Publications

Found 4182 results

Sort by: Author [ Title  (Asc)] Type Year
Filters: First Letter Of Title is M  [Clear All Filters]
A B C D E F G H I J K L [M] N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   [Show ALL]
M
B DRSINGHCHANDRA, B DRSINGHCHANDRA. "Magneto-hydrodynamic Unsteady Flow of a Dusty liquid Through a Channel Under the Influence of Inclined Magnetic Field.". In: International Journal of Biochemiphysics, Vol. 5 (Nos 1& 2). Materials Research Society; 1996. Abstract
1. Singh C. B.  .  August . .
M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL, M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Magnitude and Direction of Thermal Diffusion of Colloidal Particles Measured by Thermal Field-Flow Fractionation.". In: J. Colloid and Interface Sci., 266(2), 366-376. AWC and FES; 2003. Abstract
domain of the putative celB gene from alkalophilic Bacillus
Shay TZ;, Haidar J;, Kogi-Makau W. "Magnitude of and driving factors for female genital cutting in schoolgirls in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a crosssectional study."; 2010. Abstract

Background. Female genital cutting (FGC) is practised throughout the world, and is common in many Asian and African countries. Although FGC in Ethiopia has decreased, the practice is still very widespread. Methods. A cross-sectional study design with an analytical component was used to study girls attending randomly sampled primary schools in Addis Ababa between August and June 2008. A total of 407 girls, selected from four primary schools, and their respective families were recruited. Data were collected through self-administered and open-ended questionnaires and analysed using bivariate and multivariate models. Results. In this group of schoolgirls, 26.0% had undergone FGC at a median age of 4 years. FGC had most commonly been performed at age 1 - 5 years, when 50.9% of the total group had been circumcised. Of the girls attending government schools, 36.6% had undergone FGC. The majority of the procedures had been performed by traditional circumcisers (62.3%), followed by health workers (22.6%). The decision to subject the girl to FGC was most frequently made by mothers (38.7% of the FGC group), the remainder of the decisions being made by fathers (24.5%), both parents (22.6%) and relatives (14.2%). There was a significantly higher prevalence of FGC among girls attending government schools, girls of Guraghe ethnicity, and girls whose mothers had no knowledge about the harm of FGC. A smaller proportion of girls living with both parents than of those living with relatives had undergone FGC. Conclusions. FGC is prevalent in primary schoolgirls in the capital city of Ethiopia, despite improved availability of health information. This situation underscores the need to reinforce the national law against FGC. Creation of awareness should be focused on parents of Guraghe ethnicity and on government schools. Parental education should be promoted, and empowerment of women is required to fight FGC.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Magnitude of hepatitis C virus infection in India: prevalence in healthy blood donors, acute and chronic liver diseases. J Med Virol. 1997 Mar;51(3):167-74.". In: J Med Virol. 1997 Mar;51(3):167-74. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1997. Abstract
An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was developed in-house for the detection of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody against the prevailing genotypes in India. The specific reactivity of the test was compared with commercial second and third-generation EIAs and reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR). Fifteen thousand nine hundred twenty-two healthy blood donors at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India, were screened for anti-HCV antibody. Two hundred ninety-five (1.85%) of these donors were positive. The screening was also used to determine how many patients with acute hepatitis and chronic liver diseases were positive for anti-HCV antibody. Five hundred sixty-four chronic liver disease patients were screened for anti-HCV antibody and 78 (13.83%) were found positive. Two hundred forty-seven sporadic acute viral hepatitis patients were screened for viral infection markers. Hepatitis B and E viruses (HBV and HEV) were the major etiologic agents. HCV was associated with 9% of the acute cases. Anti-HCV core IgM with HCV RNA detection were found to be helpful for the diagnosis of acute HCV infection.
Bourne RRA, Flaxman SR, Braithwaite T, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Jonas JB, Keeffe J, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester A, Stevens GA, Tahhan N, Wong TY, Taylor HR. "Magnitude, temporal trends, and projections of the global prevalence of blindness and distance and near vision impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis." The Lancet Global Health. 2017;5:e888-e897. AbstractWebsite

Global and regional prevalence estimates for blindness and vision impairment are important for the development of public health policies. We aimed to provide global estimates, trends, and projections of global blindness and vision impairment. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based datasets relevant to global vision impairment and blindness that were published between 1980 and 2015. We fitted hierarchical models to estimate the prevalence (by age, country, and sex), in 2015, of mild visual impairment (presenting visual acuity worse than 6/12 to 6/18 inclusive), moderate to severe visual impairment (presenting visual acuity worse than 6/18 to 3/60 inclusive), blindness (presenting visual acuity worse than 3/60), and functional presbyopia (defined as presenting near vision worse than N6 or N8 at 40 cm when best-corrected distance visual acuity was better than 6/12). Globally, of the 7·33 billion people alive in 2015, an estimated 36·0 million (80% uncertainty interval [UI] 12·9–65·4) were blind (crude prevalence 0·48%; 80% UI 0·17–0·87; 56% female), 216·6 million (80% UI 98·5–359·1) people had moderate to severe visual impairment (2·95%, 80% UI 1·34–4·89; 55% female), and 188·5 million (80% UI 64·5–350·2) had mild visual impairment (2·57%, 80% UI 0·88–4·77; 54% female). Functional presbyopia affected an estimated 1094·7 million (80% UI 581·1–1686·5) people aged 35 years and older, with 666·7 million (80% UI 364·9–997·6) being aged 50 years or older. The estimated number of blind people increased by 17·6%, from 30·6 million (80% UI 9·9–57·3) in 1990 to 36·0 million (80% UI 12·9–65·4) in 2015. This change was attributable to three factors, namely an increase because of population growth (38·4%), population ageing after accounting for population growth (34·6%), and reduction in age-specific prevalence (−36·7%). The number of people with moderate and severe visual impairment also increased, from 159·9 million (80% UI 68·3–270·0) in 1990 to 216·6 million (80% UI 98·5–359·1) in 2015. There is an ongoing reduction in the age-standardised prevalence of blindness and visual impairment, yet the growth and ageing of the world's population is causing a substantial increase in number of people affected. These observations, plus a very large contribution from uncorrected presbyopia, highlight the need to scale up vision impairment alleviation efforts at all levels. Brien Holden Vision Institute.

Ouma JO, Olang LO, Ouma GO, Oludhe C, Ogallo L, Artan G. "Magnitudes of Climate Variability and Changes over the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands of Kenya between 1961 and 2013 Period." American Journal of Climate Change. 2018;7(1):27-39. Abstractmagnitudes_of_climate_variability_and_changes_over_the_arid_and_semi-arid_lands_of_kenya_between_1961_and_2013_period.pdfAmerican Journal of Climate Change

The magnitude and trend of temperature and rainfall extremes as indicators of climate variability and change were investigated in the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs) of Kenya using in-situ measurements and gridded climate proxy datasets, and analysed using the Gaussian-Kernel analysis and the Mann-Kendall statistics. The results show that the maximum and minimum temperatures have been increasing, with warmer temperatures being experienced mostly at night time. The average change in the mean maximum and minimum seasonal surface air temperature for the region were 0.74˚C and 0.60˚C, respectively between the 1961-1990 and 1991-2013 periods. Decreasing but statistically insignificant trends in the seasonal rainfall were noted in the area, but with mixed patterns in variability. The March-April-May rainfall season indicated the highest decrease in the seasonal rainfall amounts. The southern parts of the region had a decreasing trend in rainfall that was greater
than that of the northern areas. The results of this study are expected to support sustainable pastoralism system prevalent with the local communities in the ASALs.

TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Magnusson, U., Wattrang, E., Tsuma, V.T. and Fossum, C. (1998). Effects of stress resulting from short-term restraint on in vitro functional capacity of leucocytes obtained from pigs. Am. J. Vet. Res., 59: 421-425,.". In: Proc. Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nairobi, Kenya. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
ONSERIO MRNYAMWANGESTEPHEN, ONSERIO MRNYAMWANGESTEPHEN. "Magutu Peterson and Onserio Nyamwange, "Quality Management in Higher Education in Kenya".". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . IBIMA Publishing; 2009.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Mahesh S., N. P. Hanan, R. J. Scholes, J. Ratnam, D. J. Augustine, B. S. Cade, J. Gignoux, S. I. Higgins, Xavier Le Roux, F. Ludwig8, J. Ardo, F. Banyikwa, A. Bronn, G. Bucini, K. K. Caylor, M. B. Coughenour, A. Diouf, W. N. Ekaya, C. J. Feral, E C. Febru.". In: Nature, 438: 846 . ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2005. Abstract

A study was conducted to determine dietary characteristics of sheep and Grant's gazelles on Kapiti Ranch, Kenya. The dietary botanical composition was determined using the microhistological technique. Plant species in the diets were categorized into grass, forb and browse classes. Shannon-Wiener and Morisita's similarity indices were used to express dietary diversity and overlap respectively. Diets were simulated based on microhistology results to give 50 gm samples, then analysed for crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, lignin, and in vitro dry matter digestibility. Sheep were predominantly grazers during dry and wet season while Grant's gazelles were mixed feeders, with a higher preference for grasses during the wet season and an equal preference for both grasses and browse during the dry season. Diets of Grant's gazelles were more diverse than those of sheep for both seasons. Degree of dietary overlap between the animal species was highest during the wet season. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in dietary nutrient content between the animal species, within seasons. Dry matter digestibility was significantly higher (P<0.05) for both species during the wet season. Neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, lignin and cellulose were significantly higher (P<0.05) during the dry season. Sheep diets were significantly higher (P<0.05) in crude protein during the wet season, whereas it was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the diets of Grant's gazelles during the dry season. Study findings indicate that, sheep and Grant's gazelles are compatible for efficient use of vegetation on Athi Kapiti plains. Integration of the two ruminants can make unique and important contribution to food production and income generation opportunities in areas with vegetation composition similar to that of Athi Kapiti plains.

Shah PS. "The Mahogany Tree." African Fund for Endangered Wildlife 2 (2003):12.the_mahogany_tree.pdf
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "Maichomo M W, Kosura, W.O., Gathuma J M, Gitau G K, Ndung.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Journal of South African Veterinary Association; 2009. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

MBAABU DRMATHIUPETER. "Maiga G. and Mathiu P.M., (2000). The role of myofibrillar ATPase and thyroid hormones in the initiation of homeothermy in the domestic fowl.". In: VIIth International Symposium on avian endocrinology,Varanasi India.. Elsevier; 2000. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
N.I DROONGEZABLON. "Maillacheruvu K.Y., Parkin G.N., Chen Ye Peng, Wen-Chien Kuo, Oonge Z.I., and Lebduschka V.; 1993; Sulfide Toxicity in Anaerobic Systems Fed Sulfate and Various Organics.". In: Water Environment Research Vol 65 No. 2 pp 100-109. World Conference of Phylosophy Proceedings; 1993.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Maina A.N., R.M. Waruiru, T.A. Ngatia, P.G. Mbuthia and W.K. Munyua. 2012. Gastrointestinal parasites and other endoparasites of indigenous chickens traded in Nairobi, Kenya. In the Proceedings of the Faculty of Veterinary medicine, UON, CAVS, 8th Biennia.". In: 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Scholarly Research Network; 2012. Abstract
The study was carried out between November 2008 and April 2009 to investigate the occurrence and pathology due to Echinostomum revolutum in free-range indigenous chickens. One hundred and fifty six (156) indigenous chickens were purchased from various farms and markets in A thorough post mortem examination was performed on each bird and the isolated worms from the ceaca, large intestines, cloaca and oviduct were identified and quantified.  Tissues were collected for histopathology, processed, examined and the severity of the lesions determined. Echinostoma revolutum was recovered in 3/156 (1.9 %) birds examined in the ceaca and large intestines but not in cloaca and oviduct. Affected birds originated from market birds in Kiambu. They caused heamorrhages and typhylo-enteritis in the affected birds. Other worms observed from these organs were Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, Heterakis isolonche, Heterakis dispar, Subulura brumpti, Raillietina echinobothrida and Hymenolepis contaniana. The trematodes are reported in Kenya for the first time.
W MRMAINAFRANCIS. "Maina F.W., Kigondu-Sekkade C.B., Ojwang.". In: E.A.M. J. 46:442 (1997). EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract

PIP: 125 black Kenyan women attending the Kenyatta National Family Welfare Clinic were randomly allocated to combined and fixed dose oral contraceptives (Eugynon: 500 mcg dl-norgestrel + 50 mcg ethinyl estradiol or Microgynon: 150 mcg levonorgestel + 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol). They were between 18-33 years of age with a mean of 25 +or- 7 years. The mean parity of this group was 3 and they had a mean education standard of 8 years. Fasting blood sampled were taken on recruitment (control cycle) and thereafter once for cycles 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 during OC use. HDL-cholesterol was estimated in the sear. The 2 OCs elicited a significant decrease in levels of HDL-cholesterol (p0.01). author's modified

W MRMAINAFRANCIS, S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Maina F.W., Mati J.K.G., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B. .". In: J. Obs/Gyn. East Central Africa 1:126(1982). uon press; 1982. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
W MRMAINAFRANCIS, S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Maina F.W., Mati J.K.G., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B. .". In: J. Obs/Gyn. East Central Africa 1:126(1982). EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1982. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Maina F.W., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B, Ojwang P.J. Mati J.K.G. Changes of plasma HDL-Cholesterol in women using oral contraceptives. E. Afr. Med. J., 64 (7) 442, 1987.". In: E. Afr. Med. J., 64 (7) 442, 1987. uon press; 1987. Abstract
Kenya Medical Research Institute, Clinical Research Centre, Nairobi. Twenty nine patients with rickets were studied in a one year period. The majority of patients (17/29) were below 2 years of age. Most of them had nutritional rickets resulting from a combination of factors. Premature delivery, nonexposure to sunlight, nutritional marasmus and inappropriate dietary intake. Some had familial hypophosphataemic rickets, others had renal tubular acidosis while the rest had rickets with a familial tendency. Both the previous hospital records and the present study indicate that rickets is a persistent problem in children in the community and should be suspected in children who present with features of failure to thrive, among other conditions.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Maina F.W., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Ojwang P.J., Mati J.K.G. The effects of Oral Contraceptives on body weight and blood pressure in indigenous Kenyan women. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 6 (2), 97, 1987.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 6 (2), 97, 1987. uon press; 1987. Abstract
Kenya Medical Research Institute, Clinical Research Centre, Nairobi. Twenty nine patients with rickets were studied in a one year period. The majority of patients (17/29) were below 2 years of age. Most of them had nutritional rickets resulting from a combination of factors. Premature delivery, nonexposure to sunlight, nutritional marasmus and inappropriate dietary intake. Some had familial hypophosphataemic rickets, others had renal tubular acidosis while the rest had rickets with a familial tendency. Both the previous hospital records and the present study indicate that rickets is a persistent problem in children in the community and should be suspected in children who present with features of failure to thrive, among other conditions.
W MRMAINAFRANCIS. "Maina F.W., Sekkade-Kigondu C.B., Ojwang P.J., Mati J.K.G. .". In: J. Obs. Gyn. East Centr. Afr. 6:97 (1987). EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1987. Abstract
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The effect of a low-oestrogen combined pill, progestogen-only pill and medroxyprogesterone acetate on oral glucose tolerance test was studied in 29, 30 and 9 indigenous Kenyan women respectively. Glucose tolerance test was performed before treatment was started and then after 1,3 and 6 months in microgynon users. The mean areas under the glucose curves were also significantly elevated. Significant increase in blood glucose values were noted only at 30 minutes after 6 months of use of the progestogen-only oral contraceptive but the mean blood glucose values were higher than in the control after 1,3 and 6 months of use. However, the mean values of the areas under the glucose curves were significantly elevated after 1,3, and 6 months of use. Medroxyprogesterone acetate users showed significantly lower fasting blood glucose values at 60 and 90 minutes after 1 month of use, after which the blood glucose values returned to the pre-treatment values. The mean values of the glucose curve areas showed no significant change. It is concluded that both microgynon and minipill cause relative impairment of glucose tolerance test as early as after 1 month of use. Medroxyprogesterone acetate does not impair oral glucose tolerance for at least the first 6 months of use. The implications of these findings are discussed. PIP: Researchers followed 68 women who attended the Family Welfare Clinic at the Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya to determine if the low estrogen combined oral contraceptive (OC) Microgynon, a progestogen only OC, and Depo-Provera induce changes in the oral glucose test. These women did not take any steroidal contraceptives before entry into the study. Blood glucose levels were significantly higher after 60, 90 and 120 minutes than the control levels for women taking Microgynon. In addition, the mean areas under the glucose curves were substantially elevated after 1, 3, and 6 months above the control (p.002, .005, and .01 respectively). The only significant change in blood glucose levels in women taking the progestogen only OC occurred at 30 minutes after 6 months. Yet the mean areas under the curve were significantly higher than the control after ,1 2, and 3 months (p.005, .05 and .002 respectively). As for Depo-Provera, significantly lowered blood glucose levels only occurred after 1 month at 30, 50, and 90 minutes although no significant changes occurred after 1, 3, and 6 months in the mean areas under the glucose curves. Metabolic change occurred earlier and more often in Microgynon users than progestogen only OC users. This could be due to the progestogen levonorgestrel which has been shown to interrupt glucose metabolism. These changes could possible adversely effect women who are predisposed to developing diabetes, since 1 woman did develop a diabetic curve after 1 month of using Microgynon. Nevertheless no pattern towards abnormal glucose tolerance existed. Standard deviations of areas under the curves indicated that the number of women who develop glucose intolerance may increase with duration of use.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Maina FW, Sekadde-Kigondu CB, Ojwang PJ, Mati JK. Changes in plasma HDL-cholesterol in women using oral contraceptives in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1987 Jul.". In: E. Afr. Med. J., 64 (7) 442, 1987. uon press; 1987. Abstract

