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OMARI HASSAN. Environmental Ethics in Islam.; 2008.
Olang' POR. Effects of Spinal Anesthesia during Elective Caesarean Section on Neonatal outcome at the Kenyatta National Hospital.; Submitted. Abstract

Utero-placental circulation and hence fetal well-being depends on maternal blood pressure.
Spinal anesthesia for cesarean section causes sudden and severe drops in blood pressure thus
threatening fetal and neonatal acid-base balance. Several protocols have been formulated to
prevent maternal hypotension but none has been shown to totally eliminate this risk.

This was a prospective non-randomized descriptive study that adopted a consecutive sampling
method. All eligible ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) I and ASA II mothers slated
for elective cesarean section at the Labour Ward of The Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi
were visited in the ante-natal ward the day or night before surgery and an informed consent
obtained for inclusion in the study. Any pre-selected mother who ended up needing emergency
surgery or changed her mind about inclusion in the study was excluded. Similarly, any willing
mother who did not qualify for spinal anesthesia was excluded from the study.
A sample size of 172 cases was taken and this required approximately 15 weeks of data
collection. Maternal blood pressures were recorded every minute until delivery. Immediately
after delivery, a section of the umbilical cord was clumped with 2 clumps. Umbilical arterial and
venous blood samples were collected in heparinized syringes and taken to the laboratory within
one hour of collection and analyzed for blood gases and pH as a measure of foetal! neonatal
compromise. Apgar scores were also noted at birth and after 5 minutes and later correlated with
the cord blood gas analyses and maternal blood pressures.
The anesthesia provider was requested to complete a data sheet which was then collected by the
principal investigator on the same day the surgery was performed.
Data analysis was done using SPSS software version 16.0 and presented in the form of tables,
graphs and charts.

A total of 172 patients were successfully recruited into the study and the total number of
umbilical cord blood samples analyzed (both arterial and venous) was 316. 28 blood samples
clotted and were not available for analysis.
43 babies (27.2%) were born with neonatal acidemia defined as umbilical arterial blood pHS 7.2.
There was, however, no significant relationship between neonatal acidemia and low Apgar
scores; neither was there a significant relationship between low Apgar scores and maternal
hypotension. 104 patients (65.8%) had a wedge inserted under the right hip as recommended for
prevention of aorto-caval compression. There was, however, no significant difference in the
incidence of maternal hypotension among those with a wedge and those without. Vasopressors
were used in 84 patients (53.2%). These included the use of ephedrine alone or epinephrine
alone or a combination of the two in the process of treating or preventing maternal hypotension.
The use of Va sopressors resulted in significantly fewer incidences of hypotension (p=0.018). The
use of preload with crystalloids before induction of spinal anaesthesia was noted to be
significantly related to the use of Vasopressors whenever the volume of preload was less than
500mls (p=0.027). Similarly, maximum levels of spinal block above T6 resulted in significant
incidences of maternal hypotension (p=O.OO1). Maternal height < 155cm did not have any
significant effect on the incidence of maternal hypotension.

Maternal hypotension can lead to poor neonatal outcome due to its effects on placental perfusion
and hence foetal oxygenation. This study has shown that vasopressor use during spinal
anaesthesia effectively minimizes the incidence of maternal hypotension. Crystalloid preload of
over 500mls is effective in preventing or moderating maternal hypotension.
A well conducted spinal anaesthetic for caesarean section with meticulous control/management
of adverse effects results in healthy neonates and mothers

Githaiga JW. Evaluation of diagnostic peritoneal lavage and needle paracentesis in the management of penetrating and blunt abdominal trauma, at Kenyatta National Hospital.; Submitted. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients

Ebrahim YH. The effects of urban built form on micro-temperature change: A case study of Komarock Infill B Estate Nairobi. Rukwaro RW, King’oriah GK, eds. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Onyango OP, Karuri GP, Njuguna KD, DEMESI MANDEJOHN. Etiology and predisposing factors of diseases of domestic rabbits from selected areas in kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2014.

In order to benefit from eLearning, institutions of higher learning should conduct considerable up-front analysis to assess their eLearning readiness. Studies show that there are numerous models that have been developed, however, they are used in developed counties whose eReadiness is high hence not applicable in developing countries. This paper includes a model that has been developed to assess eLearning readiness of lecturers from institutions of higher learning in Kenya. It investigates the eLearning readiness of lecturers from the University of Nairobi, and the objective was to carry out a diagnostic eLearning readiness assessment of lecturers and determine the factors that influence eLearning readiness. The questionnaires were administered to the lecturers, the results obtained indicate that an overwhelming majority are ready. In addition, the study results show that there is no significant relationship between age, gender, and level of education on eLearning readiness. The study results indicate that technological readiness is the most important factor followed by culture readiness. Most of the lecturers felt that more training on content development need to be conducted . In conclusion, the lecturers are ready for eLearning but the ICT infrastructure is not adequate enough to support the use of eLearning.
Keywords: eLearning, eReadiness, eMaturity, Institutions Of Higher Learning, Model.

Ndegwa SK. The effects of share splits on long run stock returns for companies listed at the Nairobi securities exchange. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013. Abstract

Share splits are a common corporate event among listed companies. Though it is
commonly practiced it has been described as a mere accounting change that increases
the number of shares outstanding without any benefit to the shareholders. This study
sought to determine the effects of share splits on long run stock returns among listed
companies at the Nairobi securities Exchange. The study covered returns for twenty
four months after the company had undergone a share split. The study therefore
sampled firms that had been in operation for at least twenty four months after they
had undergone a share split. There were eleven firms listed at the NSE that fulfilled
this condition and were therefore sampled for this study.
The study used the long run study methodology and applied the buy and hold
benchmark approach. The method required the identification of the event firm and its
benchmark firm and comparing the returns achieved by each of these firms
correspondingly for the same month. Secondary data obtained from the Nairobi
Securities Exchange was used in this study. The data consisted of monthly opening
and closing share prices of each of the sampled firms together with those of its
identified benchmark firm for the entire twenty four months of the study. The study
method required the determination of each of the sampled event firm’s monthly buy
and hold returns and comparing these returns with those of its benchmark firm, which
acted as a proxy for the market. The benchmark firm was identified as another firm
which had not undergone a share split and was within 70% to 130% of the share
capital of the event firm at the time of the event firm’s share split, and has a book to
market equity (BE/ME) ratio that is closest to that of the event firm. The monthly
returns of the event firm are then compared with those of its benchmark firm. The
difference in the monthly returns achieved by the paired firms constitutes the buy and
hold abnormal return (BHAR) for the event firm. The buy and hold abnormal returns
for each firm were then tested for difference from zero at 5% significance level in
order to determine whether there is any difference between the returns of the event
firm and the returns of its benchmark firm.
The study found that among all the eleven firms sampled; only two firms achieved a
positive mean buy and hold abnormal return of 1.89% and 3.72% respectively. The
other nine firms representing 82% of the sampled firms achieved a mean negative buy
and hold abnormal returns ranging from -4.94 % to -0.14 %. These returns were
however found to be insignificant at 95% confidence level. This implies that there
was no significant difference between the returns achieved by the event firm and the
returns achieved by its benchmark firm for the period under study. The study
therefore concluded that share splits at the Nairobi securities exchange have
insignificant effects on stock returns for the first two years following a share split.
However further studies on its effects on periods longer than two years would be
recommended in order to develop a hypothesis. The criteria for the choice of the
benchmark firm would also need to include a consideration of the industry in which
the event firm is operating in order to allow for proper benchmarking of the paired
firms returns. Firms from the same industry would be affected by market conditions in
the same way.

Mishra RS, Pokhariyal GP. Electromagnetic Tensor Field, Nijenhius Tensor (III).; 2013.
Njenga MM. Evaluating Fuel briquette technologies and their implications on Greenhouse gases and livelihoods in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013. Abstract

Charcoal is the principal cooking fuel in Kenya which provides energy to 82% of urban and 34% of rural households. Poor households are opting to use unhealthy sources of fuel such as tyres, old shoes and plastics especially those in urban and peri-urban areas while many families are shifting from traditional meals that require long cooking times and are compromising dietary diversity and nutrition as a result. Faced with poverty and unemployment, communities are turning to fuel briquette which is made by compressing biomass material into a solid unit. Fuel briquette production methods in Nairobi and surroundings and their implications on the quality of the product were studied through focus group discussions with eight groups and one private company. The fuel briquette producing community SHG‘s in Nairobi comprised all those identified and located using an existing database on self-help groups involved in waste management in Nairobi. One group SHG that produced sawdust fuel briquettes was identified in Naro Moro through PactKe an NGO working on Natural Resource Management in Laikipia county. Implications of fuel briquettes on the community livelihoods were also investigated. Theresults obtained were applied in designing experiments to assess different fuel briquettes producing techniques using, (i) different binders namely soil, paper, cowdung and gum Arabica, (ii) pressing machines, (iii) charcoal dust from Acacia mearnsii, Eucalyptus spp and Acacia xanthophloea,(iv) sawdust from Grevillia robusta, Pinus patulaandCupressus lusitanica and (v) carbonized sawdust from the three tree species above in (iv).combustion …

OCHIENG’ ELLYDUNCAN. EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION AND FIRM FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE: A CRITICAL LITERATURE REVIEW. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013. Abstractexecutive_compensation_and_firm_financial_performance_-_a_critical_literature_review.pdf

There has been growing academic interest in the compensation of senior management in corporate enterprises. This interest stems from a concern about the motivation of management as well as concerns about equity and fairness coupled with the importance of corporate governance in enterprises. Shareholders as principals in entities desire maximization of stock returns for a given level of risk and they naturally wish that their firms design compensation systems that motivate senior executives as their agents to pursue policies that meet the principal objective of shareholder wealth maximization.

This desk review of relevant theoretical and empirical literature investigates whether the executive compensation – performance link meets an optimality test ex –ante or ex – post under the agency based models as well as other alternative paradigms that explain managerial actions. From the review findings, a confusing debate rages among academics about the relationship between executive compensation and firm financial performance. This confusion manifests itself in a number of ways: in the range of empirical specifications for pay to performance regressions in the literature; in the wide discrepancy in estimates of pay performance sensitivities and in controversy over the appropriate level of executive holdings of stock and stock options.

Differences in research methodology explain some of the inconsistent conclusions notwithstanding that there is even a lack of consensus among some studies that use identical or very similar research designs. Foremost, the measurement of firm success is in intself controversial regarding adoption of performance measures. Also controversial is treatment of the components of compensation. The diverse set of disciplines involved in the study area and the wide variety of methods used to investigate the main questions complicates the way to consensus especially on incorporation of organizational contextual settings and other contingency factors for executive compensation.

