: Kenya Case Study", with Rodrigues, A. J. and Scott, R. J. P.". In: Information Technology for Development vol.4, No.2, June 1989, pp. 399-471. VLIR; 1989.
OKELLO PROFODONGOWILLIAM, J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "Management of Technological Change: Kenya Case Study", with Rodrigues, A. J. and Scott, R. J. P.". In: Information Technology for Development vol.4, No.2, June 1989, pp. 399-471. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1989. Abstract
n/a
Nderitu, J., Evans W, Cheminingwa. Management of thrips. Nairobi; 2013.mgt_of_thrips119.pdf
Gachu. S. M., Muthomi JW,, Narla RD, Nderitu, J., FM O, Wagacha JM. "Management of thrips ( Thrips tabaci ) in bulb onion by use of vegetable intercrops." International Journal of AgriScience . 2012; 2 (5):293-402.2012-management_of_thrips_in_bulb_onion_by_use_of_veg_intercrops.pdf
Gachu SM, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Nderitu JH, Olubayo FM, Wagacha JM. "Management of thrips (Thrips tabaci) in bulb onion by use of vegetable intercrops." International Journal of AgriScience . 2012;2(5):393-402.
Gachu SM, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Nderitu JH, Olubayo FM, Wagacha JM. "Management of thrips (Thrips tabaci) in bulb onion by use of vegetable intercrops.". 2012;2:599-607.
S.M.1 G, J.W.2 M, R.D.2 N, J.H.2 N, F.M.2 O, J.M.3 W. "Management of thrips (Thrips tabaci) in bulb onion by use of vegetable intercrops." International Journal of AgriScience Vol. 2(5): 393-402, May 2012. 2012;2(5):393-402.management_of_thrips_in_bulb_onion_by_use_of_veg_intercrops.
Gachu SM, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Nderitu JH, Olubayo FM, Wagacha JM. "Management of thrips (Thrips tabaci) in bulb onion by use of vegetable intercrops. International Journal of AgriScience 2(5): 393-402." International Journal of AgriScience. 2012; 2(5):393-402.gachu_thrips_paper.pdfWebsite
Nderitu J.H., Kasina, M.J., Nyamasyo G.N., C.N. W, J. A. "Management of Thrips (Thysanoptera: Tripidae) on French beans (Fabaceae) in Kenya:." Economics of insecticide Applications. Journ. Entomol. . 2008;5(3):148-155.
and Kasina J.M. and Nyamasyo, G.N; Waturu ACN, Nyamasyo GN;, and Waturu CN, Aura. "Management of thrips (Thysanoptera; Thripidae) in Kenya; Economics of Insecticide applications." J. Entomol. . 2008;5(3):48.
Muthomi JW, Gachu SM, Narla RD, Nderitu JH. "Management of thrips in bulb onions using vegetable intercrops.". In: aGRO 2011 Inaugural Biennial Conference. Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya; 2011.management_of_thrips_thrips_tabaci_in_bulb_onion_by_use_of_vegetable_intercrops.pdf
Muthomi JW;, Gachu SM;, Narla RD;, Nderitu J. "Management of thrips in bulb onions using vegetable intercrops."; 2011.
Muthomi JW;, Gachu SM;, Narla RD;, Nderitu J. "Management of thrips in bulb onions using vegetable intercrops."; 2011.
Ouma B, Muthomi J, Nderitu J, Toroitich F. "Management of thrips in French bean by integrating biological and synthetic pesticides in conventional spray regimes." Journal of Renewable Agriculture. 2014;2(2):27-37.
k Kaitany B, Mulaku MN, Amugune BK, Guantai EM. "Management of type 2 diabetes at Vihiga county referral hospital, Kenya: compliance with guidelines and prevalence of complications." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics . 2017;Vol. 6(No. 1 , February 2017 ).
Kaitany BK, Mulaku MN, Amugune BK, Guantai EM. "Management of Type 2 Diabetes at Vihiga County referral hospital, Kenya: compliance with guidelines and prevalence of complications." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2017;6(1):43-47.
Chege IN, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN, Karanja S, Derese S. "Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by Traditional Medicine Practitioners in Kenya- Key Informant Interviews." Pan African Medical Journal. 2015;22(90):doi:10.11604/pamj.2015.22.90.6485. Abstract2015_-_management_of_type_2_diabetes_mellitus.pdf

Introduction: Worldwide, plant based medicines are increasing in popularity due to perceptions of safety and efficacy. Herbalists in Kenya are widely consulted for the management of many diseases including Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). This study investigated the level of knowledge of the herbalists in management of T2DM.

Methods: Purposive sampling was used to identify 4 herbalists working in the urban areas who actively manage T2DM. Key informant interviews were used to gather data about the management of T2DM. It was analyzed using a content thematic approach.

Results: Diverse management methods which included both pharmacological and non- pharmacological were noted. Glycemic control was assessed with the help of a glucometer. In addition, presenting signs and symptoms were key in diagnosing T2DM. The herbalists used various herbs, minerals and animals as medicinal sources. The drugs were dispensed as decoctions with excipients being added appropriately.
Adverse effects were recorded. The herbalists acknowledged that patients use both herbal and allopathic medicine together. A level of record keeping was observed but patient follow-up was poor. The cost of the herbal drugs was perceived to be excessive.