PIP: 125 black Kenyan women attending the Kenyatta National Family Welfare Clinic were randomly allocated to combined and fixed dose oral contraceptives (Eugynon: 500 mcg dl-norgestrel + 50 mcg ethinyl estradiol or Microgynon: 150 mcg levonorgestel + 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol). They were between 18-33 years of age with a mean of 25 +or- 7 years. The mean parity of this group was 3 and they had a mean education standard of 8 years. Fasting blood sampled were taken on recruitment (control cycle) and thereafter once for cycles 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 during OC use. HDL-cholesterol was estimated in the sear. The 2 OCs elicited a significant decrease in levels of HDL-cholesterol (p0.01). author's modified

GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Maina J.G., Mbuthia, P.G., Ngugi J.N., Karuri, E.G. Owiti G.O., Omolo, B., Orina P and Wangia S.M. 2012. Effects of managements practices and economic stimulus program on fish production in Mwea Division of Kirinyaga County. In the Proceedings of the Facu.". In: 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Scholarly Research Network; 2012. Abstract
The study was carried out between November 2008 and April 2009 to investigate the occurrence and pathology due to Echinostomum revolutum in free-range indigenous chickens. One hundred and fifty six (156) indigenous chickens were purchased from various farms and markets in A thorough post mortem examination was performed on each bird and the isolated worms from the ceaca, large intestines, cloaca and oviduct were identified and quantified.  Tissues were collected for histopathology, processed, examined and the severity of the lesions determined. Echinostoma revolutum was recovered in 3/156 (1.9 %) birds examined in the ceaca and large intestines but not in cloaca and oviduct. Affected birds originated from market birds in Kiambu. They caused heamorrhages and typhylo-enteritis in the affected birds. Other worms observed from these organs were Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, Heterakis isolonche, Heterakis dispar, Subulura brumpti, Raillietina echinobothrida and Hymenolepis contaniana. The trematodes are reported in Kenya for the first time.
MATHENGE PROFMARIBEIJAMES. "Maina P.W., G.M Mugera, J.M. Maribei, and P.N Nyaga. (1985). The control and prevention of subclinical mastitis in Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 9(2) 6-8.". In: Presented at the Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, 28-30 April, 1996. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract
The pathology of calves that died from experimental water intoxication was investigated. Oedema of the brain and urinary bladder, and renal damage were significant pathological findings in these calves. The findings were attributed to positive water balance in calves suffering from water intoxication
W DRMAINASUSAN, R PROFLESANWILFRED. "Maina S.W and Lesan W.R. Dental Plaque and Gingival condition of Mentally Handicapped Children in Mathare Special Training Centre Nairobi, Kenya. East Afri. Med J. 1988 May; 65(5):330-4.". In: East Afri. Med J. 1988 May; 65(5):330-4. International Journal of Climatology; 1988. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
W DRMAINASUSAN, R PROFLESANWILFRED. "Maina S.W and Lesan W.R. Dental Plaque and Gingival condition of Mentally Handicapped Children in Mathare Special Training Centre Nairobi, Kenya. East Afri. Med J. 1988 May; 65(5):330-4.". In: East Afri. Med J. 1988 May; 65(5):330-4. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
W DRMAINASUSAN. "Maina S.W and Ng'ang'a P.M. Root Canal Treatment and Pulpotomy in Kenya.East Afr. Med J. 1991 Apri; 68(4):243-8.". In: East Afr. Med J. 1991 Apri; 68(4):243-8. IBIMA Publishing; 1991. Abstract
This study was carried out to evaluate the practice and depth of knowledge of root canal treatment and pulpotomy by dentists in Kenya. Questionnaires were prepared and mailed to 114 dentists whose addresses were available. Sixty seven (58.8%) dentists responded. Of these, 67.2% carried out root canal treatment (RCT) and 43.3% carried out pulpotomy. The main reasons given by most dentists in the public hospitals for not carrying out these procedures routinely were lack of facilities and materials. Furthermore, it was found that amongst those who carried out these procedures, some used outdated techniques and materials. In order to reduce the large number of teeth lost through extraction, materials and equipment should be made available to enable dentists carry out root canal treatment and pulpotomies routinely. It is also necessary to have continuing dental education amongst dentists to update their knowledge of these procedures.
W DRMAINASUSAN. "Maina S.W and Waigaiyu C.K. The Average Human Tooth Lengths for Black Kenyan Population. East. Afr. Med J. 1990 Jan; 67(1):33-8.". In: East. Afr. Med J. 1990 Jan; 67(1):33-8. IBIMA Publishing; 1990. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
W DRMAINASUSAN. "Maina S.W and Wonlinsky L. E The Plaque Inhibiting Proterties of Aqueous Extracts of Neem. J Dent Res. 1999 May; 78(5):1094 abst.". In: J Dent Res. 1999 May; 78(5):1094 abst. IBIMA Publishing; 1999. Abstract
Joint exhibition of paintings and sculptures
W DRMAINASUSAN. "Maina S.W, Arithi M, Kerich E, Kihama J and M'mongera M. The Success Rate of Pulp Capping. African Journal of Oral Health Science, Vol.1 (2) Oct. 2000 Pg; 5-7.". In: African Journal of Oral Health Science, Vol.1 (2) Oct. 2000 Pg; 5-7. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract
Joint exhibition of paintings and sculptures
W DRMAINASUSAN. "Maina S.W. The Practical Application of ART-Journal of Dental Research 14th Congress of the East and Southern Africa Division of the IADR AUGUST 30- 2 SEPTEMBER 2000. HARARE, ZIMBABWE.". In: Journal of Dental Research 14th Congress of the East and Southern Africa Division of the IADR AUGUST 30- 2 SEPTEMBER 2000. HARARE, ZIMBABWE. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract
Joint exhibition of paintings and sculptures
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Maina SW, Ng'ang'a PM. Root canal treatment and pulpotomy in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1991 Apr;68(4):243-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 Apr;68(4):243-8. Elsevier; 1991. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, University of Nairobi. This study was carried out to evaluate the practice and depth of knowledge of root canal treatment and pulpotomy by dentists in Kenya. Questionnaires were prepared and mailed to 114 dentists whose addresses were available. Sixty seven (58.8%) dentists responded. Of these, 67.2% carried out root canal treatment (RCT) and 43.3% carried out pulpotomy. The main reasons given by most dentists in the public hospitals for not carrying out these procedures routinely were lack of facilities and materials. Furthermore, it was found that amongst those who carried out these procedures, some used outdated techniques and materials. In order to reduce the large number of teeth lost through extraction, materials and equipment should be made available to enable dentists carry out root canal treatment and pulpotomies routinely. It is also necessary to have continuing dental education amongst dentists to update their knowledge of these procedures.
(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Maina, A. K. and Mulei, C.M. (1993). The prevalence of udder and teat lesions in dairy cows in Kenya.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 41: 161-162.; 1993.
(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Maina, A.K. and Mulei, C.M. (1994). Mammary quarter infection rate in smallholder dairy farms in Kiambu District of Kenya.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 42: 69-70.; 1994.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Maina, A.K., Munyua, S.J., Mutiga, E.R. and Thaiya, A.G. 1993. Mammary gland infections in free-range goats in Kenya. Bull. Anim.hith.& Prod. Afr. 41 : 331.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1993. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "Maina, A.K., Munyua, S.J.M., Mutiga, E.R. and Thaiya, A.G. (1993). Mammary gland infections in free range goats in Kenya. Bulletin Animal Production Africa 41:333.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 41: 33. Bulletin Animal Production Africa; 1993. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Maina, A.N., Mbuthia, P.G., Ngatia, T.A., Waruiru, R.M. and Bebora, L. C. 2004. Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria species and parasitic worm infection in the lungs of traded indigenous chickens. Biennual FVM scientific conference, 2004.". In: Biennual FVM scientific conference, 2004. FVM; 2004. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Maina, A.N., Mbuthia, P.G., Ngatia, T.A., Waruiru, R.M.& Bebora, L.C., 2004. Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria species and parasitic lungworm infection in marketed indidenous chickens.". In: In: Proc. of the Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Verinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya, November 3-5. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
MARANDE PROFKISIASETH. "Maina, J. N., Kisia, S. M., Wood, C. M., Narahara, A., Bergman, H. L., Lairent, P. and Walsh, P. J. (1996) A comparative allometric study of the morphometrics of the gills of a hyperosmotic adapted cichlid fish, Oreochromis alcalicus grahami of Lake Magad.". In: Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association annual Scientific conference, Nairobi. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1996. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
G DMAINAJOYCE. "Maina, J.G. (2002). Aquaculture in Kenya – Past Constrains and future prospects.". In: 2nd Scientific Conference of the Kenya Livestock Technologists Association (KELITA). 10th to 13th September 2002. Nairobi, Kenya. The Kenya Medical Association; 2002. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
G DMAINAJOYCE. "Maina, J.G. and Gichohi C.M. (1992). Poultry Production and Marketing in Kenya. In.". In: All Africa Conference on Animal Agriculture. Nairobi, Kenya.November 1992. The Kenya Medical Association; 1992. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
G DMAINAJOYCE. "Maina, J.G., and Mwangi T.K. (2002). Current land tenure system and the feminization of poverty – the case of the Central Kenya highlands.". In: Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi, 7th – 9th August 2002. The Kenya Medical Association; 2002. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
G DMAINAJOYCE. "Maina, J.G., Beames, R.M., Higgs D., Iwama, G., Mbugua, P.N., and Kisia S. (2003). Partial replacement of fishmeal with sunflower cake and corn oil in diets for tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linn): Effect on whole body fatty acids.". In: Aquaculture Research 34, 601 – 608. The Kenya Medical Association; 2003. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
G DMAINAJOYCE. "Maina, J.G., Beames, R.M., Higgs, D., Iwama G., Mbugua, P.N. and Kisia S. (2002). Digestibility and feeding value of some feed ingredients fed to tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linn).". In: Aquaculture Research 33 (11), 853-862. The Kenya Medical Association; 2002. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
G DMAINAJOYCE. "Maina, J.G., Beames, R.M., Higgs, D., Iwama, G., Mbugua, P.N. and Kisia A. (2000). Digestibility, Feeding value and limiting amino acids in high-fibre and fibre-reduced sunflower cake fed to tilapia O. niloticus.". In: Canadian Association of African Studies. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada April 30th – May 4th 2000. The Kenya Medical Association; 2000. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