Research gaps emerging in the literature review include; wide variations of pay performance sensitivities derived within agency models, minimal evaluation of explanatory values of alternative paradigms to the agency models, undefined relationships between pay performance sensitivity and the performance metric applied, undefined relationship between executive compensation components and past and future organizational performance levels, inexplained sensitivity of the pay performance link to organizational contextual effects of ownership and internationalization, unspecified possibility of dual causality between executive compensation and firm performance and the information content of executive compensation plan adopted by a public enterprise.

The study recommends future research effort for bridging the knowledge gaps using alternative paradigms while adressing the methodological issues of empirical specifications, causality, fixed-effects, first-differencing, and instrumental variables. On the empirical specifications, the studies need to reconsider the causality relationships, operationalization of research variables, use of panel data and incorporation of control variables like demographic characteristics, corporate governance mechanisms, regulation, firm ownership and globalization.


This study explored the relationship between transformational leadership characteristics of secondary school principals’ and students’ academic performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE). Although transformational leadership had been linked with academic performance in developed countries, the study attempted to investigate which specific characteristics could be attributed to improved academic performance in Kenya. The study was carried out in Nairobi County, Kenya. Stratified sampling process was used to ensure that both public and private schools in Nairobi were captured in the study. Leadership behaviour was measured using the Leadership Practices Inventory-(“Self” and “others”) (Kouzes & Posner, 1993). Correlational research design was employed in data analysis. Pearson correlations were used to establish if there was a relationship between transformational leadership characteristics and academic performance. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test if a relationship existed between selected demographic characteristics and the interaction of leadership characteristics of principals’ and students’ academic performance. To test relationships between principals’ ratings and teachers’ ratings, ratings of male principals and female principals, t-test was used. Results indicated a positive correlation of “Inspiring a shared vision”, “Encouraging the heart” and “Challenging the process” characteristics and academic performance. There was however, a weak but not statistically significant correlation between “Modeling the way” and “Enabling others to act” characteristics and academic performance. It was recommended that secondary school principals should exhibit transformational leadership characteristics in order to succeed in today’s changing world of educational leadership. Suggestions made for further studies included a replication of the study in more counties.

Awiti J. Essays on Health Determinants in Kenya. University of Nairobi.; 2012.
Wayua FO. Evaporative Cooling and Solar Pasteurization technologies for value addition of Camel (Camelus dromedaries) Milk in Marsabit and Isiolo Counties of Northern Kenya. Okoth MW, Wangoh J, eds. University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract

The potential for evaporative cooling and solar pasteurisation technologies for value addition
of camel milk in Marsabit and Isiolo counties of northern Kenya was investigated. To find
out existing postharvest handling and preservation practices, a survey was conducted using a
semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussion on 167 came l milk producers, 50
primary and 50 secondary milk traders. Results showed that the camel milk chain was
characterised by poor milk handling infrastructure, including poor roads and lack of cooling
facilities. Camel milk was marketed raw under unhygienic conditions with minimal value
addition, and spoilage was a major problem. Milk traders occasionally boiled milk using
firewood as a means of temporary preservation during times when transport was unavailable.
Provision of appropriate cooling facilities and utilisation of renewable energy technologies
such as solar energy for milk processing were identified as possible intervention strategies to
enhance marketing.
Therefore, a low-cost charcoal evaporative cooler was developed and tested for the storage
of camel milk. The cooler, 0.75 m3 in capacity, was made of galvanised angle iron (25 mm x
25 mm x 4 mm) frame with 10 cm wide charcoal walls which were moistened through a drip
system. Temperature of camel milk inside the cooler did not significantly (p>0.05) change
after storage for 10 hours. However, temperature of control milk at ambient conditions
significantly increased (p=0.05) over the same period, from 22.6 ± 0.08°C to 28.1 ± 0.08°C.
Milk inside the cooler was also significantly cooler (p=0.05) than control milk in the
evening, with a net temperature reduction of 27.0%. Total bacterial count changed from
31.4±2.1 x 104 colony forming units per ml (–1) to 43.1±1.9 x 104 and 1638±81 x 104–1 for milk inside the cooler and that at ambient conditions, respectively, after storage
for 10 hours. The cooler’s performance was modelled using artificial neural networks
(ANN), with inputs being ambient dry bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature, wind speed
and temperature of drip water. The outputs were cooled milk temperature and cooling
efficiency. The ANN predictions agreed well with experimental values with mean squared
error (MSE) of 10.2, mean relative error (MRE) of 4.02% and correlation coefficients (R2) in
the range of 0.86-0.93.
The development of the solar milk pasteuriser started with thermal performance testing of
four water heating flat plate solar collectors available in Kenya with the objective of
selecting a suitable one to be used to provide process heat for batch pasteurisation. The
collectors included three commercial solar collectors purchased from local shops in Nairobi,
Kenya and one prototype collector designed and fabricated by the author. The three
commercial solar collectors had effective areas of 1.67, 1.87 and 1.83 m2 while the self-made
collector had an effective area of 1.60 m2. Thermal performance of the collectors was
determined in terms of the Hottel-Whillier-Bliss equation. The FR(ta )e values, obtained
using the effective collector areas and the inlet water temperature, were 0.76, 0.75, 0.73, and
0.82, respectively, for the commercial collectors and the self -made collector. The FRUL
values were 8.33, 12.01, 9.80 and 13.77 W.m–2.°C–1, respectively. The solar collector with
the lowest FRUL value had a black chrome selective absorber surface and was the most cost
effective for delivering temperatures of about 80°C at an efficiency of 15%. It was used to
develop a low -cost batch solar milk pasteuriser consisting of the collector and a cylindrical
milk vat. The milk vat had a 50 mm-wide hot water jacket and an outer layer of 38 mm thick
fibre glass insulation. The water jacket held approximately 30 litres of water, whereas the
milk tank had a capacity of 80 litres. The hot water produced by the collector was used for
pasteurising milk. The optimum quantity of milk which could be pasteurised by this device
under the study conditions was 40 litres, which was pasteurised in approximately 1.3±0. 5
hours at an average insolation and ambient temperature of 22.5±0.9 MJ.m––1 and
29.8±0.1°C, respectively. The average temperature difference between hot water and milk
being pasteurised was 8.1±0.6°C. Total bacterial counts in pasteurised milk were less than 10–1 while coliform counts were negative.
The solar milk pasteuriser was modelled using ANN as described for the cooler. The inputs
of the model were ambient air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, temperature of hot
water, and water flow rate through the collector, whereas the output was temperature of milk
being pasteurised. The ANN predictions agreed well with experimental values , with MSE,
MRE and R2 of 5.22°C, 3.71% and 0.89, respectively.
It has thus been established that there is both the need and potential for evaporative cooling
and solar pasteurisation along the camel milk value chain in Kenya. The two technologies
augment each other in increasing the quantity and quality of marketed camel milk from
scattered pastoral production sites in Kenya. The devices are of low cost and can be locally
fabricated by village artisans using locally available materials , and their performance can be
successfully modelled using ANNs, which helps to design an appropriate system for any

Koech OK. Effects of Prosopis juliflora Seedpod Meal Supplement on Weight gain of Weaner Galla goats. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2010. Abstractkoech_oscar_thesis.pdf

This study was conducted to determine the effect of increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora
seedpod meal on the growth rate of weaner Galla goats. The overall aim of this study was to assess
the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production
system. The study further sought to evaluate the economic viability of supplementing goats with
Prosopis seed pods and establish the optimum supplementation level for improved performance.
The experiment involved 20 weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg)
which were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were T1 No
Prosopis (control treatment), T2 (100 g /goat /day Prosopis), T3 (200 g /goat /day Prosopis), and T4
(400g /goat /day Prosopis). Supplementation involved providing the goats with their respective
portions of Prosopis seedpod meal in the morning before the grass hay was offered. The animals
were weighed on weekly basis and the average weight gains calculated as the difference between
that weeks’ weight and the previous week’s weight divided by five. The experiment lasted for 70
days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than T1
(control) throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, these differences
were not statistically significant (P<0.05). From the fifth week on wards, however, the differences
in growth rates were statistically significant (P<0.05). Overall, treatment T3 exhibited highest total
weight gain (3.96kg), followed by T4 (2.70kg). Group T1 lost weight by the end of the experiment
(-0.009kgs). The cost benefit analysis indicated that it is profitable to supplement the goats with
200g/goat/day, which was the most cost effective with a benefit cost ratio (BCR) of 1.50. T2 was
also cost effective, but at a lower level (RBC=1.47). Treatment T4 was not cost effective BCR
(0.57). It is therefore recommended that supplementation at optimum level of Prosopis seedpods
increases growth rates.

Alasow KB. Efficiency of light curing units in Dental clinics in Nairobi, Kenya.; 2010. Abstract

Background: To achieve adequate cure, a resin composite restoration must be
exposed for a specified duration of time to a light of sufficient intensity and the right
wavelength. However, some commonly used light curing units (LCUs) may yield
inadequately cured restorations due to their insufficient light intensity output.
Furthermore, the efficiency of light curing units in dental clinics and the extent to which
dentists practice the recommended maintenance techniques is largely unknown.
Objective: To determine the efficiency of Light Curing Units (LCUs) in dental clinics in
Nairobi, Kenya.
Study design: A laboratory-based, cross-sectional analytical study.
Study area: The study was set in private and public dental clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. A
total of 83 light curing units selected through a convenient sampling procedure were
Materials and methods: The light intensity output of light curing units in dental clinics
was measured using a digital dental radiometer and the result entered in a data
collection form. Each light curing unit was then used to polymerise two cylindrical resin
composite specimens made using custom-made split brass moulds; one measuring
4mm in diameter and 6mm in thickness used to determine the depth of cure (DOC) and
the other 8mm in diameter and 3mm in thickness used to determine the surface
hardness by using a Vickers Hardness tester. Within 6-7 hours of fabrication, the depth
of cure specimens were immersed in a capsule containing 99%- acetone solvent which
was then vibrated in a mixing device. The DOC was calculated from the undissolved
length of the specimen. The surface Vickers Hardness was evaluated by making three
surface indentations with a diamond indenter using a load of 200g and a dwell time of
15-seconds. A conversion table was used to convert measurements from the diamond
indentations into hardness numbers. The light intensity output and the depth of cure and
surface micro-hardness numbers of the resin composite specimens were then used to
assess the efficiency of each dental light curing unit. Three main components of the
maintenance history of the light curing units, as well as the age and type of the light
curing unit were also recorded.
The data was entered into a computer using SPSS version 12. The independent sample
t-test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Post Hoc test and Chi-square tests
were used for data analysis. The results were summarized in tables and figures.
Results: Of the 83 LCUs studied, 43(51.8%) were LED and 39(47.0%) were OTH and 1
(1.2%) was PAC light.
LCU type and light intensity output, DOC and hardness: Mean light intensity for OTH
and LED lights was 526.59mW/cm2 and 493.67mW/cm2 respectively (p=0.574), while
the mean DOC for OTH lights was 1.71mm and LED was 1.67mm (p=0.690). Mean
VHN for LED was 57.44 and for OTH was 44.14 (p=0.713). Light curing unit type had no
statistically significant effect on DOC, surface hardness and the intensity of the light.
Effect of age of LCU on light intensity output, hardness and DOC: Mean light intensity
for LCUs ::;5years was 596.03mW/cm2 and 363.17mW/cm2 for units> 5years old. Age
showed a significant effect on light intensity (p=O.024). The mean DOC for the two age
groups was 1.74mm and 1.57mm respectively (p=O.073). For surface micro-hardness,
the ::; 5years and > 5years age groups gave a mean VHN of 58.81 and 51.46
respectively (p=O.1)
Efficiency of the LCUs: when intensity was used to measure efficiency, 48 (57.8%)
LCUs were efficient and 35 (42.2%) were inefficient. Only the LCU age significantly
affected efficiency by light intensity output (p=O.008). Only 24 (28.9%) LCUs gave
sufficient DOC as opposed to 59 (71.1%), which gave insufficient DOC. Of the units
tested for surface micro-hardness, 15 (25.9%) had adequate surface micro-hardness
while the rest (43 or 74.1%) had inadequate surface micro-hardness. The type of LCU
and its age did not significantly influence efficiency as measured using depth of cure
and surface micro-hardness of the resin restoration.
On the whole, 11 (19%) of the LCUs which had all the three tests of efficiency done
were satisfactory in all the 3 aspects.
Conclusions: Eleven (19%) of the light curing units used in Nairobi dental clinics were
efficient when subjected to a combined light intensity, and composite resin depth of cure
and surface hardness evaluation, and that the type and maintenance history of a LCU
had no significant influence on its efficiency. Age had a significant influence on the light
intensity of the curing units - there was a decrease in light intensity output with increase
in age of the units. There was a non-linear relationship between the light intensity output
of a LCU and the depth of cure and surface micro-hardness of the cured composite.