Conclusion: Some similarities exist in the management of T2DM between allopathic and traditional medicine practitioners. Training of herbalists is required to improve the quality of care given to patients.

IN Chege, Okalebo FA, A Nkatha Guantai, S Karanja, Derese S. "Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus by traditional medicine practitioners in Kenya-key informant interviews." The Pan African Medical Journa. 2015;22(90):1-12. Abstract

Abstract
Introduction: worldwide, plant based medicines are increasing in popularity due to perceptions of safety and efficacy. Herbalists in Kenya are widely consulted for the management of many diseases including Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). This study investigated the level of knowledge of the herbalists in management of T2DM.

Methods: purposive sampling was used to identify 4 herbalists working in the urban areas who actively manage T2DM. Key informant interviews were used to gather data about the management of T2DM. It was analyzed using a content thematic approach.

Results: diverse management methods which included both pharmacological and non- pharmacological were noted. Glycemic control was assessed with the help of a glucometer. In addition, presenting signs and symptoms were key in diagnosing T2DM. The herbalists used various herbs, minerals and animals as medicinal sources. The drugs were dispensed as decoctions with excipients being added appropriately. Adverse effects were recorded. The herbalists acknowledged that patients use both herbal and allopathic medicine together. A level of record keeping was observed but patient follow-up was poor. The cost of the herbal drugs was perceived to be excessive.

Conclusion: some similarities exist in the management of T2DM between allopathic and traditional medicine practitioners. Training of herbalists is required to improve the quality of care given to patients.

Osawa F. Management outcome of adult urinary fistulae at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) (1994 -1998).; 2002. Abstract

The study was carried out between January 1994 and December 1998. This was a retrospective
study in which data was retrieved from the patient's files at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) medical records department. The results were analyzed and various indices established. Ninety
patients were considered. Females were more than males with a ratios M:F 1:2 Seventy
percent of the fistulae involved the bladder. Most of the patients (54.44%) were from a low
socioeconomic set up and were referrals from rural centres in Kenya.
The commonest mode of clinical presentation was leakage of urine in 80% of the patients and
diagnosis was mainly clinical (74.44%). Obstetric fistulae were 53.33% and therefore were the
majority. Surgery was the preferred option of treatment. Only 12.2% of the patients were
managed conservatively.
The outcome of treatment was found to be significantly influenced by urmary or faecal
diversion and the duration of urethral cartheterization. However the aetiology of the fistulae
and the interval between injury time and treatment did not influence the outcome.

M NJ, E A, B AZ, G W. "Management Participation and Firm Performance." American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) . 2014;4(1):113-122.
J.M N, Evans A, W G. "Management Participation and Firm Performance." American Journal of Industrial and Business Management. 2014;4:113-122.
B AZ, K S. "Management Perception on Performance Contracting Strategy at the City Council of Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Managerial Studies and Research (IJMSR). 2014;2(7):148-159.
Maina KW, Murugami JW, Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Thaiyah LW, Njagi HA, Ngowi J, Nzalawahe RH. "Management Practices and Constraints of Fish Farming in Kiambu and Counties, Kenya.". In: 1st Eastern Africa Aquaculture Symposium and Exhibition (EAASE) 2016. African Institute for Capacity Development (AICAD), Kiambu, Kenya; 2016.
Maina KW, Murugami JW, Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Thaiyah AG, Njagi LW, Ngowi HA, Nzalawahe J, Mdegela RH. "Management Practices and Constraints of Fish Farming in Kiambu and Counties, Kenya.". In: the 1st Eastern Africa Aquaculture Symposium and Exhibition (EAASE) . African Institute for Capacity Development (AICAD), Kiambu, Kenya ; 2016.
Mulei IR, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Nyaga PN, Mutoloki S, Evensen Ø&. "Management practices, farmers’ knowledge of diseased fish and their occurrence in fish farms in Nyeri County, Kenya ." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2021;2021(Article ID 8896604).
Mulei, I., Mbuthia, P.G., Waruiru, R.M., Nyaga, P. N., Mutoloki, Evensen. "Management practices, farmers’ knowledge of diseased fish and their occurrence in fish farms in Nyeri County, Kenya." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2021.
W K, L O. Management Structures and Processes of Constituency Development Fund (CDF) in Selected Districts. Nairobi: Collaborative Centre for Gender and Development ; 2007.
Bulinda DM. Management tit biyts in Lecture series. Nairobi: Riverbrooks Communications; 2011.
Nyandemo S, Singh. Managerial Economics, theory and Applications. Bishen Singh Publishers; 2003.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Managing Assets and Liabilities during Transition Period.". In: Induction Workshop for the Chairperson and Members of the Transition Authority. Mombasa; 2012.
JOHN DRYABS. "Managing Changes in Life. Autobiography.". In: An Article in the Underwriter Journal. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2008. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
AM K. "Managing dental fluorosis: Traditional healer versus clinic approaches." JSM Dent. 2017;2017; 5(2): 1085(2017; 5(2): 1085):2017; 5(2): 1085.
Managing Education In the New Constitution for Vision 2030. University of Nairobi, Kenya Science Campus; 2011.
NZUVE SNM. Managing Employee Resistance to Technology Change. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 1987.
Twalib MH, K'OBONYO PO, Lukio OA. "Managing Employee Transition From Active Sports Career to Mainstream Work." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2015;3(6):81-90. Abstracttransition_management_paper.pdf

