Publications

Found 1253 results

Sort by: Author [ Title  (Asc)] Type Year
Filters: First Letter Of Title is H  [Clear All Filters]
A B C D E F G [H] I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   [Show ALL]
H
URBAC FL, WANDIGA S 0. "H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Evidence for the Pseudo-octahedral.". 1970;1572. Abstractpubs.rsc.org

Summary From lH n.m.r. studies the trigonal hexadentate complex, [ 1,1,l-tris(pyridine-2-carboxaldiminornethy-l ) ethane]iron(~~is) ,s hown to possess a pseudo-octahedral geometry and to racemize readily.
M-E report here the observation of raceniization of the pseudo-octahedral complex [ lI1,l-tris(pyridine-2-carboxaldiminomethyl) ethane]iron( 11), [Fe(py,tame)I2+, as deduced from the lH n.m.r. behaviour of the diastereotopic methylene protons. The complex, synthesizcd by the literature niethod,l was isolated as red-purple crystals having the stoicheiometry Fe(py3tame)C1,,2H,O. The lH n.m.r. spectrum of [Fe(py,tame)I2+ in D,O was measured with a Varian HA-100 MHz spectrometer with sodium 3-(trimethylsilyl)propane-l-sulphonatea s an internal reference. The observation of one resonance (6 9.26 p.p.m.) for the azomethine protons and a single set of resonances for the pyridine protons (6 7-50, 7.70, 8.24, and 8-41 p.p.m.) confirms the hexadentate co-ordination of the intact Schiff -base iigand. At 25” the methylene protons exhibit an AB pattern with 6, 3.99, 6b 4.12 p.p.m., and Jab 14 Hz. This diastereotopic behaviour of the methylene protons could only arise from a chiral, pseudo-octahedral geometry of the complex.

MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "H. de Kaspar, K. H. M. Kollmann, A. Scheider, V. Klauss Rapid micro biological testing in endophthalmitis. Improvement of therapy and prognosis. Abstract ARVO (1995).". In: Improvement of therapy and prognosis. Abstract ARVO (1995). I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1995. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "H. de Kaspar, K.G. Riedel, K. H. M. Kollmann, V. Klauss, L. Krempl-Lemprecht Acremonium roseum from the capsular bag and intraocular lens after extra capsular cataract extraction. Pilzdialog 2 (1991).". In: Pilzdialog 2 (1991). I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1991. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "H. de Kaspar, M. Kollmann, V. Klauss: Endophthalmitis. The significance of microbiological investigations for therapy and prognosis. Der Ophthalmologe 6 (1993).". In: Der Ophthalmologe 6 (1993). I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1993. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
MR. NGUYO JOSEPHM. "H. I. Chepkwony, I. Vanderriest, J.M. Nguyo, E. Roets and J. Hoogmartens (2000) : Separation of Erythromycin and Related substances on Base-deactivated Reversed Phase Silica Gel Columns. Journal of Chromatography A 870 (2000) 227-235.". In: Journal of Chromatography. Journal of Chromatography; 2000. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "H. Kadomura, N. Hori and F.F. Ojany, Radiocarbon ages ofalluvial and colluvial deposits in the Voi and Malindi areas, Southern kenya. Pp. 197-207. In Geomorphology and Environmental changes in Tropical Africa. Case Studies in Cameroun and Kenya. (Ed.) H. .". In: Chapter 8 in Managing Protected Areas in Africa. Ed W.J. Lusigi, Unesco-World Heritage Publishers - pp. 57-61. UN-HABITAT; 1986. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "H. Odera Oruka, J.B. Ojwang' and J.Mugambi,The Rational Path, Nairobi.".; 1989. Abstract

African Christian Theology, Nairobi, Heinemann, 1989

W PROFODHIAMBOJOHN. "H.G. Mwambi, J.W. Odhiambo and L. Duchateau (1997) "A multiple matrix model for R. appendiculatus in Zimbabwe.". In: Proceedings of the Fifth ScientificConference of the East, Central and Southern Africa Network of the International Biometric Society Mombasa, Kenya. SITE; 1997. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

DR. KAMAU FRANCON. "H.K. Chepkwony, N. Mwaura, E. Guantai, E. Gathoni, F.N. Kamau, E. Mbae, G. Wang.". In: Paper presented to The 6th Annual Conference of the International society for African Philosophy and Studies (ISAPS) 10-12 March 2000, Nairobi. Kenya. The Centre for Open and Distance Learning, University of Nairobi; 2007. Abstract
An Instructional Manual for teaching African Philosophy to second year students in the department of philosophy, University of Nairobi
N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "H.N. Kariuki: Analgesic Effects of Clomipramine and Carbamazapine in combination with Pethidine using the formalin test. MSc Thesis .". In: Pan African Medical Journal 12, 28, 10 June 2012. MOH; 1998. Abstract
The root of Solanum incanum is used by some Kenyan communities as a folklore remedy for fever, wounds, toothache, and stomach ache. However studies have not been done to validate these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of Solanum incanum root extract using animal models. The antinociceptive assays were carried out using tail flick and hot plate tests on CBA mice. The 100 and 200 mg doses of Solanum incanum root extract showed significant antinociceptive activity (p < 0.05) in both hot plate and tail flick tests. In the antipyretic, assay fever was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using lipopolysacharide (LPS). The 50 mg dose of Solanum incanum extract exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 180 minutes while the 100 mg dose of S. incanum exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 120 and 180 minutes after the lipopolysaccharide pyrogen injection. The results obtained renders support to folklore use of Solanum incanum root extract for pain and fever. Keywords: Solanum incanum, Antinociceptive, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Fever.
N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN, G. PROFKIOYPAUL. "H.N.Kariuki, T.I.Kanui, and P.G.Kioy: The analgesic effects of Clomipramine individually and in combination with Pethidine using the formalin test. 7 th International Symposium: The Pain Clinic . October 2-6, 1996 , Istanbul .". In: 7 th International Symposium. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1996. Abstract
Department of Medical Physiology, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To report on the occurrence of clinical multiple sclerosis among indigenous Bantu African Kenyans who have never been out of the country. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: A private neurology and clinical electrophysiology clinic. SUBJECTS: All the patients referred to the clinic by neurologists and other specialists for electrophysiological tests with diverse neurological complaints. The patients examined and diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis on clinical grounds and established criteria are reported. RESULTS: Out of 2831 patients referred for electrophysiological tests over a ten year period, nine patients were diagnosed as having definite multiple sclerosis on clinical grounds. Four of these had supporting laboratory findings (MRI scans, CSF studies and visual evoked responses). The presenting symptoms were predominantly visual disturbances and somatic sensorimotor disturbances which were seen in all the patients. Cerebellar dysfunction was observed less frequently, in less than half of the patients while sphincter disturbances were conspicuously rare. The sex distribution was overwhelmingly in favour of the female at a ratio of 7:2. A part from two patients of Indo-asian ethnicity, all the others were indigenous Bantu Africans who had never travelled outside their country before the onset of the illness. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple sclerosis occurs amongst Bantu Africans and may not be as rare as previously suggested and its prevalence is certainly on the increase. The development of higher incidence rates in communities where the illness was previously unknown may present opportune settings for the study of aetiological factors of this illness as it emerges. There is a need therefore for proper epidemiological studies to evaluate these factors, especially environmental factors, as the new disease continues to appear. PMID: 11682954 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN, G. PROFKIOYPAUL. "H.N.Kariuki, T.I.Kanui, and P.G.Kioy: The analgesic effects of Clomipramine individually and in combination with Pethidine using the formalin test. 7 th International Symposium: The Pain Clinic . October 2-6, 1996 , Istanbul .". In: 7 th International Symposium. MOH; 1996. Abstract
The root of Solanum incanum is used by some Kenyan communities as a folklore remedy for fever, wounds, toothache, and stomach ache. However studies have not been done to validate these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of Solanum incanum root extract using animal models. The antinociceptive assays were carried out using tail flick and hot plate tests on CBA mice. The 100 and 200 mg doses of Solanum incanum root extract showed significant antinociceptive activity (p < 0.05) in both hot plate and tail flick tests. In the antipyretic, assay fever was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using lipopolysacharide (LPS). The 50 mg dose of Solanum incanum extract exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 180 minutes while the 100 mg dose of S. incanum exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 120 and 180 minutes after the lipopolysaccharide pyrogen injection. The results obtained renders support to folklore use of Solanum incanum root extract for pain and fever. Keywords: Solanum incanum, Antinociceptive, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Fever.
M PROFNYARIKIDICKSON. "Haagsma, B., Nyariki, D. and Kironchi, G. (2002). .". In: Geology, Geochemistry and Economic Mineral Potential. Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal, 147 pp. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2002. Abstract
.
E.N. PN. "The HAART cell phone adherence trial (WelTel Kenya1) a randomized controlled trial protocol.". 2009. Abstract

Background The objectives are to compare the effectiveness of cell phone-supported SMS messaging to standard care on adherence, quality of life, retention, and mortality in a population receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods and Design A multi-site randomized controlled open-label trial. A central randomization centre provided opaque envelopes to allocate treatments. Patients initiating ART at three comprehensive care clinics in Kenya will be randomized to receive either a structured weekly SMS ('short message system' or text message) slogan (the intervention) or current standard of care support mechanisms alone (the control). Our hypothesis is that using a structured mobile phone protocol to keep in touch with patients will improve adherence to ART and other patient outcomes. Participants are evaluated at baseline, and then at six and twelve months after initiating ART. The care providers keep a weekly study log of all phone based communications with study participants. Primary outcomes are self-reported adherence to ART and suppression of HIV viral load at twelve months scheduled follow-up. Secondary outcomes are improvements in health, quality of life, social and economic factors, and retention on ART. Primary analysis is by 'intention-to-treat'. Sensitivity analysis will be used to assess per-protocol effects. Analysis of covariates will be undertaken to determine factors that contribute or deter from expected and determined outcomes. Discussion This study protocol tests whether a novel structured mobile phone intervention can positively contribute to ART management in a resource-limited setting.

Plummer FA;, Ackers M;, Gelmon L;, Kimani J;, Thabane L;, Ball B;T, Ngugi E;, Estambale B;, Nguti R;, Barasa S;, Karanja S;, Habyarimana J;, Jack W;, Chung M;, Ritvo P;, Kariri A;, Mills EJ;, Lester RT. "The HAART cell phone adherence trial (WelTel Kenya1): a randomized controlled trial protocol.". 2009. Abstract

The objectives are to compare the effectiveness of cell phone-supported SMS messaging to standard care on adherence, quality of life, retention, and mortality in a population receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Nairobi, Kenya. A multi-site randomized controlled open-label trial. A central randomization centre provided opaque envelopes to allocate treatments. Patients initiating ART at three comprehensive care clinics in Kenya will be randomized to receive either a structured weekly SMS (’short message system’ or text message) slogan (the intervention) or current standard of care support mechanisms alone (the control). Our hypothesis is that using a structured mobile phone protocol to keep in touch with patients will improve adherence to ART and other patient outcomes. Participants are evaluated at baseline, and then at six and twelve months after initiating ART. The care providers keep a weekly study log of all phone based communications with study participants. Primary outcomes are self-reported adherence to ART and suppression of HIV viral load at twelve months scheduled follow-up. Secondary outcomes are improvements in health, quality of life, social and economic factors, and retention on ART. Primary analysis is by ‘intention-to-treat’. Sensitivity analysis will be used to assess per-protocol effects. Analysis of covariates will be undertaken to determine factors that contribute or deter from expected and determined outcomes. This study protocol tests whether a novel structured mobile phone intervention can positively contribute to ART management in a resource-limited setting.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Haase DA, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nash RA, D'Costa LJ, Hazlett D, Lubwama S, Nsanze H, Ronald AR. Clinical evaluation of rosoxacin for the treatment of chancroid. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother 30(1) 39 - 41, 1986.". In: Agents Chemother 30(1) 39 - 41, 1986. IBIMA Publishing; 1986. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
Ndegwa PN, Mihok S, Oyieke FA. "Habitat Preference and Activity Patterns of Glossina swynnertoni Austen (Diptera: Glossinidae) in Aitong, Masai Mara, Kenya." Insect Science & it’s Application. 2001;21(2):113-122.
Ndegwa P, S. M, F.A. O. "Habitat preferences and activity patters of Glossina swynnertoni. Austen in Maasai Mara." Insect Science and its Application . 2001;2(2):113-122.
Killeen, G.F., Mukabana, W.R., Kalongolela, M.S., Kannady, K., Lindsay, S.W., Tanner, M., Castro, M.C., Fillinger U. "Habitat targeting for controlling aquatic stages of malaria vectors in Africa." American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2006;74(4):517-518.
Habwe J. Hadaa ya Nafsi. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2014.
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Haemaccel as a Plasma Volume Expander. A Clinical Trial - Bulletin of the Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research.". In: A Clinical Trial - Bulletin of the Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; Submitted. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
Wandera, J G;; Price JE, Kamau JA, Ngatia TA;, Buoro IBJ;, Price JE. "Haemangiosarcoma in dogs: morphological and clinical findings.". 1990. Abstract

Haemangiosarcomas in 24 dogs (average age 9 years) were found in the spleen (11 cases) or skin (9) or in bone, heart, liver or tongue (1 each); haemoperitoneum was present in 9 dogs. Metastases to the liver or lungs or both were found in 12 dogs, and to the peritoneal cavity in 8. German Shepherds (13 cases) showed particular susceptibility. Dogs that died or were killed because of tumours in the abdomen or lungs showed weakness, anaemia, weight loss and abdominal distension. Grossly the tumours contained vascular spaces lined with elongated spindle cells that were empty or contained variable amounts of blood. The spaces formed channels, or were papillary or cavernous in shape. Nests of solid tumour cells with large hyperchromatic nuclei were found in all cases.