Dr Karimi PN. Etiology, Risk Factors And Management Of Infectious Diarrhoea In Children At Kenyatta National Hospital.; 2010. Abstract

Background: Infectious diarrhea is a common cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries.
World Health Organization attributes 3.5 million deaths a year to diarrhea, with 80 percent of these deaths
occurring in children under the age of five, and most occurring in children between six months and three
years of age. The predisposing factors are mainly due to poor hygiene and most of the cases can be
treated using drugs and supportive measures. Prevention is the main intervention strategy used to prevent
this disease.
Objective: The main objective was to assess the factors that predispose children to diarrhea. The specific
factors assessed were prevalence of bacteria, protozoa, and helminthes, antimicrobial susceptibility of
bacteria, risk factors and management of diarrhea.
Methods: A cross section research design was used and target population was children suffering from
diarrhea and accompanied by their guardians who visited KNH to seek treatment. Three hundred and
eighty four children were selected for the study using simple random sampling. Data was collected using a
questionnaire and stool specimens analyzed in microbiology and parasitology laboratories of Kenyatta
National Hospital. The analysis of data was done using SPSS and data summarized in tables and charts.
Both inferential and descriptive statistics were derived using chi square and confidence intervals.
Results: Majority of the children were between 6-12 months of age and there were more males than
females. The average duration of diarrhea was 4.55 days and majority had suffered from the disease
before. Most of the parents had a certain level of formal education. The fathers had a source of income but
most of the mothers were either self employed or not employed at all. Tap water and toilet facilities were
available to most families and about half of the children had malnutrition.
No organisms were found from the stools of 80.2% of the children. The pathogens isolated were Giardia
lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Balantidium coli, Cryptosporidium petvum, Entamoeba coli, Blastocystis
hominis, Endolimax nana, Chilomastix mesnili, Trichiuris trichiura, Salmonella typhi and Salmonella
paratyphi. Bacteria isolated were sensitive to Ciprofioxacin and Levofioxacin but resisted most of the other
drugs tested.
The risks found to be associated with diarrhea were overcrowding, inadequate hand washing methods,
mixed feeding, none or low level of education of the mother and administration of antibiotics. Majority of the
children had concurrent illnesses and the most common were pneumonia, meningitis, malaria, rickets and
malnutrition. Drugs were mainly prescribed to treat concurrent diseases. The most commonly prescribed
drugs were Zinc Sulphate, Paracetamol, Benzyl penicillin G, Gentamicin, Metronidazole, Multivitamin, Coamoxiclav,
Cefuroxime and Calcimax. ORS was most frequently used fluid and the intravenous ones
included Ringers lactate, Darrows solution, 5% Detrose, Hartmans solution, normal saline and Rehydration
salt for the malnourished.
Only a small proportion of diarrhea in children was caused by intestinal protozoa, helminthes or bacteria.
Majority of the cases occurred during weaning and rehydration was the comerstone of diarrhea
management Most of the drugs used were mainly for treating concurrent illnesses.
Mothers should be taught how to wean children especially on the type of food to use. They should also be
educated on proper hygienic practices especially washing of hands. Bottle feeding should be discouraged
and rational use of antibiotics encouraged

Nyaga JM. External and internal root morphology of the first Permanent molars in a Kenyan population.; 2010. Abstract

Background: A thorough knowledge of dental anatomy and its variability is
critical in clinical dentistry. It is important for the clinician to be familiar with
variations in root morphology for such variations in the roots and canals have
significancein endodontic treatment and restoration of the treated teeth.
Objective: To determine the external and internal root morphology in first
permanentmolars in a Kenyan population.
Study design: This was a cross sectional descriptive study
Study area: The study involved collection of extracted teeth from patients whom
after dental evaluation, a tooth was recommended for extraction in five dental
clinics within Nairobi;- K.N.H.-Dental clinic, U.O.N.-School of Dental Sciences, St
Mary's Hospital Dental clinic, Mbagathi District Hospital Dental clinic and Social
ServicesLeague Dental clinic.
Materials and methods: Maxillary and mandibular first permanent molars were
co~ectedfrom male and female patients aged between 10 and 40 years. The
teeth were collected from individuals who met the inclusion criteria. The teeth
were separated at the collection site based on gender and whether they were
maxillary or mandibular first molars by the researcher and trained research
assistants.After collection, the teeth were further sorted out using the inclusion
criteria.A total of 187 maxillary molars and 189 mandibular molars were studied.
Observationswere done to determine the number of roots, root fusion and the
direction of root curvature. Measurements, using an electronic vernier caliper,
were done to determine the root length in millimetres. A standard clearing
technique was applied to determine the number of canals and the canal
configurations with reference to Vertucci's classification (1984). A data collection
form was used to record the findings for each tooth after examination
Data analysis and presentation: The data collected was entered into a
computer and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS)
12.1. Computation was done to determine pattern of root fusion, frequency of
root curvature in a certain direction, calculate the mean root length, number of
canals per root, frequency of various canal configurations and gender variations
in the findings. The data was presented in form of frequency tables, pie charts
and bar graphs.
Results: All the maxillary first molars had three roots while mandibular first
molars had two roots. Root fusion was observed in 3.9% of the maxillary first
molars. Root fusion between distobuccal and palatal root was more frequent
(2.8%) than the mesiobuccal and distobuccal roots (1.1%) and gender variation
in root fusion was not statistically significant. Majority of the mesiobuccal roots
63.6% were curved and of the curved, 95% curved distally. In the distobuccal
root, 49.7% of the roots were curved and majority 77.4% curved mesial. Majority
of the palatal roots were straight (65.3%). Of the curved palatal roots, 92.5%
curved in a buccal direction. In the mandibular first molars, 16.3% of the mesial
roots were straight while the rest were curved distally in both genders. Majority of
distal roots were straight. The gender variations in root curvature in both
maxillary and mandibular first permanent molars were not statistically significant.
The mean root length in palatal, mesiobuccal and distobuccal roots was
23.28mm, 20.22mm and 19.67mm respectively. While in the mandibular molars,
the mean root length was 21.97mm and 21.38mm in mesial and distal roots
respectively. Males had longer mean root length compared to females in the first
permanent molars. The gender variation in root lengths was statistically
significant (p=0.001).
Majority of the first permanent molars had 3 canals, 70.1% in maxillary and
56.0% in mandibular first molars. The mesial root of mandibular first molars had
two canals in 96.3% of the teeth in both male and females and type IV canal
configuration was most prevalent in the mandibular mesial root among males and
females. The distal root of mandibular first molar had one canal in 57.7% of the
teeth in males and females. There were significant gender variations in the
number of canals and canal configurations in the distal root. Two canals were
more prevalent in females (53.6%) compared to males (30.4%) and a single
canal was more frequent in males (69.6%) compared to females (46.4%)
(P=0.001). Canal types I, " and IV were the most frequent in mandibular distal
root. The gender variation the frequency of canal types I, " and IV in the distal
root was statistically significant (P=0.001). Most of the palatal (98.9%) and all the
distobuccal roots had one canal Vertucci type I configuration. The mesiobuccal
root had 2 canals in 29.4% of the roots in both males and females. Canal
configurations in mesiobuccal root varied widely. Canal types I, II, IV, V, VI and
VII had frequencies of 65.2%, 12.8%, 14.4%,4.3%,2.7% and 0.5% respectively
in both gender.
Conclusions: The maxillary first molars had three roots while the mandibular
ones had two roots. Root fusion occurred in 3.9% of maxillary first molars.
Palatal and distal root in maxillary and mandibular first molars respectively had
the lowest frequency of curved roots.
In the maxillary first molars, the mean palatal root length was 23.28mm,
mesiobuccal 20.22mm and distobuccal 19.67mm while in mandibular first
permanent molars, mesial root was 21.97 mm and distal 21.38mm.
The mean root lengths were higher in males as compared to females
Most of maxillary first molars 70.1% had three canals while 29.4% had four
canals. Vertucci type I canals configuration was the most prevalent in all roots.
Most of mandibular first molars had three canals 56% while 41% had four canals.
Two canals were more frequent among females 53.6% compared to males
30.4% and Canal types I, II and IV configurations were the most frequent in
mandibular distal root.
• The palatal root of maxillary and distal root of mandibular first permanent molars
are the most suitable for post placement.
• Three dimensional diagnostic techniques are essential in identification of
anatomical features
• Long and short files should be included in the endodontic armamentarium
• More attention should be directed towards searching for and locating the second
canal in the mesiobuccal and distal roots of maxillary and mandibular first molars

Hussein AA. Effects of Disturbance on Small Mammals and vegetation Diversity in Oloolua Forest, Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya.: University of Nairobi.; 2009.
J.K MUSINGI. Effects of Large Dams on Public Health in a Semi-Arid Environment: A case Study of Masinga Dam. Hekima Journal, Special Edition, faculty of Arts, University of Nairobi; 2009. Abstract