The objective of the study was to determine how Kenya Commercial Bank manages employee transition from
active sports to mainstream work activities of the bank.The methodology used in the study is cross-sectional
descriptive survey and questionnaires were used to collect data. The study found out that at the time of
employment, sportspeople are taken specifically to do sports and do not have any specified qualifications for
them except sports. The salaries of the sportspeople are determined by their academic qualifications and on
transition to mainstream activities their placements are also determined by the same academic qualifications
and also on availability of opportunities. The employees are taken for full time training and on job training is
done under supervision. The sportspeople are able to perform at their peak at a period of eight months. Most
of the sportspeople are placed as subordinates and clerical staff mainly because they do not have the minimal
qualifications required by the bank though, the bank helps them financially to further their studies. The study
also concludes that though slow, some employees eventually catch up in the mainstream work of the bank.

Shihembetsa DLU, Ketter GK. "MANAGING FLOODING IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS OF NAIROBI: A CASE STUDY OF SOUTH C." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge (IJIRK). . 2018;Vol-3, (Issue-9, September-2018 ):(27-43). ISSN-2213-1356.
JAMES PROFODEK. "Managing In a Multilateral Trading System: Challenges and Opportunities, Paper presented at the Institute of Certified Public Secretaries of Kenya 4th Annual Seminar held at Mombasa Continental Resort, 17-18th August.". In: Paper presented at the WIPO High Level Forum on IP Policy and Strategy, Tokyo . Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 2000. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
Bore M. "Managing ocular allergy in resource-poor settings." Community Eye Health. 2016;29(95):47-49.
A. MRJALEHAALEXC. "Managing Risk and Insurance for Small Business Entrepreneurs: (Published by Stellagraphics).". In: Department of Clinical Studies University of Nairobi 2008. Departmental seminar; 1986. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
MARTINON MUMMA-CA, Christian LM. "Managing the Impacts of Our Activities: Initiating Dialogue Early to Create Climate of Trust." Techno Hub: total's Exploration & Production Techniques Magazine : Strategy, Methodologies and Testimonials: Our societal Commitment 5 (2013):273.
King'oriah G. "Managing The Land Use Changes Within And Around Nairobi, Kenya."; 1992. Abstract

This paper reviews the literature associated with urban growth development, and urban management, relating these to the growth of the metropolis of Nairobi. The paper reviews the land use changes that have taken place in the city and its surrounding in the recent past in the light of the reviewed theoretical background; and examines how the civic and central governmental authorities are dealing with these changes for the betterment of the human environment in and around the city. An attempt is made to suggest solutions to problems of land use management that are associated with such rapid urban growth as that of Nairobi.

Okumbe JA, MACHARIA D. "Managing the Learner Support System at the University of Nairobi." Managing the Learner Support System at the University of Nairobi. 2000;Vol. 5, No.1.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Managing watersheds in Kenya", in Kiriro A., and C. Juma (eds) Gaining Ground: Institutional Innovations in Land Use Management in kenya, ACTS nairobi.". In: Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1989. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
Kariuki N. "Managment of immune thrombocytopaenia in children: a review." East African Medical Journal. 2009;86(12):84-88.
D.M L, Githigia S.M., P C, H.M. A, J.M K. "Manangement of bovine paillomatosis using an autogenous vaccine: A case study in Bukura Agricultural College, western Kenya." Biennial Scientific Conference. 2012;8(12):39. Abstract

Bovine Papillomatosis is a papillomavirus infection in cattle characterized by presence of warts of various sizes on the body of the affected animals. The virus usually affects the epithelial cells of the skin causing hyperproliferative lesions. Six types of papillomavirus are involved where BVP-3, BVP-4 and BVP-6 types cause true pappilomas. Five cases of bovine papillomatosis were noted on Bukura Agricultural College farm where the diseases presented as dry cauliflower-like warts of varying sizes especially on the neck and shoulder regions. Some smaller warts were also found around the eyes. Diagnosis was based on the clinical signs. An autogenous bovine specific wart vaccine was prepared from the wart samples and administered subcutaneously three times at two weeks interval. T;he warts started regressing 28 days after the first vaccination (day0) and disappeared after 10 weeks. Based on the previous studies, this case study confirms that an autogenous bovine papillomavirus specific vaccine is a successful method of controlling bovine papillomatosis.

KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "Mande and P.K.Gathumbi (2003). Correlation between radiographic and pathological features of osteoarthritis hip joints of adult dogs.". In: Proceedings of the 13th International Veterinary Radiology Association (IVRA) Congress 18th . Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 2003. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
A. DRKITAAJAFREDM. "Mande JD and Kitaa JMA. Microbial profile and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates from dogs with otitis externa in Kenya.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Conference. 2004 Kabete Nairobi. au-ibar; 2004. Abstract
   
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mande, D.J., P.M.F.Mbithi, S.W. Mbugua.I.B.J. Buoro and P. K. Gathumbi (2003) Volume of the Ligamentum Capitis Femoris in Osteoarthritic Hip Joints of Adult Dogs. J. S. Afr.Vet. Ass. 74 (1) 11-13.". In: East Afri. Med J. 1988 May; 65(5):330-4. IBIMA Publishing; 2003. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mande, D.J., P.M.F.Mbithi, S.W. Mbugua.I.B.J. Buoro and P. K. Gathumbi (2003) Volume of the Ligamentum Capitis Femoris in Osteoarthritic Hip Joints of Adult Dogs. J. S. Afr.Vet. Ass. 74 (1) 11-13.". In: East Afri. Med J. 1988 May; 65(5):330-4. IBIMA Publishing; 2003. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mande, J.D., , I.B.J. Buoro, P.M.F. Mbithi, and S.W. Mbugua (2002) Polysulfated Glycosaminoglycans in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis: A Review. The Kenya Vet.(23) 70-71.". In: East Afri. Med J. 1988 May; 65(5):330-4. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mande, J.D., I.B.J. Buoro, S.W. Mbugua and P.M.F. Mbithi (2002) Experimental Models of Osteoarthritis. A Review The Kenya Vet. (23) 67-69.". In: East Afri. Med J. 1988 May; 65(5):330-4. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "Mande, J.D.; P.M.F. Mbithi; S.W. Mbugua.; I.B.J. Buoro and P.K.Gathumbi (2005). The pathophysiology and clinical management of degenerative joint disease. The Kenya veterinarian 28: 33-36.". In: Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109. Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 2005. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
NGUHIU DRMWANGIJAMESA. "Mande,J.D.;Mbithi, P.M.F.; Nguhiu-Mwangi,J.A.; Mbiuki, S.M (1993): Cestrum poisoning in a young horse.A case report. Bull. Animl.Hlth.Prod.AFr. (1993) 41(2)139-141.". In: issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . University of Nairobi; 1993. Abstract
{ The insidious nature of laminitis makes it difficult to diagnose early enough. In most cases diagnosis is made after the condition has devastated the claw irreversibly with inevitable consequences of culling the animal. A study to determine prevalence and risk factors of laminitis was conducted on 300 dairy cows in 29 zero-grazed and 3 pasture-grazed farms within Nairobi and the peri-urban districts between December 2005 and May 2006. Locomotion score was made by walking the cows on unyielding surface to evaluate gait and straightness of the back. After washing the hind claws of each cow, they were grossly examined for any sign of claw lesions. A 1-2mm layer of horn was trimmed-off from the soles of these claws and the soles scrutinized for underlying signs of laminitis. Each weight-bearing surface of the claw was divided into 6 universally recognized zones. The prevalence of subclinical and chronic laminitis was 49.3% and 21% respectively. Claw deformities were observed in 47% of the cows but may all not have been associated with laminitis. Signs and lesions on the claws suggesting presence of laminitis but could also occur independent of laminitis were: horizontal ridges of the claw wall, sole and heel erosions, double soles and white line separation. It was observed that 82% of the cows with subclinical and chronic laminitis had sole horn haemorrhages. However, all the cows with sole haemorrhages had either subclinical or chronic laminitis. But all the cows with subclinical laminitis had haemorrhages. This implies that sole haemorrhage is mainly a good sign of subclinical laminitis. The number of zones involved determined severity of the haemorrhages. There was significant association at 95% CI between sole haemorrhage-score and number of haemorrhagic zones in which subclinical laminitis was associated with slight to moderate haemorrhages (score 1 and 2
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Mange.". In: Nursing Council of Kenya. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2002. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