G DMAINAJOYCE. "Maina, J.G., Beames, R.M., Higgs, D., Iwama, G., Mbugua, P.N. and Kisia S. (2005). A Comparison of the Nutritional Quality of Kenya’s omena fishmeal and LT. Anchovy fishmeal fed to tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linn).". In: Veterinary Journal Vol. 49 (2005). The Kenya Medical Association; 2005. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
G DMAINAJOYCE. "Maina, J.G., Kabuage, L.W and Owiti C (2005). Integrating Fish Culture into rice farming at Mwea Irrigation Scheme in Kirinyaga District Phase 2: Choice of species, stocking density and potential of local fish species to be used in the control of mosquito.". In: AICAD Final Reports Presentation Workshop at the Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (12th – 14th September 2005). The Kenya Medical Association; 2005. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
G DMAINAJOYCE. "Maina, J.G., Kabuage, L.W. and Omolo B. (2004). Integrating fish culture into rice and livestock farming at Mwea Irrigation Scheme in Kirinyaga District Phase 1: The Possibilities and Challenges.". In: African Institute for Capacity Development (AICAD) conference (9th September – 11th September 2004) at Jomo Kenyatta College of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi Kenya. The Kenya Medical Association; 2004. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
G DMAINAJOYCE. "Maina, J.G., Mbugua P.N. and Mitaru B. (1992). Effect of Biotin supplementation in broiler chicken: Effect on growth, Feed Conversion Ratio, Hepatic lipid content and plasma biotin levels.". In: Animal Production Society of Kenya Egerton, Njoro. July 1992. The Kenya Medical Association; 1992. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
MARANDE PROFKISIASETH. "Maina, J.G.; Beames, R.M..; Higgs, D.; Mbugua, P.W.; Iwama, G. and Kisia, S,M. (2003). Partial replacement of fishmeal with sunflower cake and corn oil in diets for tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.): effect on whole body fatty acids. Aquaculture Research.". In: Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association annual Scientific conference, Nairobi. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2003. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
MARANDE PROFKISIASETH. "Maina, J.G.; Beames, R.M.; Higgs, D.; Mbugua, P.N.; Iwama, G. and Kisia, S.M. (2002). Digestibility and feeding value of some feed ingredients fed to tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. Aquaculture research. 33, 853-862.". In: Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association annual Scientific conference, Nairobi. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2002. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MAINA, J.N. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1985) The morphology of the respiratory organs of the African air-breathing catfish (Clarias mossambicus). Proceedings of the XIIth International Anatomical Congress, Book Production Consultants, Cambridge, p. 426.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1985. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MAINA, J.N. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1985) The morphometry of the lungs of the African lungfish (Propterus aethiopicus): its structural functional correlations. Proceedings of Royal Society of London B. 224, 399-420.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1985. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MAINA, J.N. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1986) The morphology of the respiratory organs of the African air-breathing catfish (Clarias mossambicus, Peters): a light electron and scanning microscope study with morphometric observations. Journal of Zoology London 209,.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1986. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MAINA, J.N. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1988) A scanning electron microscope study of the lungs of a caecilian(Boulengerula taitanus). Journal of Zoology London 215, 730-751.". In: Proceedings of International Union of Physiological Sciences 17, 335. EAMJ; 1988. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MAINA, J.N. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1998) Adaptations of tropical swamp worm, Alma emini, for subsistence in H2S-rich habitat: evolution of endosymbiotic bacteria, sulfide metabolizing bodies and novel processes of elimination of neutralized sulfide complexes.". In: Annual Conference Society for integrative and Comparative Biology New Orleans Louisiana U.S.A. EAMJ; 1998. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MAINA, J.N., MALOIY, G.M.O. and WOOD, C.M. (1998) Respiratory strategies, mechanisms and morphology of the 'lung' of a tropical swamp worm, Alma emini, Mich. (Oligochaeta: Glassoscolecidae): a transmission and scanning electron microscopic study with fiel.". In: Annual Conference Society for integrative and Comparative Biology New Orleans Louisiana U.S.A. EAMJ; 1998. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
NDERITU PROFWARUICHARLES. "Maina, J.N., Maloiy, G.M.O., Warui C.N., Njogu, E. K. and Kokwaro, E.D. (1989).A Scanning electron microscope study of the reptilian lung: The savanna monito lizard (Varanus exanthematicus) and the pancake tortoise Malacochersus tornieri).Anatomical Recor.". In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on advances in Reproductive Research in Man and Animals, National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya.; 1989.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MAINA, J.N., MALOIY, G.M.O., WARUI, C.N., NJOGU, E.K. and KOKWARO,E.D. (1989) A scanning electron microscope study of the reptilian lung: the savannah monitor lizard (Varanus exanthemanticas) and the pancake tortoise (Malacochersus tornieri). Anatomical R.". In: Annual Conference Society for integrative and Comparative Biology New Orleans Louisiana U.S.A. EAMJ; 1989. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
THUO DRKARUGIAJOSEPH. "Maina, Paul Guthiga, Joseph T. Karugia and Rose Nyikal (submitted). "The Effect of Using Animal Traction on Maize Production Efficiency on Smallholder Farms in Central Kenya: A Case of Kirinyaga District" submitted to Agricultural Economics.". In: Contributed Paper accepted for presentation at the 26th Conference of International Association of Agricultural Economists in Brisbane, Australia. African Meteorological Society; 2005. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Maina, Philomena, Karani, Anna, et al Problems Encountered by Middle Level Nurse Managers in Ensuring Quality Nursing Care in Kenyatta National Hospital. Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 32 No.2, December, 2004.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2004. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Maina, Philomena, Karani, Anna, et al.Problems Encountered by Middle Level Nurse Managers in Ensuring Quality Nursing Care in Kenyatta National Hospital. Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 32 No.2, December, 2004.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 32 No.2. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2004. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH. "Mainga, P.M., J.P. Mbuvi and P.N. Nduhiu, 2000. The wetland soils of Central Kenya: Characteristics, Classification and Current use. Soil Science Society of East Africa. pp 329-335. ISBN 9966-879-27-7.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Maingi, N, Munyua, W.K. and Gichohi, V.M. (1993). Prevalence and levels of infection with helminths in sheep in Nyandarua District of Kenya. Proc. of 14th Inter. Conf. of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) Au.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1993. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Maingi, N. Bjorn H., Gichohi, V.M., Munyua, W.K. and Gathuma, J.M. (1998). Resistance to benzimidazoles and levamisole in nematode parasites of sheep in Nyandarua district of Kenya Acta Tropica 69: 31-40.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Maingi, N., Bjorn H., Thamsborg S.M., Munyua. W.K., Gathuma, J.M. and Dangolla, A. (1997). Worm control practices on sheep farms in Nyandarua district of Kenya. Acta Tropica. 68: 1-9.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Maingi, N., Bjorn, H., Munyua,W.K. and Gathuma, J.M. (1998). Resistance to benzimidazoles and levamisole in nematode parasites of sheep in Nyandarua District of Kenya. Acta Tropica, 69, 31-40.". In: journal. FARA; 1998. Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Maingi, N., Bjorn, H., Thamsborg, S.M., Nansen, P., Munyua, W.K. and Gathuma J.M. (1994). Gastrointestinal helminth control practices and anthelmintic resistance on sheep farms in Nyandarua District of Kenya.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Maingi, N., Bjorn, H., Thamsborg, S.M.,Munyua,W.K., Gathuma,J.M. and Dangolla , A. (1997). Worm control practices on sheep farms in Nyandarua District of Kenya.Acta Tropica, 68:1-9.". In: journal. FARA; 1997. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Maingi, N., Bjorn, H., Thamsborg, S.M.,Munyua,W.K., Gathuma,J.M. and Dangolla , A. (1997). Worm control practices on sheep farms in Nyandarua District of Kenya.Acta Tropica, 68:1-9.". In: Nairobi Journal of Medince 1: 23, 1970. au-ibar; 1997. Abstract
No abstract available.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Maingi, N., Gichohi, V.M., Munyua, W.K., Gathuma, J.M. and Thamsborg, S.M. (1997). The epidemiology of nematodes and liver fluke infections in sheep in Nyandarua district ofKenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. 45: 27-34.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Maingi, N., Thamsborg, S.M., Gichohi, V.M., Munyua, W.K. and Gathuma, J.M. (1997). The strategic use of closantel and albendazole in controlling naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in the Kenya highlands. Vet. Res. Commun. 21: 547-557.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Maingi, N., Thamsborg,S.M., Munyua, W.K. and Gathuma, J.M. (1997). The strategic use of closantel and albendazole in cotrolling naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in the Kenya Highlands. Veterinary Research Communications,21:547-557.". In: journal. FARA; 1997. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Maingi, N., W.K. Munyua, and M.N. Gichigi (2002). Strategic use of moxidectin or closantel in combination with levamisole in the control of nematodes of sheep in the highlands of central Kenya. Acta Tropica 84: 93-100.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Maingi, N.E. and Munyua, W.K. (1994). Prevalence and intensity of infection with Eimeria species in sheep in Nyandarua District of Kenya. Vet. Res. Commun. 18: 19-25.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
Dulo. "Mainstreaming climate change into regional trade and integration .". In: Hydrological and Regional Climate Modelling Tools for Climate Change Risk Management in the Nile Basin. Cairo, Egypt; 2013.
Inyega JO, Inyega HN. "Mainstreaming early grade reading instruction in early childhood teacher education." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2017;5(4):103-119.
"Mainstreaming early grade reading instruction in early childhood teacher education." International Journal of Innovation Education and Research. 2017;5(4):103-119.
W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "Mainstreaming Gender Issues in the Democratization Agenda and National Development Policies, some strategies for women's empowerment.". In: paper presentedn at an ICJs seminar on sectoral studies on Kenya's Future Policy Reforms Aberdare Country Club, 12th - 15th May.; 1993. Abstract