The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

Nyarwath O. An exposition and critique of H. Odera Oruka's philosophy. Odhiambo PJA, Ogutu PGEM, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2009.
WINFRED DR MWANGI. An Evaluation of the administration of Land Development Applications in Nairobi, Kenya.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2008.
Ndiritu GM. Effectiveness of cash budgeting in public institutions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2007. Abstractndiritu_george_muriuki_-_effectiveness_of_cash_budgeting_in_public_institutions.pdf

This study involved understanding the cash budget process and its effectiveness in Telkom Kenya Limited. The firm understudy is wholly owned by the government and has been in existence for over six years. Cash budget is an indispensable tool which assists organizations to manage their cash flows over a given period of time. The study therefore attempted to evaluate how the firm has employed a cash budget as a management tool. It involved understanding the cash budgeting process and its effectiveness in improving the management of cash. It also involved appreciating the role of liquidity management in the firm by ensuring sustenance of enough cash for operations while investing excess cash profitably. The study also assessed the weaknesses the firm faces in management of cash and how this management tool can be implemented as a strategy to alleviate the same. The study was done through interviewing the relevant staff using an interview guide to understand how the cash budget is prepared and used in decision making in the organization. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics and historical information used as benchmark. Information relating to how the cash budget helped in forecasting cash flows and its flexibility in accommodating un-budgeted transactions assisted to evaluate cash budget effectiveness. The relevant literature was used as the benchmark to evaluate effectiveness. The study revealed that the firm ends up loosing huge cash amounts due to lack of established and operationalised mechanisms and strategies to harmonize cash collection and expenditure. There were many pitfalls with loose controls which ensured that the cash budget does not capture the total cash movement in the organization. There was also cash planning mismatch due to poor coordination between the various operationally related departments vested with management of cash. For example actualization of projects by engineers took longer than foreseen but is usually cash budgeted for. Operational expenditure also took the larger chunk of the cash generated instead of capital expenditure thus leading to dwindling cash sources in the future. To ensure the cash budget is. valuable and effective, the firm needs to strive and achieve set standards. As a prerequisite also, the firm's operations when managing cash need to be coordinated and harmonized to ensure that the cash budget objectives are achievable.

undefined. Effects of lactoperoxidase system in camel milk for preservation and fermentation purposes. Wangoh J, Lamuka PO, eds. University of Nairobi; 2007. Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate preservative effect of the LPsystem
on both raw and pasteurized camel milk. The effect of the LPsystem
on selected starter cultures in the raw and pasteurized camel
milk was also investigated. Experiments were therefore conducted to:
 evaluate the effect of LP-system activation on shelf-life of raw
camel milk with the underlying activities being to:
o determine the duration of antibacterial effect in camel milk
stored at different temperatures after activation of its LPsystem
o monitor effect on keeping quality of increasing
concentrations of sodium thiocyanate and hydrogen
peroxide within physiological limits.
 determine the effect of the LP-system on keeping quality in
pasteurised camel milk
 determine the effect of the LP-system on starter culture activity in
camel heat treated and raw camel milk.
The concentration of thiocyanate occurring naturally in the milk used in
the present investigations ranged from 9.7 to 36.4 mg/l. No addition of
thiocyanate was therefore necessary to activate the LP-system. The
average thiocyanate values of camel milk from different sites were
15.8, 32.9 and 9.74 mg/l and were significantly different (p<0.001)
across the three sampling sites in this study.
Changes in total viable counts between LP-activated and LPinactivated
camel milk were determined during storage at 10, 20 and
30°C. Viable counts increased with storage temperature. Microbial
growth was halted for 15, 17 and 76 hours at 30, 20 and 10°C
respectively by activation of the LP-system in raw camel milk. At 30°C
the effect was mainly bacteriostatic and at 20°C, there was an initial
bactericidal effect in the first 15 hours. At 10°C, the bactericidal effect
was noted throughout the period of 76 hours.
The titratable acidity between LP-activated and LP-inactivated camel
milk was determined during storage at 10, 20 and 30°C. There lag in
acid production of 14, 23, and 10 hours at 10, 20 and 30°C
respectively as compared to the controls and was significantly different
(p>0.05) across the three incubation temperatures. Shelf life difference
between LP-system activated samples and their respective controls
was 19 hours at both 10 and 20°C and 4 hours at 30°C.
The differences in mean acid produced between the control samples
and the activated samples, however, were 0.12, 0.61 and 0.49 for 10,
20 and 30°C respectively. Inhibition of acid production by the LPsystem
increased from significant (p<0.05) during storage at 10°C to
highly significant (p<0.01) during storage at 20 and 30°C. The present
investigation therefore shows that by activating the LP-system it is
possible to extend the storage period of raw camel milk and that the
effect of the LP-system on the microbes present varies with
temperature of storage.
The effect of increasing levels of thiocyanate and hydrogen peroxide
on antibacterial activity of LP-system in raw camel milk at 30ºC was
investigated. Changes in total viable counts and lactic acid
development in raw camel milk at concentrations of 0, 10:10, 20:20,
30:30 and 40:40ppms, NaSCN
:H2O2 were monitored. The delay in
multiplication of bacteria increased significantly with an increase in the
LP-system components from no lag phase in the control to 4, 6, 11.5
and 9.5 hours in the 10:10, 20:20, 30:30 and 40:40 ppm levels of
NaSCN/H2O2 respectively.. The lag in acid production was 0, 4.8, 6, 12
and 8 hours for 0, 10:10, 20:20, 30:30 and 40:40 ppm dose of
NaSCN:H2O2, respectively. The shelf life of the camel milk was 4, 6,
12, 16 and 16 hours, respectively, for 0, 10:10, 20:20, 30:30 and 40:40
ppm dose of NaSCN:H2O2.
Lactoperoxidase system (LPS) was activated in camel milk followed by
pasteurization after 0, 4, and 8 hours after of storage.
This resulted in a shelf life of 15, 32, 17 and 17 days for the nonactivated
control and those activated after 0, 4, and 8 hours of storage
respectively during storage of samples at 10ºC. At 20°C, the shelf life
was 6, 13, 9 and 7 days for non-activated control and those activated
after 0, 4, and 8 hours of storage respectively. These results showed
a significant effect of storage time prior to pasteurisation on the effect
of the LP-system on the surviving microflora between the control and
activated samples at all the 3 times of storage prior to pasteurisation
(p<0.001). The number of viable bacteria in untreated sample reached
108 after 45 days compared to 105-107 in treated samples during
storage at 10ºC and 108 after 15 days in untreated compared to 107-
106 in treated samples under storage at 20ºC. The mean specific
growth rates at 10ºC storage temperature were 0.51, 0.2, 0.41 and 0.5
for the inactivated control, activated and pasteurized after 0, 4, and 8
hours respectively and were significantly lower in the LP-treated camel
milk samples than in the control (p<0.001). At 20ºC storage
temperature, the mean specific growth rates were 1,46, 0.27, 0.69 and
1 for the inactivated control, activated and pasteurized after 0, 4, and 8
hours respectively. These were also significantly lower in the LPtreated
camel milk samples than in the control (p<0.001)
Sensitivity of lactic starter cultures to LP-system was investigated by
monitoring acid production by mesophillic, thermophillic and Suusac
starter cultures in both LP-system treated and untreated camel milk.
Inoculation with starter was done after zero, 4 and 8 hours of storage
of LP-activated samples.
In all the three starters, LP-system activation resulted in a significant
slow down in acid development in raw camel milk activated and
inoculated immediately. For the thermophillic starter mean lactic acid
was 0.41, 0.32, 0.35 and 0.36 for the inactivated control sample and
those activated then inoculated with starter after 0, 4, and 8 hours
respectively. The differences in means between the control and the
activated samples were very highly significant (p<0.001), highly
significant (p<0.01) and not significant (p>0.05) at the inoculation times
o, 4 and 8 respectively. For the Suusac starter, mean lactic acid was
0.67, 0.62, 0.67 and 0.52 for the inactivated control sample and those
activated then inoculated with starter after 0, 4, and 8 hours
respectively. The differences in means between the control and
activated samples were highly significant (p<0.01) at all the inoculation
times after activation. However, for mesophillic starter culture the mean
values of lactic acid produced were 0.53, 0.48, 0.42 and 0.54 for the
inactivated control and activated then inoculated with starter after 0, 4,
and 8 hours respectively. The differences in means between the
control and activated samples were significant (p<0.01) at 0 and 4
hours and non-significant (p>0.05) at 8 hours. This implied that camel
milk preserved using this method could support satisfactory mesophillic
and thermophillic starter culture activity if the milk is held prior to
The investigation on the effect of the LP-system on starter activity in
camel milk heat-treated prior to inoculation showed that heat treatment
reduced starter inhibition by the LP-system for the mesophillic and
thermophillic starter cultures for samples LP-system activated, heat
treated and inoculated at immediately. For the mesophillic starter mean
lactic acid values for the inactivated control sample, activated and then
inoculated after 0, 4 and 8 hours were 0.52, 0.52, 0.54 and 0.40
respectively. The differences in mean lactic acid values between the
control and activated samples showed that a non-significant effect of
inoculation time at time 0 (p>0.05), a significant effect after 4 hours
(p<0.05), and a very highly significant effect (p<0.001) after 8 hours.
Mean lactic acid values for the thermophillic starter for the inactivated
control sample and those activated and then inoculated after 0, 4 and 8
hours were 0.52, 0.52, 0.54 and 0.40 respectively. The inhibition
changed from insignificant (p>0.05) on inoculation at time 0 and 4
hours (p<0.05) and was highly significant (p<0.01) on inoculation after
8 hours. Thus the inhibitory effect of the LP-system on mesophillic
and thermophillic starter culture activity in heat treated camel milk
apparently is reactivated and increases with time of preservation of raw
milk by LP-system. However with suusac starter, the mean lactic acid
values inactivated control sample and those activated and then
inoculated after 0, 4 and 8 hours respectively were 0.69, 0.58, 0.64
and 0.71. At zero and four hours after activation inhibition was
significant (p<0.05) compared to a non-significantly different inhibition
(p>0.05) on inoculation after 8 hours of storage.
The use of the LP-system might therefore have a significant influence
on the time taken to reach the desired pH in the vat, which is a critical
factor for the manufacturer of fermented camel milk and this influence
is dependent on the time of preservation of raw camel milk prior to
processing of fermented products.

