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Journal Article
Thongoh MW, Mutembei HM, Mburu J, Kathambi BE. "Evaluating Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Livestock Value Chain Actors on Climate Smart Agriculture/Livestock (CSA/L) in Kajiado County, Kenya." Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology. Submitted;39(4):134-148.
Muirhead JD, Kattenhorn SA, Lee H, Mana S, Turrin BD, Fischer TP, Kianji G, Dindi E, Stamps DS. "Evolution of upper crustal faulting assisted by magmatic volatile release during early-stage continental rift development in the East African Rift." Geosphere. Submitted;12(6):1-31.
Janet Muhalia Chumba, Andanje Mwisukha RMK. "Extent of public support for physical education in Kenya." International Journal of Business and Social Science. Submitted;4(10). Abstract

Abstract The mass media have a fundamental role to play in the development of Sports.
Their contribution towards uplifting performance and popularizing sports is particularly
critical in the developing countries where sports programmes tend to receive minimal
attention and resource allocation. The mass media are important tools for marketing,
publicizing and popularizing sports. Their specific roles include bringing talent into the
limelight, giving recognition/appreciation to outstanding sports personalities and ...

Munyoki JM,, Kibera FN, Ogutu M. "Extent To Which University- Industry Linkage Exists In Kenya: A Study Of Medium And Large Manufacturing Firms In Selected Industries In Kenya." Business Administration and Management . Submitted;Vol 1(4):163-169, .
Wazid AM, Anyenda OE, Tole NM. "Eye Lens and Thyroid gland dose during CT head scanning in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." South Africa Journal of Radiology. Submitted.
Muasya MK, Opinya GN, Masiga MA. "Ectodental Dysplasia.". Submitted. Abstract
NYAMBANE MN, GATARI MJ, Githiri JG,... "Energy and Exergy Analysis Concepts: Modelling of Olkaria II Geothermal Power Plant in Kenya." Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Condensers of geothermal power plants need to operate at low pressures to ensure optimal use of energy resources. To optimize the steam condensation process cooling water temperature is varied to determine the value that gives a higher condenser efficiency …


Human beings obtain their essential trace metals form their diets. The objective of this study was to determine the Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn concentration levels in maize flour and based on the results estimate the daily intake of these essential metals through consumption of Ugali; …

Syvitski J, Ángel JR, Saito Y, Overeem I, Vörösmarty CJ, Wang H, Olago D. "Earth’s sediment cycle during the Anthropocene.". 2022;3(3):179-196. AbstractWebsite

The global sediment cycle is a fundamental feature of the Earth system, balancing competing factors such as orogeny, physical–chemical erosion and human action. In this Review, values of the magnitudes of several sources and sinks within the cycle are suggested, although the record remains fragmented with uncertainties. Between 1950 and 2010, humans have transformed the mobilization, transport and sequestration of sediment, to the point where human action now dominates these fluxes at the global scale. Human activities have increased fluvial sediment delivery by 215% while simultaneously decreasing the amount of fluvial sediment that reaches the ocean by 49%, and societal consumption of sediment over the same period has increased by more than 2,500%. Global warming is also substantially affecting the global sediment cycle through temperature impacts (sediment production and transport, sea ice cover, glacial ice ablation and loss of permafrost), precipitation changes, desertification and wind intensities, forest fire extent and intensity, and acceleration of sea-level rise. With progressive improvements in global digital datasets and modelling, we should be able to obtain a comprehensive picture of the impacts of human activities and climate warming.

Olali T, Thuranira I, Wamitila KW, Mbuthia E. "East African Detective Fiction: A Basic Anatomy." Mwangaza wa Lugha. 2022;7(1):171-183.
Malenje EM, Missohou A, Tebug SF, König EZ, Jung’a JO, Bett RC, Marshall K. "Economic Analysis of Smallholder Dairy Cattle Enterprises In Senegal." research square . 2022.
Malenje EM, Ayao Missohou SFT, König EZ, Jung’a JO, Bett RC, Marshall K. "Economic Analysis of Smallholder Dairy Cattle Enterprises In Senegal.". 2022.
and Ndeke AN, Mutembei HM KCKMJKBOAMZ, HM M. "Effect of Acetaminophen on the Estrous Cycle and Reproductive Hormones of Female Mice." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2022;11(3):392-395.392-395.pdf
Hoang NT, Mwazighe FM. "Effect of operating conditions on the yield of 2-hydroxyterephthalic acid for tracing OH radical in an electrochemical process." Moscow University Chemistry Bulletin. 2022;77(5):286-299. AbstractWebsite

The boron-doped diamond electrode has been widely applied in electrochemical process for wastewater treatment based on the generation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH). This study investigated the formation efficiency of 2-HTA through the interaction between •OH radical and terephthalic acid (TA) to monitor the •OH formation. Results show that the 2-HTA formation efficiency did not depend on the initial concentration of scavenger (here, TA) in the investigated range of 0.1 to 1 mM TA. Meanwhile, other factors, such as current density, supporting electrolyte, sodium hydroxide have a significant influence. The optimal condition was established: concentration of electrolyte (0.05 M Na2SO4); initial concentration of TA (0.1 mM); concentration of NaOH (1 mM); current density (j = 20 mA cm–2). The selectivity of TA was evaluated by Faradaic efficiency (η) and hydroxylation yield (γTAOH), indicating that Faradaic efficiency (η) for 2-HTA formation was in the range of 10–5–10–7, while the hydroxylation yield of •OH (γTAOH) into 2-HTA was 0.03–0.12.