Derese S, Guantai EM, Yaouba S, Kuete V. "Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae).". In: Medicinal Spices and Vegetables from Africa. London: Elsevier Academic Press; 2017.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K. "Optimal Long-term Reactive Power Planning Using Decomposition Techniques", Ph.D. Thesis. The Pennsylvania State University, U.S.A., Dec. 1991.". In: Published in a Journal Kenyan Geographer. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; Submitted. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K.. "Control System Analysis and Design " in August 1995 at the 2nd conference of the Kenya Society for the Electrical Engineers - Sereiw Hotel, Nairobi.". In: IEK International Conference. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1995. Abstract
The electricity industry has an important role in developing a sustainable energy system, both regarding the use of electricity to improve environmental performance in society thus contributing to a better livingstandard and social life and to reduce the environmental impacts from the electricity industry own activities.The industry contributes significantly to the worlds total green house gas emissions and has a significantimpact on other environmental aspects, such as exploitation of fuel resources, emissions to air, generationof waste and use of landscape. Approximately 80% of the Kenyan population lives in rural areas whereelectricity access rate is merely 4%, mainly due to the slow rate of installation caused by the high costs ofextending the existing grid to rural areas. It is therefore imperative that a comparative study be carried outto establish the optimum power system to supply the rural areas in Kenya given the financial constraintswithin many rural households while considering the environmental external costs due to each method. Thefollowing scenarios are considered for this study: (i) Mini grid powered by Green Distributed GenerationTechnologies, (ii) Mini grid powered by fossil fired plants, (iii) Extension of the existing grid.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K.. "Optimal Power Flow in Kenya" on 4th August 1994 at the 4th JKUAT Annual Electrical and Electronic Engineering Seminar on Innovations in Electrical Engineering Technology.". In: IEK International Conference. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1994. Abstract
The electricity industry has an important role in developing a sustainable energy system, both regarding the use of electricity to improve environmental performance in society thus contributing to a better livingstandard and social life and to reduce the environmental impacts from the electricity industry own activities.The industry contributes significantly to the worlds total green house gas emissions and has a significantimpact on other environmental aspects, such as exploitation of fuel resources, emissions to air, generationof waste and use of landscape. Approximately 80% of the Kenyan population lives in rural areas whereelectricity access rate is merely 4%, mainly due to the slow rate of installation caused by the high costs ofextending the existing grid to rural areas. It is therefore imperative that a comparative study be carried outto establish the optimum power system to supply the rural areas in Kenya given the financial constraintswithin many rural households while considering the environmental external costs due to each method. Thefollowing scenarios are considered for this study: (i) Mini grid powered by Green Distributed GenerationTechnologies, (ii) Mini grid powered by fossil fired plants, (iii) Extension of the existing grid.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K.. I.cc. K.Y,. and Park, Y.M. ""Optimal Long-term Reactive Power Planning Using Decomposition Techniques."", Electric Energy Systems Research Journal 1992.". In: Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 26, pp. 1-10, 1993. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1992. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K.. Lee, K.Y., and Park. Y.M. "Optimal Power Flow Using Linear Programming", IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 1992.". In: Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 26, pp. 1-10, 1993. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1992. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K.. Lee, K.Y.. and Park, Y.M. "Optimal Real and Reactive Power Control Using Linear Programming", Electric Energy Systems Research Journal 1992.". In: Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 26, pp. 1-10, 1993. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1992. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K.. The Kenya Power System " in August 1996 at the 2nd conference of the Kenya Society for the Electrical Engineers - Serena Hotel. Nairobi.". In: IEK International Conference. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1996. Abstract
The electricity industry has an important role in developing a sustainable energy system, both regarding the use of electricity to improve environmental performance in society thus contributing to a better livingstandard and social life and to reduce the environmental impacts from the electricity industry own activities.The industry contributes significantly to the worlds total green house gas emissions and has a significantimpact on other environmental aspects, such as exploitation of fuel resources, emissions to air, generationof waste and use of landscape. Approximately 80% of the Kenyan population lives in rural areas whereelectricity access rate is merely 4%, mainly due to the slow rate of installation caused by the high costs ofextending the existing grid to rural areas. It is therefore imperative that a comparative study be carried outto establish the optimum power system to supply the rural areas in Kenya given the financial constraintswithin many rural households while considering the environmental external costs due to each method. Thefollowing scenarios are considered for this study: (i) Mini grid powered by Green Distributed GenerationTechnologies, (ii) Mini grid powered by fossil fired plants, (iii) Extension of the existing grid.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K.. The Optimal Sources of Fncrgy in Kenya" in I. E. K National Engineering Seminar on Engineering for Self Reliance - March 23rd-25lh, 1994 at the KlCC, Nairobi.". In: IEK International Conference. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1994. Abstract
The electricity industry has an important role in developing a sustainable energy system, both regarding the use of electricity to improve environmental performance in society thus contributing to a better livingstandard and social life and to reduce the environmental impacts from the electricity industry own activities.The industry contributes significantly to the worlds total green house gas emissions and has a significantimpact on other environmental aspects, such as exploitation of fuel resources, emissions to air, generationof waste and use of landscape. Approximately 80% of the Kenyan population lives in rural areas whereelectricity access rate is merely 4%, mainly due to the slow rate of installation caused by the high costs ofextending the existing grid to rural areas. It is therefore imperative that a comparative study be carried outto establish the optimum power system to supply the rural areas in Kenya given the financial constraintswithin many rural households while considering the environmental external costs due to each method. Thefollowing scenarios are considered for this study: (i) Mini grid powered by Green Distributed GenerationTechnologies, (ii) Mini grid powered by fossil fired plants, (iii) Extension of the existing grid.
L. G, Vanreusel A, Koedam N, Reubens J, Muthumbi AW. "The mangrove forests as nursery habitats for the ichthyofauna of Mida Creek (Kenya, East Africa)." Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 2014;94(5):865-877.
Kanyinga K. "Manifestos rich on promises, vague on delivery strategies." Sunday Nation, July 1, 2017.
Ong’ang’a MA, Indangasi H, Kitata M. "Manipulation of Narrative Paradigm in Ngugi wa Thiong’o’s Wrestling with the Devil." Hybrid Journal of Literary and Cultural Studies. . 2021;3(1).
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Manpower and Employment in Kenya An Overview. Paper written with F.M Muhindi for the Ministry of Higher Education's Pre-investment Study on Business Education.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1982. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
WAMBUGU LYDIAH, MBOROKI GUANTAI. "Manpower Development in the 21st Century." DBA The Africa Management Review. 2014;4(1):47-61.
A MRMAKACHIAPETER. "A Manual For Organized Self-Help Densification Of Eastlands.". In: International Course Of Organized Self-Help Housing Planning & Development. Housing Development & Management, Lund University, Sweden.; 2005. Abstract
Heavily glazed office buildings in the Kenyan Capital City Nairobi, common in recent times does not augur well for a micro and macro architectural environment. This has a consequent negative impact on energy use in office spaces. By use of computer simulations, traditional tools and literature review glazing use in office fenestration is analysed and its implications for architectural design investigated. The results indicate a direct relationship between the variable parameters of glazing type and size, glazed opening orientation, shading devices and control of energy loads within the office spaces and the objective of human comfort in the office spaces. In conclusion it is recommended that optimum levels of glazing size and type as well as suitable glazing orientations for architectural use in office buildings in Nairobi.
Dorothy McCormick, Schmitz H. "Manual for Value Chain Research on Homeworkers in the Garment Industry Institute of Development Studies.". In: Labour and the Paradox of Flexibility. Mzumbe University/Adger University College: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2002. Abstract