Kimata MD, Mwangi(S)RW, Mathiu(S)P. Effects of Rearing Methods and Hormones on Growth and Reproduction of the Helmeted Guinea Fowl Numida meleagris. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2007.
Karimi PN. Etiology and risk factors of bacterial wound infections.; 2007. Abstract

Background: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) is a referral center serving patients from
Kenya and beyond. There are several departments among them orthopedics which houses
many patients with wounds, some of which are infected thereby increasing morbidity and
mortality. This research focused on etiology and risk factors of bacterial wound infections in
the orthopedics wards.
Objective: To assess the factors that contribute to wound infections. The specific factors
assessed were prevalence of aerobic bacteria. use of antibiotics and clinical practices among
the nurses when dressing wounds.
:VIethods: A descriptive research design was used and target populations were nurses and
hospitalized patients in the department of orthopedics at KNH. Sixteen nurses and one
hundred and fifteen patients were selected using simple random sampling and convenience
sampling techniques respectively. Data was collected using a questionnaire and specimens
taken from wounds analyzed in microbiology laboratories ofUON and KNH.
Results: The prevalence of bacteria isolated was; Pseudomonas spp. (42.6%). Proteus spp.
(33.9%). Staphylococcus aureus (33%). Klebsiella spp. (7.9%), Streptococcus faecalis
(6.1%), Enterbacter spp. (2.6%), Alcaligenes spp. (1.7%), Citrobacter freundii (0.9%),
Serratia spp. (0.9%), and Acinetobacter baumanii (0.9%).
The sensitivity patterns were as follows: Pseudomonas spp.; Pipril/Tozabactam (89.9%),
Meropenem (75.5%). Gentamycin (55.1%), Amikacin (73.5%), Ceftazidime (82.6%),
Ceftriaxone (30.6%), TicatcilliniClavulonic acid (65.3%) and Piperacillin (83.7%).
Proteus spp.: Ceftazidime (89.7%), Ceftriaxone (79.5%), Ciprofloxacin (87.2%), Augmentin
(76.9°/0). Cefuroxime (61.5%). Piperaciliin H8.7%)"Gentamycin (-1-6.2%)

Ndohvu JB. An Exposition of the Foundations of the Philosophy of Human Natiure. Nyasani PJ, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2007.
NDEGE FREDRICK. The Environment and Resource Use In Kenya: A Socio - Cultural Perespective. Cape Town.: University of Cape Town.; 2006.
Iraki XN. Entrepreneurship, Productivity and International Trade: A study of Three Catalysts of Economic Growth. Jackson, Mississippi, USA: Jackson State University; 2005.
E. T. Enhancing Web Information Search Using Meta-Searching and Web Automatons. Brussels: VUB; 2002. Abstract

The Web has emerged as a crucial information propagation medium in the information
age. As a consequence, availability of information on the Web has exploded. Equipping
consumers with better Web search tools is therefore becoming a matter of priority for
Web researchers.

Standard Web search engines have remained popular and, indeed, are very essential tools
for Web users to search for useful information. However, users often are faced with the
limitations of these search engines. These limitations include presence of obsolete data in
their databases, limited coverage of the WWW, vulnerability to keyword spamming and
inaccurate ranking of search results.

This study is founded on an attempt to demonstrate alternative approach to Web
searching, which can improve upon traditional approaches to Web searching. A tool was
developed, which combine meta-searching and use of Web automatons to process user
queries and produce higher quality results than individual regular search engines.

Extraction of vernonia oil from vernonia galamensis seeds and its aminolysis to vernolamides.; 2001. Abstract

Vernonia galamensis grows as a common weed and is widely distributed in Africa,
and its center of diversity is found in East Africa. The dry seeds of Vernonia galamensis
contains a naturally epoxidized oil that is rich in trivernolin, which constitutes about 80% of
the seeds oil. The vernonia oil has a unique structure that makes it attractive for the
preparation of novel and useful products.
This study reports on the extraction of vernonia oil and its conversion to vernolamides
with higher added value. The oil was extracted from the seeds of Vernonia galamensis ssp.
nairobensis using soxhlet extraction. About 31.6% of crude oil was obtained which after
refining gave about 25.2% of oil. The oil was then reacted with 1,6-diaminohexane, 1,8-
diaminooctane, 2-aminopyridine, 2-(aminomethyl)pyridine and 2-(2-aminoethyl)pyridine to
give the corresponding vernolamides under two varied conditions, temperature (25,70 and
80°C) and solvents (neat, chloroform, dichloromethane and dimethylformamide). In all
reactions a mole ratio of vernonia oil to amine (1 :3) was used at the reaction time of 12 h.
In all cases, highest yields of the vernolamides (4l.2-72.3%) were obtained at 70°C in
chloroform, while the lowest yields (21-53.3%) were recorded at 80°C. The reactions at 25°C
gave reasonably high yields (17-62.8%), thus aminolysis proceeds even at room temperature.
Aminolysis carried under neat conditions also gave relatively high yields (41-64.2%).
The vernolamides were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), infrared (IR),
electron impact mass spe~ctroscopy (ElMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
spectroscopic techniques.
The antimicrobial activities of the products were investigated at concentrations of
100)..lg, 50)..lg and 25)..lg by the disc diffusion method. The vernolamides exhibited only
antibacterial activity and was greater against gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) than in gramIX
negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. There was no antifungal activity shown on all the fungi
that were investigated.


The study addressed the effect of marketing management philosophies on student satisfaction in Public Universities and the non-evangelical private universities in Kenya and was motivated by the observed phenomenal disparities that seemed to characterize the two sets of universities.

Whereas the private Universities seemed to remain relatively calm, devoid of student unrests and the ability to complete programmes in time, Public Universities stood on the opposite end with frequent institutional shut down due to unrests resulting into failure to complete programmes as scheduled.

In spite of this observed phenomenal challenge, the researched was not aware of any study that had been conducted in this area that seemed to point to the significant of the marketing management philosophy in practice and the resultant effect on student satisfaction, and therefore saw the need to conduct the research to generate information that would fill the then prevailing information gap.

The study was an exploratory census survey of 11 accredited Universities in which 173 respondents were interviewed from the ranks of the senior administrative staff corroborated with the participation of significant number of students. The primary data was collected using questionnaires consisting of six sections, each pertaining to the major dimension of the respective marketing management philosophies.

Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics which entailed means, percentages and standard deviation .T-statistics and chi-squares were also used in the analysis and from the findings, it emerged that there were indeed significant differences in the marketing management philosophies practiced by the two sets of universities. Private universities were found to practice with marketing and societal marketing concepts as opposed to public universities whose practices seemed to point the direction of production and product concepts.

The study concluded that there is a direct relationship between the level of student satisfaction and the marketing management philosophy practiced and consequently recommended to the public universities to consider using the modern and more robust marketing management philosophies which identifies and take into consideration the interests and desires of students as it designs its academic and operational programmes.

K MJ, E.N.M N, Lerna KN. Effects of Schistosoma mansoni infection on Mammalian host glucose metabolism. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1998.munyua_files_2.png
Barasa JL. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY INTO THE PASS RATES IN KASNEB CPA EXAMINATIONS. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1997. Abstract

The study aimed at determining factors that influence performance in CPA examinations conducted by KASNEB. Two approaches were used: First, approach examined factors that influence completion period of CPA examinations. A sample of 190 qualified students was randomly selected from a population of 1865 candidates who had qualified as at December 1996. Second approach examined factors which determine whether a student would pass the CPA Section 6 or not. A sample of 112 candidates who sat the December, 1995 and June 1996 examinations and passed was examined alongside a sample of 146 candidates drawn from a total population of 1007 candidates who sat and did not pass in the two sittings.
For each of the approaches, correlation, multiple regression analysis, stepwise regression, stepwise discriminate multiple discriminate analyses were conducted. In both cases, mode of study, educational background and occupation were found to be very significant variables. Age appeared also but with least significance. Analysis two identified Kenya College of Accountancy as a college that positively influenced passing. Analysis one gave emphasis on the manner of attempting the examination. English and Mathematics at “o” level also a positive association with completion period.
Regression analysis revealed that variables identified explained 80% of the reasons influencing completion period. Descriminant analysis showed that the same variables constituted over 90% of the discriminating attributes between those candidates who finished the course within a short time and those who take a long time to complete. Variables covered in influencing passing however, could only account for 30% of the reasons for passing or not passing under regression analysis and had only 35% discriminating ability between those candidates who fail and those who pass. This means that over 70% of the reasons for passing or not passing were not captured in this set of variables. Consequently, there is need to search and establish the factors that constitute the remaining 70% in all the analyses, regression and discriminant analyses strongly agreed on the findings.

Kyule MD. Economy and subsistence of Iron Age Sirikwa culture at Hyrax Hill, Nakuru: A Zooarchaeological approach. Koch DC, Mutoro DH, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1992.
Waithira M. An evaluation of the educational programme of Breastfeeding Information Group (BIG) in Nairobi.; 1989. Abstract

The main objective of this study was to
compare the knowledge. attitudes. ,and practices of
mothers and health workers exposed to the educational
programme of the Breastfeeding Information
Group (BIG) with those who have not been exposed to
the programme. In addition. the knowledge. attitudes
and practices of BIG counselors and members
of the executive committee were also assesed with
respect to their knowledge and practices of breastfeeding
and weaning.
The knowledge. attitude and practice (i(AP ;0
study took place in Maternal and Child Health
Clinics (MCHC) in Nairobi, between January and June
1987. A sample of 150 randomly selected B i
Exposed mothers was compared with a similar sample
of randomly selected NON-BIG Exposed rno t her· s .
Similarly a sample of 24 randomly selected B1GExposed
Health Workers was compared with a s l m I lar
number of NON-BIG Exposed health workers. in addition,
12 BIG volunteers and 6 counsellors were
included in the study. Thus a total of
366 interviews were conducted for the study.
higher in
BIG-exposed study sample scored
the knowledge test than the Non-BIG
exposed controls.
The initiation of breastfeeding was largely
universal among the entire study sample. The duration
of breastfeeding of the youngest child
however, was longer among mothers not exposed to
the BIG educational programme. than among mothers
exposed to it.
The onset of weaning the youngest child of
both groups of mothers was significantly different
between the two groups. The Non-BIG exposed
mothers introduced supplementary foods earlier than
the BIG-exposed mothers.
Questioned on the main message delivered in
BiG's promotional visual aid (poster) designed to
promote and encourage breastfeeding. the majority
of respondents identified it to be: " to breastfeed"

Sinei KA. The effect of Antidepressant Drugs on the Circadian Rhythm of 5-Hydroxytrptamine Synthesis in The Central Nervous System. Redfern. S:PH, ed. Bath, England: PhD Thesis, University of Bath; 1987.
MCLIGEYO SO. The experience at Kenyatta National Hospital - A Retrospective and Prospective Study.; 1985. Abstract

Forty seven patients with acute renal failure were studied prospectively over a two-year period at the Kenyatta National Hospital. There were 20 males and 27 females. The mortality rate was 40.4%. Most patients had medically oriented problems. Complications that were associated with a high mortality were infections and the presence of neuropsychiatric manifestations.