OMAYIO DUKEG, Abong' GO, Okoth MW, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Mwang'ombe AW. "Effect of pulping methods on the physicochemical properties of the Kenyan red and white‐fleshed guava pulp." JSFA Reports. 2022;2(3):131-142.
Wanyama HN, Karega LN, Chimoita EL. "Effect of Use of Tacit Knowledge Transfer Techniques on Organizational Performance of Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization Researchers." Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics &Sociology. 2022;0(10)(0(10): 492-502):DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2022/v40i1031103.effectof_use_of_tacit_knowledgetransfer_techniques.pdf
Ochami AE, ONURA CN, Omari DS, 2 DAN. "Effects of strategic Managemnent practices on growth of poultry layers production Enteprises in Nyaribari Chache Sub-County Kisii County." International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Growth Evaluation . 2022;03(02):551-563.
Ikanya" "LW, Maina" "JG, Gachuiri" "CK, Owino" "WO, Dubeux" "JCB. "Effects of supplementing lactating Somali camels with Opuntia stricta and cottonseed cake on feed intake, milk yield, and milk composition." X International Congress on Cactus Pear and Cochineal: Cactus the New Green Revolution in Drylands 1343. 2022:171-180.
Ondicho TG. "Empowering Kenyan Maasai Women Through Cultural Bomas Tourism." Pathways to African Feminism and Development. 2022;7(1):29-47.
Sherida WP, Vincent MO, O WS, Duke Gekonge Omayio, Okumu MO. "Estimation and human health risk assessment of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticide residues in raw milk collected in Kenya." Research. . 2022.
Ali H, Nguta J, Musila F, Ole-Mapenay I, Matara D, Mailu J. "Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity, Cytotoxicity, and Phytochemical Composition of Ocimum americanum L. (Lamiaceae)." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2022;2022:11.
Al H, Nguta J, Musila F, Ole-Mapenay I, Matara D, Mailu J. "Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity, Cytotoxicity, and Phytochemical Composition of Ocimum americanum L. (Lamiaceae)." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicin. 2022;2022:11.
Marufu C, Kisumbi BK, Osiro OA, Otieno FO. "Effect of finishing protocols and staining solutions on color stability of dental resin composites." Clinical and Experimental Dental Research. 2022;8:561-570. Abstract
Annoh R, Banks LM, Gichuhi S, Buchan J, Makupa W, Otiti J, Mukome A, Arunga S, Burton MJ, Dean WH. "Experiences and Perceptions of Ophthalmic Simulation-Based Surgical Education in Sub-Saharan Africa." J Surg Educ. 2021;78(6):1973-1984. AbstractWebsite

Background: Simulation-based surgical education (SBSE) can positively impact trainee surgical competence. However, a detailed qualitative study of the role of simulation in ophthalmic surgical education has not previously been conducted.

Objective: To explore the experiences of trainee ophthalmologists and ophthalmic surgeon educators' use of simulation, and the perceived challenges in surgical training.

Methods: A multi-center, multi-country qualitative study was conducted between October 2017 and August 2020. Trainee ophthalmologists from six training centers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) (in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zimbabwe and South Africa) participated in semi-structured interviews, before and after an intense simulation training course in intraocular surgery. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with experienced ophthalmic surgeon educators. Interviews were anonymized, recorded, transcribed and coded. An inductive, bottom-up, constant comparative method was used for thematic analysis.

Results: Twenty-seven trainee ophthalmologists and 12 ophthalmic surgeon educators were included in the study and interviewed. The benefits and challenges of conventional surgical teaching, attributes of surgical educators, value of simulation in training and barriers to implementing ophthalmic surgical simulation were identified as major themes. Almost all trainees and trainers reported patient safety, a calm environment, the possibility of repetitive practice, and facilitation of reflective learning as beneficial aspects of ophthalmic SBSE. Perceived barriers in surgical training included a lack of surgical cases, poor supervision and limited simulation facilities.

Conclusions: Simulation is perceived as an important and valuable model for education amongst trainees and ophthalmic surgeon educators in SSA. Advocating for the expansion and integration of educationally robust simulation surgical skills centers may improve the delivery of ophthalmic surgical education throughout SSA.

Rono H, Bastawrous A, Macleod D, Mamboleo R, Bunywera C, Wanjala E, Gichuhi S, Burton MJ. "Effectiveness of an mHealth system on access to eye health services in Kenya: a cluster-randomised controlled trial." Lancet Digit Health. 2021;3(7):e414-e424. AbstractWebsite

Background: There is limited access to eye health services in many low-income and middle-income populations. We aimed to assess the effectiveness in increasing service utilisation of the Peek Community Eye Health (Peek CEH) system, a smartphone-based referral system comprising decision support algorithms (Peek Community Screening app), SMS reminders, and real-time reporting.

Methods: In this cluster-randomised controlled trial of eye health in Kenya, community unit clusters were defined as one health centre and its catchment population. Clusters were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive Peek CEH and referral (intervention group) or standard care via periodic health centre-based outreach clinics and onward referral (control group). Individuals in the intervention group were assessed at home by screeners and those referred were asked to present for triage assessment in a central location. They received regular SMS reminders. In both groups, community sensitisation was done followed by a triage clinic at the cluster health centre 4 weeks after sensitisation. During triage, individuals in both groups were assessed and treated and, if necessary, referred to a specific hospital. Individuals in the intervention group received further SMS reminders. The primary outcome was the mean attendance rate (the number of people per 10 000 population) at triage of those with confirmed eye conditions, as assessed at 4 weeks after sensitisation in the intention-to-treat population. We estimated the intervention effect using a Student's t-test on cluster-level rates. This trial is registered with Pan African Clinical Trial Registry, number 201807329096632.