Journal of Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies

Maina SM, Gachigi WM. "Mainstreaming Indigeneous natural Fibres foe Eco-Friendly African Product Design in Kenya: A case study of (mugio) triumphetta macrophylla fibre." Africa Habitat Review, Journal of the School of the Built Environment, University of Nairobi. 2014;vol.8(No. 8):683-693.
Wagoro MCA, Rakuom CP. "Mainstreaming Kenya-Nursing Process in clinical settings: the case of Kenya." International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences. 2015;3:31-39. Abstract
n/a
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. ""Mainstreaming Labour and Employment Concerns Within the Framework of the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD): Issues, Initiatives and Actions." Keynote Address to a Forum of Permanent/Principal Secretaries, Directors-General and Commissioner.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2004. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Ngware M, Muthaka D, Ouma S, Njeru J, Manda DK. "Mainstreaming social budgeting into the budgetary process in Kenya." KIPPRA Discussion Paper No. 57. 2006.
Gichuki N. "Mainstreaming the Youth in Local Governance.". In: Consultative Workshop organized by Africa Youth Trust. Nairobi; 2008.
W KM. "Mainstreaming Women in Rural Travel and Transport in Kenya: A case of Kandara, Magadi and Limuru Divisions:.". In: Gender and Rural Transport Initiative End of Phase III Workshop. Harare, Zimbabwe; 2002.
W KM. "Mainstreaming Women in Rural Travel and Transport in Kenya: A case of Kandara, Magadi and Limuru Divisions:.". In: Gender and Rural Transport Initiative End of Phase III Workshop. Harare, Zimbabwe; 2002.
Njeru GW, Maina SM, Munene M. "Mainstreaming “Adaptive Standards for Multi-Purpose Interior Design In Low-Cost Housing Projects: A Case Study of the Kibera Soweto East Housing Project in Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal Of Innovative Research & Development . 2019;8(DOI No.: 10.24940/ijird/2019/v8/i10/OCT19076).
Ogeng'o J, Ongeti K. "Maintaining excellence in departments of Human Anatomy: University of Nairobi experience." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2013;2(1):117-129. Abstract

Experience in maintaining excellence in teaching of human anatomy is important in informing strategies to mitigate worldwide decline in the level of knowledge of human anatomy among medical students and qualifying doctors. Factors responsible for the decline include reduction in teaching time, inadequate teachers and undermining of cadaver dissection. Measures to address these challenges have resulted in wide disparities in curriculum design, teaching methods, number and composition of instructors. Despite the challenges of rising student numbers and staff shortages, the Department of Human Anatomy of the University of Nairobi has maintained excellence in teaching for over 40yrs. This article describes the teaching of anatomy at the University with a view of elucidating the practices from which other departments can learn. Analysis reveals that human anatomy is allocated 630hrs per year of which 350hrs are assigned to gross anatomy with 270hrs devoted to dissection. Although dissection has remained the cornerstone of instruction, it is combined with problem based learning, use of prosections, diagnostic imaging, computer aided and small group teaching. Teaching of gross anatomy is integrated with microscopic, developmental and neuroanatomy. The department runs an intercalated Bachelor of Science degree program, which is a reliable source of members of staff. Over 70% of the staff are surgeons. They are assisted by demonstrators drawn from trainee surgeons and B.Sc. Anatomy graduates. Excellence in teaching anatomy can be maintained by reclaiming sufficient teaching time, combining dissection with other contemporary methods of instruction, integrating gross, microscopic, developmental anatomy, neuroanatomy, involvement of clinicians in teaching, commencing training anatomy early and engagement of demonstrators.

Ogeng ’o JA, ONGETI K, Misiani M, Olabu B. "Maintaining excellence in Teaching of Human Anatomy: University of Nairobi Experience." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2013;2(1):117-129. Abstract

Experience in maintaining excellence in teaching of human anatomy is important in informing strategies to mitigate worldwide decline in the level of knowledge of human anatomy among medical students and qualifying doctors. Factors responsible for the decline include reduction in teaching time, inadequate teachers and undermining of cadaver dissection. Measures to address these challenges have resulted in wide disparities in curriculum design, teaching methods, number and composition of instructors. Despite the challenges of rising student numbers and staff shortages, the Department of Human Anatomy of the University of Nairobi has maintained excellence in teaching for over 40yrs. This article describes the teaching of anatomy at the University with a view of elucidating the practices from which other departments can learn. Analysis reveals that human anatomy is allocated 630hrs per year of which 350hrs are assigned to gross anatomy with 270hrs devoted to dissection. Although dissection has remained the cornerstone of instruction, it is combined with problem based learning, use of prosections, diagnostic imaging, computer aided and small group teaching. Teaching of gross anatomy is integrated with microscopic, developmental and neuroanatomy. The department runs an intercalated Bachelor of Science degree program, which is a reliable source of members of staff. Over 70% of the staff are surgeons. They are assisted by demonstrators drawn from trainee surgeons and B.Sc. Anatomy graduates. Excellence in teaching anatomy can be maintained by reclaiming sufficient teaching time, combining dissection with other contemporary methods of instruction, integrating gross, microscopic, developmental anatomy, neuroanatomy, involvement of clinicians in teaching, commencing training anatomy early and engagement of demonstrators.