Kioy PG. Electrophysiological Study Of Diabetic Autonomic And Sensorimotor Polyneuropathy.; 1984. Abstract

Neurological complications of Diabetes Mellitus were
looked for in a group of 31 patients using clinical examination
and electrophysiological tests. Clinically evident sensorimotor
neuropathy was found to be prsent in 41.9% and clinical
autonomic neuropathy in 15% of the patients. Electrophysiological
tests showed evidence of sensorimotor neuropathy in 80% and
autonomic nerve dysfunction in 35% of the same patients. Autonomic
neuropathy was found to occur always in association with
sensorimotor neuropathy.
The electrophysiological tests were found to be convenient
as they were easy, and required little cooeration from the patient.
Sensory nerve tests were found to be more sensitive than motor
nerve tests alone and the yield of anyone test was found to
increase the more nerves one examined. Electrocardiographic tests
for autonomic neuropathy ( i.e. 'beat to beat variation' of pulse
rate and the 'valsalva ratio' ) were found to be of equal
sensitivity, but the former was easier to carry out and is
therefore recommended. The use of postural blood pressure changes
to assess autonomic nerve function was found to be too insensitive
for any practical use. When postural hypotension is present, other
signs of neuropathy are usually grossly evident.

Nyang'aya JA. Efficiency of African charcoal burning stove .; 1982. Abstract

Fuelwood accounts for most of the domestic energy use in the Third World. In East Africa the use of charcoal especially in urban centres has continued though threatened by social factors such as deforestation. The typical East African metal charcoal stove has been studied with emphasis on its efficiency and pollutant emission. The study has brought to better focus the very low performance figures and the dangerously high pollutant emissions by the stove. The study consisted of: i. Continuous flue gas monitoring which was achieved by positioning the stove in a specially constructed enclosure allowing sampling of the flue gases before dillution with the surrounding air. ii. Temperature monitoring of various .. posi tions both on and off the stove to assess the heat energy distribution. Following lighting up concentrations of over 3% CO and 8% CO were recorded each time. These concentrations reduced to about half the above values within 10 minutes though for up to 30 minutes the concentrations were still1\3 times above the.:poisonous ., threshold limit based on normal air. changes -wi thin an occupied room

Oburra HO. Empyema Thoracis In Kenyatta National Hospital.; 1981. Abstract

This is a combined prospective and retrospective
review 'study of empyema thoracis. Twenty patients admitted
to Kenyatta National Hospital wards between November, 1980
and April 1981 were studied prospectively. Seventy nine patients admitted between January 1975 and October 1980 were
studied retrospectively. Both groups have been reviewed
to highlight various aspects of this disease, particularly
its potentially crippling effect on the respiratory system
and the fact that this is a preventable situation which is
not yet fully appreciated in our country.
Pulmonary disease was the most prevalent underlying
aetiology in this series. Mycobacteria and Staph. Aureus
were the most frequent causative organism followed by
various gram negative bacteria. Culture was negative in 21%
of all cases reviewed. The tendency of children under
10 years of age to have staphylococcal and multibacterial
infection was noted.
The ever increasing pneumonectomy rate on the background
of inadequate initial. treatment coupled with
scarcity of surgical beds and theatre time is highlighted.
Finally paediatric age and presence of underlying disea were shown to have positive relationship with increased
mortality, while traumatic and tuberculous aetiologies
were found to have a higher risk of eventual pneumonectomy.

Ebrahim YH. Ebclima Software (Synthesis + interpretation of findings). May 2018 ed. Ebenergy Enterprises; 2018.
Ebrahim YH. Ebenergy Software (Simulations + experimentations). May 2018 ed. Ebenergy Enterprises; 2018.
Ebrahim YH. Ebstats Software (Collection, processing, preparation, analysis of data + results). May 2018 ed. Ebenergy Enterprises; 2018.
Research Paper

There has been growing academic interest in the compensation of senior management in corporate enterprises. This interest stems from a concern about the motivation of management as well as concerns about equity and fairness coupled with the importance of corporate governance in enterprises. Shareholders as principals in entities desire maximization of stock returns for a given level of risk and they naturally wish that their firms design compensation systems that motivate senior executives as their agents to pursue policies that meet the principal objective of shareholder wealth maximization. This desk review of relevant theoretical and empirical literature investigates whether the executive compensation – performance link meets an optimality test ex –ante or ex – post under the agency based models as well as other alternative paradigms that explain managerial actions. From the review findings, a confusing debate rages among academics about the relationship between executive compensation and firm financial performance. This confusion manifests itself in a number of ways: in the range of empirical specifications for pay to performance regressions in the literature; in the wide discrepancy in estimates of pay performance sensitivities and in controversy over the appropriate level of executive holdings of stock and stock options. Differences in research methodology explain some of the inconsistent conclusions notwithstanding that there is even a lack of consensus among some studies that use identical or very similar research designs. Foremost, the measurement of firm success is in intself controversial regarding adoption of performance measures. Also controversial is treatment of the components of compensation. The diverse set of disciplines involved in the study area and the wide variety of methods used to investigate the main questions complicates the way to consensus especially on incorporation of organizational contextual settings and other contingency factors for executive compensation.
Research gaps emerging in the literature review include; wide variations of pay performance sensitivities derived within agency models, minimal evaluation of explanatory values of alternative paradigms to the agency models, undefined relationships between pay performance sensitivity and the performance metric applied, undefined relationship between executive compensation components and past and future organizational performance levels, inexplained sensitivity of the pay performance link to organizational contextual effects of ownership and internationalization, unspecified possibility of dual causality between executive compensation and firm performance and the information content of executive compensation plan adopted by a public enterprise.
The study recommends future research effort for bridging the knowledge gaps using alternative paradigms while adressing the methodological issues of empirical specifications, causality, fixed-effects, first-differencing, and instrumental variables. On the empirical specifications, the studies need to reconsider the causality relationships, operationalization of research variables, use of panel data and incorporation of control variables like demographic characteristics, corporate governance mechanisms, regulation, firm ownership and globalization.

Muthomi JW;, Otieno PE;, Chemining’wa GN;, Nderitu JH. Effect Of Root Rot Pathogens And Fungicide Seed Treatment On Nodulation In Food Grain Legumes.; 2013. Abstract

Greenhouse experiments were conducted over 2 cropping cycles to investigate the effect of fungicide seed treatment and fungal root rot pathogens on nodulation and dry matter accumulation of selected food legumes. The legumes were common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.var GLP 2), green gram (Vigna radiata L., variety M66) and lablab (Lablab purpureus L.). Treatments included, inoculation of legumes with pathogen alone (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. phaseoli or Macrophomina phaseolina or Sclerotinia sclerotiorum or Rhizoctonia solani), or with appropriate rhizobia alone or application of fungicide (copper oxychloride) or their combinations. Results of the study indicated that fungicide seed treatment reduced disease incidence on Sclerotinia and Rhizoctonia inoculated plants. However, fungicide treatment significantly (p=0.05) depressed nodulation of the legumes but its effect on nodulation was significantly suppressed when applied together with rhizobia on infected seeds. Fungicide application significantly reduced seedlings mortality (pre-emergence damping off) and number of nodules per plant but had no effect on dry matter accumulation. Combination of fungicide and rhizobia inoculation improved nodulation as well as reducing disease incidence. It is therefore concluded that this combination yields better results if the aim is to reduce root rot incidence while improving nodulation concurrently.

Ngunjirir J, Keiyoro P, Ochanda H, Oyieke FA. Effect of soil pH on Tunga penetrans population.; 2013.
Mulindwa, H; Galukande WMAO; SE; M; J. Evaluation of Ankole pastoral production systems in Uganda: Systems analysis approach.; 2013. Abstract

The production objectives of Ankole cattle pastoral production system are shifting from traditional subsistence to commercial enterprises involving adoption of a new production system where farmers keep separate herds of Ankole and Friesians x Ankole crosses on the same farm. The ecological and economic sustainability of the emerging Ankole production system is currently being assessed through system analysis approach using a dynamic model to identify conditions under which either one or both gonotypes can be kept on a sustainable basis. The dynamic herd-based model is used to simulate pasture growth, reproduction and production of the two cattle genotypes. The developed model was evaluated using post weaning growth. The calculated average RPE value of 0.075% for growth (body weight) after weaning across both breeds is below the acceptable 20% and means that the model predicts post weaning growth with an error of 7.5%. The model also predicted changes in herd milk production throughout the simulation for a herd that was managed by the same rules but grazed at dynamic stocking rates over the simulation period. Herd milk production increased with increasing stocking density. However, the increase in herd yield had a negative effect on milk production per individual animal. There is need to evaluate the system using controlled stocking rates (ecological carrying capacity values) and assess their economic viability as well as determining appropriate cattle off-takes.

Oloo A. Elections, Representations and the New Constitution. Constitution Working Paper ; 2011.
Maloiy GMO;, Kanui TI;, Towett PK;, Wambugu SN;, Miaron JO;, Wanyoike MM. Effects of dehydration and heat stress on food intake and dry matter digestibility in East African ruminants.; 2008. Abstract

Comparative investigations were made between wild and domestic ruminants from arid and semi-arid regions and those species from non-arid areas in an attempt to evaluate the adaptations of these ruminants in terms of the effects of heat stress and dehydration on food intake and digestibility. The effect of (a) an intermittent heat load (a daily light cycle of 12 hat 22 "C and 12 hat 40 'C) compared to 22 'C throughout the day and (b) dehydration level of 15% weight loss, with and without the heat load, on the intake and digestibility of a poor quality hay was investigated in the Grant's gazelle, Oryx, the domestic Turkana goats, fat-tailed sheep, zebu cattle, Thomson's gazelle and wildebeest The intermittent heat load with water available ad libitum depressed the food intake of zebu cattle and Turkana goats by more than 40%. It had no significant effect on the food intake of the other species. The Thomson's and Grants gazelle, oryx, wildebeest and fat-tailed sheep appear well adapted to withstanding a periodic heat load. Dehydration at 22 'C caused a marked depression on food intake of all the species investigated. Dehydration together with a heat load caused no further reduction in the food intake by the Grants's gazelle, oryx, and goats but it did cause a further reduction in the intake in the other species. The small non-domestic ruminants (i.e. Grant's and Thomson's gazelle) appear much more digestive efficient than any of their domestic counterpart.