Findings: Between Nov 26, 2018, and June 7, 2019, of the 85 community units in Trans Nzoia County, Kenya, 49 were excluded. We randomly allocated 18 community units each to the intervention group (68 348 individuals) and the control group (60 243 individuals). 9387 individuals from the intervention group and 3070 from the control group attended triage assessment. The mean attendance rate at triage by individuals with eye problems was 1429 (92% CI 1228-1629) in the intervention group and 522 (418-625) in the control group (rate difference 906 per 10 000 [95% CI 689-1124; p<0·0001]).

Interpretation: The Peek CEH system increased primary care attendance by people with eye problems compared with standard approaches, indicating the potential of this mobile health package to increase service uptake and guide appropriate task sharing.

Sura M, Osoti A, Gachuno O, Musoke R, Kagema F, Gwako G, Ondieki D, Ndavi PM, Ogutu O. "Effect of umbilical cord milking versus delayed cord clamping on preterm neonates in Kenya: A randomized controlled trial." PLoS One. 2021;16(1):e0246109. Abstract

Delayed cord clamping (DCC) is a placental to new-born transfusion strategy recommended by obstetric and gynaecological societies. Though not widely adopted, umbilical cord milking (UCM) may achieve faster transfusion when DCC cannot be performed such as when a neonate requires resuscitation.

Kaoga J, Olago D, Ouma G, Ouma G, Onono J. "The evolving cultural values and their implications on the Maasai Pastoralists, Kajiado County, Kenya.". 2021;13:e00881. AbstractWebsite

The Maasai pastoralists inhabiting Kajiado County have been known for their rich cultural values which have sustained their livelihoods. However, these cultural practices are evolving under the swift development context with the private holding of land becoming more prevalent. Before these disturbances, customary land was available for the Maasai pastoralists to carry out traditional production systems. The disturbance in their social-cultural ways following land fragmentation has rendered their traditional governance system untenable. Moreover, the Maasai pastoralists have been dispossessed from their customary land and social institutions which have shaped their customs. Thus, concerns have been raised over the sustenance of pastoralism considering that the required resources are either unavailable or not enough. To address this gap, there was the need to understand cultural adjustments and their impacts on the Maasai pastoralists’ societal needs. The study employed a cross-sectional design which consisted of 195 Household survey questionnaires, 8 Focus Group Discussions and 18 Key Informant Interviews. The qualitative and quantitative data from the study were summarized and thematic perceptions generated. The results of this study revealed the uniqueness of the Maasai pastoralists’ traditional social structures. Also highlighted by the study was the erosion of the traditional social relations exposing the Maasai pastoralists to increasing vulnerability. These findings support the need for external support to supplement the traditional coping strategies to balance the ecological, social and economic systems of the Maasai pastoralists.

MO F, MO O, M E-T, A K, OB A-B, B G, RJ S. "An ecological study on the association between early childhood caries and intimate partner violence in 20 low- and middle-income countries; 2007-2017." AAS Open Res. 2021;2021; 4:39.(2021; 4:39.):2021; 4:39.
MO F, ME T, JI V, CA F, M R, AM K, R V, OB A‐B, R A, B G, SZ M, A A, H D, A V, RJ S, for the Group ECCA. "An ecological study on the association between universal health service coverage index, health expenditures, and early childhood caries." BMC Oral Health. 2021;2021; 21:126.(2021; 21:126.):2021; 21:126.
Ondicho TG. "The Economic Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Women's Empowerment in Kenya." Pathways to African Feminism and Development. 2021;6(2):104-116.
Ondicho TG. "Editor's Note: Another Tough Year Comes to an End." African Journal of Gender, Society and Development. 2021;10(4):7-12.
Ondicho T. "Editorial Note." African Journal of Gender, Society and Development. 2021;10(3):7-12.
and Ndeke AN1, 3 MHM1 KCK2 MJK1. "Effect of Acetamınophen on Ovulation and Implantation in Female Mice." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2021;10(2):141-143.141-143.pdf
Ndeke AN, Mutembei HM, Kaingu CK, Muthee JK. "Effect of Acetamınophen on Ovulation and Implantation in Female Mice." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2021;10(2):141-143.
F M, F. M, J. N. "Effect of Employee reward, on employee performance at the Kenya Police service." European Jounrnal of Business and Management. 2021;13(2).
Shiwani, D.I., Kalai, J.M., Gatumu JC, Akala WJ. "Effect of Head Teachers’ Acquisition of Teaching and Learning Resources on Implementation of Inclusive Education in Public Primary Schools in Nairobi City County. ." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice (JPAHAP). 2021;2(1):90-108.
Kimeli P, Vanleeuwen J, Gitau G, Heider L, McKenna S, Greenwood S. "Effect of housing improvement and other factors on the growth of heifer calves on Kenyan smallholder dairy farms." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2021;53(1):1-15.
Mutuli GP, Mbuge DO, Gitau AN. "Effect of humidity on Aflatoxin contamination on selected African leafy vegetables. ." Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2021.
Muturi PG, Mwangi JM, Kariuki MI. "Effect of modern marketing practices on performance of real estate firms in Kenya." . International Journal of Scientific Advances. 2021;2(4):487-92.
Lengai GMW, Muthomi JW, Mbega ER. "Effect of plant extracts on important fungal pathogens and germination of tomato seed." International Journal of Biosciences (IJB). 2021;18(4):77-92.
Onyango SO, Abong GO, Okoth MW, Kilalo DC, Mwang’ombe AW. "Effect of Pre-treatment and Processing on Nutritional Composition of Cassava Roots, Millet, and Cowpea Leaves Flours." Nutrition and Sustainable Diets, a section of the journal Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems. 2021;5(625735):1-8.
Sura M, Osoti A, Gachuno O, Musoke R, Kagema F, Gwako G, Ondieki D, Ndavi PM, Ogutu O. "Effect of umbilical cord milking versus delayed cord clamping on preterm neonates in Kenya: A randomized controlled trial." PloS one. 2021;16(1):e0246109.
Mandeep S, Osoti A, Gachuno O, Musoke R, Kagema F, Gwako G, Ondieki D, Ndavi PM. "Effect of umbilical cord milking versus delayed cord clamping on preterm neonates in Kenya: A randomized controlled trial.". 2021.
D S, O OR, O OW, N MJ. "Effect of Waste Clay Brick Powder on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Cement Paste." Open Civil Engineering Journal. 2021;Vol 15.
Judy Kimaru1*, Henry Mutembei2 JKM2. "Effectiveness of Drought Risk Reduction Policies: Case Study of Hay Production in Kajiado County, Kenya." American journal of Climate Change. 2021;(10):512-532.
Musembei LM, Bett RC, Gachuiri CK, Mbondo BK, Kibegwa FM. "Effects of freezing as a post-harvest storage technique on quality of Friesian crossbred cattle milk." African Journal of Food Science. 2021;45(7):298-303.
Musembei LM, Bett RC, Gachuiri CK, Mbondo BK, Kibegwa FM. "Effects of freezing as a post-harvest storage technique on quality of Friesian crossbred cattle milk." African Journal of Food Science. 2021;45(7):298-303.
Musembei LM, Bett RC, Gachuiri CK, Mbondo BK, Kibegwa FM. "Effects of freezing as a post-harvest storage technique on quality of Friesian crossbred cattle milk." African Journal of Food Science. 2021;15(7):298-303.
Wang’ombe DN, Mose BR, Maranga SM, MBUYA TM. "Effects of friction stir welding on microstructure and mechanical properties of extruded secondary aluminum 6061 alloy." Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik. 2021;52(3):270-278 . Abstract