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of Kenya NC. MANUAL OF CLINICAL PROCEDURES. Nairobi: Nursing Council of Kenya; 2009.manual_of_clinical_procedures.pdf
KONGERE TO. ""Manual on Operations Research".". In: Nairobi, University of Nairobi and Ministry of Finance and Planning. WFL Publisher; 2006. Abstract

This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  

KONGERE TO. ""Manual on Operations Research", 2006, for Distance Learning.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1996. Abstract

This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  

Mutembei HM, Tsuma VT MBSMJ. "Manual on Technical aspects of Bovine in-vitro embryo production and embryo transfer." The Kenya Veterinarian Journal. 2015;39(1):1-16.
Mwega F. "Manufacturing in Kenya: Africa Imperatives in the World Trade Order.". In: Case Studies on Manufacturing and Services. AERC; 2008.
ARAP MRKENDUIWOJOHNK. ""Manufacturing strategy for enhanced competitiveness", a conference paper presented at the 8th Annual Management Conference (2001), organized by the Makerere University Business School.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; 1998. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Manuthu EM, Joshi MD, Lule GN, Karari E.Prevalence of dyslipidemia and dysglycaemia in HIV infected patients. East Afr Med J. 2008 Jan;85(1):10-7.". In: test. test; 2008. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically reduced AIDS morbidity and mortality, however long-term metabolic consequences including dysglycaemia and dyslipidemia have raised concern regarding accelerated cardiovascular disease risk. OBJECTIVE: To determine the period prevalence of dyslipidemia and dysglycaemia in HIV-infected patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional comparative group study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary HIV dedicated out-patient facility. SUBJECTS: Consecutive HIV- positive adult patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dyslipidemia: presence of raised total or LDL cholesterol or low HDL cholesterol, or raised triglycerides. Dysglycaemia: presence of impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance, or diabetes mellitus. Results: Between January and April 2006, out of 342 screened patients, 295 were recruited and 58% were females. One hundred and thirty four (45%) were on HAART, 82% of whom were on stavudine, lamivudine and either nevirapine or efavirenz. Overall prevalence of dyslipidemiawas 63.1% and dysglycaemia was 20.7%. High total cholesterol occurred in 39.2% of HAART and 10.0% HAART naive patients (p<0.0001, OR 5.18, CI 3.11-10.86), whereas high LDL cholesterol occurred in 40.8% and in 11.2% respectively (p<0.0001, OR 5.43, CI 2.973-9.917). HDL levels were low in 14.6% and 51.3% among HAART and HAART naive patients, respectively, (p<0.0001, OR 0.16, CI 0.091-0.29) while high triglycerides occurred in 25.6% and 22.5% respectively (p=0.541 OR 1.184 CI 0.688-2.037). Among patients on HAART compared to HAART naive patients, diabetes was found in 1.5% against 1.2% (p=0.85), impaired fasting in 2.2% against 0.6% (p=0.30) and impaired glucose tolerance in 16.4% against 21.1% (p=0.22), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: HIV- infected patients demonstrated a high prevalence of dyslipidemia. HAART use was associated with high levels of total, and LDL cholesterol and high triglyceride levels, an established athrogenic lipid profile. However, HAART was not associated with low HDL cholesterol and had no significant effect on dysglycaemia.