Menza, Mwalimu K; Shibairo SNRDP; KJGPI; O; N. Effects of pit, dark and cold pre-storage treatments and their duration on dormancy breaking and sprouting of seed potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.).; 2008. Abstract

Potato is the second most important food crop after maize in Kenya. In the traditional areas of potato production with a bimodal rainfall pattern in the country, poor sprouting, due to seed tuber dormancy, is a major drawback. There is little time between growing seasons to permit adequate sprouting of the seed tubers. Therefore, effects of pit, dark and cold pre-storage treatments and their duration on dormancy breaking and sprouting of seed potato tubers of variety Asante were determined. Tubers were evaluated for sprouting, number of sprouts per tuber and sprout vigor for 12 weeks. Pit and dark pre-storage treatments resulted in significantly higher sprouting, number of sprouts per tuber and vigor scores than cold pre-storage treatment and the control (diffused light storage). 100% sprouting of seed potato tubers was attained under pit storage by the fourth week for all pre-storage treatment durations while dormancy ended after 6 weeks of storage in the control. Sprouting was suppressed during cold pre-storage treatment. In pit and dark pre-storage treatments, vigor scores increased with increasing duration of pre-storage treatment while in the cold, vigor scores were reduced with longer pre-storage treatment duration. Pit and dark pre-storage treatments for short durations of up to one week respectively followed by two weeks of diffused light storage are recommended to break dormancy and promote sprouting of good quality seed potato tubers of Asante variety.

Wambua, E. M; Nderitu OWJH; F;. Evaluation of variety resistance as amangement srategy for thrips (megalurothrips sjostedti trybom and frankliniella occidentalis pergrande) on french beans (phaseolus vulgaris l.).; 2004. Abstract

French bean, phaseolllus vulgaris l. is a major horticultural crop in kenya mainly grown for fresh export market. A major contraint in succesfull production of the crop is pests and diseases. thrips are considered as one of the major inscect pests attacking mainly flowers and causing losses of above 60percentage A lot of pesticides use and hence pesticide resideu has been attributed to thrips control. In view of the introduction of maximum pesticides level by importing countries, there is need to develope intergrated thrips mangement strategy with less pesticide use . Towards this goal, nine french beans varieties were evaluated for resistance to thrips (megalurothrips sjostedti frankliniella occidentalis)during the period (november 2001 to april 2002). This was done in two planting phases using randomised complete block design in four replicates. It was evident from the study that there significant diffrences in resistance to thrips by varieties. monel variety was found to be the most susceptibleand impala the least.Frankliniella occidentalis was more abadunt than megalurothrips sjostedti during the study period. The ratio of M . sjostedti to F. occidentalis on flowers was 1.5and 1.7 during the 1st and 2nd planting respectively.

Marenya, Paswel Phiri; Barrett CB, Oluoch-Kosura W;, Place F;, Barrett CB. Education, Nonfarm Income, And Farm Investment In Land-scarce Western Kenya.; 2003.
Oluoch-Kosura W;, Okeyo AM;, Waithaka MM;, Okilla EA. The economic implications of declining artificial insemination service provision in Kenya..; 2000.
Otieno.d.m. Ergogenic Aids in Sports.; 1995.
Nyagah DG, Opondo FA, SP Wamahiu. Educational situation of the Kenyan girl child.; 1992.
Mbugua PN;, Wahome RG. Evaluation of poultry feeds.; 1991.
Mbogoh SG;, Mbatia OLE. Evaluation of socio-economic aspects of smallholder irrigated rice schemes. The case of Anyiko, Alungo and Nyachoda schemes in Nyanza province of Kenya.; 1986. Abstract

Gives the results of the evaluation of socio-economic aspects of three smallholder irrigated rice schemes in Nyanza Province of Kenya. These includes the Anyiko, Alungo and Nyachoda rice schemes. Discusses the involvement of the provincial irrigation unit in the rehabilitation and extension of irrigated rice production in these schemes. Results show that irrigated rice production is the only crop production enterprise that can guarantee a source of both food and attractive cash income in the three rice schemes.

Mwaura MW, Wasonga OV, Elhadi YAM, Ngugi RK. Economic contribution of the camel milk trade in Isiolo Town, Kenya. London: IIED; 2015.
Gituku BC, a OVW, Ngugi RK. Economic contribution of the pastoral meat trade in Isiolo Town, Kenya. London: IIED; 2015.
Opiyo-Akech N. Environmental and Social Impact Assessment for proposed exploratory well drilling in Block 11A: CEPSA, Turkana County. Report for National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA), Kenya; 2015.
Opiyo-Akech N. Environmental and Social Impact Assessment for proposed exploratory well drilling in Block L19: Rift Energy, Kwale County. Report for National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA), Kenya; 2015.
Booth D, Cooksey B, Golooba-Mutebi F, Kanyinga K. East African Prospects: An Update on the Political Economy of Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. London: Overseas Development Institute (ODI); 2014.
Mbithi LM. Eastern Africa’s Manufacturing Sector - Kenya Country Report. Nairobi: African Development Bank Group – Eastern Africa Regional Resource Centre (EARC); 2014.
Opiyo-Akech N. Environmental and Social Impact Assessment for 2D seismic survey in Block 9: Africa Oil B.V. ; Isiolo, Wajir and Marsabit Counties. Report for National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA), Kenya; 2014.
Opiyo-Akech N. Environmental and Social Impact Assessment for 2D seismic survey in Block L16: CAMAC Energy.; Kilifi County. Report for National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA), Kenya; 2014.
Opiyo-Akech N. Environmental Impact Assessment for Berilium mining: ARC; Somaliland. Report for National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA), Kenya; 2014.
Onjala J. Economic Evaluation of Roads Infrastructure Projects in Galkaiyo, Somaliland. Nairobi: International Labour Organization (ILO) Somalia Programme; 2013.
Onjala J. An Evaluation of the Implementation of the African Development Bank’s Involuntary Resettlement Policy in Africa. Nairobi: Gibbs International, African Development Bank (AfDB); 2013.
Onjala J, Odero K. Establishment & Operation of Garowe Fish Market in Puntland: Options for the Type and Structure of PPP. Nairobi: International Labour Organization (ILO) Somalia Programme; 2012.
Musyoka SM, Karanja FN, Mwathane I. Establishment of a pro poor Land Information Management System. Nairobi: Institution of Surveyors of Kenya; 2012.
L. O, J. A. Evaluation of HelpAge Kenya’s Sponsor a Grandparent Programme. Nairobi: HelpAge International; 2012.
Avery" "L, Crockett" "M, Kihara" "A, Murila" "F, Njoroge" "P. Enhancing maternal health, Global Engagement in action - Highlights from the Canada-Africa Research Exchange Grants (CAREG): . Canada: Canada-Africa Research Exchange Grants (CAREG): ; 2012.
Osengo C. Ewaso Ngiro North Integrated Regional Development Plan . Nairobi: United Nations Centre for Regional Development & Ministry of Regional Development Authorities ; 2012.
Hoshino, et al. Environment Conservation and Local Culture in the Region Suffering from Soil Erosion in Western Kenya. Nagoya: Published by the International Cooperation Center for Agricultural Education (ICCAE); 2010.
E W, L O, J M, M K, G B, C N. Evaluation of the Small Holder Dairy Commercialization Programme in 27 Districts in Kenya.. Nairobi: IFAD and Government of Kenya; 2010.
and Stephen Karekezi, John Kimani BBNOKM. Energy Technology Policy and the Domestication of Renewable Energy Technologies in Africa". Nairobi: AFREPREN/FWD; 2009. AbstractWebsite

It is now widely recognized that the availability of affordable and reliable energy services is key to unlocking the economic growth potential especially in the African sub-region. However, the energy sector remains one of the key challenging areas in Africa, largely lacking in necessary infrastructural investment. The sector is characterized by lack of access to modern energy services (especially in rural areas), poor infrastructure, lack of expertise, low purchasing power, limited investments, lack of local manufacturing capacity and over-dependence on the traditional biomass to meet basic energy needs.

In most parts of Africa, especially Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), energy has been supplied in insufficient quantity, at a cost, form and quality that has limited its consumption by the majority of Africa’s population, making the continent the lowest per capita consumer averaging about 0.66 toe. Only 25% of SSA’s population has access to electricity and electrification is as low as 5% in some countries while per capita electricity consumption is below 50kWh in parts of the region (World Bank 2007).

The entire generation capacity of the 47 countries of SSA (excluding South Africa) is mere 28 GW (equal to that of Argentina). Capacity utilization and availability is poor, typically in the range of 30% - 40% of the installed capacities. Consequently, supplies are erratic and intermittent, with attendant frequent power cuts, load shedding and at-times outright grid collapses. An increasingly common response to the crisis has been short-term leases for emergency power generation by a handful of global operators. Though this capacity can be put in place within a few weeks, it is expensive. The costs of small-scale diesel units, for example, are typically about US$0.35/kWh. In eastern and western Africa, about one-third of installed capacity is diesel-based generators (IMF, 2008).

Over the past four decades, the gap between energy supply and demand in Africa has actually widened. Unless drastic interventions are made, recent trends indicate that this gap continues to grow, and the majority in Africa will continue to lack access to basic energy services and consequently will have limited chances of realizing any meaningful social and economic development. One form of intervention would be to promote renewable energy development.

The World Bank estimates that about USD 11 billion would be required annually for Africa to achieve 100% electrification by 2030. The IEA estimates that the African power sector infrastructure requires a cumulative investment of USD 485 billion to 2030. Most African countries have largely failed to attract investment in the power sector despite sectoral reforms which attempt to attract private investment. For example, total external capital flows to the power sector in SSA amount to no more than 0.1% of the region’s GDP (IMF, 2008).

Africa continues to face these energy problems despite the fact that the region has significant conventional and renewable energy potential. Renewable energy technologies (RETs) have especially the potential to play a key role in addressing many of the challenges in the energy sector including improving energy security, saving on foreign exchange outflows, availing decentralised energy to remote areas and promoting rural economic >development. Despite these apparent benefits, existing policies and regulatory frameworks have provided little resources to stimulate market growth. Except for hydropower and wind energy, most RETs in Africa are still in transition and therefore demand continuing research, development and demonstration efforts.

There is growing consensus among policy makers that efforts to deploy renewables in Africa have fallen short of expectations; renewables have not attracted the requisite level of investment or policy commitment they deserve. Needless to say, marginal successes have been attained by some countries. Past studies in Africa have identified number of barriers to renewable energy deployment which can generally be summarized into the following:

Lack of a level playing field for renewable energy technologies (due to continued subsidies for conventional technologies; externalities are not internalised in energy/fuel prices and unduly disadvantaging RETs; and poor feed-in tariffs offered for renewable electricity generation discourages investment)

Insufficient incentives for governments and private companies to support renewable energy development

Lack of affordable financing and access to finance for renewable energy technologies (Financial institutions are hesitant to finance RET projects)

Technology standards are lacking for renewable energy technologies

Energy markets are not prepared for renewable energy (difficulties in integration of intermittent energy sources; grid connection and access is not fairly provided)

Renewable energy skills and awareness is insufficient (lack of knowledge and acceptance of RETs; lack of training and education).

In order to overcome the above barriers a number of innovative renewable energy technology programmes have been established. For example, the Cogen for Africa project – an innovative and first-of-its-kind regional initiative was recently launched by the African Development Bank (AfDB) and UNEP/GEF and executed by AFREPREN/FWD. This initiative seeks to significantly scale up the use of efficient cogeneration technology options in seven eastern and southern African countries, namely: Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Malawi, Swaziland and Sudan.