Experiments were carried out to determine the effects of friction stir welding on microstructure and properties of recycled Aluminum 6061 alloy, whose alloy content varied from that of primary alloy. The alloy was processed at tool speed and feed ranges of 530 rev/min–1320 rev/min and 40 mm/min–100 mm/min respectively. Microstructure examination; tensile test and Vickers microhardness evaluation were carried out. Microstructure of the alloy was in four zones including: base metal, heat affected zone, thermo-mechanically affected zone and stirred zone. Average grain size of unprocessed material was 93 μm. Processing the alloy at 530 rev/min and 100 mm/min resulted in grains of average size 93 μm, 183 μm and 7 μm; in base metal, heat affected zone and stirred zone respectively. Tensile failure occurred in heat affected zone; that was exposed to high heat. The alloy hardness decreased to a minimum in heat affected zone, followed by a brief rise in thermo-mechanically affected zone, to another maximum in stirred zone. Processed zone hardness was inversely proportional to tool speed and directly proportional to feed rate. Increase in the speed and decrease in feed, increased heat which deteriorated the properties.

Jerop B, Segera DR. "An Efficient PCA-GA-HKSVM-Based Disease Diagnostic Assistant." Hindawi Biomed Research International. 2021;2021(2021):1-10.
Sila JM, Guto PM, Michira IN, Mwaura FB, Muge EK. "Electrochemical Determination of Penicillin G in Cow Milk and pharmaceuticals in SDS/Acetate buffer." Int. J. Electrochem. Sci.. 2021;16(4):1-13.
Dabasso BH, Wasonga OV, Irungu P, Kaufmann B. "Emerging pastoralist practices for fulfilling market requirements under stratified cattle production systems in Kenya's drylands." Animal Production Science. Accepted 23 February 2021. 2021.
J. MMMNFFM. "Employee reward, work environment and employee performance at the Kenya Police service,." DBA Africa Management Review . 2021;11(1).
Makokha, Chepken C, Opiyo E. "End User Centric Quantitative Trust Model in Cloud Computing." American Journal of Computer Science and Engineering. 2021;7(1):1-7.
JW G, J O’o, P G. "Endometriosis Diagnosis correlation of Laparoscopic visualization and histopathology confirmation in low Resource setting." Open J Obs Gyne. 2021;11(7):845-852. Abstractojog_2021071515313873.pdfWebsite


Background: Endometriosis is enigmatic clinical entity which is described as the location of the endometrial tissue external of the uterine cavity. Endometriosis constitutes a serious health issue due to its high affliction of 10% of reproductive women. With limited resources in Africa, it is essential to assess whether diagnosis of endometriosis by laparoscopic visualization can be used as a substitute for histology. Objective: To correlate the diagnosis of endometriosis by laparoscopic visualization and the histological confirmation of the biopsy taken. Methods: A prospective cross sectional study with a sample size of 443 was undertaken in the diagnosis of endometriosis among Africans in Nairobi, Kenya from March 2019 to March 2021. Women undergoing laparoscopy were screened for endometriosis by visualization and a biopsy was taken for histopathology. Diagnosis of endometriosis by visualization was correlated with histological confirmed endometriosis. Results: Women with a diagnosis of endometriosis through laparoscopic visualization were found to be 77 (17.4%) and 30 (6.8%) had positive histology for endometriosis. Laparoscopic visualization diagnosis had a low positive predictive value of 39%. Conclusion: Laparoscopic visualization diagnosis had a low positive predictive value of 39% and this did not correlate with histopathologic diagnosis. It is essential to perform biopsy with histopathology for the confirmation of endometriosis.