Mukunzi. S, Wurapa. E, Achilla. R, Wadegu. M, Majanja. J, Wangui. J, Osuna. F, Njiri. J, Mwangi. J, Bulimo. W. "Many pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) viruses that circulated in Kenya during the 2009-2010 Influenza seasons belonged to clade 7.". In: 1st International Scientific Conference at the College of Health Sciences University of Nairobi. University of Nairobi, Nairobi Kenya; 2011. Abstract
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KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "Manyibe, T.N and Gathumbi, P.K Ngatia, T.A, Bebora, L., Muchemi, G. Historical perspectives of lesser flamingo mortalities in Kenya.". In: Faculty of 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and The 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference 25 - 27 April, 2012 Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi-Kenya. Muravej S, Gathece LW; 2012.
S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI. "Maobe S. N, L.S.M Akundabweni, M.W.K. Mburu, Ndufa J.K. J.G. Mureithi, C.C.K Gachene, F.W. Makini and J.J. Okello. 2010. Effect of Green manure and inorganic Fertilizer Urea Nitrogen Sources And Application Rates on Harvest of maize (Zea mays L.).". In: World Journal of Agric Scie 6 (5) 532-539. Paraclete Publishers; 2010. Abstract
AbstractOn-farm experiment was carried out in southwest Kenya in the period 2002 to 2005. The objective was to determine the most profitable source of nitrogen for maize production, and assess various application quantities to identify the most profitable rate. Treatments investigated were: mucuna green manure applied at rates of 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 kg N ha-1; inorganic fertilizer-urea ratesof 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1. At tissue N concentration of 1.85 to 2 % for mucuna, the rates worked to 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 24 t DM ha-1 equivalent of its green biomass, respectively. Randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Data was collected on maize grain yield and price, costof mucuna N and its application. Procedures applied in economic analysis were net benefits, dominance and marginal analyses. The beneficial rate of mucuna green manure was 6 t DM ha-1 to supply 120 kg N ha-1 with marginal rate of return (MRR) of 123%. In absence of capital to invest in mucuna N production, the inorganic fertilizer rate of 60 kg N ha-1 is profitable and can be used butwith expectation of comparatively lower MRR of 73%. In the absence of required capital to produce the target 120 kg N ha-1 equivalent of mucuna biomass, application of inorganic N at 30 kg ha-1 is the most beneficial practice in all seasons. Lower application rates might require supplementation withinorganic N to make up to the required amount.
S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI. "Maobe S. N, Mburu M.W. K, Akundabweni L. S, Ndufa J. K, Mureithi J. G, Gachene C. K. K, Okello J. J, Makini F. Effect of Mucuna Green Manure Rate Applied on Maize Grain Yield During the Application Season.". In: J. of Sustainable Development in Agriculture & Environment Vol. 5(1):54-64 Mach. 2010. Paraclete Publishers; 2010. Abstract
AbstractMaize yield in Kenya is constrained by inadequate supply of nitrogen and there is need to search for locally available and potentially low-cost N sources. Consequently, on-farm research was carried out in southwest Kenya in the period 2002-2005. The objective was to evaluate effect of Mucuna pruriens green manure biomass application rate on maize grain yield in sandy clay soil. Treatments evaluated were: mucuna green manure applied at rates of 0, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 kg N ha-1; and inorganic fertilizer-urea at 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1. The experimental design was randomized complete block with four replications. Results obtained showed that mucuna application rate of 30 kgN ha-1 did not significantly improve maize grain yield. Its application at 60 kg N ha-1 significantly increased maize grain yield only in seasons when rainfall was high notably in long rains. But, mucuna green manure applied at a rate of 120 kg N ha-1 significantly improved maize grain yield in both short and long rain seasons when rainfall amounts received were variable. Application of mucuna green manure at higher rates of 240 and 480 kg N ha-1 made no further significant increase in maize grain yield. Therefore, application rates lower than 120 kg N ha-1 equivalent of mucuna green manure biomass may be inadequate and would require supplementation with inorganic fertilizer N if maize grain yield is to be increased.
S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI. "Maobe S. N, Mburu M.W. K, Ndufa J. K, Akundabweni L. S, Mureithi J. G, Gachene C. K. K, Makini F, Okello J. J. Influence of Seedling Age at Transplanting on Growth and Grain Yield of Medium Duration Lowland Rice (Oryza sativa l.) at Ibadan, Nigeria.". In: J. of Sustainable Development in Agriculture & Environment Vol. 5(1):x-xx Mach. 2010. Paraclete Publishers; 2010. Abstract
AbstractField experiments were conducted at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria in the long and short rainy seasons of 1987 to study effect of seedling age (21, 31 and 41 days old seedlings) at transplanting on growth and grain yield of medium duration irrigated lowland rice. Randomized complete block design with four replications, and plot size of 3 m x 4 m, planted with an improved medium duration (128 days to maturity) rice variety, ITA 212 were used. Plant height, tiller production, and dry matter production were determined at 30 and 50 days after transplanting, at flowering and at harvest. Leaves of the eight rice plants sampled at flowering were used for leaf area index determination. Harvest index, panicle production, grain production, percentage of ripened grains and 1000-grain weight were recorded at harvest. Grain yield was determined from 5 m2 in the middle of each plot. Results obtained showed that 21 days old seedlings gave significantly taller rice plants, higher tiller and panicle number per m2 than the 31 and 41 days old ones. Seedling age had non-significant effect on leaf area index and 1000-grain weight. The 31 and 41 days old seedlings gave significantly higher harvest index and percentage of filled grains than the 21 days old ones. However, seedling age at transplanting had a non-significant effect on grain yield. It is suggested that a delay in transplanting of 21 days old seedlings for up to 20 days may not have pronounced effect on grain yield of medium duration lowland rice