The Cogen for Africa project will build on the success of cogeneration in Mauritius and plans to replicate this technological success in other countries of the region as well as in other key agro-processing sectors found in eastern and southern Africa. The initiative will also take on board relevant elements of the European Commission- supported regional cogeneration programme in south-east Asia, which has been successful in promoting numerous efficient cogeneration installations.

Another notable cogeneration initiative is the Eskom South Africa Cogeneration programme, which was launched in 2007 with a Call for Expression of Interest (EOI) in developing cogeneration. The original target was 900 MW. The call included a standard PPA, and a feed-in tariff to be based on avoided cost of thermal power units. The call received an overwhelming response, with 5000MW worth of EOIs received by end of September 2007 – which is approx. 10% of South Africa’s current installed capacity. A significant portion of the EOIs were from sugar and agro-industries. The South African Government and Eskom were so impressed by the response that a second phase of the cogeneration bids is planned with the aim of mobilizing investment totalling 5000MW [Karekezi, et al, 2007].

The important role to be played by the aforementioned cogeneration initiatives is underscored by the fact that, with regard to renewable energy investment, Africa is doing poorly when compared to other developing countries. However, there is promising large-scale solar development in North Africa and signs of change in South Africa, where targets for renewable energy have been set and the country’s first wind farm commissioned. Development of renewable energy continues to focus on North and South Africa, with the vast mass of SSA largely unexploited. Overall, investment volumes remain very low.

For most of Sub-Saharan Africa, small hydro holds a most near term potential in Africa with several mini-hydro projects in planning stages. There are also many opportunities for medium to largescale biomass-based cogeneration within the agro-industries. With regard to geothermal, Kenya is likely to see some investment in the expansion of its geothermal resources, e.g. the 60 MW Olkaria phase IV project already has secured funding from the Kenyan Government and KfW, but is still at the planning stage (UNEP, 2007).

Based on development plans tabled to date, significant investment in renewables is likely to occur in South Africa from a variety of technologies including cogeneration, wind, tidal, and solar energy. As Africa’s largest economy, South Africa has significant technological and financial capacity to implement large scale RETs development. Furthermore, by having a proactive utility - Eskom - South Africa is poised to become the region’s renewable energy investment hub in the short to medium term.

RETs development in North Africa is mainly centred on Morocco, Tunisia and Egypt, particularly in solar and wind energy. By the end of 2007, Egypt had a cumulative wind installed capacity of 310 MW, while Morocco had 124 MW (El-Khayati, 2008). North Africa is also attracting interest from large-scale solar developers, especially in Tunisia. In Algeria, there are also plans to build a 25 MW parabolic trough solar energy plant as well as a 130 MW combined cycle gas power plant (UNEP 2008).

It is particularly important to deploy technologies that are technologically and economically mature and ensure that local expertise is available to handle the technology. In addition, it makes economic sense to piggyback RETs development on existing industries, institutions and technology developers. A number of demonstration programmes featuring RETs which are not yet mature have failed as outstanding design features hinder the technology’s full deployment. Examples include gasification trials in various African countries. Other technologies are still economically unattractive and still need to several years of learning experience before they are disseminated in large numbers. It is also critical that technology selection takes into account the capabilities of a country in terms of expertise to implement, operate and maintain. Africa has relied for too long on external technical expertise and this is demonstrated by the numerous disused small hydro plants in the region, many of them set up in the pre-independence era.

Investments in RETs need to take into account some key practical aspects which can contribute the effective deployment of the/domestication of renewable energy technologies. Especially important is the need to deploy technologies that are technologically and economically mature, cost competitive, can be operated and maintained by local expertise, and has potential for piggybacking on existing industries, institutions and technology developers.

Specific skills and institutional capacity are required for implementing, operating, modifying, adapting and continuously improving RETs in order to establish national systems of energy technological innovation. Both productive and innovative skills are required to scale-up RETs application in Africa. Many of these skills can be acquired in a technology incubator, which is also useful for commercialization of technologies. Policies that are required to domestic RETs include fostering technology transfer and also build human resource base with specialised skills and expertise. They also include policies that promote and strengthen domestic knowledge base, stimulate learning and innovation and the support structures to sustain these processes.

From projects implemented in various countries in Africa and elsewhere, several factors have been found to be central to the adaptation of RETs. They include educational drive to create awareness and impact, promotion of the utilisation of local raw materials, training of personnel on requisite techniques for equipment operation and maintenance and the emergence of private sector participation. A high political commitment and engaged local NGOs that support such initiatives are also key success factors in the adaptation of the technologies to local conditions.

This report concludes that appropriate energy technological has been recognised as the key driving force in economic development. The acquisition and progressive mastering of technologies has also been a central aspect of Newly Industrialised Countries, mainly in the East, that have grown so rapidly over the last half-century. However, Africa is presently faced with inadequate capacity to independently generate technological knowledge; undertake R&D, and modernize technology used in the industries. Nevertheless, technologies such as renewable energy can be promoted by having specific and targeted technology policies/strategies.These policies can be subdivided into two: Policies for the establishment of an enabling environment; and, Strategies for domestication of RETs.

In order to promote renewables for electricity supply, it is imperative that enabling policies are in place first.The aim of such policies would be to enhance investor confidence as well as ensure that renewable energy projects are sustainable in the long-term.These policies would serve as the foundation on which an energy technology policy would be based on, and they include:

1.Setting of national renewable energy targets

2.Feed-in tariffs for renewables

3.Standard PPAs for renewable energy technologies

Having established an enabling environment for promoting renewables, an energy policy could serve to provide guidelines to investors on various aspects of mature and priority technologies. More importantly, such an energy policy would guide the region towards domestication of renewable energy technologies. The key strategies for the successful domestication of renewables include:

Piggyback on existing industries
Promote mature technology
Capacity building in relevant technical skills
Identify and promote “local champions”

Digolo P.O., Magoha G.O., Origa J, Odundo P, Nyandega I. The Effects of Massification on Higher Education in Africa. Accra, Ghana: Association of African Universities; 2008.
Odada E, Olago D, A K, A B, S W, M N, J K. East African Rift Valley Lakes,GIWA regional assessment 47. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme; 2006.
OTIENO MROWINONICHOLAS. Expanding SME Outsourcing Opportunities in the Ongoing Power Sector Reforms in East and Southern Africa. GDN Research Monitor; 2006. AbstractWebsite

Paper prepared for the Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme (ESMAP), AFREPREN/FWD, Nairobi

Mwega FM. enya’s Market Access Constraints On Non - Agricultural Products In The European Union. Paper prepared for the Ministry of Trade and Industry through the Trade Negotiations Support Under Kenya - EU Post Lome Trade Programme (KEPLOTRADE); 2005.
HM M. EXPRESSION OF ESTROGEN RECEPTORS ALPHA. Giessen: Annual Research Dissemination for VFFV; 2004.
Karuru Njeri KWMT&. Evaluation of Civic Education Programmes in Kenya. Nairobi: ACCE-Kenya; 1999.
I.O JUMBA, E.O O, J.O B, D.O O. Environmental impact assessment of the proposed National Oil Corporation of Kenya Truck Loading Facility, Industrial Area, Nairobi, Kenya.. NAIROBI: Ministry of Energy; 1999. AbstractWebsite

An environmental impact assessment study was carried out in the area covering the proposed National Oil Corporation of Kenya (NOCK) truck loading facility which is located in Nairobi's industrial area. The main objective of the study was to assess the state of the environment before the development and commissioning of the facility, in order that the design of the facility can objectively take into account the minimisation of the risk of possible negative environmental impacts that may be generated by activities at the facility, and that a baseline of the current environmental state in the area be provided for monitoring such changes in the future.
This environmental impact assessment study included: a geological/geophysical survey to establish the geology and structures of the proposed construction site; establishment of baseline levels of groundwater and existence of water wells within the area; determination of current levels of pollution in air, soil and groundwater by chemical analysis of samples collected in the area; qualitative investigation of noise pollution status; assessment of existing factory activities in the vicinity of the site vis a vis their effect on the environment and complementarity of the proposed facility; determination of possible effects of various pollutants on human settlements adjoining the area; and rating the potential health risk to workers within the truck loading facility.
Black cotton soils with a thickness of about 70cm overlie relatively thick (51m) phonolites which characterise the geology of the area. There are a number of fractures/cracks traversing the area in a nearly north-south direction. These are believed to be shallow fractures, and it is recommended that pits be dug 3 to 4 m deep to establish the depth of the fractures. Beneath the phonolites (>51m depth) are the Athi tuffs and lake beds where most of the groundwater in the area occurs. This is consistent with water strike levels in boreholes drilled in the Industrial Area. Given the thickness and impermeability of the phonolites and shallow depth of the fractures, contamination of groundwater (>52m depth) by infiltration of pollutants from the surface is most likely insignificant. Groundwater quality in the area does, however, not appear to be suitable for drinking due to its high Fl and Fe content, but is suitable for other domestic and factory use. Heavy metal analysis of the soils reveals that the only metal that could threaten ground water quality in the area is lead, which appears to come from automobile exhaust emissions and atmospheric loading and fall-out of the volatile gasoline additive, lead tetraethyl. This may contaminate the transient (seasonal) groundwater that accumulates in the near surface zone (weathered, fractured phonolite and soil <8m deep) during the rainy seasons, and dries up soon after the rains.
Analysis of organic volatiles reveals the presence of hydrocarbons (hexane, benzene and xylenes) which are components of petrol. The source of these hydrocarbons appears to be the Kenya Pipeline Company pumping station to the West and Shell, Caltex and Mobil loading facilities to the East of the proposed site. Although the concentrations are not of serious concern, it is recommended that frequent monitoring be done to check any danger that might be posed to the new facility. The air concentrations of sulphur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, ammonia and nitrogen-dioxide suggest a low acid and base deposition in the area. Nitrogen
dioxide levels are, however, close to critical limits. Concentrations of the various air pollutants warrant further monitoring, to check the likely risk on human health within the facility. The nearest human settlements are located at least two kilometres to the North and East of the area, so air pollutants and noise that may emanate from the facility are unlikely to pose a threat to them.
The overall finding of the environmental impact assessment study is that the site is suitable for development of a truck loading facility as proposed by National Oil Corporation of Kenya. It is, however, strongly recommended that this baseline study should form the basis for monitoring and evaluation of the environmental conditions as site development proceeds, and when the facility is operational.

J B, L O. Evaluation of Maendeleo ya Wanawake Organisation (MYWO) and Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) Female Genital Mutilation Project in four Districts in Kenya. Nairobi: Maendeleo ya Wanawake Organisation (MYWO) and Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH); 1998.

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