Estambale, BB;Chunge R, Knight R;, Chunge R. "HaematemTrans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1992 Jul-Aug;86(4):458.". 1992.
Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Nguhiu JM, Wamboi P. "Haemato- biochemical changes and prevalence of parasitic infections of indigenous chicken sold in markets of Kiambu County, Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine. 2020;8(1):18-25.
Wamboi P, Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Bebora LC. "Haemato-biochemical changes and prevalence of parasitic infections of indigenous chicken sold in markets of Kiambu County, Kenya, ." International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine. 2020;8(1):18-25.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Haematological changes in human immunodeficiency virus infection Part I. East African Medical Journal 1997, 74:11, 732-736." East African Medical Journal 1997, 74:11, 732-736. 1997. Abstracthaematological_changes_in_human_immunodeficiency_virus_infection._part_1_review_article.pdfWebsite

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Kager PA;, Rees PH. "Haematological investigations in visceral leishmaniasis.". 1986. Abstract

Various haematological parameters were followed in a group of 47 Kenyan patients with visceral leishmaniasis during treatment and follow up. The WBC and platelet numbers were normal by the time of cure, the Hb level took longer to become normal. Red cells were microcytic and hypochromic. MCV and MCH increased during follow up but microcytosis persisted up to a year after cure. Low serum iron and transferrin concentration, low total iron binding capacity and normal to high serum ferritin levels were found in 10 patients and are consistent with 'anaemia of chronic inflammation'. Bone marrows of 15 patients before treatment were normo- to hypercellular with increased erythropoietic activity. Low haemosiderin content of the bone marrow was consistent with iron deficiency, but normalization of Hb without iron suppletion would argue against a major role of iron deficiency. Coagulation studies did not indicate diffuse intravascular coagulation. Splenomegaly seems the most important factor in the causation of the pancytopenia. Further studies of contributing factors and of the cause and mechanism of 'hypersplenism' are needed.

Njoroge J, Oyoo GO, Kitonyi G, Barasa A, Odhiambo AO. "Haematological parameters in systemic lupus erythematosus patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2016;4(2):57-62. Abstracthaematological parameters SLEWebsite

ABSTRACT

Background
Systemic lupus erthematosus (SLE) is a multisystem, autoimmune and often severe disease. Its aetiology is still poorly understood. Factors such as genetic, environmental, hormonal and immunological have been implicated in its pathogenesis. Patients with SLE are subject to myriad symptoms, complaints, and inflammatory involvement that can affect virtually every organ including the hemopoietic system.
Hematological abnormalities are common among patients with SLE. The most frequent hematological abnormalities include anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. These abnormalities are markers of disease activity and have been found to be independent determinants of mortality therefore understanding their prevalence is important in patient evaluation.

While these abnormalities have been widely studied in other parts of the world, no study has been conducted on Kenyan patients afflicted by SLE thus there exist a gap regarding hematological parameters in SLE patients and hence the need for this study. We performed this study to understand hematological parameters in a tertiary hospital in Nairobi, Kenya.

Objective:
The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hematological parameters abnormalities, among SLE patients on follow up at Rheumatology and Renal Outpatient clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital. Specifically, the study aimed to describe the prevalence of anemia, leucopenia, and thrombocytopenia and identify patient factors associated with these abnormalities.

Methods

A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on SLE patients attending the Rheumatology and Renal outpatient clinics at KNH. Seventy one consecutive SLE patients were screened for eligibility between 5th March 2015 and 5th of June 2015, of these sixty five were recruited and enrolled into the study. Clinical and social demographic data was captured and recorded in a pre-designed questionnaire. Subsequently, four millilitres of blood was collected for measurement of a complete blood count, reticulocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and peripheral blood film examination. The tests were undertaken at the KNH Department of Human Pathology, Unit of Haematology and blood transfusion using a CELL-DYN 3700 automated blood counter. ESR interpretation was undertaken at the same laboratory by the Wintrobe method and a PBF was reported after staining with maygrunwald / giemsa stain by direct visualization on a microscope at various powers of magnification by hematologists who were supervisors for this study and the PI

Results

Sixty five eligible SLE patients were recruited into the study. The mean (SD) age was 36. 5(± 12) years. There were 3 (5%) males and 62 (95%) females. Forty nine (75%) patients had at least one abnormality. The abnormalities involved all the three cell lines. The prevalence of abnormalities were; anemia 43%, leucopenia 26% and thrombocytopenia 20%. Disease duration less than one year was significantly associated with anemia, p=0.035, OR = 3.5 (95% CI 0.9-15.1).

Conclusion

Hematological abnormalities are the second most common manifestation of the disease after arthritis and arthralgia among SLE patients on follow up at Kenyatta National Hospital Rheumatology and Renal clinic. Though majority of these abnormalities were mild to moderate and clinically asymptomatic, the proportions of anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia were substantially high. There was a significant association between anemia and duration of disease.

Recommendations

I. A larger longitudinal study to correlate thrombocytopenia and leucopenia with demographics and drugs. . This may require a multicenter approach to avail sufficient number of patients.
II. Routine screening for hematological abnormalities, careful long-term monitoring and prompt therapeutic intervention.
III. Multidisplinary approach in management of SLE patients and input from a hematologist.
IV. Need to review the current treatment regimens of our patients to a steroid sparing regimen.
V. Lastly a study to correlate these hematological abnormalities with disease activity in patients with SLE.

Njoroge JW, Oyoo GO, Kitonyi G, Barasa A, ODHIAMBO A. "Haematological parameters in systemic lupus erythematous patients at Kenyatta National Hospital." Afr J Rheumatol. 2016;4(2):57-62.
and 2. Wandolo G., R. M. Elias RJNSMG. "Haeme-containing proteins suppress Lymphatic Pumping." J. Vascular Research . 1992;(29):248-255. Abstract

Red blood cells (RBCs) and lysate products (erythrolysate) are consistently observed in lymph draining inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. We determined previously that erythrolysate modulates lymphatic pumping by altering the pressures over which the lymph pump is active. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that oxyhemoglobin was the active material within erythrolysate. To quantitate lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure could be applied to the vessels. This procedure stimulated pumping activity. Erythrolysate was prepared from sheep RBCs by lysis in Tris buffer and a portion of this was purified by column chromatography using DEAE-Sephadex A-50. Both the purified hemoglobin (10(-5) M) and crude erythrolysate (the latter diluted appropriately in Krebs solution to contain 10(-5) M hemoglobin) reduced lymphatic fluid pumping approximately 70% over a period of 2 h. To determine whether this activity was due to the heme or the protein portion of the molecule, we compared the activity of purified oxyhemoglobin with that of its oxidized methemoglobin derivative. This was achieved by conversion with potassium ferricyanide. Methemoglobin was inactive, suggesting that the heme portion was important for the lymphatic effect. Further confirmation of this observation was provided by experiments with myoglobin which was purified from sheep heart. Oxymyoglobin, which shares an identical heme but has a different protein component, inhibited lymphatic pumping, when tested on the bovine lymphatics

KAAYA, G.P., OTIENO LH. "Haemocytes of Glossina: I. Morphological classification and the pattern of change with age of the flies." Insect Science and Its Application. 1981;2:175-180.
MCLIGEYO SO. Haemodialysis - The Experience At Kenyatta National Hospital - A Retrospective And Prospective Study.; 1985. Abstract

Forty seven patients with acute renal failure were studied prospectively over a two-year period at the Kenyatta National Hospital. There were 20 males and 27 females. The mortality rate was 40.4%. Most patients had medically oriented problems. Complications that were associated with a high mortality were infections and the presence of neuropsychiatric manifestations.

Ndinya FO, Kayima JK, Magabe PC, McLigeyo SO, Were AJ, Odinya GO. "Haemodialysis vascular access function in dialysis patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital." African Journal of Nephrology. 2019;22(1):72-76. Abstract

Background: The number of patients requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) worldwide has been on the rise.
Vascular access is the lifeline for these patients when haemodialysis (HD) is the treatment of choice. Access-related
morbidity is a leading cause of hospitalization so that the function and patency of access are essential for the optimal
management of patients. There is a need to recognize when a vascular access is dysfunctional because intervention
must maintain function as well as preserve future vascular access sites.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that evaluated the haemodialysis vascular access function in patients
undergoing chronic haemodialysis at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Peak access blood flow rates,
urea reduction ratio (URR) and Kt/V were analysed in 150 patients.
Results: The temporary (non-tunnelled) central venous dialysis catheters had poor function, with only 48%
achieving a mean blood flow rate > 300 mL/min. The comparable rate for arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) was 88%
and for tunnelled dialysis catheters 82%. One-quarter of the patients had a URR < 65%. Higher mean blood flow
rates were associated with higher URR (P = 0.004) and Kt/V (P = 0.009) values. AVF stenosis was present in 12.5%
and thrombosis in 3% of patients. Aneurysms were the commonest AVF complication (47%) but were not
haemodynamically significant.
Conclusions: Tunnelled haemodialysis catheters offered adequate blood flows and achieved adequate delivered
dialysis, comparable to arteriovenous fistulae. Non-tunnelled catheters delivered poor blood flow rates and dialysis
dose. Greater blood flow rates were associated with a higher delivered dialysis dose. There is a need for routine
surveillance and affordable interventional procedures to prevent loss of vascular access.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Haemoglobin A1C in children with sickle cell disease. East Afr Med J . 1984 Jan; 61 ( 1 ): 32-4 . No abstract available. PMID: 6745138 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Juma FD, Gitau W, Bwibo NO, Gachoka C.". In: East Afr Med J . 1984 Jan; 61 ( 1 ): 32-4 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1984. Abstract

Despite the high frequency of sickle cell disease in Europe, the disease is poorly managed. Critical periods are the hospital stays during which the anaesthesiologist plays an important role. Understanding the molecular basis of polymerization processes of haemoglobin S can help to avoid triggering a crisis. Differentiation of the various haemoglobin phenotypes helps to estimate the individual perioperative risk. Knowledge of the patient's history and the actual haemoglobin S level facilitates general anaesthesia, surgery and postoperative care. Damage to liver, spleen, eyes, bones, lung and central nervous system increases the perioperative risk. Preoperative preparation includes early admission, intravenous volume substitution, continuing pain therapy and prophylactic antibiotic medication. General anaesthesia seems to be better for patients with a high-risk profile rather than regional anaesthesia. Careful perioperative and postoperative monitoring should allow hypoxaemia, hypovolaemia, hypothermia, acidosis and overtransfusion to be avoided. Effective pain therapy includes a combination of opioids with peripherally acting analgesia.

Lorkin PA, Stephens AD, Beard ME, Wrigley PF, Adams L, Lehmann H. "Haemoglobin Rahere (beta Lys-Thr): A new high affinity haemoglobin associated with decreased 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate binding and relative polycythaemia." Br Med J. 1975;4(5990):200-2. Abstract

A new haemoglobin with increased oxygen affinity, beta82 (EF6) lysine leads to threonine (Hb Rahere), was found during the investigation of a patient who was found to have a raised haemoglobin concentration after a routine blood count. The substitution affects one of the 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate binding sites, resulting in an increased affinity for oxygen, but both the haem-haem interaction and the alkaline Bohr effect are normal in the haemolysate. This variant had the same mobility as haemoglobin A on electrophoresis at alkaline pH but was detected by measuring the whole blood oxygen affinity; it could be separated from haemoglobin A, however, by electrophoresis in agar at acid pH. The raised haemoglobin concentration was mainly due to a reduction in plasma volume (a relative polycythaemia) and was associated with a persistently raised white blood count. This case emphasises the need to measure the oxygen affinity of haemoglobin in all patients with absolute or relative polycythaemia when some obvious cause is not evident.

MCLIGEYO SO. "Haemolytic uraemic syndrome: a review.". In: The Nairobi Hospital Proceedings vol.3:7-9.1999. East Afr Med J. 1999 Mar;76(3):148-53. Review.: University of Nairobi.; 1999. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the current understanding of the classification of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) and to describe the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical picture, renal histopathological findings, treatment and prevention of shiga toxin (Stx)-associated HUS, the most common type of HUS and; to compare and contrast features of idiopathic (atypical) HUS and inherited HUS with those of Stx-associated HUS. DATA SOURCE: A literature review was performed of major published series between 1989 and 1998 inclusive, using the Index Medicus and MEDLINE search. Some earlier published series were also reviewed in instances where they indirectly led to the current studies or reported on rarer organ involvements in HUS. STUDY SELECTION: Data and opinions from twelve general reviews of HUS, twelve on aetiology and classification, twelve on clinical features, eight on pathogenesis and nine on treatment and prognosis are summarised. CONCLUSION: HUS is a thrombotic microangiopathy with several aetiologies currently thought to play a role. Vascular endothelial cell injury appears to be central to the pathogenesis of all forms of HUS, although the triggering factors may be different and not well understood in some cases. In HUS, supportive therapy is of paramount importance. Reported specific therapies do not have sufficient evidence to support them. Prevention of HUS is possible in Stx-associated form, but not in the others. In patients who go on to develop end-stage renal failure, transplantation is possible, but recurrence rates are high in forms other than those which are Stx-associated. Persisting sequelae in other organs in HUS are infrequent.