3. Onwonga RN, Chemining’wa GN, Jumbo MB. "Enhancing yellow maize production for sustainable food and nutrition security in African ." Journa Kenya. East l of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2(1):00.
S W, P S. "Environmental effects of dimension stone quarrying activities in Ndarugo area of Kiambu County, Kenya." International Journal of Social Sciences Management and Entrepreneurship . 2021;5(2):1-11.
Chepkwony EC, Gitao GC, Muchemi GM, Sangula AK, Kairu-Wanyoike SW. "Epidemiological study on foot-and-mouth disease in small ruminants: Sero-prevalence and risk factor assessment in Kenya." PLOS ONE . 2021;16 ((8)):e0234286.
KathambiBE, N MUTHAMAJ, AnguC. "Essence of Water Governance for SMEs for Sustainable Consumption in Nairobi, Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2(2).
Kathambi EB, Muthama JN, Ang'u C. "Essence of Water Governance for SMEs for Sustainable Consumption in Nairobi, Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2.
Murunga J, Muriithi MK, Wawire NW. "Estimating the size of the informal sector in Kenya, Cogent Economics & Finance." Cogent Economics & Finance. 2021;9(1):1-15.
S.I.Akaranga, Situma JW. "The Ethical dimensions of Entrepreneurial Practice in three traditions." East African Journal of Traditions, Culture and Religion. 2021;3(1):23-34.east_african_journal_of_traditions_culture_and_religion_vol_3_no_1__23_34.pdf
Ali HM, Nguta JM, Mapenay IO, Musila FM, Vincent OM, Nyak DM. "Ethnopharmacological uses, biological activities, chemistry and toxicological aspects of Ocimum americanum var. americanum (Lamiaceae)." The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2021;10(1):56-60 .
Ali HM, Nguta JM, Mapenay IO, Musila FM, Omambia VM, Matara DN. "Ethnopharmacological uses, biological activities, chemistry and toxicological aspects of Ocimum americanum var. americanum (Lamiaceae)." Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2021;10:56-60.
Omambia VM, Nguta JM, Mitema ES, Musila FM, Nyak DM, Ali HM, Gervason MA. "Ethnopharmacology, pharmacological activities, and chemistry of the Hypericum genus." The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2021;10(2):105-113.
Siko I, Sola P, Mulwa, M R, Otieno P. "Evaluating charcoal producers’ preferences for improved production systems in Marigat sub county, Baringo County." Environmental Challenges. 2021;5(100275).
Mushori J, Charles Mallans Rambo, Wafula CM, Matu J. "Evaluating Contractors’ Safety Record and Its Influence on Performance of Road Infrastructural Projects." Journal of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering. 2021;9(2).
Mushori J, Charles Mallans Rambo, Wafula CM, Matu J. "Evaluating Contractors’ Safety Record and Its Influence on Performance of Road Infrastructural Projects." World Journal of Engineering and Technology. 2021;2021(9):203-228 .
Muigai DK, Onwonga RN, Karuku GN, Mohammed A. "Evaluating maize performance under varying water depletion levels in bura irrigation scheme." Kenya.Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res. . 2021;18(1):19-29.
Wanjira J, Ndiwa TC, Gichuki N, Wykstra M. "Evaluating the efficacy of flashing lights in deterring livestock attacks by predators: a case study of Meibae Community Conservancy, Northern Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2(3).
Kimeli P, Vanleeuwen J, Gitau GK, Heider LC, Heider LC, McKenna SL, Greenwood SJ, Richards S. "Evaluation of environmental and comfort improvements on affective welfare in heifer calves on smallholder dairy farms." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2021;189:105296.
Namungu L, Mburu C, Were FH. "Evaluation of Occupational Lead Exposure in Informal Work Environment in Kenya." Chemical Science International Journal, . 2021;30(11):45-54.
Muhwezi MRL, Aseey A, Ondicho TG, Otieno MAC. "An evaluation of social and psychological effect of empowerment of women in Uganda through Technical and Vocational Education and Training participation." Journal of African Studies and Ethnographic Research. 2021;3(4):24-45.
Amare GG, Degu A, Njogu P, Kifle ZD. "Evaluation of the antimalarial activity of the leaf latex of Aloe weloensis (Aloaceae) against plasmodium parasites." Evid-based Complem. Altern. Med. 2021;2021:6664711.
Kaoga J, Olago D, Ouma G, Ouma G, Onono J. "The evolving cultural values and their implications on the Maasai Pastoralists, Kajiado County, Kenya." Scientific African. 2021;13(ISSN 2468-2276).
A A Fabuyide, Cornish LA, Apata AO, Rading GO, Muobeni TN, Witcomb MJ, Jain PK, Borode JO. "Experimental Liquidus Surface Projection and Isothermal Section at 1000C of the V-Ni-C System, J of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion.". 2021.
R. Sungura, Onyambu C, Mpolya E, E. Sauli, Vianney J-M. "Extended scope of neuroimaging and prospects in brain atrophy mitigation: A systematic review." Interdisciplinary neurosurgery . 2021;23:100875.
Peng B, Li Q, Feng X-Q, Gao H. "Effect of shear stress on adhesive contact with a generalized Maugis-Dugdale cohesive zone model." Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids. 2021;148:104275. Abstract
Amwoka EM, Ambuko JL, Jesang HM, Owino WO. "Effectiveness of Selected Cold Chain Management Practices to Extend Shelf Life of Mango Fruit." Advances in Agriculture. 2021;2021. Abstract
Bitange NM, Chemining’wa GN, Ambuko JL, WO O, Bitange NM. "EFFECTS OF MODE AND TIMING OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE APPLICATION ON TISSUE CALCIUM CONCENTRATION AND ACCEPTABILITY OF MANGO FRUITS." African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 2021;21:18552-18574. Abstract
Sila JM, Guto PM, Michira IN, Mwaura FB, Muge EK. "Electrochemical Determination of Penicillin G in Cow Milk and pharmaceuticals in SDS/Acetate buffer." International Journal of Electrochemical Science. 2021;16. Abstract
Bishop RP, Kappmeyer LS, Onzere CK, Odongo DO, Githaka N, Sears KP, Knowles DP, Fry LM. "Equid infective Theileria cluster in distinct 18S rRNA gene clades comprising multiple taxa with unusually broad mammalian host ranges." Parasit Vectors. 2020;13(1):261. Abstract