Ogeng’o J, Ongeti K, Misiani M, Olabu B. "Maintaining Excellence in Teaching of Human Anatomy: University of Nairobi Experience." Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2013;2(1):117-129.
Ogeng’o J, ONGETI K, Misiani M, Olabu B. "Maintaining excellence in the teaching of {Human} {Anatomy}: {University} of {Nairobi} {Experience}." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2013;2:117-129. Abstract
n/a
Kokwaro JO. "Maintaining the balance between Agriculture and the environment.". In: Fifth International Farm Management Congress. Nairobi; 1983.
Gichaga FJ. "Maintenance of Roads in Kenya.". In: TRRL/MOTC/UON Highway Engineering Course. Nairobi; 1982.
Secretary - Kachero F. Maintenance Policy. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2010.maintenance_policy.pdf
Prof. Wamutiso K. "Maisha ya majagina wa kifasihi, kidini na kimapisi.". Forthcoming.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "Maitai C.K Guantai A.N, and Mwangi J.W, Self Medication in management of Minor Health Problems in Kenya. East African Medical Journal 58 (8) 593 1981.". In: East African Medical Journal 58 (8) 593 1981. A.N. GUANTAI and C.K. MAITA; 1981. Abstract

he distribution of cathinone and d-norpseudoephedrine in Catha edit/is plants from 2 different geographical localities has been investigated. There was no difference in the chemical constituents of Catha material from 2 locali-ties. D-norpseudoephedrine was present in all parts of the plant examined except the root but cathinone was only detected in the young shoots and bran-chlets. It is concluded that the psychostinaulant effect following chewing of young Catha shoots is due to both cathinone and d-norpseudoephedrine with the cathinone being more important since it is 7-10 times more potent than d-norpseudoephedrine.

K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai C.K. Ogeto J and Juma F. A compasative study of 7 brands of Frusemide Product E.A. Med. J. Vol 61, 1984.". In: E.A. Med. J. Vol 61, 1984. African Crop Science Society; 1984. Abstract

Residue levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons p,p'-DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane), p,p'-DDE (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in human milk of Kenyan mothers living in different areas of Kenya. The main organochlorine contaminants found in all the milk samples analyzed were p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. Great regional differences were found, and mean levels of sum DDT and DDT/DDE ratio ranged from 1.1 to 18.7 mg/kg milk fat and from 0.7 to 5.7, respectively. In general, relatively low residue levels of HCB, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, aldrin, and dieldrin were detected in 59, 37, 27, 37, and 19%, respectively, of all the milk samples analyzed. Quantifiable residue levels of PCBs and alpha-HCH were not found. The results were examined in relation to differences in living conditions with regard to agricultural activities, dietary habits, and reported use of pesticides in the various sampling areas.

K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai C.K. Tropical Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Kenya P. 63 .". In: Proc. symposium commonwealth science council, Harare, Zimbabwe, June 3 . African Crop Science Society; 1985. Abstract

Residue levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons p,p'-DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane), p,p'-DDE (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in human milk of Kenyan mothers living in different areas of Kenya. The main organochlorine contaminants found in all the milk samples analyzed were p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. Great regional differences were found, and mean levels of sum DDT and DDT/DDE ratio ranged from 1.1 to 18.7 mg/kg milk fat and from 0.7 to 5.7, respectively. In general, relatively low residue levels of HCB, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, aldrin, and dieldrin were detected in 59, 37, 27, 37, and 19%, respectively, of all the milk samples analyzed. Quantifiable residue levels of PCBs and alpha-HCH were not found. The results were examined in relation to differences in living conditions with regard to agricultural activities, dietary habits, and reported use of pesticides in the various sampling areas.

N PROFGUANTAIA. "Maitai C.K., Kibwage I.O., Guantai A.N., Ombega J.O and Ndemo F.A. A retrospective study of childhood poisoning in Kenya 1991-93 E.C.A.J. PSc. 1.7-10. 1998.". In: E.C.A.J. PSc. 1.7-10. 1998. F.A. OKALEBO*, H.A. RABAHI, A.N. GUANTAII, C.K. MALTA', I.0. K1BWAGE, J.W. MWANGI AND W. MASENGO; 1998. Abstract

The in vitro antimalarial activity of the root extract in partly supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria. Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders. Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats. Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity. The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against the inulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 jig/nil). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity. The leaf, stein and root extracts had no bacterial or fungal inhibitory effects even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The Lll50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 jig/ml, respectively. Key Words: Clematis brachiata, Ranuneulaceae, antimalarial, antibacterial, antifungal, brine shrimp.

"Maitai C.K., Njoroge D.K., Abuga K.O. , Mwaura A.M., Munenge R.W. Investigation of possible antidotal effects of activated charcoal, sodium bicarbonate, hydrogen peroxide and potassium permanganate in zinc phosphide poisoning." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 2002;5(2):38-41. AbstractWebsite

Zinc phosphide, a commonly used rat poison in Kenya was mixed with maize flour in a concentration of 0.15% w/w and fed to a group of 60 experimental mice for 3 hours. The mice were then randomly divided into 5 equal groups A, B, C, D and E. To groups A, B, C and D was administered activated charcoal (3% w/v), sodium bicarbonate (10% w/v), hydrogen peroxide(0.5% v/v) and potassium permanganate (1:5000) respectively. Group E was given 1 ml distilled water and used as control. All five groups were observed for symptoms of toxicity, often culminating in death. The observations were continued over a period of 36 hours. Results of the experiment showed that all for test substances minimized the lethal effect of zinc phosphide. Although no attempt was made to quantify the antidotal effect of the 4 substances, activated charcoal appeared to have a higher effect than the others, while potassium permanganate had a low rating.

K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai C.K., Nyangeri J.B. Catha edulis - A detailed Review Focusing on Chemistry, Health Implications, Economic, Legal, Social, Cultural, Religions and Moral aspects (58 pages). National Council for Science and Technology DOC. NCST. No 40. June 1996.". In: National Council for Science and Technology DOC. NCST. No 40. June 1996. African Crop Science Society; 1996. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai CK, Dhadphale M. Khat-induced paranoid psychosis. Br J Psychiatry. 1988 Feb;152:294.". In: Br J Psychiatry. 1988 Feb;152:294. African Crop Science Society; 1988. Abstract
During a 4 year period (January 1983 to December 1986), 418 requests for drug analysis were received in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi. Of these requests, 212 were from Medical Supplies Coordination Unit, 190 from Government hospitals and health research institutions, 11 from the Ministry of Health Headquarters (Director of Medical Services and Chief Pharmacist) and 5 came from local pharmaceutical manufacturers. Of the samples analysed, 70.8% were from local manufacturers, 26.1% were imported and 3.1% were from undeclared sources. Failure to comply with test for quality, as set out in official compendia (B.P. Eur. ph. Ip, etc.) were observed at 45.8% for locally manufactured drugs and 31.4% for imported drug products.
K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai CK, Njoroge DK, Munenge RW. A comparative study of two antispasmodic products: Buscopan and NO-Spa. East Afr Med J. 1985 Jul;62(7):480-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Jul;62(7):480-5. African Crop Science Society; 1985. Abstract

Residue levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons p,p'-DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane), p,p'-DDE (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in human milk of Kenyan mothers living in different areas of Kenya. The main organochlorine contaminants found in all the milk samples analyzed were p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. Great regional differences were found, and mean levels of sum DDT and DDT/DDE ratio ranged from 1.1 to 18.7 mg/kg milk fat and from 0.7 to 5.7, respectively. In general, relatively low residue levels of HCB, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, aldrin, and dieldrin were detected in 59, 37, 27, 37, and 19%, respectively, of all the milk samples analyzed. Quantifiable residue levels of PCBs and alpha-HCH were not found. The results were examined in relation to differences in living conditions with regard to agricultural activities, dietary habits, and reported use of pesticides in the various sampling areas.