Maingi, N., Gichanga EJ, Gichohi VM. Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus species in goats in Kenya resistant to anthelmintics. Na1robi, Kenya; 1993.
G.W. K. "Haemophilia and Allied Disorders in Kenya.". In: International Haemophilia congress 1980. Bonn, Germany ; 1982.
Kitonyi. "Haemophilia and Allied disorders in Kenya in “Status and Atlas of Haemophilia world Wide.". In: Status and Atlas of Haemophilia world Wide. A World Federation of Haemophilia Publication; 1984.
Mukiibi JM;, Paul, B; Field SP;, Lloyd SE. "Haemophilia in Zimbabwe.". 1990. Abstract

Of the 120 haemophiliacs diagnosed in Zimbabwe in 8 years, haemophilia A and Christmas disease accounted for 90% and 10% respectively (i.e. a ratio of 9:1). Although the clinical and laboratory parameters were essentially similar to those previously described in Caucasian, African and other populations in the World, sub-haemophiliac cases are probably still being missed particularly in very busy health centres where the index of suspicion is low and malnutrition and infectious disease predominate and therefore readily attract the attention of most health workers. However, with the steadily improving socio-economic status and decentralization of health care facilities, more of these cases are likely to be diagnosed. Major constraints in the diagnosis and management of haemophilia in an African setting are succinctly discussed; including home therapy; and the implications of recent findings of HIV sero-positivity. The study serves as evidence that haemophilia is common in Zimbabwe contrary to earlier published literature.

K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Hagenimana, V., Carey, E. Gichuki, S.T., Oyunga, M.A. and Imungi, J.K. 1998. Carotenoid contents in fresh, dried and processed sweet potato products. Ecol. Food Nutr. 37: 443.". In: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Newsletter for Sub-Saharan Africa, Issue 17Rome, Italy. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1998. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Hagos B, Nganga JN, Juma FD, Ndegwa P.A comparative study of the neutralising capacity of eight brands of antacids.East Afr Med J. 1989 Jun;66(6):408-10.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Jun;66(6):408-10. UN-HABITAT; 1989. Abstract
Eight brands of antacid tablets commonly available in the private market in Kenya were subjected to in-vitro tests for neutralizing capacity. The neutralizing capacity per gram and per tablet of the products was compared. The neutralizing capacity in millilitres of 0.1 M HC1 per gram ranged from 103.10 for Gelusil to 225.13 for Maalox, with others ranging between +/- 18.1% and -12% about the average. The neutralizing capacity per tablet ranged from 64.90 ml for Magnesium trisilicate Co tablets B.P. to 263.15 ml for Maalox, with the others ranging between +/- 24.9% and -33.1% about the average. This shows high variation in the neutralizing capacities of the different brands available especially in relations to the neutralizing capacities per tablet due to the high variation in the tablet weight.
N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Hai, M.T., Mungai, D.N. and Ong, C.K., 2000. The impact of land use and rainfall on runoff and sedimentation in the Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya. Poster presented at the Symposium/Workshop on Forest-Water-People in the Humid Tropics: Past, Present and Futur.". In: Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 2. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2000. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Haidar, J., Abate, G., Kogi-Makau, W. and Sorensen, P. Risk factors for child undernutrition with a human rights edge in rural villages of North Wollo, Ethiopia. East African Medical Journal. Vol 82 No. 12:625.". In: A paper presented at the 2nd International Food and Nutrition Conference (IFNC), Tuskegee, Alabama, USA: 8-10th October 2006. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2005. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Haidar, J., Umeta, M. and Kogi-Makau, W (2005). Effect of iron supplementation on serum zinc status of lactating women in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The East African Medical Journal. Vol. 82 No.7:349-352.". In: A paper presented at the 2nd International Food and Nutrition Conference (IFNC), Tuskegee, Alabama, USA: 8-10th October 2006. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2005. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
J MISSHAJIASHAR. "Haji, A.R.J., A new Dawn for A. Vital Profession, The Social Focus Vol. 2 Litho Press, Nairobi, 1996.". In: MSc thesis, Faculty of vet. medicine, university of Nairobi. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1996. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
J MISSHAJIASHAR. "Haji, A.R.J., Challenges of Social Work Training in Kenya. The Social Focus Vol. 1, Litho Press, Nairobi, 1993.". In: MSc thesis, Faculty of vet. medicine, university of Nairobi. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1993. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
J MISSHAJIASHAR. "Haji, A.R.J., Drug Use and Abuse Problems and the Emerging Drug Trafficking menace in Kenya U.S.I.S. Nairobi, 1990.". In: MSc thesis, Faculty of vet. medicine, university of Nairobi. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1990. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
J MISSHAJIASHAR. "Haji, A.R.J., International Youth Year: Challenge and Opportunity. In Wajibu Journal of Religious and Social Concern Vol. 1 No. 2 December 1985, Nairobi.". In: MSc thesis, Faculty of vet. medicine, university of Nairobi. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1985. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
J MISSHAJIASHAR. "Haji, A.R.J., Non-Governmental Organization in Africa: Present conditions and future prospects. In Mikono Vol.2 Journal of the African Education Fund (A.E.F) FUKUOKA JAPAN, 1991.". In: MSc thesis, Faculty of vet. medicine, university of Nairobi. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1991. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
J MISSHAJIASHAR. "Haji, Ara, The Use and Abuse of Khat/9cathaedulis Forsk in Garissa - Kenya MA, University of Nairobi, 1985.". In: MSc thesis, Faculty of vet. medicine, university of Nairobi. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1985. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Hajjar AM, Lewis PF, Endeshaw Y, Ndinya-Achola J, Kreiss JK, Overbaugh J.Efficient isolation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA from cervical swabs.J Clin Microbiol. 1998 Aug;36(8):2349-52.". In: J Clin Microbiol. 1998 Aug;36(8):2349-52. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
An efficient method for the isolation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nucleic acids from dry cervical swabs was developed. HIV-1 gag and env were detected in 96% (25 of 26) and 81% (21 of 26), respectively, of the samples tested by PCR from HIV-1-seropositive women in a Kenyan cohort study. Eighty-eight percent of the swabs (22 of 25) were positive for gag RNA, and 85% (17 of 20) were positive for env RNA. Fewer than 1,000 copies of HIV-1 gag RNA were detected in four swabs in which a competitive quantitative PCR assay was used. The method described here may be useful for both qualitative and quantitative analyses of HIV RNA in mucosal secretions as well as amplification and cloning of full-length viral genes for functional studies.
Rayya. "Haki Yangu Naidai.". In: Takrima Nono na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Longman; 2012.
Maluki PM. "HAKI ZETU.". 2000.Website
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Hall PJ, Levin AG, Entwistle CC, Knight SC, Wasunna A, Brubaker G. B15 heterogeneity in East African Blacks. Tissue Antigens. 1980 Oct;16(4):326-32.". In: Tissue Antigens. 1980 Oct;16(4):326-32. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1980. Abstract

One-hundred-forty-one Blacks (135 unrelated) from Kenya and Tanzania have been tissue-typed (HLA-A, B and C loci) as part of a study of host factors involved in Burkitt's lymphoma and naso-pharyngeal carcinoma. Evidence is presented for the existence in this population of several B15-related antigens which together occur with a relatively high frequency of 30% in unrelated individuals. It is likely that these variants may include the antigens SV and perhaps Bu recently defined with population frequencies of under 1% in Caucasians. In the absence of monospecific typing sera, identification of these variants may be helped by their apparently strong association with C-locus antigens in Blacks. Recognition of these B15 variants has been largely responsible for reducing the proportion of unidentified or "blank" B-locus antigens in this population to only 6%. These findings substantiate and amplify previous reports suspecting the presence of such antigens in Blacks, and should facilitate studies of possible associations of disease with HLA in these populations.

Watkins WM;, Winstanley PA;, Mberu EK;, Kokwaro GO;, Murphy SA;, Mwangi I;, Waruiru C;, Foster D;, Marsh K. "Halofantrine pharmacokinetics in Kenyan children with complicated and uncomplicated falciparum malaria.". 1995. Abstract

1. Kenyan children with uncomplicated malaria given oral halofantrine (HF; non-micronised suspension; 8 mg base kg-1 body weight 6 hourly for three doses) showed wide variation in the disposition of HF and desbutylhalofantrine (HFm). 2. Eight Kenyan children with severe (prostrate) falciparum malaria who were receiving intravenous quinine, were given the same HF regimen by nasogastric tube. One patient had undetectable HF and two had undetectable HFm at all times after drug administration. 3. The mean AUC(0,24 h) of HF in prostrate children was half (7.54 compared with 13.10 micrograms ml-1 h) (P = 0.06), and that for HFm one-third (0.84 compared with 2.51 micrograms ml-1 h) (P < 0.05) of the value in children with uncomplicated malaria. 4. Oral HF may be appropriate for some cases of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Africa, but in patients with severe malaria, the bioavailability of HF and HFm may be inadequate

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Hammon M., Heap R.B., Morgan G., Wango E.O. and Wooding F.B.P.(1985). Steroid production by isolated binucleate cells from placentae of ruminants. J. Physiol. (UK), 371,218.". In: Society for the Study of Fertility Annual Conference, York, UK., Abstr. 63. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1985. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

O DRLUMUMBAPATRICK. "A HAND BOOK ON CRIMINAL PROCEDURE IN KENYA.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 1. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1998.
W Kaisha KS. "Hand injury: association of handedness with cause and site of injury." Annals of African Surgery. 2007;1. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Most people have a dominant hand: right or left. The dominant hand for most purposes is that which is used for writing. The performance, reflex activity and exposure of
these hands differ. Due to this asymmetry, it is possible that handedness may influence the likely causes, the lateralization and pattern of injury.
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to assess the association of hand dominance to the causes, lateralization and pattern of hand injuries.
SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a national referral and teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya.
METHODOLOGY: A prospective analysis of consecutive patients who presented with unilateral hand injuries between May and
August 2006 at (KNH) was done. Data on hand dominance, hand injured, causes and pattern of injury were collected using a questionnaire. Associations were investigated using student’s
t-test and Chi square tests, with level of significance taken as < 0.05. Yates correction and Fischer’s exact tests were used where the cell value was less than 5.
RESULTS: A total of 99 patients with hand injuries were recruited. Ninety four were right handed, three left handed, with two ambidextrous. The dominant hand was injured
in 47 (48.5%), while the non-dominant hand was injured in 51.5% of the cases (p = 0.27). The most common causes of injury were occupational (31.3%) and assaults (30.3%).
Falls on the hand caused injury more on the dominant hand (p=0.03) than the non-dominant one. Hand dominance had no influence on the other causes, nor did it have influence on the
lateralization and pattern of injury.
CONCLUSION: With the exception of falls, hand dominance has no influence on causes, lateralization and pattern of hand injury.

Ogana W. Hand of Chance (2nd Edition, Novel). Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 1980.
and Wairire GG, Muiruri J. "Handbook of Social Work and Social Development Practice in Africa.". In: Afrocentric strengths-based community work practice: The case of vyamas in Kenya . Ashgate Publishing Ltd; Forthcoming.
Mulei CM;, Nguhiu-Mwangi, Mbithi PMF;. Handbook of the Principles of General Veterinary Surgery.; 2004.Website
Nguhiu-Mwangi, Mbithi PMF;, Mulei CM;. Handbook of the Principles of General Veterinary Surgery.; 2004.Website
Tindyebwa, D. KMENC &BJPB. "Handbook on paediatric AIDS in Africa for medical students, doctors and primary care workers .". In: Handbook on paediatric AIDS in Africa for medical students, doctors and primary care workers . ANECCA; 2011.
Tindyebwa, D. KMENC &BJPB. "Handbook on paediatric AIDS in Africa for medical students, doctors and primary care workers (revised 1st ed.) .". In: Handbook on paediatric AIDS in Africa for medical students, doctors and primary care workers (revised 1st ed.) . ANECCA.; 2006.
Nyambedha, Erick Otieno; Aagaard-Hansen J. "hanging patterns of orphan care due to the HIV epidemic in western Kenya .". 2003.Website
Ojwang, PJ; Ogada BHLKD; KKHTHT; P; Y;. "Haplotypes and alpha globin gene analyses in sickle cell anaemia patients from Kenya.". 1987. Abstract

Over 60 patients from the Luo and Luhya tribes of Western Kenya, aged 1-23 years, with severe sickle cell anaemia were evaluated through haematological and gene mapping analyses. Nearly all (56 of 58 tested) were homozygous for haplotype 20 (Antonarakis et al, 1984) which is also frequently present in SS patients of the Central African Republic. All patients had a severe haemolytic anaemia with low Hb F levels and low levels of G gamma chains. An alpha-thalassaemia-2 heterozygosity (-alpha/alpha alpha; -3.7 kb deletion) was present in 26 of 53 patients tested; one patient was a homozygote [f(-alpha) = 0.255]. The alpha-thal-2 was type I in all but one subject with this deficiency; the one exception had an alpha-thal-2 heterozygosity, type II. Heterozygosity for the alpha-thal-2 did not affect the clinical condition nor the haematology; Hb F levels were somewhat lower in SS patients with -alpha/alpha alpha than in those with alpha alpha/alpha alpha. A high frequency was observed for the absence of an Xba I restriction site 5' to the zeta globin gene; the frequency of this anomaly [f(Xba I-)] was estimated at 0.39 for the chromosome with two alpha globin genes and at 0.74 for that with the alpha-thal-2 deletion. An Apa I restriction site polymorphism was observed in the IVS-II of the alpha 2 globin gene; 13 alpha 2 genes of 53 normal (alpha alpha/) chromosomes had this restriction site which was absent in the hybrid alpha globin gene of the -alpha/chromosome.

RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. "Harambe fund raising, School Journal, New Zealand.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Harambee and Rural Development in Kenya: Towards a Re-interpretation" IDS working Paper No. 302, March 1977.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1977. Abstract
n/a
RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. ""Harambee Fund Raising" published in NewZealand school Journal.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD. "Harbison, J.E., Mathenge, E.M., Misiani, G.O, Mukabana, W.R., & Day, J.F. 2006, A simple method for sampling indoor-resting malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Africa. Journal of Medical Entomology, 43(3): .". In: Journal of Medical Entomology, 43(3): 473- 479. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Capacity strengthening of rural communities, and the various actors that support them, is needed to enable them to lead their own malaria control programmes. Here the existing capacity of a rural community in western Kenya was evaluated in preparation for a larger intervention. Focus group discussions and semi-structured individual interviews were carried out in 1,451 households to determine (1) demographics of respondent and household; (2) socio-economic status of the household; (3) knowledge and beliefs about malaria (symptoms, prevention methods, mosquito life cycle); (4) typical practices used for malaria prevention; (5) the treatment-seeking behaviour and household expenditure for malaria treatment; and (6) the willingness to prepare and implement community-based vector control. Malaria was considered a major threat to life but relevant knowledge was a chimera of scientific knowledge and traditional beliefs, which combined with socio-economic circumstances, leads to ineffective malaria prevention. The actual malaria prevention behaviour practiced by community members differed significantly from methods known to the respondents. Beside bednet use, the major interventions implemented were bush clearing and various hygienic measures, even though these are ineffective for malaria prevention. Encouragingly, most respondents believed malaria could be controlled and were willing to contribute to a community-based malaria control program but felt they needed outside assistance. Culturally sensitive but evidence-based education interventions, utilizing participatory tools, are urgently required which consider traditional beliefs and enable understanding of causal connections between mosquito ecology, parasite transmission and the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease. Community-based organizations and schools need to be equipped with knowledge through partnerships with national and international research and tertiary education institutions so that evidence-based research can be applied at the grassroots level.
MUSEMBI MRNUNGUJOSEPH. "Hardships for Rural Schools: Whose View Counts?". In: Canadian Society for the Study of Education (CSSE) annual conference, Concordia University, Montreal, May 29 - June 1 2010. Frontiers, 2011; 2010. Abstract
Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the development of resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases. This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills, and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting. The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of 60 respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided the targeted information. The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria. This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses 60 medicinal plants distributed in 52 genera and 27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains, and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions. The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques. Keywords: malaria, antimalarials, ethnopharmacology, ethnodiagnostic skills, Digo community, bioprospecting
Masinde AMM;. "A hardware based model for an asset monitoring and tracking system: Case of laptops.". In: 2015 International Conference on Emerging Trends in Networks and Computer Communications (ETNCC). Windhoek, Namibia ; 2015. Abstract

Corporate mobility initiatives and the anytime, anywhere information workers is on the rise. This is mostly fuelled by availability of affordable and more powerful mobile computing devices, especially laptops and tablets. One direct consequence of this is a sharp increase in laptop theft; this is partly driven by the fact that laptops are portable and easy to conceal and pocket away, they fetch a good second-hand price on the informal market and availability of easy online disposal platforms such as Gumtree, where they are sold cheaply and anonymously. Despite the fact that many solutions have been developed in an attempt to annihilate this growing calamity, their cost has left many small and medium organizations preferring to do without one. In an attempt to bridge this gap, the research reported in this paper aimed at designing a generic middleware architecture for use in a hardware-based (RFIDs, wireless sensor modes, fingerprint scanners and mobile phones) affordable laptop monitoring and tracking system. The resulting system prototype was evaluated using diverse experimental cases within a university in South Africa.

PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Harharan, G.N.; R.K Mibey & D.L. Hawksworth. A new species of Lichenopelthella on Porina in India. Lichenologist 28: 294-296.". In: Yair Ben-Dov & C.J. Hodgson. World Crop Pests, 7A. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Pp 275-20. University of Nairobi.; 1996.
Migowa AN;, Murungi CW;, Gatinu BW;, Mbithe J;, Kimani E;, Okiro P;, Rana FS;, Ochieng R;, R W Nduati. "Harlequin ichthyosis in an African child: case report.". 2010. Abstract

Severe congenital skin abnormalities are a rare event. This case is unique in that it is a case of harlequin ichthyosis in sub-sahara Africa in a child of African origin and elaborates the challenges faced in its management. We present a neonate who was managed for this condition at Chogoria Mission Hospital. In presenting this case, we aim to sensitise healthcare providers to promptly recognise and manage this rare skin condition.

M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Harmonisation of Masters and PhD Research Proposals and Thesis Writing." Kenya School of Monetary Studies; 2010.
OKECH MROWITIMAURICED. "Harmonisation of Social Security Legislation in East Africa (under the auspices of the East African Community.". In: East Afr Med J. 1977 Sep;54(9):472-5. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2002. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
Oduor JAN. "Harmonisation of the Orthographies System and IPA System of Nilotic Languages in Kenya.". In: The Harmonisation and Standardisation of Kenyan Languages Orthography and Other Aspects. Cape Town: CASAS; 2012.
Oduor J, Iribe MP, Ogechi NO. The Harmonization and Standardization of Kenyan Languages:.; 2012.
Ogechi NO, Oduor JAN, IRIBEMWANGI PI. The Harmonization and Standardization of Kenyan Languages: Orthography and Other Aspects. Cape Town: CASAS; 2012.
W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "Harmonization of African Policies.". In: International Journal Spring.; 1983. Abstract

Journal of Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies

N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN, O PROFOWINOJOHN. "Harmonization of climate outlooks in Africa: Verification of user products.". In: J. Afric.Met.Soc. Vol.5. No. 2 pp 81-89, 2002. 1999; 2002. Abstract
n/a
N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN, O PROFOWINOJOHN. "Harmonization of climate outlooks in Africa: Verification of user products.". In: J. Afric.Met.Soc. Vol.5. No. 2 pp 81-89, 2002. Eastern and South African Journal; 2002. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
Agwanda A. Harmonization of Household and Family variables in the 1989 and 1999 Kenyan Censuses. . Minnesota University Population Center, International Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS). The report and spreadsheet prepared for the IPUMS project on Census Data Use. The report formed part of the meta- data; 2001.
H DRONYANGOWALTER. "Harmony in Colour and design.". In: Daily Nation 6th March 1989 page 6. IPPNW; 1989. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
Kimuyu PK. "Harmony Rather than a Mastery Value Type.". In: Sychar Draft Discussion Paper .; 2010.
Makunda CS. Harnessing cultural heritage for locally relevant interior design solutions for new apartments in Nairobi. University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Dessie, T; Gebreyesus G;, Mekuria G;, Jembere T;, Woldu T;, Agaba M;, Mwai OA. "Harnessing genetic diversity to improve goat productivity in Africa: Ethiopia component."; 2013.
Mr. KAHONGE ANDREWMWAURA, ANDERSON MRMIRITIEVANS. "Harnessing Information Technology for Drug Supply Reporting and Management.". In: Research for Sustainable Development and Institutional Capacity Building. Kisipan, M.L.; 2009.
Mr. KAHONGE ANDREWMWAURA, ANDERSON MRMIRITIEVANS. "Harnessing Information Technology for Drug Supply Reporting and Management.". In: Research for Sustainable Development and Institutional Capacity Building.; 2009. Abstract
       
Gebreyesus G;, Wamalwa M;, Dessie T;, Agaba M;, Benor S;, Mwai OA. "Harnessing “ODK collect” on smartphones for on-farm data collection in Africa: The ILRI-BecA goat project."; 2013.
ABDI PROFJAMAMOHAMUD. "Harou, P., Aguero, A. Doumani, F., Jama, M. et al "Epistemic Communities of Environmental Economists to shape Development Policies".". In: Edward Elger Publishing Inc. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
MWANGI DRMUCHEMIG. "Harrison L.J.S., Muchemi, G.K.M. and Sewel, M.M.H.1985. Attempted infection of calves with cysticerci of Taenia crocutae and their subsequent serological response. Research in Veterinary Science 38:383-385.". In: East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. EAMJ; 1985. Abstract
Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi. Four hundred and thirty six pupils in two primary schools in Kibwezi, Kenya aged between seven and sixteen years and positive for S. mansoni were treated as follows: 320 pupils with a single dose of praziquantel at 40 mg/kg body weight and 116 controls with a placebo. Immediate and delayed side effects of praziquantel were observed. The main side-effects were abdominal pain (36.3%), headache (35.3%) and nausea (13.1%). There was correlation between frequencies of these side-effects and intensity of infection measured as eggs per gram of faeces. Other side-effects included dizziness (9.7%), fever (7.8%), urticaria and bloody diarrhoea. Overall, the side-effects of praziquantel were mild and transient, and did not require any intervention. For ethical reasons, all pupils who served as controls were treated with praziquantel after the study. PMID: 8898462 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
M DRNGUGIPETER. "Harrison NW, Eshleman JL, Ngugi PM.Ethical issues in the developing world.". In: Br J Urol. 1995 Nov;76 Suppl 2:93-6. Review. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1995. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the histology of the prostate in prostatectomy done for benign prostatic hypertrology (BPH), and prostate needle biopsy done for raised prostatic specific antigen (PSA). DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTINGS: Nairobi Hospital, Kenyatta National Hospital and Upper Hill Medical Centre. SUBJECTS: The records of all the patients who had prostatectomy for BPH or trans-rectal needle biopsy of the prostate for raised prostatic specific antigen by the author and whose histology was determined at the Nairobi Hospital between May 2004 and December 2006. RESULTS: A total of 108 specimens from 108 patients were sent to the laboratory. The ages of the patients ranged from 48 years to 83 years with a mean of 71.3 years. Of the 108 specimens submitted 82 were benign prostatic hypertrophy and 26 were carcinoma of the prostate. Out of 78 prostatectomy specimens ten (12.8%) had prostate cancer. In the needle biopsy group 16 out of 30 (53%) had prostate cancer. In total there were 82 (76%) patients with histology of benign prostate enlargement and 26 (24%) with histology of prostate cancer. CONCLUSION: Prostate cancer is a common disease in Kenya and a lot of it is important cancer as it will progress and cause death. In this poor resource setting it is possible to make diagnosis of prostate cancer even in the absence of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) to help biopsy the prostate. The higher the prostatic specific antigen in asymptomatic patients the higher the yield of prostate cancer on biopsy of the prostate.
M DRNGUGIPETER. "Harrison NW, Eshleman JL, Ngugi PM.Ethical issues in the developing world.Br J Urol. 1995 Nov;76 Suppl 2:93-6.". In: Br J Urol. 1995 Nov;76 Suppl 2:93-6. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1995. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the histology of the prostate in prostatectomy done for benign prostatic hypertrology (BPH), and prostate needle biopsy done for raised prostatic specific antigen (PSA). DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTINGS: Nairobi Hospital, Kenyatta National Hospital and Upper Hill Medical Centre. SUBJECTS: The records of all the patients who had prostatectomy for BPH or trans-rectal needle biopsy of the prostate for raised prostatic specific antigen by the author and whose histology was determined at the Nairobi Hospital between May 2004 and December 2006. RESULTS: A total of 108 specimens from 108 patients were sent to the laboratory. The ages of the patients ranged from 48 years to 83 years with a mean of 71.3 years. Of the 108 specimens submitted 82 were benign prostatic hypertrophy and 26 were carcinoma of the prostate. Out of 78 prostatectomy specimens ten (12.8%) had prostate cancer. In the needle biopsy group 16 out of 30 (53%) had prostate cancer. In total there were 82 (76%) patients with histology of benign prostate enlargement and 26 (24%) with histology of prostate cancer. CONCLUSION: Prostate cancer is a common disease in Kenya and a lot of it is important cancer as it will progress and cause death. In this poor resource setting it is possible to make diagnosis of prostate cancer even in the absence of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) to help biopsy the prostate. The higher the prostatic specific antigen in asymptomatic patients the higher the yield of prostate cancer on biopsy of the prostate.
W. H, T. K, A.S. M, R. B, R. N, N. M, C.R. C. "Harrison W.,Kinyari T.,Meier A.S., Brunham R., Nguti R.,Mugo N.,Cohen C.R. Risk factors for Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a prospective cohort of Kenyan female sex workers. The International Journal of Infectious Diseases 2006 Volume 5 Number 2." The International Journal of Infectious Diseases . 2006;5(2). AbstractWebsite

Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.