Equine theileriosis, a tick-transmitted disease caused by the hemoprotozoan parasites Theileria equi and Theileria haneyi, affects equids throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is a significant regulatory concern in non-endemic countries, where testing for equine theileriosis is required prior to horse import to prevent parasite entry. Within endemic areas, infection causes significant morbidity and mortality, leading to economic losses. No vaccine for equine theileriosis is available, and current drug treatment protocols are inconsistent and associated with significant side effects. Recent work has revealed substantial genetic variability among equine theileriosis organisms, and analysis of ribosomal DNA from affected animals around the world indicates that the organisms can be grouped into five distinct clades. As these diverse parasites are capable of infecting a wide range of both tick and mammalian hosts, movement of different equine Theileria species between endemic countries, and eventually into non-endemic countries, is a significant concern. Furthermore, the substantial genetic variability of these organisms will likely render currently utilized importation diagnostic tests unable to detect all equine Theileria spp. To this end, more complete characterization of these diverse parasites is critical to the continued global control of equine theileriosis. This review discusses current knowledge of equine Theileria spp. in this context, and highlights new opportunities and challenges for workers in this field.

Kabaka JM, Wachira BM, Mang'era CM, Rono MK, Hassanali A, Okoth SO, Oduol VO, Macharia RW, Murilla GA, Mireji PO. "Expansions of chemosensory gene orthologs among selected tsetse fly species and their expressions in Glossina morsitans morsitans tsetse fly." PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020;14(6):e0008341. Abstract

Tsetse fly exhibit species-specific olfactory uniqueness potentially underpinned by differences in their chemosensory protein repertoire. We assessed 1) expansions of chemosensory protein orthologs in Glossina morsitans morsitans, Glossina pallidipes, Glossina austeni, Glossina palpalis gambiensis, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and Glossina brevipalpis tsetse fly species using Café analysis (to identify species-specific expansions) and 2) differential expressions of the orthologs and associated proteins in male G. m. morsitans antennae and head tissues using RNA-Seq approaches (to establish associated functional molecular pathways). We established accelerated and significant (P<0.05, λ = 2.60452e-7) expansions of gene families in G. m. morsitans Odorant receptor (Or)71a, Or46a, Ir75a,d, Ionotropic receptor (Ir) 31a, Ir84a, Ir64a and Odorant binding protein (Obp) 83a-b), G. pallidipes Or67a,c, Or49a, Or92a, Or85b-c,f and Obp73a, G. f. fuscipes Ir21a, Gustatory receptor (Gr) 21a and Gr63a), G. p. gambiensis clumsy, Ir25a and Ir8a, and G. brevipalpis Ir68a and missing orthologs in each tsetse fly species. Most abundantly expressed transcripts in male G. m. morsitans included specific Or (Orco, Or56a, 65a-c, Or47b, Or67b, GMOY012254, GMOY009475, and GMOY006265), Gr (Gr21a, Gr63a, GMOY013297 and GMOY013298), Ir (Ir8a, Ir25a and Ir41a) and Obp (Obp19a, lush, Obp28a, Obp83a-b Obp44a, GMOY012275 and GMOY013254) orthologs. Most enriched biological processes in the head were associated with vision, muscle activity and neuropeptide regulations, amino acid/nucleotide metabolism and circulatory system processes. Antennal enrichments (>90% of chemosensory transcripts) included cilium-associated mechanoreceptors, chemo-sensation, neuronal controlled growth/differentiation and regeneration/responses to stress. The expanded and tsetse fly species specific orthologs includes those associated with known tsetse fly responsive ligands (4-methyl phenol, 4-propyl phenol, acetic acid, butanol and carbon dioxide) and potential tsetse fly species-specific responsive ligands (2-oxopentanoic acid, phenylacetaldehyde, hydroxycinnamic acid, 2-heptanone, caffeine, geosmin, DEET and (cVA) pheromone). Some of the orthologs can potentially modulate several tsetse fly species-specific behavioral (male-male courtship, hunger/host seeking, cool avoidance, hygrosensory and feeding) phenotypes. The putative tsetse fly specific chemosensory gene orthologs and their respective ligands provide candidate gene targets and kairomones for respective downstream functional genomic and field evaluations that can effectively expand toolbox of species-specific tsetse fly attractants, repellents and other tsetse fly behavioral modulators.

Brizuela V, Bonet M, Romero CLT, Abalos E, Baguiya A, Fawole B, Knight M, Lumbiganon P, Minkauskienė M, Nabhan A, Osman NB, Qureshi ZP, Souza JP. "Early evaluation of the 'STOP SEPSIS!' WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Awareness Campaign implemented for healthcare providers in 46 low, middle and high-income countries." BMJ Open. 2020;10(5):e036338. Abstract

To evaluate changes in awareness of maternal sepsis among healthcare providers resulting from the WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Study (GLOSS) awareness campaign.

Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Mwesigye J, Ayebazibwe B, Onyango J, Bazira J, Newton R, Gichuhi S, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Epidemiology of Microbial Keratitis in Uganda: A Cohort Study." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2020;27(2):121-131. AbstractWebsite

: To describe the epidemiology of Microbial Keratitis (MK) in Uganda.: We prospectively recruited patients presenting with MK at two main eye units in Southern Uganda between December 2016 and March 2018. We collected information on clinical history and presentation, microbiology and 3-month outcomes. Poor vision was defined as vision < 6/60).: 313 individuals were enrolled. Median age was 47 years (range 18-96) and 174 (56%) were male. Median presentation time was 17 days from onset (IQR 8-32). Trauma was reported by 29% and use of Traditional Eye Medicine by 60%. Majority presented with severe infections (median infiltrate size 5.2 mm); 47% were blind in the affected eye (vision < 3/60). Microbiology was available from 270 cases: 62% were fungal, 7% mixed (bacterial and fungal), 7% bacterial and 24% no organism detected. At 3 months, 30% of the participants were blind in the affected eye, while 9% had lost their eye from the infection. Delayed presentation (overall = .007) and prior use of Traditional Eye Medicine (aOR 1.58 [95% CI 1.04-2.42], = .033) were responsible for poor presentation. Predictors of poor vision at 3 months were: baseline vision (aOR 2.98 [95%CI 2.12-4.19], < .0001), infiltrate size (aOR 1.19 [95%CI 1.03-1.36], < .020) and perforation at presentation (aOR 9.93 [95% CI 3.70-26.6], < .0001).: The most important outcome predictor was the state of the eye at presentation, facilitated by prior use of Traditional Eye Medicine and delayed presentation. In order to improve outcomes, we need effective early interventions.

Odada EO, Olago DO, Olaka LA. "An East African perspective of the Anthropocene.". 2020;10:e00553. AbstractWebsite

The advent of anthropogenic global warming and widespread modification of the climate, landscape and environment has brought humans to the fore as a formidable force of nature. The terrestrial and aquatic environment of the East African region is sensitive to a variety of global, regional and local stresses. The geological materials along East Africa coasts, lakes and peats are excellent archives of environmental and climatic changes. The study of their sedimentary records has contributed to our understanding of global environmental and ecosystem changes induced by anthropogenic activities associated with the “Anthropocene”, the proposed new geological epoch in Earth history. Humans have occupied East Africa for thousands of years, but until about 300 years ago, their impact on the environment was localized and transitory. The impacts intensified during the 19th century due to rapid population growth and extension and intensification of agriculture that was largely driven by colonists; during this period, the overprinting of natural environmental changes by humans is clear, marked by significant changes in sedimentation, sediment properties, and lake water quality as a consequence of land and water degradation and overexploitation of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem goods and services. Related impacts include changes in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and associated biodiversity losses. There have been temporal and spatial lags in the changes, depending on locality, but there is a widespread convergence of these effects from the mid-1900s, support the Anthropocene Working Group's proposed date of 1950 as the start of the Anthropocene.

M. KA, W KI, Riechi AR. "eacher Competency on Learner Promotion in Embu County Integrated Public Primary Schools, Kenya." World Journal of Education . 2020;10(3).
Brizuela V, Bonet M, Romero CLT, Abalos E, Baguiya A, Fawole B, Knight M, Lumbiganon P, Minkauskienė M, Nabhan A, Osman NB, Qureshi ZP, Souza JP. "Early evaluation of the ‘STOP SEPSIS!’ WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Awareness Campaign implemented for healthcare providers in 46 low, middle and high-income countries." British Medical Journal . 2020;10(5). AbstractWebsite

Objective To evaluate changes in awareness of maternal sepsis among healthcare providers resulting from the WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Study (GLOSS) awareness campaign.

Design Independent sample precampaign/postcampaign through online and paper-based surveys available for over 30 days before campaign roll-out (pre) and after study data collection (post). Descriptive statistics were used for campaign recognition and exposure, and odds ratio (OR) and percentage change were calculated for differences in awareness, adjusting for confounders using multivariate logistic regression.

Setting and participants Healthcare providers from 398 participating facilities in 46 low, middle and high-income countries.

Intervention An awareness campaign to accompany GLOSS launched 3 weeks prior to data collection and lasting the entire study period (28 November 2017 to 15 January 2018) and beyond.

Main outcome measures Campaign recognition and exposure, and changes in awareness.

Results A total of 2188 surveys were analysed: 1155 at baseline and 1033 at postcampaign. Most survey respondents found the campaign materials helpful (94%), that they helped increase awareness (90%) and that they helped motivate to act differently (88%). There were significant changes with regard to: not having heard of maternal sepsis (−63.4% change, pre-OR/post-OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.68) and perception of confidence in making the right decisions with regard to maternal sepsis identification and management (7.3% change, pre-OR/post-OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.06).

Conclusions Awareness raising campaigns can contribute to an increase in having heard of maternal sepsis and an increase in provider perception of confidence in making correct decisions. Offering the information to make accurate and timely decisions while promoting environments that enable self-confidence and support could improve maternal sepsis identification and management.