K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai CK, Njoroge DK, Munenge RW.Interaction between nifedipine and digoxin in rats. East Afr Med J. 1995 Jan;72(1):75-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Jan;72(1):75-6. African Crop Science Society; 1995. Abstract
Possible nifedipine-digoxin interaction was investigated in rats by comparing lethal doses of intravenously infused digoxin in control and experimental rats. In the experimental rats, nifedipine was administered intraperitoneally, 30 minutes prior to infusing digoxin at a constant rate of 40mcg per minute. Results indicate that nifedipine administered within the dosage range 0.5-2.0mg per kg rat body weight, lowered the lethal dose of intravenously infused digoxin by 26-38% compared with control rats, thus indicating a synergistic effect between the two drugs. There was very little dose dependence of this effect. It is concluded that concomitant administration of nifedipine and digoxin in humans may lead to drug interactions.
K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai CK, Ogeto JO, Munenge RW, Ochieng S, Juma FD. A comparative study of the efficacy of seven brands of frusemide tablets. East Afr Med J. 1984 Jan;61(1):6-10.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Jan;61(1):6-10. African Crop Science Society; 1984. Abstract

Residue levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons p,p'-DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane), p,p'-DDE (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in human milk of Kenyan mothers living in different areas of Kenya. The main organochlorine contaminants found in all the milk samples analyzed were p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. Great regional differences were found, and mean levels of sum DDT and DDT/DDE ratio ranged from 1.1 to 18.7 mg/kg milk fat and from 0.7 to 5.7, respectively. In general, relatively low residue levels of HCB, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, aldrin, and dieldrin were detected in 59, 37, 27, 37, and 19%, respectively, of all the milk samples analyzed. Quantifiable residue levels of PCBs and alpha-HCH were not found. The results were examined in relation to differences in living conditions with regard to agricultural activities, dietary habits, and reported use of pesticides in the various sampling areas.

D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Maitai CK, Ogeto JO, Munenge RW, Ochieng S, Juma FD.A comparative study of the efficacy of seven brands of frusemide tablets.East Afr Med J. 1984 Jan;61(1):6-10.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Jan;61(1):6-10. UN-HABITAT; 1984. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of antipyrine were studied in 12 healthy volunteers and 10 patients of Kenya African origin with Hodgkin's lymphoma. The half-life of antipyrine was 12.2 +/- 1.3 h (mean + s.d.), while the apparent volume of distribution (V) was 0.67 +/- 0.11 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) and the total body clearance was 40.7 +/- 3.2 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) in the healthy volunteers. The antipyrine half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was 17.1 +/- 2.7 h (mean +/- s.d.). The apparent volume of distribution was 0.72 +/- 0.14 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) which was larger than in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.05). The total body clearance was 30.3 +/- 9.4 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean + s.d.) and this was reduced compared with that in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.02). After cytotoxic therapy the half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was significantly decreased to 8.3 +/- 1.3 h (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.07), and the apparent volume of distribution was reduced to 0.65 +/- 0.07 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.05) while the total body clearance increased to 52.8 +/- 5.5 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.01).

K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai CK. A review of dietary supplementation with trace minerals. East Afr Med J. 1988 Jan;65(1):48-50.". In: East Afr Med J. 1988 Jan;65(1):48-50. African Crop Science Society; 1988. Abstract
During a 4 year period (January 1983 to December 1986), 418 requests for drug analysis were received in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi. Of these requests, 212 were from Medical Supplies Coordination Unit, 190 from Government hospitals and health research institutions, 11 from the Ministry of Health Headquarters (Director of Medical Services and Chief Pharmacist) and 5 came from local pharmaceutical manufacturers. Of the samples analysed, 70.8% were from local manufacturers, 26.1% were imported and 3.1% were from undeclared sources. Failure to comply with test for quality, as set out in official compendia (B.P. Eur. ph. Ip, etc.) were observed at 45.8% for locally manufactured drugs and 31.4% for imported drug products.
K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai CK. Effect of cathinone on chick embryo heart. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1981 Mar;33(3):195.". In: J Pharm Pharmacol. 1981 Mar;33(3):195. African Crop Science Society; 1981. Abstract
Cathinone, a potent psychostimulant isolated from young shoots of Catha edulis was given to four human volunteers. Examination of urine collected from the volunteers at predetermined intervals showed the presence of unchanged cathinone, d-norpseudoephedrine, and two unidentified basic substances. The observed biotransformation of cathinone to the less potent psychostimulant, d-norpseudoephedrine involves reduction of a ketone group to alcohol, a common metabolic pathway in humans.
K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai CK. The craze for additional vitamin intake. East Afr Med J. 1984 Sep;61(9):661-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Sep;61(9):661-2. African Crop Science Society; 1984. Abstract

Residue levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons p,p'-DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane), p,p'-DDE (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in human milk of Kenyan mothers living in different areas of Kenya. The main organochlorine contaminants found in all the milk samples analyzed were p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. Great regional differences were found, and mean levels of sum DDT and DDT/DDE ratio ranged from 1.1 to 18.7 mg/kg milk fat and from 0.7 to 5.7, respectively. In general, relatively low residue levels of HCB, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, aldrin, and dieldrin were detected in 59, 37, 27, 37, and 19%, respectively, of all the milk samples analyzed. Quantifiable residue levels of PCBs and alpha-HCH were not found. The results were examined in relation to differences in living conditions with regard to agricultural activities, dietary habits, and reported use of pesticides in the various sampling areas.

K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai CK. The need for a poison information centre in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1983 Sep;60(9):597-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1983 Sep;60(9):597-8. African Crop Science Society; 1983. Abstract
Cathinone, a potent psychostimulant isolated from young shoots of Catha edulis was given to four human volunteers. Examination of urine collected from the volunteers at predetermined intervals showed the presence of unchanged cathinone, d-norpseudoephedrine, and two unidentified basic substances. The observed biotransformation of cathinone to the less potent psychostimulant, d-norpseudoephedrine involves reduction of a ketone group to alcohol, a common metabolic pathway in humans.
K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai CK.Bioavailability of drugs. East Afr Med J. 1982 Aug;59(8):503-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Aug;59(8):503-4. African Crop Science Society; 1982. Abstract
Cathinone, a potent psychostimulant isolated from young shoots of Catha edulis was given to four human volunteers. Examination of urine collected from the volunteers at predetermined intervals showed the presence of unchanged cathinone, d-norpseudoephedrine, and two unidentified basic substances. The observed biotransformation of cathinone to the less potent psychostimulant, d-norpseudoephedrine involves reduction of a ketone group to alcohol, a common metabolic pathway in humans.
K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai, C.K. The dynamic interplay between Man, Health and Medicine .". In: Inaugural lecture July 18, 1996, University of Nairobi, Kenya. African Crop Science Society; 1996. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

ELIAS PROFMAITHOT. "Maitho, T. 2005. Guidelines on Regulations and Syllabus for Postgraduate Programmes. University of Nairobi Institute of Tropical & Infectious Diseases Curriculum Development Workshop, Lake Bogoria Hotel, 10th .". In: Proceedings of University Science, Humanities & Engineering Partnerships in Africa (USHEPiA) Bench Marking Workshop, Entebbe, Uganda, 21st . de Gruyter; 2005. Abstract
Anthelmintic activity of the water extracts of Albizia anthelmintica bark and Maerua- edulis root was evaluated in mice that had been experimentally infected with the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus. The mice were randomly allocated into six treatment groups and one control group. Groups, 2, and 3 were given an oral dose of water extracts of A. anthelmintica at 5gm/kg, 10gm/kg and 20gm/kg bodyweight respectively in a divided dose on day 17 post-infection. Groups 4, 5 and 6 were given water extracts of M. edulis at a dosage of 5gm/kg, 10gm/kg and 20gm/kg bodyweight respectively in a divided dose. Group 7 was the control and was concurrently given a double oral dose of 0.2ml of physiological saline each. Mortality of some mice was observed in four groups after treatment. Five days after treatment, faecal worm egg count reduction was determined. The results showed a percentage faecal H. polygyus egg count reduction of 72%. 69%, 50%, 42% in groups 2,6,3 and 1 respectively. Seven days after treatment there was a reduction in worm counts at postmortem of 68%, 36%, /5%, 19%, 16% and 14% in groups 1,5,2 3,6, and 4 respectively compared to untreated controls. These results indicate that the plant extracts had anthelmintic activity and support the use of these plants as anthelmintics
ELIAS PROFMAITHOT. "Maitho, T., Lees, P. and Taylor, J.B. 1986. Absorption and Pharmacokinetics of phenylbutazone in welsh mountain ponies. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. 9, 26-39.". In: journal. de Gruyter; 1986. Abstract

The disposition of phenylbutazone (4.4 mg/kg), administered intravenously to six Welsh Mountain ponies, was described by a two-compartment open model. Pharmacokinetic parameters were not significantly different after morning dosing in comparison with afternoon dosing. When phenylbutazone (4.4 mg/kg) was administered orally to the same ponies, marked variations in time to peak concentrations were produced with different feeding schedules. When access to hay was permitted before and after dosing, the mean time to peak concentration was 13.2 ± 1.2 h and double peaks in the plasma concentration–time curve were common. Double peaks were also encountered when phenylbutazone was given to ponies deprived of food prior to, and allowed access to hay after, dosing. In this circumstance, mean times to peak concentration were much shorter (3.8 ± 1.3 h after morning dosing and 5.3 ± 1.5 h followed afternoon dosing). Absorption was more regular and double peaks were less apparent when food was withheld both before and after dosing. In order to explain these findings, it is tentatively postulated that, whereas some of the administered dose of phenylbutazone may be absorbed quickly, some may become adsorbed on to the feed and subsequently released by fermentative digestion in the large intestine and/or caecum. The consequences of delayed absorption in fed animals for toxicity and clinical efficacy, and for the use of phenylbutazone in equestrian sports, are considered. Delayed absorption in ponies given access to hay was not accompanied by a significant reduction in total absorption. Bioavailability was estimated to be approximately 69% in fed and 78%, in unfed ponies. Estimates of bioavailability gave similar values for morning (72%) and afternoon (71%) dosing.