S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI. "Maobe S.N, Mburu M.W.K, Akundabweni L. S, Ndufa J. K, Mureithi J. G, Gachene C. K. K, Okello J. J, Makini F. Economic Analysis of Mucuna Green Manure Nitrogen Application in Maize Production: I. with Green Manure Incorporation Cost.". In: J. of Sustainable Development in Agriculture & Environment Vol. 6(1):xx-xx: June. 2011. Paraclete Publishers; 2011. Abstract
AbstractOn-farm experiment was carried out in southwest Kenya in the period 2002 to 2005. The objective was to determine the most profitable source of nitrogen for maize production, and assess various application quantities to identify the most profitable rate. Treatments investigated were: mucuna green manure applied at rates of 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 kg N ha-1; inorganic fertilizer-urea ratesof 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1. At tissue N concentration of 1.85 to 2 % for mucuna, the rates worked to 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 24 t DM ha-1 equivalent of its green biomass, respectively. Randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Data was collected on maize grain yield and price, costof mucuna N and its application. Procedures applied in economic analysis were net benefits, dominance and marginal analyses. The beneficial rate of mucuna green manure was 6 t DM ha-1 to supply 120 kg N ha-1 with marginal rate of return (MRR) of 123%. In absence of capital to invest in mucuna N production, the inorganic fertilizer rate of 60 kg N ha-1 is profitable and can be used butwith expectation of comparatively lower MRR of 73%. In the absence of required capital to produce the target 120 kg N ha-1 equivalent of mucuna biomass, application of inorganic N at 30 kg ha-1 is the most beneficial practice in all seasons. Lower application rates might require supplementation withinorganic N to make up to the required amount.
S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI. "Maobe, S. N Mburu, M.W. K, Ndufa, J. K, Akundabweni, L. S, Mureithi, J. G, Gachene, C. K. K, Makini, F, Okello, J. J. 2010. Effect of Mucuna Green Manure Rate Applied on Maize Grain Yield During the Application Season. J. of Sustainable Development in Agr.". In: Vol. 5(1). 2010 ISSN 0794-8867. (. Paraclete Publishers; 2010. Abstract
AbstractOn-farm experiment was carried out in southwest Kenya in the period 2002 to 2005. The objective was to determine the most profitable source of nitrogen for maize production, and assess various application quantities to identify the most profitable rate. Treatments investigated were: mucuna green manure applied at rates of 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 kg N ha-1; inorganic fertilizer-urea ratesof 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1. At tissue N concentration of 1.85 to 2 % for mucuna, the rates worked to 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 24 t DM ha-1 equivalent of its green biomass, respectively. Randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Data was collected on maize grain yield and price, costof mucuna N and its application. Procedures applied in economic analysis were net benefits, dominance and marginal analyses. The beneficial rate of mucuna green manure was 6 t DM ha-1 to supply 120 kg N ha-1 with marginal rate of return (MRR) of 123%. In absence of capital to invest in mucuna N production, the inorganic fertilizer rate of 60 kg N ha-1 is profitable and can be used butwith expectation of comparatively lower MRR of 73%. In the absence of required capital to produce the target 120 kg N ha-1 equivalent of mucuna biomass, application of inorganic N at 30 kg ha-1 is the most beneficial practice in all seasons. Lower application rates might require supplementation withinorganic N to make up to the required amount.
S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI. "Maobe, S. N Mburu, M.W. K, Ndufa, J. K, Akundabweni, L. S, Mureithi, J. G, Gachene, C. K. K, Makini, F, Okello, J. J. 2010. Potential Effect of Mucuna Green Manure Application Rates on the Decomposition and Availability of Nitrogen in Varying Soil Moistur.". In: World Journal of Agric Scie 6 (5) 532-539. Paraclete Publishers; 2010. Abstract
AbstractOn-farm experiment was carried out in southwest Kenya in the period 2002 to 2005. The objective was to determine the most profitable source of nitrogen for maize production, and assess various application quantities to identify the most profitable rate. Treatments investigated were: mucuna green manure applied at rates of 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 kg N ha-1; inorganic fertilizer-urea ratesof 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1. At tissue N concentration of 1.85 to 2 % for mucuna, the rates worked to 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 24 t DM ha-1 equivalent of its green biomass, respectively. Randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Data was collected on maize grain yield and price, costof mucuna N and its application. Procedures applied in economic analysis were net benefits, dominance and marginal analyses. The beneficial rate of mucuna green manure was 6 t DM ha-1 to supply 120 kg N ha-1 with marginal rate of return (MRR) of 123%. In absence of capital to invest in mucuna N production, the inorganic fertilizer rate of 60 kg N ha-1 is profitable and can be used butwith expectation of comparatively lower MRR of 73%. In the absence of required capital to produce the target 120 kg N ha-1 equivalent of mucuna biomass, application of inorganic N at 30 kg ha-1 is the most beneficial practice in all seasons. Lower application rates might require supplementation withinorganic N to make up to the required amount.
E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "Map Revision. Geography Techniques II.". In: Nairobi University Press. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1991. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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