Longo D, Fauci A, Kasper D, Hauser S, Jameson J, Loscalzo J. Harrison's {Principles} of {Internal} {Medicine} 18E {Vol} 2 {EB}. McGraw Hill Professional; 2012. Abstract
n/a
Ombongi KS, Rutten M. Harry Thuku.; 1998.
GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""Harry Thuku" in Encyclopedia of African History.". In: Fitzroy Dearborn, New York, Volume 3, 2005, pp 1559-60.; 2005. Abstract
n/a
Wamitila KW. Harufu ya Mapera, A Kiswahili Novel. Nairobi: Vide-Muwa Publishers; 2012.
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "HarvestPlus Updates .". In: Presented at HarvestPlus Reaching End Users Workshop, 5-7 June 2005, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 2005. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
MUNGAI DRMBUGUAPAUL. "Harvey A L Anderson A J Mbugua P M and Karlsson E (1984): Toxins from mamba venoms that facilitate neuromuscular transmission J. Toxicol-Toxins Review 3 (2 & 3) 91.". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 1984. Abstract
Two toxins that are potent inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase have been isolated from the venom of the green mamba, Dendroaspis angusticeps. The toxins have been called fasciculins since after injection into mice (i.p. 0.5-3 micrograms/g body weight) they cause severe, generalized and long-lasting (5-7 h) fasciculations. Homogenates of diaphragm, tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles from mice injected with fasciculins showed a decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity by 45-60% compared to muscles from control animals. Histochemical staining revealed a greatly reduced acetylcholinesterase activity at neuromuscular junctions. Fasciculins have 61 amino acid residues and four disulfides. The molecular weights are 6765 (fasciculin 1) and 6735 (fasciculin 2). The sequences of the two toxins differ probably only at one position by a replacement of Tyr with Asp/Asn. 1 g of venom contained about 40 mg of fasciculins, 2/3 of which was fasciculin 2. A similar inhibitor has also been isolated from D. polylepis (black mamba) venom. The sequence of fasciculin 2 is known. Most of the positive charges are concentrated in a small section of the central part of the molecule, and most of the negative charges are in the C-terminal region. Fasciculins appear to have a pronounced dipole character. Fasciculin binds to the peripheral anionic site, since it can displace propidium, a probe for that site, from acetylcholinesterase. In vitro, in Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 2 mM NaH2PO4 (pH 7.4), fasciculin 2 inhibits acetylcholinesterase from human erythrocytes (Ki = 1.1 X 10(-10) M, 37 degrees C), rat muscle (Ki = 1.2 X 10(-10) M, 37 degrees C) and Electrophorus electricus (Ki = 3.0 X 10(-10) M, 22 degrees C).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID: 6530667 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Odhiambo SA, Wambugu A, Kiriti-Ng’ang’a T. "HAS QUALITY OF GOVERNANCE AFFECTED THE EFFECTIVENESS OF HEALTH EXPENDITURE ON ADULT HEALTH IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA?" European Scientific Journal . 2015;11(16):271-297.
Odhiambo SA, Wambugu A, Kiriti-Ng’ang’a T. "HAS QUALITY OF GOVERNANCE AFFECTED THE EFFECTIVENESS OF HEALTH EXPENDITURE ON ADULT HEALTH IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA?" European Scientific Journal . 2015;11(16):271-297.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Hasegawa I, Tanaka Y, Kramvis A, Kato T, Sugauchi F, Acharya SK, Orito E, Ueda R, Kew MC, Mizokami M.Novel hepatitis B virus genotype a subtyping assay that distinguishes subtype Aa from Ae and its application in epidemiological studies.J Virol. 2004 Jul;.". In: J Virol. 2004 Jul;78(14):7575-81. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004. Abstract
The eight genotypes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) have different geographical distributions, virological characteristics, and clinical manifestations. A unique subtype of HBV genotype A (HBV/A) was reported in sub-Saharan Africa, raising the possibility that patients infected with this subtype (HBV/Aa ["a" for African and Asian]) may have different clinical outcomes than other HBV/A isolates (HBV/Ae ["e" for European]). Comparison between 30 HBV/Aa and 30 HBV/Ae isolates indicated that almost all HBV/Ae isolates had G at nucleotide (nt) 1809 and C at nt 1812, whereas HBV/Aa isolates had T1809/T1812. Taking advantage of these two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), a novel subtype-specific PCR assay in the X/precore/core region was developed. This assay was combined with a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay using BglII in a different region (nt 1984 to 1989), which has a SNP distinguishing HBV/Aa from HBV/Ae, resulting in 100% specificity for the combined assay. Application of the subtyping assay using sera from 109 paid donors in the United States indicated significantly different distributions of HBV/A subtypes among races; African-Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics had HBV/Ae, whereas Asians had mainly HBV/Aa, suggesting that the HBV/Aa isolates may have been imported by recent immigration from Asia. In conclusion, the specificity and sensitivity of the combined subtyping assay were confirmed, and its usefulness was demonstrated in a practical context.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Hashim SO, Delgado O, Hatti-Kaul R, Mulaa FJ, Mattiasson B.Starch hydrolysing Bacillus halodurans isolates from a Kenyan soda lake.Biotechnol Lett. 2004 May;26(10):823-8.". In: Biotechnol Lett. 2004 May;26(10):823-8. Springerlink; 2004. Abstract
Fourteen obligate alkaliphilic and halotolerant bacterial isolates, exhibiting extracellular amylase activity at 55 degrees C and pH 10, were isolated from hot springs around Lake Bogoria, Kenya. From 16S rDNA sequence analysis, nine isolates shared 100% identity with Bacillus halodurans strain DSM 497T, while the rest shared 99% identity with alkaliphilic Bacillus species A-59. PCR of the intergenic spacer region between 16S and 23S rRNA genes (ISR-PCR) divided the isolates into two groups, while tDNA-PCR divided them into three groups. Bacillus halodurans DSM 497T had a different ISR pattern from the isolates, while it had a tDNA-PCR profile similar to the group that shared 99% identity with alkaliphilic Bacillus species A-59. All isolates hydrolysed soluble starch as well as amylose, amylopectin and pullulan. The amylase activity (1.2-1.8 U ml(-1)) in the culture broths had an optimum temperature of 55-65 degrees C, was stimulated by 1 mm Ca2+, and was either partially (16-30%) or completely inhibited by 1 mM EDTA. Activity staining of the cell-free culture supernatant from the isolates revealed five alkaline active amylase bands.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Hashim SO, Kaul RH, Andersson M, Mulaa FJ, Mattiasson B.Differential scanning calorimetric studies of a Bacillus halodurans alpha-amylase.Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005 May 25;1723(1-3):184-91. Epub 2005 Mar 24.". In: Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005 May 25;1723(1-3):184-91. Epub 2005 Mar 24. Springerlink; 2005. Abstract
The thermal unfolding of Amy 34, a recombinant alpha-amylase from Bacillus halodurans, has been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The denaturation of Amy 34 involves irreversible processes with an apparent denaturation temperature (T(m)) of 70.8 degrees C at pH 9.0, with four transitions, as determined using multiple Gaussian curves. The T(m) increased by 5 degrees C in the presence of 100-fold molar excess of CaCl2 while the aggregation of Amy 34 was observed in the presence of 1000-fold molar excess of CaCl2. Increase in the calcium ion concentration from 1- to 5-fold molar excess resulted in an increase in calorimetric enthalpy (DeltaH(cal)), however, at higher concentrations of CaCl2 (up to 100-fold), DeltaH(cal) was found to decrease, accompanied by a decrease in entropy change (DeltaS), while the T(m) steadily increased. The presence of 100-fold excess of metal chelator, EDTA, resulted in a decrease in T(m) by 10.4 degrees C. T(m) was also decreased to 61.1 degrees C and 65.9 degrees C at pH 6.0 and pH 11.0, respectively.
ABDEL PROFMALEKADELKAMEL. "Hassan FZ, Saleh MN, Abdel Malek AK, Lenne Y, Elbadry M. 1992. Retinal epithelium and its relations to the photoreceptors. Conf Egypt Soc Basic Med Sc. Jan 2, 1992. Cairo.". In: Conf Egypt Soc Basic Med Sc. Jan 2, 1992. Cairo. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1992. Abstract
)
OLUOCH PROFATINGAJOHNERNEST. "Hassan S, Macharia WM, Atinga J.Self reported alcohol use in an urban traffic trauma population in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2005 Mar;82(3):144-7.". In: Occasional Publication Number 3 2003. pp 21-32. E Afr Med J; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Kenya has a soaring rate of road traffic fatalities. Available evidence suggests significant alcohol-relatedness to trauma. We know little about the prevalence of alcohol-related injuries in Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent and pattern of alcohol use in subjects admitted following road traffic accident. DESIGN: A descriptive hospital based survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH)- a university affiliated hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: The overall incidence of alcohol use was 26.3%. This was higher in males (29.6%) than females (9.1%). Use was 24.4%, 31.0%, 28.6% and 13.6% in the 16-25, 26-35, 36-45 and 46-55 age groups respectively. The mean ages, pre-hospital times and ISS were similar for the AUG and NAUG. The incidence of males, weekend injuries, night collisions, and pedestrian involvement was 94.4%, 69.4%, 41.7%, 77.8% in the AUG and 83.2%, 35.6%, 19.8% and 61.4% in the NAUG respectively. The incidence of head and extremity injuries in AUG was 27.8% and 50% respectively compared to 11.9% and 66.3% in the NAUG. Treatment costs were higher for the NAUG. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest a high incidence and potential alcohol-relatedness to road trauma in Nairobi. The study calls for objective evaluation of the extent, interactions and effects of this modifiable trauma factor.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Hassan Saidi, Adari G Primary breast sarcoma; a case report East Afr. Med J. 2004; 81: 375-377.". In: East Afr. Med J. 2004; 81: 375-377. Surgical society of Kenya; 2004. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Kenya has a soaring rate of road traffic fatalities. Available evidence suggests significant alcohol-relatedness to trauma. We know little about the prevalence of alcohol-related injuries in Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent and pattern of alcohol use in subjects admitted following road traffic accident. DESIGN: A descriptive hospital based survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH)- a university affiliated hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: The overall incidence of alcohol use was 26.3%. This was higher in males (29.6%) than females (9.1%). Use was 24.4%, 31.0%, 28.6% and 13.6% in the 16-25, 26-35, 36-45 and 46-55 age groups respectively. The mean ages, pre-hospital times and ISS were similar for the AUG and NAUG. The incidence of males, weekend injuries, night collisions, and pedestrian involvement was 94.4%, 69.4%, 41.7%, 77.8% in the AUG and 83.2%, 35.6%, 19.8% and 61.4% in the NAUG respectively. The incidence of head and extremity injuries in AUG was 27.8% and 50% respectively compared to 11.9% and 66.3% in the NAUG. Treatment costs were higher for the NAUG. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest a high incidence and potential alcohol-relatedness to road trauma in Nairobi. The study calls for objective evaluation of the extent, interactions and effects of this modifiable trauma factor.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Hassan Saidi, Macharia WM, Atinga J Self-reported alcohol prevalence in an urban traffic trauma population in Kenya East Afr. Med J. 2005; 82(3); 145-148.". In: East Afr. Med J. 2005; 82(3); 145-148. Surgical society of Kenya; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Kenya has a soaring rate of road traffic fatalities. Available evidence suggests significant alcohol-relatedness to trauma. We know little about the prevalence of alcohol-related injuries in Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent and pattern of alcohol use in subjects admitted following road traffic accident. DESIGN: A descriptive hospital based survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH)- a university affiliated hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: The overall incidence of alcohol use was 26.3%. This was higher in males (29.6%) than females (9.1%). Use was 24.4%, 31.0%, 28.6% and 13.6% in the 16-25, 26-35, 36-45 and 46-55 age groups respectively. The mean ages, pre-hospital times and ISS were similar for the AUG and NAUG. The incidence of males, weekend injuries, night collisions, and pedestrian involvement was 94.4%, 69.4%, 41.7%, 77.8% in the AUG and 83.2%, 35.6%, 19.8% and 61.4% in the NAUG respectively. The incidence of head and extremity injuries in AUG was 27.8% and 50% respectively compared to 11.9% and 66.3% in the NAUG. Treatment costs were higher for the NAUG. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest a high incidence and potential alcohol-relatedness to road trauma in Nairobi. The study calls for objective evaluation of the extent, interactions and effects of this modifiable trauma factor.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Hassan WM, Lavreys L, Chohan V, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Holmes KK, McClelland RS.Associations between intravaginal practices and bacterial vaginosis in Kenyan female sex workers without symptoms of vaginal infectio.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2007 Jun;34(6):384-8. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstractassociations_between_intravaginal_practices_and_bacterial_vaginosis.docassociations_between_intravaginal_practices_and_bacterial_vaginosis.pdf

{ BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is highly prevalent among African women and has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV-1. GOAL: The goal of this study was to analyze the relationship among intravaginal practices, bathing, and BV. STUDY DESIGN: The authors conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-1-seronegative Kenyan female sex workers without symptoms of vaginal infections. RESULTS: Of 237 women enrolled, 206 (87%) reported vaginal washing using either a finger or cloth. Increasing frequency of vaginal washing was associated with a higher likelihood of BV (chi(2) test for trend

JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Hassanali J, Amwayi P, Muriithi A. Removal of deciduous canine tooth buds in Kenyan rural Maasai.East Afr Med J. 1995 Apr;72(4):207-9.". In: East African Medical Journal 72: 207-209. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 1995. Abstract

The removal of deciduous canine tooth buds in early childhood is a practice that has been documented in Kenya and in neighboring countries. This paper describes the occurrence, rationale and method of this practice amongst rural Kenyan Maasai. In a group of 95 children aged between six months and two years, who were examined in 1991/92, 87% were found to have undergone the removal of one or more deciduous canine tooth buds. In an older age group (3-7 years of age), 72% of the 111 children examined exhibited missing mandibular or maxillary deciduous canines. It was found that the actual removal of a deciduous tooth bud is often performed by middle-aged Maasai women who enucleate the developing tooth using a pointed pen-knife. There exists a strong belief among the Maasai that diarrhoea, vomiting and other febrile illnesses of early childhood are caused by the gingival swelling over the canine region, and which is thought to contain 'worms' or 'nylon' teeth. The immediate and long-term hazards of this practice include profuse bleeding, infection and damage to the developing permanent canines. A multi-disciplinary approach involving social anthropologists in addition to dental and medical personnel, is recommend in order to discourage this harmful operation that appears to be on the increase.

JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Hassanali J, Amwayi P. Biometric analysis of the dental casts of Maasai following traditional extraction of mandibular permanent central incisors and of Kikuyu children.Eur J Orthod. 1993 Dec;15(6):513-8.Click here to read.". In: European Journal of Orthodontics ; 15: 513-518. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 1993. Abstract
Dental plaster casts of 93 Maasai and 79 Kikuyu children age 12-15 years were analysed. Four biometric measurements were taken of the maxillary and mandibular casts: intercanine distance (C-C), inter-molar distance (M-M), canine arch circumference (C-C ACirc.), and molar arch circumference (M-M ACirc.). Incisor space (IS) was also measured in the mandibular casts. The mean values of all measurements except (M-M) in the mandibular casts were significantly reduced in the Maasai who had permanent central incisors extracted compared to the non-extracted Maasai and the Kikuyu. The mean incisor space in the Maasai with extractions was 6.3 mm compared to 11.7 mm in the non-extracted Maasai group. The extent of reduction of IS, C-C, C-C ACirc. and M-M ACirc. following extractions of the incisors may depend on the mesial drift of lateral incisors, jaw growth and soft tissue influence. The position of the tongue and occlusal relationship of the molars may prevent bucco-lingual movements maintaining a constant M-M. There was no significant difference in the mandibular cast dimensions of the non-extracted Maasai and the Kikuyu. Analysis of the maxillary cast dimensions of the Maasai with extraction, non-extracted Maasai and Kikuyu showed no significant differences suggesting that the extraction of mandibular incisors has no effect on maxillary arch dimensions. The variability in growth of the dento-alveolar complex itself may explain why the dental arch dimensions are similar in the Maasai and Kikuyu despite ethnic differences. There was no significant difference between the male and female dental arch dimensions.
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Hassanali J, Amwayi P. Report on two aspects of the Maasai dentition. East Afr Med J. 1988 Nov;65(11):798-803.". In: East African Medical Journal 65:798-803. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 1988. Abstract
 No abstract available.
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Hassanali J, Mwaniki D. Palatal analysis and osteology of the hard palate of the Kenyan African skulls.Anat Rec. 1984 Jun;209(2):273-80.". In: Anatomical Record 209: 173-280. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 1984. Abstract
One hundred twenty-five dry skulls from Kenya that consisted of about 90% Bantu individuals were examined to obtain data on the gross anatomy of the hard palate. The palatine index showed that 43.2% of the total sample of skulls has narrow (leptostaphyline), 23.7% intermediate (mesostaphyline), and 33.1% wide (brachystaphyline) palates. The palatine height index showed that 40% skulls had low (chamestaphyline), 57% intermediate (orthostaphyline), and 3.0% deep (hypsistaphyline) palates. Mean palatal length, breadth, and height for the total sample was 4.92 cm, 4.02 cm, and 1.22 cm, respectively. The incisive foramen and canal was cone shaped in 80% where the diameter of the foramen was less than 0.4 cm, while it was cylindrical in 20% where the diameter was greater than 0.4 cm. Forty-nine per cent of the skulls had two-five lesser palatine foramina present. The greater palatine foramen was found to lie at the level of the third molar in 76%, intermediate between second and third molars in 13.6%, and opposite the second molar in 10.4%. The greater palatine foramen opened antero-medially in 74% and perpendicularly in 26% of the palates. Extensive longitudinal palatal grooves were found bilaterally in all the palates, 70% showed divisions of the grooves, 63.2% had crests along the border of the grooves, and 19.2% had bridges in the posterior part of the groove near the opening of the greater palatine foramen. The incidence of palatine torus was 4.8%. The incisive suture was present in 6.4% of the adult palates.
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Hassanali J, Odhiambo JW. Ages of eruption of the permanent teeth in Kenyan African and asian children. Ann Hum Biol. 1981 Sep-Oct;8(5):425-34.". In: Nrb.Un.Dent.J. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 1981. Abstract
Mean ages of eruption of the permanent teeth (except 3rd molars) in African and Asian children were derived from a cross-sectional study of 2847 children aged 4-14 years, in selected nursery and primary schools in Nairobi, Kenya. Except for the premolars, the mandibular teeth erupted earlier than the maxillary ones in both races. The mandibular incisors and canines erupted earlier by 0.9-1.1 yr in Africans and 0.6-0.8 yr in Asians, and the molar by 0.2-0.4 yr in both races. The maxillary premolars were ahead of mandibular premolars by 0.1-0.2 yr in both races. The females were ahead of males in both races. Compared with the Asians, the African permanent teeth erupted earlier by 0.2-0.7 yr. The most frequent order of eruption in Africans is Mand I1, Mand M1, Max M1, Mand I2, and Max I1 between 5-7 years, while in the Asians the most frequent order is Mand M1, Mand I1, or Max M1, Max I1 and Mand I2 between 6-8 years. The incidence of Cusp of Carabelli in Africans and Asians is about 19-25%.
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Hassanali J, Odhiambo JW. Analysis of dental casts of 6-8- and 12-year-old Kenyan children. Eur J Orthod. 2000 Apr;22(2):135-42.Click here to read.". In: African Journal of Oral Health Sciences . Vol 3, No.3;. . International Journal of Morphology 25 (4) : 851-854 (2007).; 2000. Abstract
Dental plaster casts of 97 6-8-year-old and 173 12-year-old Maasai, Kikuyu, and Kalenjin children were studied. The Kikuyu are Bantu, while Maasai and Kalenjin are Nilo-Hamitic subjects. The variables measured were palatal depth (PD) and length (PL); maxillary and mandibular anterior arc circumferences (AC1) and (AC2), respectively; posterior arc circumferences (PC1) and (PC2), inter-canine (CC1), and (CC2); inter-molar (MM1) and (MM2) distances, and mandibular length (ML). The data were analysed using SPSS package. The mean values of all the variables were generally higher in the males compared with the females and significant sex differences in the means (P < 0.01) were found in AC1, PC1, PC2, CC1, CC2, MM1, and MM2 in the 12-year-old subjects. The means of all variables, except PL, ML, PC2, and CC2, increased from 6 to 12 years of age and significant differences in the means for age were found in ML, AC1, PC2, PD, MM1, MM2, and CC1. Mean maxillary inter-molar distance increased with age by 0.17-0.34 mm in the three groups. Mean values of mandibular variables were highest in the Kikuyu, while maxillary variables were highest in the Maasai. The Maasai casts showed a marked decrease in CC2, PC2, AC2, and ML compared with the Kikuyu and Kalenjin. Ethnic and sex differences in the dental arches may be masked by anterior tooth positions that are influenced by the dento-alveolar complex and soft tissues. Corresponding mandibular and maxillary variables were strongly correlated and anterior and posterior arc circumferences were correlated with inter-canine and intermolar distances. Details of the norms for dental arch dimensions and changes with age may allow for appropriate assessment of dental occlusion and treatment planning for Kenyan children.
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Hassanali J, Odhiambo JW. Estimation of calendar age from eruption times of permanent teeth in Kenyan Africans and Asians. Ann Hum Biol. 1982 Mar-Apr;9(2):175-7.". In: American Journal of Physical Anthropology : 59: 317-319. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 1982. Abstract
Eruption data for permanent teeth, obtained from a previous cross-sectional study of 2847 African and Asian school children aged 4-14 years in Nairobi, Kenya, were used to calculate the median age and the 10th-90th percentile range of age, for a given number of teeth present. For a limited period (5-13 years) up to the time of eruption of second molars, the total number of permanent teeth erupted can be used to estimate the age of a child, with an error which increases with the number of teeth present. The range of this error is about 18-30% of the median age for African males, 21-29% for African females, 15-33% for Asian males and 18-33% for Asian females, with a 1 in 5 chance that the error may exceed these limits.
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Hassanali J, P. Kibet.Deciduous and Permanent tooth Anomalies arising from Deciduous canine tooth bud removal in infancy among the Maasai. African Journal of Oral Health Sciences. East African Medical Journal Vol 4 No. 3 233-235 (2004).". In: East African Medical Journal Vol 4 No. 3 233-235. . International Journal of Morphology 25 (4) : 851-854 (2007).; 2004. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: In order to introduce a comprehensive intervention system to improve health, there is need to establish a profile of the Maasais' current knowledge, attitude and practices of predisposing environmental, cultural and other factors which may lead to considerable health risks. DESIGN: A descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Oletepesi and Elangata Wuas of Kajiando District. SUBJECTS: Maasai community in Oletepesi and Elangata Wuas regions of Kajiado District of Kenya over a period of two years. RESULTS: Previous awareness to primary health care and knowledge has been through education and training by AMREF Nomadic Health Unit. Factors such as limited availability of water, health care delivery and dry arid environment with poor infrastructure as well as some persistent harmful cultural practices predispose the Maasai community to common health problems in children and adults. CONCLUSION: With community participation, there is need for an integrated approach to these health risks. The Ministry of Health together with AMREF have incorporated a comprehensive intervention system to address the commonly occurring diseases such as malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia and address adults and children problems differently.

JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Hassanali J, Pokhariyal GP.Anterior tooth relations in Kenyan Africans. Arch Oral Biol. 1993 Apr;38(4):337-42.(ABSTRACT).". In: European Journal of Orthodontics ; 15: 513-518. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 1993. Abstract
Dental plaster casts of 235 Maasai, 116 Kikuyu and 61 Kalenjin children aged 3-16 yr were studied to determine the incidence and magnitude of diastemas, overbite, overjet and anterior open bite. The highest prevalence of diastema was amongst the Maasai (61.3%), of overbite (84%) and overjet (99%) amongst the Kikuyu, and of anterior open bite amongst Kalenjin (24%), with values greater than 0.4 mm up to 11.5 mm. Comparison of the mean values showed that diastema (1.77 mm) and overjet (4.4 mm) were greatest in Maasai, overbite (3.53 mm) in Kalenjin, and anterior open bite (3.50 mm) in Kikuyu. In the total sample, the prevalence and mean of diastema were 49%, 1.68 mm; of overbite 77.4%, 2.96 mm; of overjet 88.6%, 3.83 mm; and of anterior open bite 16.5%, 2.69 mm (with values between 0.4-11.5 mm), while 5.5% had an edge-to-edge bite (-0.5-0.5 mm). The prevalence of diastema decreased whilst its magnitude increased with age. The mean values of overbite and overjet increased, while those for anterior open bite decreased with age. The mean values of diastema, overbite and overjet were greater amongst the females, but the difference was significant only for overjet. The high prevalence and greater values of measurements of anterior tooth relations may be related to variable growth of the bimaxillary dentoalveolar complex and soft tissue influences. This may be important in orthodontic treatment planning, dental prostheses and other clinical dental treatments in Kenyan populations.
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Hassanali J. , P. Amwayi, A. Muriithi.Removal of deciduous canine tooth buds amongst Maasai children. East African Medical Journal 72: 207-209 (1995).". In: East African Medical Journal 72: 207-209. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 1995. Abstract

The removal of deciduous canine tooth buds in early childhood is a practice that has been documented in Kenya and in neighboring countries. This paper describes the occurrence, rationale and method of this practice amongst rural Kenyan Maasai. In a group of 95 children aged between six months and two years, who were examined in 1991/92, 87% were found to have undergone the removal of one or more deciduous canine tooth buds. In an older age group (3-7 years of age), 72% of the 111 children examined exhibited missing mandibular or maxillary deciduous canines. It was found that the actual removal of a deciduous tooth bud is often performed by middle-aged Maasai women who enucleate the developing tooth using a pointed pen-knife. There exists a strong belief among the Maasai that diarrhoea, vomiting and other febrile illnesses of early childhood are caused by the gingival swelling over the canine region, and which is thought to contain 'worms' or 'nylon' teeth. The immediate and long-term hazards of this practice include profuse bleeding, infection and damage to the developing permanent canines. A multi-disciplinary approach involving social anthropologists in addition to dental and medical personnel, is recommend in order to discourage this harmful operation that appears to be on the increase.

JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Hassanali J. Biometric analysis of the mandibles of Papio anubis and Cercopithecus aethiops.Folia Primatol (Basel). 1991;56(1):28-32.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Apr;69(4):210-3. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 1991. Abstract
Six biometric measurements were recorded from dry mandibles of 53 Papio anubis and 84 Cercopithecus aethiops: intercondylar width, intercoronoid width, intermolar width (IMW), mesiodistal width of the condyles, height of the occlusal table and anteroposterior length of the chewing surface from P4 to M3 (CL). The mean values and correlation matrices of these variables show that, despite the difference in size, the overall shape of the mandible in male and female is similar within species. The principal component analysis shows that in P. anubis the six variables contribute almost equally to the first component (75% of total variance), suggesting that the large mandible may be force related because of the greater mechanical forces required for chewing certain foods. In C. aethiops, the contribution of IMW and CL is less in the first component (52.7% of total variance), suggesting that the biochemical forces of mastication are more complex to adapt the mandible to a shorter muzzle and a particular diet.
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Hassanali J. Quantitative and somatotopic mapping of neurones in the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus and ganglion innervating teeth in monkey and baboon. Arch Oral Biol. 1997 Oct-Nov;42(10-11):673-82.". In: Archives of Oral Biology, 42/10-11:673-682. . International Journal of Morphology 25 (4) : 851-854 (2007).; 1997. Abstract
Neurones of the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Mes V) and ganglion innervating the periodontium of incisor, canine and molar teeth in 10 monkeys and 10 baboons were counted and mapped using the horseradish peroxidase (Hrp), retrograde axonal transport method. Periodontal afferent neurones of all these teeth were well represented in the Mes V, although the incisors had a significantly higher number of labelled neurones than the canines or molars. The primary cell bodies of the periodontal afferents were located mainly in the caudal part of the ipsilateral Mes V from the level of the inferior colliculus to the floor of the fourth ventricle in the pons. The caudal periodontal Mes V neurones may be favourably located to make collateral connections with the trigeminal motor nucleus for jaw reflexes. Incisors and canines had a large and predominantly ipsilateral representation of Hrp-labelled neurones in the ganglion. In contrast, molar representation in the ganglion was sparse and all labelled neurones supplied ipsilateral teeth. The maxillary and mandibular teeth had a somatotopic distribution within the respective maxillary (middle) and mandibular (posterolateral) compartments of the trigeminal ganglion. It is suggested that the anterior teeth with greater connections to the Mes V and the ganglion may impart greater sensory perception and be involved in jaw reflexes to ensure a good occlusal relation during mastication, while the afferent connections of the molars may initiate complex jaw reflexes during the occlusal phase of mastication.
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Hassanali J., D. Mwaniki.Palatal analysis and osteology of the hard palate of Kenyan Africans' skulls. Anatomical Record 209: 173-280 (1984).". In: Anatomical Record 209: 173-280. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 1984. Abstract
One hundred twenty-five dry skulls from Kenya that consisted of about 90% Bantu individuals were examined to obtain data on the gross anatomy of the hard palate. The palatine index showed that 43.2% of the total sample of skulls has narrow (leptostaphyline), 23.7% intermediate (mesostaphyline), and 33.1% wide (brachystaphyline) palates. The palatine height index showed that 40% skulls had low (chamestaphyline), 57% intermediate (orthostaphyline), and 3.0% deep (hypsistaphyline) palates. Mean palatal length, breadth, and height for the total sample was 4.92 cm, 4.02 cm, and 1.22 cm, respectively. The incisive foramen and canal was cone shaped in 80% where the diameter of the foramen was less than 0.4 cm, while it was cylindrical in 20% where the diameter was greater than 0.4 cm. Forty-nine per cent of the skulls had two-five lesser palatine foramina present. The greater palatine foramen was found to lie at the level of the third molar in 76%, intermediate between second and third molars in 13.6%, and opposite the second molar in 10.4%. The greater palatine foramen opened antero-medially in 74% and perpendicularly in 26% of the palates. Extensive longitudinal palatal grooves were found bilaterally in all the palates, 70% showed divisions of the grooves, 63.2% had crests along the border of the grooves, and 19.2% had bridges in the posterior part of the groove near the opening of the greater palatine foramen. The incidence of palatine torus was 4.8%. The incisive suture was present in 6.4% of the adult palates.
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Hassanali J., G. Pokhariyal. Anterior tooth relationships in Kenyan Africans. Archives of Oral Biology ; 38: 337-342 (1993).". In: Archives of Oral Biology ; 38: 337-342. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 1993. Abstract
Dental plaster casts of 235 Maasai, 116 Kikuyu and 61 Kalenjin children aged 3-16 yr were studied to determine the incidence and magnitude of diastemas, overbite, overjet and anterior open bite. The highest prevalence of diastema was amongst the Maasai (61.3%), of overbite (84%) and overjet (99%) amongst the Kikuyu, and of anterior open bite amongst Kalenjin (24%), with values greater than 0.4 mm up to 11.5 mm. Comparison of the mean values showed that diastema (1.77 mm) and overjet (4.4 mm) were greatest in Maasai, overbite (3.53 mm) in Kalenjin, and anterior open bite (3.50 mm) in Kikuyu. In the total sample, the prevalence and mean of diastema were 49%, 1.68 mm; of overbite 77.4%, 2.96 mm; of overjet 88.6%, 3.83 mm; and of anterior open bite 16.5%, 2.69 mm (with values between 0.4-11.5 mm), while 5.5% had an edge-to-edge bite (-0.5-0.5 mm). The prevalence of diastema decreased whilst its magnitude increased with age. The mean values of overbite and overjet increased, while those for anterior open bite decreased with age. The mean values of diastema, overbite and overjet were greater amongst the females, but the difference was significant only for overjet. The high prevalence and greater values of measurements of anterior tooth relations may be related to variable growth of the bimaxillary dentoalveolar complex and soft tissue influences. This may be important in orthodontic treatment planning, dental prostheses and other clinical dental treatments in Kenyan populations.
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Hassanali J., J. Onyango;Hypoplasia and hypodontia of permanent lateral incisors in Africans. Nrb.Un.Dent.J. 2:33-37 (1985).". In: Nrb.Un.Dent.J. 2:33-37. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 1985. Abstract
Data on third permanent molar eruption was obtained from a cross-sectional study of 1343 African and 1092 Asian students aged 13-23 years attending various schools in Nairobi and the University of Nairobi, Kenya. Africans are significantly ahead of the Asians in third molar emergence. As seen from the median age of eruption, in Africans mandibular molars emerge at 17.6-18.3 years followed by the maxillary at 18.5-18.9 years, while in the Asians mandibular molars emerge at 19.9-20.3 years and maxillary at 20.7-21.0 years. African females appear to be earlier than the males in median age of eruption by 0.3-0.4 years, while the Asian females tend to be later than the males by about 0.3 years, but these differences are not significant. Third molar emergence starts earlier in Africans at 13 years of age, and by 18.5 years 50% of Africans have all four molars present. In the Asians, third molar emergence begins at about 15 years and by 21.5 years 50% have all four molars present.
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Hassanali J., P. Amwayi, A. Muriithi;Social aspects of Dental Health of the rural Maasai community. Discovery and Innovation. Vol 6 363-365 (1994).". In: Discovery and Innovation. Vol 6 363-365. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 1994. Abstract

The removal of deciduous canine tooth buds in early childhood is a practice that has been documented in Kenya and in neighboring countries. This paper describes the occurrence, rationale and method of this practice amongst rural Kenyan Maasai. In a group of 95 children aged between six months and two years, who were examined in 1991/92, 87% were found to have undergone the removal of one or more deciduous canine tooth buds. In an older age group (3-7 years of age), 72% of the 111 children examined exhibited missing mandibular or maxillary deciduous canines. It was found that the actual removal of a deciduous tooth bud is often performed by middle-aged Maasai women who enucleate the developing tooth using a pointed pen-knife. There exists a strong belief among the Maasai that diarrhoea, vomiting and other febrile illnesses of early childhood are caused by the gingival swelling over the canine region, and which is thought to contain 'worms' or 'nylon' teeth. The immediate and long-term hazards of this practice include profuse bleeding, infection and damage to the developing permanent canines. A multi-disciplinary approach involving social anthropologists in addition to dental and medical personnel, is recommend in order to discourage this harmful operation that appears to be on the increase.

JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Hassanali J., P. Amwayi; Report on two aspects of Maasai dentition. East African Medical Journal 65:798-803 (1988).". In: East African Medical Journal 65:798-803. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 1988. Abstract
The present longitudinal study was conducted on ten children from age 5-6 years to determine the post-eruptive enamel changes of fluorosed permanent incisors. The children were born and reared in an area of Kenya with a water fluoride level of 14-45 parts per million. The incisors were examined and photographed periodically from the time of eruption over a period of 2 1/2 years. It was noted that the fluorosed incisor was intact as it erupted and then it underwent a variety of changes. In some there was mechanical breakdown (pitting) of the chalky white enamel which occurred rapidly initially and then the breakdown slowed down by 2 years. In others, there was smoothening of the pitted enamel resulting in a translucent appearance. Alternatively there was some degree of patchy staining of the enamel without surface breakdown. Much of the cervical 1/3 of the enamel remained intact even in teeth with severe breakdown. In most cases, these changes were bilaterally symmetrical. The possible reasons for these changes are discussed.
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Hassanali J., R. Tarara, J. N. Maina;Stereological analysis of the developing midbrain of the olive baboon. Acta Stereologica 6:93-98 (1987).". In: Acta Stereologica 6:93-98. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 1987. Abstract
 No abstract available.
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Hassanali J., S. Maolbabic and Y. Vujaskovic;Quantitative analysis of the trigeminal ganglion neurons in the human, monkey and baboon. European Journal of Anatomy 3(3): 115-20) (1999).". In: European Journal of Anatomy 3(3): 115-20). . International Journal of Morphology 25 (4) : 851-854 (2007).; 1999. Abstract
Dental plaster casts of 97 6-8-year-old and 173 12-year-old Maasai, Kikuyu, and Kalenjin children were studied. The Kikuyu are Bantu, while Maasai and Kalenjin are Nilo-Hamitic subjects. The variables measured were palatal depth (PD) and length (PL); maxillary and mandibular anterior arc circumferences (AC1) and (AC2), respectively; posterior arc circumferences (PC1) and (PC2), inter-canine (CC1), and (CC2); inter-molar (MM1) and (MM2) distances, and mandibular length (ML). The data were analysed using SPSS package. The mean values of all the variables were generally higher in the males compared with the females and significant sex differences in the means (P < 0.01) were found in AC1, PC1, PC2, CC1, CC2, MM1, and MM2 in the 12-year-old subjects. The means of all variables, except PL, ML, PC2, and CC2, increased from 6 to 12 years of age and significant differences in the means for age were found in ML, AC1, PC2, PD, MM1, MM2, and CC1. Mean maxillary inter-molar distance increased with age by 0.17-0.34 mm in the three groups. Mean values of mandibular variables were highest in the Kikuyu, while maxillary variables were highest in the Maasai. The Maasai casts showed a marked decrease in CC2, PC2, AC2, and ML compared with the Kikuyu and Kalenjin. Ethnic and sex differences in the dental arches may be masked by anterior tooth positions that are influenced by the dento-alveolar complex and soft tissues. Corresponding mandibular and maxillary variables were strongly correlated and anterior and posterior arc circumferences were correlated with inter-canine and intermolar distances. Details of the norms for dental arch dimensions and changes with age may allow for appropriate assessment of dental occlusion and treatment planning for Kenyan children.
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Hassanali J.Deciduous canine tooth bud removal in infants in East Africa.East Afr Med J. 2007 Oct;84(10):500-1.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Oct;84(10):500-1. International Journal of Morphology 26: 931-933 (2008); 2007. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Hassanali J.Incidence of cusp of Carabelli in Kenyan Africans and Asians. American Journal of Physical Anthropology : 59: 317-319(1982).". In: American Journal of Physical Anthropology : 59: 317-319. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 1982. Abstract

Examination for incidence of Carabelli's trait was done on 1267 Africans and 781 Asian school children, 298 dental plaster casts and 248 skulls of Africans. The African sample is composed of 80% Bantu, 20% Nilote, and Nilo-Hamitic people. When observed intraorally, the trait is present in 31-35% of Africans and 26-27% of Asians. In the dental casts and skull sample of Africans, the trait is present as pit in 23-28%, groove in 20%, and as tubercle and cusp in 22%. The total trait frequency in Africans is 68%.

JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Hassanali J.Quantitative analysis of the neurons of the neurons of the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus and ganglion innervating the teeth in the monkey and baboon. Archives of Oral Biology, 42/10-11:673-682 (1997).". In: Archives of Oral Biology, 42/10-11:673-682. . International Journal of Morphology 25 (4) : 851-854 (2007).; 1997. Abstract
Neurones of the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Mes V) and ganglion innervating the periodontium of incisor, canine and molar teeth in 10 monkeys and 10 baboons were counted and mapped using the horseradish peroxidase (Hrp), retrograde axonal transport method. Periodontal afferent neurones of all these teeth were well represented in the Mes V, although the incisors had a significantly higher number of labelled neurones than the canines or molars. The primary cell bodies of the periodontal afferents were located mainly in the caudal part of the ipsilateral Mes V from the level of the inferior colliculus to the floor of the fourth ventricle in the pons. The caudal periodontal Mes V neurones may be favourably located to make collateral connections with the trigeminal motor nucleus for jaw reflexes. Incisors and canines had a large and predominantly ipsilateral representation of Hrp-labelled neurones in the ganglion. In contrast, molar representation in the ganglion was sparse and all labelled neurones supplied ipsilateral teeth. The maxillary and mandibular teeth had a somatotopic distribution within the respective maxillary (middle) and mandibular (posterolateral) compartments of the trigeminal ganglion. It is suggested that the anterior teeth with greater connections to the Mes V and the ganglion may impart greater sensory perception and be involved in jaw reflexes to ensure a good occlusal relation during mastication, while the afferent connections of the molars may initiate complex jaw reflexes during the occlusal phase of mastication.
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Hassanali J.Review of dental contribution to the understanding of Hominid evolution with reference to East African fossils. Nrb.Un.Dent.J. (1981).". In: Nrb.Un.Dent.J. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 1981. Abstract
Eruption data for permanent teeth, obtained from a previous cross-sectional study of 2847 African and Asian school children aged 4-14 years in Nairobi, Kenya, were used to calculate the median age and the 10th-90th percentile range of age, for a given number of teeth present. For a limited period (5-13 years) up to the time of eruption of second molars, the total number of permanent teeth erupted can be used to estimate the age of a child, with an error which increases with the number of teeth present. The range of this error is about 18-30% of the median age for African males, 21-29% for African females, 15-33% for Asian males and 18-33% for Asian females, with a 1 in 5 chance that the error may exceed these limits.
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Hassanali J.The third permanent molar eruption in Kenyan Africans and Asians. Annals of Human Biology 12:517-523 (1985).". In: Annals of Human Biology 12:517-523. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 1985. Abstract
Data on third permanent molar eruption was obtained from a cross-sectional study of 1343 African and 1092 Asian students aged 13-23 years attending various schools in Nairobi and the University of Nairobi, Kenya. Africans are significantly ahead of the Asians in third molar emergence. As seen from the median age of eruption, in Africans mandibular molars emerge at 17.6-18.3 years followed by the maxillary at 18.5-18.9 years, while in the Asians mandibular molars emerge at 19.9-20.3 years and maxillary at 20.7-21.0 years. African females appear to be earlier than the males in median age of eruption by 0.3-0.4 years, while the Asian females tend to be later than the males by about 0.3 years, but these differences are not significant. Third molar emergence starts earlier in Africans at 13 years of age, and by 18.5 years 50% of Africans have all four molars present. In the Asians, third molar emergence begins at about 15 years and by 21.5 years 50% have all four molars present.
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Hassanali J.Use of teeth calcification and eruption data for estimation of calendar age: Review of Literature. Nrb.Un.Dent.J. Vol II, 19-23 (1985).". In: Nrb.Un.Dent.J. Vol II, 19-23. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 1985. Abstract
 No abstract available.
W PROFODHIAMBOJOHN. "Hassanali, J.; Odhiambo, J.W. Estimation of calendar age from eruption times of permanent teeth in Kenyan Africans and Asians pp. 175-177(3).". In: Proceedings of the Fifth ScientificConference of the East, Central and Southern Africa Network of the International Biometric Society Mombasa, Kenya. SITE; 1997. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

Wasamba P. "Hasty varsity mergers could mess up things." The Standard, July 9, 2019:15.
Mbuthia P G, Njagi LW, Bebora LC, Mugera GM, Nyaga PN. "Hatchability and fertility of indigenous chicken and duck eggs, and some causes of chick and duckling mortality in Kenya.". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference. College of Agriculture and Vet. Sciences, University of Nairobi; 2002.
PETER DRMUGWE. "Hatcher J, Smith A, Mackenzie I, Thompson S, Bal I, Macharia I, Mugwe P, Okoth-Olende C, Oburra H, Wanjohi Z, et al.A prevalence study of ear problems in school children in Kiambu district, Kenya, May 1992.Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1995 Nov;33(3):19.". In: Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1995 Nov;33(3):197-205. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1995. Abstract
Information on the prevalence of hearing impairment and related ear pathologies in children in sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. A pilot study for a clinical trial of simple treatments for chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) in school children in Kiambu district, Kenya, provided information on the prevalence of hearing impairment and ear pathologies. Five-thousand-three-hundred-sixty-eight children from 57 randomly chosen primary schools in Kiambu district were examined. Simple otoscopy was performed by clinical officers with specialty training in ENT, and hering testing was performed by trained nurses, using a hand held field audiometer. Microbiological specimens were obtained from those children with CSOM. Five-point-six percent of the children had a hearing impairment of > 30 dB HL in one or both ears, with 2.2% having bilateral hearing impairment. Two-point-four percent had at least one perforated tympanic membrane, and 1.1% had CSOM. Eight-point-six percent of the children had wax obstructing the tympanic membrane. There is evidence of a relationship between hearing impairment and both CSOM and wax obstructing the tympanic membrane. The most common organisms found were Pseudomonas spp. (34%), Proteus spp. (34%) and Eschericia coli (19%). These results are comparable with other studies in Africa and indicate a considerable burden of ear disease in Kiambu district, Kenya.
Penninah Ogada A. "Hate Speech and Overt Polarization of Citizens Towards Elections in 2013." Presented at Kenya2013 Election Watch Forum, Sarova Stanley; 2013. Abstract
n/a
"Hatua za Maendeleo ya Uhakiki wa Fasihi ya Kiswahili Nchini Kenya." Utafiti wa Kiswahili – a publication of the National Kiswahili Association. 2002.
MBERIA PROFKITHAKAWA. ""Hatutaavyo Ndoto" (Poem) in Writers Forum 1:57-58.". In: Proc.7th SR-CRSP workshop, ILRAD, Nairobi, Kenya. 27th to 28th Feb, 1989. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1992. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
"Having Their Say: Sex Workers Discuss Their Needs and Resources." Health Care for Women International. 2015;41.89.93.217.download.pdf
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Hawksworth, D.L. & R.K. Mibey. Information Needs of Inventory Programmes. Imperial College of Science & Technology, University of London. International Workshop on Biodiversity Information, July 15 and 16.". In: Yair Ben-Dov & C.J. Hodgson. World Crop Pests, 7A. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Pp 275-20. University of Nairobi.; 1996.
Rummel-Bulska I. "Hazardous Wastes.". 1993.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Hazari S, Panda SK, Gupta SD, Batra Y, Singh R, Acharya SK.Treatment of hepatitis C virus infection in patients of northern India.J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004 Sep;19(9):1058-65.". In: J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004 Sep;19(9):1058-65. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004. Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic response of north Indian patients with chronic hepatitis C (CH-C) to two different treatment regimens of interferon and ribavirin. METHODS: Consecutive patients with a diagnosis of CH-C attending the Liver Clinic at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi between April 1999 and April 2002 were included in the study. A competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method developed in the authors' laboratory was used for quantification of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA. Genotyping of HCV was also determined. The clinical, biochemical, virological and histological parameters were used to assess the therapeutic response among a clinical cohort of patients with chronic hepatitis C. They were treated with two different protocols (interferon [IFN]-alpha-2b, 3 million units daily and ribavirin 10.6 mg/kg daily in two divided doses for 6 months or IFN-alpha-2b, 3 million units thrice weekly and ribavirin 10.6 mg/kg daily for 6 months). RESULTS: Sixty-five patients with CH-C were included in the study. Blood transfusion (n = 28, 43%) and community-acquired (n = 23, 35%) HCV infections were the commonest. The mean HCV load was high (24.14 +/- 12.5 x 10(8) copies/mL). Genotype 2 and 3 were prevalent in 80% (41/51) of the patients. Forty-five patients received 3 million units of IFN thrice weekly and 20 received the same dose daily. All received the same dose of ribavirin. A sustained virological response (SVR) of 95% (19/20) was achieved among patients receiving daily IFN, whereas 64.4% (29/45) of those who received IFN thrice weekly had SVR. The virological relapse was significantly lower among patients who received daily IFN than in those treated with thrice weekly IFN (n = 1/20, 5% vs 10/39, 25.6%; P = 0.015). The proportion of patients receiving daily IFN among those achieving SVR (19/48, 40%) was significantly higher than the proportion of patients receiving similar therapy among patients without SVR (1/17, 6%; P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Transfusion and community-acquired HCV infection were the major causes of CH-C. Genotype 2 and 3 HCV were most prevalent among these patients. Despite high viral load, these patients responded well to a combination of daily IFN-alpha-2b and ribavirin. Copyright 2004 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

Ojwang PJ;, Ogada T;, Webber BB;, Wilson JB;, Huisman TH. "Hb Savaria or alpha2 (49)(CE7)Ser----Arg beta2 in an indigenous female from Kenya.". 1985.
Bowry TR;, Ojwang J;, Lumba M. "HBV infection: prevalence of core antibody and other markers in urban based, black school children in Kenya.". 1983. Abstract

This paper reports a study of 279 sera obtained from children attending five schools in Nairobi, the capital of Kenya which is situated in a non-malarious zone. Their ages ranged from six to 16 years. The surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBV) was detected in 13 children (4.7%) including seven boys and six girls. The core and surface antibodies were measured by radioimmunoassay on 125 of the samples to study the pattern of infection in childhood and the interrelationships of different parameters of the infection. The core antibody by itself was observed in four children (3.2%). A total of 31 samples (24.8%) had both core and surface antibodies, 19 (15.2%) had only surface antibody. Thus, 48% of all school children tested had serological evidence of past exposure to the virus. The implications of these findings are discussed.

Kim, Nina H; Scott J; CA; CL; MRA;, et al. "HBV Lamivudine Resistance among Hepatitis B and HIV Co-infected Patients Starting Lamivudine, Stavudine and Nevirapine in Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

Widespread use of lamivudine in antiretroviral therapy may lead to hepatitis B virus resistance in HIV-HBV co-infected patients from endemic settings where tenofovir is not readily available. We evaluated 389 Kenyan HIV-infected adults before and for 18 months after starting highly-active antiretroviral therapy with stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine. Twenty-seven (6.9%) were HBsAg(+) and anti-HBs negative: 24 were HBeAg-negative, 18 had HBV DNA ≤10,000 IU/ml. Sustained HBV suppression to <100 IU/ml occurred in 89% of 19 evaluable patients. Resistance occurred in only 2 subjects, both with high baseline HBV DNA levels. Lamivudine resistance can emerge in the setting of incomplete HBV suppression but was infrequently observed among HIV-HBV co-infected patients with low baseline HBV DNA levels.

H. N. Kim, J. Scott CC2 MRTJALRA, K. R. Jerome, G. Lule J-SCGMH. "HBV Lamivudine resistance among Hepatitis B and HIV coinfected patients starting lamivudine, stavudine and nevirapine in Kenya ." Journal of Viral Hepatitis. 2011; Volume 18( 10):e447-e452. Abstract

Summary.  Widespread use of lamivudine in antiretroviral therapy may lead to hepatitis B virus resistance in HIV–HBV coinfected patients from endemic settings where tenofovir is not readily available. We evaluated 389 Kenyan HIV-infected adults before and for 18 months after starting highly active antiretroviral therapy with stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine. Twenty-seven (6.9%) were HBsAg positive and anti-HBs negative, 24 were HBeAg negative, and 18 had HBV DNA levels ≤10 000 IU/mL. Sustained HBV suppression to <100 IU/mL occurred in 89% of 19 evaluable patients. Resistance occurred in only two subjects, both with high baseline HBV DNA levels. Lamivudine resistance can emerge in the setting of incomplete HBV suppression but was infrequently observed among HIV–HBV coinfected patients with low baseline HBV DNA levels.

Kim HN, Scott J, Cent A, Cook L, Morrow RA, Richardson B, Tapia K, Jerome KR, Lule G, John-Stewart G, Chung MH. "HBV lamivudine resistance among hepatitis B and HIV coinfected patients starting lamivudine, stavudine and nevirapine in Kenya." J. Viral Hepat.. 2011;18(10):e447-52. Abstract

Widespread use of lamivudine in antiretroviral therapy may lead to hepatitis B virus resistance in HIV-HBV coinfected patients from endemic settings where tenofovir is not readily available. We evaluated 389 Kenyan HIV-infected adults before and for 18 months after starting highly active antiretroviral therapy with stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine. Twenty-seven (6.9%) were HBsAg positive and anti-HBs negative, 24 were HBeAg negative, and 18 had HBV DNA levels ≤ 10,000 IU/mL. Sustained HBV suppression to <100 IU/mL occurred in 89% of 19 evaluable patients. Resistance occurred in only two subjects, both with high baseline HBV DNA levels. Lamivudine resistance can emerge in the setting of incomplete HBV suppression but was infrequently observed among HIV-HBV coinfected patients with low baseline HBV DNA levels.

Kim HN, Scott J, Cent A, Cook L, Morrow RA, Richardson B, Tapia K, Jerome KR, Lule G, John-Stewart G, Chung MH. "HBV lamivudine resistance among hepatitis B and HIV coinfected patients starting lamivudine, stavudine and nevirapine in Kenya." J. Viral Hepat.. 2011;18(10):e447-52. Abstract

Widespread use of lamivudine in antiretroviral therapy may lead to hepatitis B virus resistance in HIV-HBV coinfected patients from endemic settings where tenofovir is not readily available. We evaluated 389 Kenyan HIV-infected adults before and for 18 months after starting highly active antiretroviral therapy with stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine. Twenty-seven (6.9%) were HBsAg positive and anti-HBs negative, 24 were HBeAg negative, and 18 had HBV DNA levels ≤ 10,000 IU/mL. Sustained HBV suppression to <100 IU/mL occurred in 89% of 19 evaluable patients. Resistance occurred in only two subjects, both with high baseline HBV DNA levels. Lamivudine resistance can emerge in the setting of incomplete HBV suppression but was infrequently observed among HIV-HBV coinfected patients with low baseline HBV DNA levels.

Lule GN;, Okoth F;, Ogutu EO;, Mwai SJ. "HBV markers (HBsAg, HBSAb, HBCAb in 160 medical students at Kenyatta National Hospital.". 1985. Abstract

In an exercise to study the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the Engerix B vaccine, 160 medical students were screened for Hepatitis B Markers (HBsAg, HBsAb and HBcAb) with a view to vaccinating those that were negative. 18% were HBsAg + ve, 33% were HBsAb + ve and 38% were positive for the HBcAb. These figures were extremely high and obviated the need to vaccinate the students as they begin their clinical years

UoN Websites Search