ELIAS PROFMAITHOT. "Maitho, T.E., Mbithi, P.M.F., and Mavuti, K.M. 2005. The Research Degree and Role of Supervisor: University of Nairobi examples of best practice and critical problem areas.". In: Proceedings of University Science, Humanities & Engineering Partnerships in Africa (USHEPiA) Bench Marking Workshop, Entebbe, Uganda, 21st . de Gruyter; 2005.
PROF. SIBOE GEORGEM. "Maize flour contaminated with toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in Kenya.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences, Vol. 2(1): 236-241. Taylor & Francis; 1995. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Chumo JJ, Ochieng JAW, Njoroge K, Compton WA. "Maize improvement, production and protection in Eastern and Southern Africa.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd E & S Africa Regional Maize Conference. Nairobi & Kitale; 1989.
Njoroge, K; Mwendwa EW. Maize in Kenya: development and production.; 1982.
Macharia-Mutie CW, Moretti D, den Briel VN, Omusundi AM, Mwangi AM, Kok FJ, Zimmerman MB, Brouwer ID. "Maize porridge enriched with a micronutrient powder containing low-dose iron as NaFeEDTA but not amaranth grain flour reduces anemia and iron deficiency in Kenyan pre-school children." Journal of Nutrition . 2012;142:1756-1763.
Ong’amo G, Khadioli N, LeRu B, Mujica N, Carhuapoma P. "Maize stalk borer, Busseola fusca (Fuller 1901).". In: Pest distribution and risk atlas for Africa. Potential global and Regional distribution and abundance of agricultural and horticultural pests and associated biocontrol agents under current and future climates. Lima (Peru): International Potato Center (CIP).; 2016.
Gichuru L, Ininda J, Njoroge K. "Maize streak virus (MSV) disease expression in F1 hybrids of diverse genotypes.". In: 10th KARI biennial conference. Nairobi, Kenya ; 2007.
Hassan R, Corbett J, Njoroge K. "Maize Technology Development and Transfer: A GIS application for research planning in Kenya (Chapter 4) (Chapter 4). .". In: ). Combining geo-referenced survey data with agro-climate attributes to characterize maize production systems in Kenya. In: R.M. Hassan (Ed). CAB International, Oxford and New York:; 1998.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Maize yield reduction due to erosion in a high potential area of Central Kenya highlands. African Crop Sc. Journal, Vol. 6. No. 1, pp 29-37.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1998. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
Odhiambo JA, Norton U, Ngosia DS, Omondi E, Norton J. "Maize-bean farming and seasonal greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in sub-Saharan Africa.". 2013.
Mbatiah, Mwenda. Majilio ya Mkombozi. Nairobi: Moran; 2016.
MBATIAH PMWENDA. Majira ya Tufani. NAIROBI: Longman Kenya Ltd; 2012.
Nordberg E, Mwobobia I, Muniu E. "Major and minor surgery output at district level in {Kenya}: review and issues in need of further research." African journal of health sciences. 2004;9:17-25. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Wamwangi DM, Rathore IVS, Katia SK, MANGALA MJ. Major and trace bioelements-trace element analyses of pollen, bee tissue, and honey by total reflection and radioisotope excited x-ray fluorescence …. erepository.uonbi.ac.ke; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Elemental analyses of pollen, bee tissue and honey samples collected from selected areas of Kenya have been carried out using total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) techniques. The objective was to find out …

Rose DC, Sutherland WJ, Amano T, González-Varo JP, Robertson RJ, Nyumba TO. "The major barriers to evidence-informed conservation policy and possible solutions." Conservation letters. 2018;11(5):e12564. Abstractconl.12564.pdfconbio.onlinelibrary.wiley

Conservation policy decisions can suffer from a lack of evidence, hindering effective decision‐making. In nature conservation, studies investigating why policy is often not evidence‐informed have tended to focus on Western democracies, with relatively small samples. To understand global variation and challenges better, we established a global survey aimed at identifying top barriers and solutions to the use of conservation science in policy. This obtained the views of 758 people in policy, practice, and research positions from 68 countries across six languages. Here we show that, contrary to popular belief, there is agreement between groups about how to incorporate conservation science into policy, and there is thus room for optimism. Barriers related to the low priority of conservation were considered to be important, while mainstreaming conservation was proposed as a key solution. Therefore, priorities should focus on convincing the public of the importance of conservation as an issue, which will then influence policy‐makers to adopt pro‐environmental long‐term policies.

Rose DC, Sutherland WJ, Amano T, González-Varo JP, Robertson RJ, Simmons BI, Wauchope HS, Kovacs E, Durán AP, Vadrot ABM, others. "The major barriers to evidence-informed conservation policy and possible solutions." Conservation letters. 2018;11:e12564. Abstract
n/a
Gitau GK;, Aleri JW;, Mbuthia PG;, Mulei C. "Major causes of calf mortality in peri-urban area of Nairobi, Kenya."; 2010.
Gitau GK;, Aleri JW;, Mbuthia PG;, Mulei C. "Major causes of calf mortality in peri-urban area of Nairobi, Kenya."; 2010.
Gitau GK;, Aleri JW;, Mbuthia PG;, Mulei C. "Major causes of calf mortality in peri-urban area of Nairobi, Kenya."; 2010.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Major Causes of Calf Mortality in Peri-urban areas of Nairobi, (2010). Gitau, G.K., Aleri, J.W., Mbuthia, P.G. and Mulei, C.M.". In: Kenya. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 7th Biennial Scientific Conference 2010. KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Shepelo GP, Maingi N. "Major causes of poultry mortality in Nairobi and its environs established from autopsie." A Journal of The Kenya Veterinary Association. 2014;38(1):32-42.
Kariuki CN. "Major component of organizations environment and extent to which the components are present in the Kenya situation.". In: A paper presented in the 1st ORSEA Conference in Nairobi. Nairobi: African Crop Science Society; 1989. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

LeRu BP, Ong'amo G, Moyal P, Muchungu E, Ngala L, Musyoka B, Abdullahi Z, Matama KT, Lada VY, Pallangyo B, Omwega C, Schulthess F, Calatayud P-A, Silvain J-F. "Major ecological characteristics of East African noctuid stem borers." Annales de la Société entomologique de France. 2006;42(3-4):353-361.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The major environmental factors that influence rapid disappearance of pesticides from tropical soils in Kenya.". In: Toxic and Environ. Chem. 00, 1-37. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2001. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
Nderitu JH;, Kasina J. "Major Insects Of Crops In Kenya."; 2004.
Konyimbih TM. "Major issues of smallholder land policy: past trends and current practices in Kenya.". 2001. AbstractWebsite

The official government strategy on land policy in Kenya aims to achieve optimum utilization and equitable distribution of land for the country's rapidly increasing population. This strategy has been pursued with programmes to transform customary tenure structures to statutory freehold through land adjudication and registration for the issuance of individual titles. This article examines the landholding structure in the smallholder sector in Kenya. It analyses how interests in land in those areas are acquired, held and transferred. Among the smallholders in Kenya, the landholding system is still largely custom driven. Statutory stipulations are largely ignored as being irrelevant and bureaucratic. For the proper implementation of any land policy based on statutes, the socio-economic circumstances of smallholders must first be analysed and understood in order to make the law responsive to their aspirations.

Mutua, G. MMKO-MRKP-SLJWG, and G. Gray, L. G. Bekker BLSPBDCF. "Major Negative Social Impacts Are Rare in Phase 1 Hiv Vaccine Trials in Africa." AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014;30 Suppl 1:A190-1.

UoN Websites Search