MO F, ME T, B G, RJ S, J C, OB A-B, A K, AC MD, V P, M R. "An Ecological Study of the Association Between Environmental indicators and early childhood caries." BMC Res Notes. 2020;2020, 13:474.(2020, 13:474.):2020, 13:474.
Alphayo I. Lutta, Lance W. Robinson, Oliver V. Wasonga, Ruto E, Jason Sircely, Nyangito MM. "Economic valuation of grazing management practices: discrete choice modeling in pastoral systems of Kenya." Environmental Planning and Management. 2020;63(2).
Ondicho TG. "Editorial Note." African Journal of Gender, Society, and Development. 2020;9(3):7-9.
Ondicho TG. "Editorial-Year End Note." African Journal of Gender, Society, and Development. 2020;9(4):7-12.
and Caroline K. Kariuki EMWMWM. "Effect of Bacillus and Trichoderma species in the management of the bacterial wilt of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) in the field." Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control. 2020;30(109) .
Wanjala NW, Gitau GK, Muchem GM, Makau DN. "Effect of Bismuth Subnitrate Teat Canal Sealant with Ampicillin-Cloxacillin Combination in Control of Bovine Mastitis in Selected Farms in Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2020;9(3):331-336.
O OD, N MJ, K KC. "The Effect of Cassava Starch on the Durability Characteristic of Concrete." The Open Civil Engineering Journal. 2020;Vol 14:289-301.
S W, A K, S K, I M. "Effect of Combining Clinical Teaching Tools on Clinical Judgment Skills of Undergraduate Nursing Students in Kenya." South Asian Research Journal of Nursing and Healthcare . 2020;2(1):117-123.
Mutuma Kiambi, B, Onono, P, Maingi, N. "Effect of Crude Oil Prices on Economic Growth in Kenya in the Period 1981 To 2018." Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal. 2020;7(10):340-349.
Muthoni B, GIKONYO NAOMI, Mwiti EK. "Effect of Entrepreneurial Skills in the Operation and Success of Outdoor Catering Ventures in Nairobi, Kenya." The International Journal of Business and Management. 2020;8(11):118-124.
A.M H, Ongeri BO. "Effect of Islamic banking development on economic growth –A case of the Kenyan Economy." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology . 2020;7(2).
Njenga KG, Kariuki MI. "Effect of macroeconomic variables on financial performance of microfinance banks in Kenya." Scholarly Research Journal For Humanity Science & English Language. 2020;3(8).
Anastacia K, Ibrahim K. "Effect of Pupil-Teacher Ratio on Graduation Rate of Early Childhood Development and Education in Embu County Public Primary Schools, Kenya." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice. 2020;1(1):18-21.
P M, O AS, N MJ, Mang'uriu GN. "Effect of Selected Commercially Available Corrosion Inhibitors in Kenya on Bond Strength of Reinforced Concrete." British Journal of Civil and Architecture Engineering. 2020;Vol 02(1):133-152.
Mukui G, Onjala J, Awiti J. "Effect of Tax and Debt Financed Government Expenditure on Economic Growth in Kenya." Journal of Economics, Management and Trade. 2020;26(1):1-13.
Busienei J, Irungu P, Gichungi H, Muriithi B, Diiro G. "Effect of Technological Innovation on Gender Roles: The Case of Fruit Fly IPM Adoption on Women’s Decision‑Making in Mango Production and Marketing in Kenya." The European Journal of Development Research. 2020;10.1057(s41287-020-00282-z).
Kithure JGN, Musundi KW, Waithaka KM. "The Effectiveness of the Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plants in Kenya." EJERS, European Journal of Engineering Research and Science. DOI: . 2020;5(9):1143-1154.abstract.pdf
Urinayo, V., D. K. Kariuki, Opere A. "Effects of Erratic Rainfall on Water quality of Yanze River in Kigali, Rwanda." J. sustain. environ. peace . 2020;3 (2) :49-57.
Mudavadi Patrick Ongadi, Emmanuel A Mpolya, Charles Gachuiri, Francis Namasake Muyekho, Lukuyu AB. "Effects of Season Variation on Water, Feed, Milk Yield and Reproductive Performance of Dairy Cows in Smallholder Farms in Eastern Africa." Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International. 2020.
OTHOO, Dulo, Olago, D. O., Ayah. "Effects of Shallow Water Table on the Construction of Pit Latrines and Shallow Wells in the Informal Settlements of Kisumu City." Sanitation Value Chain, J-STAGE an electronic journal platform for science and technology. 2020;5(1).
Maina J, Wandiga S, Gyampoh B, Gachene C. "Effects of Supplemental Irrigation on Crop Yields: Case Study Kales (Brassica Oleracea) Crop." Journal of Ecological Engineering. 2020;(21):209-213. AbstractEcological Engineering

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects that supplemental irrigation (SI) has on Kale (Brassica Oleracea) crop yields as compared to wholly rain-fed crop. The experiments were conducted in Kieni, Central Kenya where the rainfall pattern was bimodal. The planting for rain-fed crops was done in three blocks each measuring 10m x1m with a spacing of 30cm between plants and 45cm between rows of plants and the procedure repeated for the crops receiving SI. The average weekly yields were computed for both crops for each season comprised of 14 weeks. The average weekly yields were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to determine whether the average yields from rain-fed and supplemental irrigated crops were statistically different. This was done by MS Excel 2016 spread sheets by setting a statistical level of significance of 5%. F value was 17.94 higher than the critical value of 4.01 while the P-value of 9x10-5 was lower than the 5% level of confidence meaning that there was a significant difference in the yield means of rain-fed and SI crops. The total rain-fed crop yields for the period was 147.0 Kgs and that of the one under SI was 238Kgs, an increase of about 62%. Therefore, supplemental irrigation can be adopted in areas where rainfall trends are declining to increase crop yields when all other factors remain constant for farmers to increase resilience.

Marete GN, Kanja LW, Mbaria JM, Okumu MO, Ateku PA, Korhonen H, Joutsjoki V. "Effects of the Use of Good Agricultural Practices on Aflatoxin Levels in Maize Grown in Nandi County, Kenya." Sci. 2020;2, 26.
Marete GN, Kanja LW, Mbaria JM, Okumu MO, Ateku PA, Korhonen H, Joutsjoki V. "Effects of the Use of Good Agricultural Practices on Aflatoxin Levels in Maize Grown in Nandi County, Kenya." Sci. 2020;2, 85.
Omungo R., M K, Wachira T. "Efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive behavior therapy- self-help in managing depression in older clergy in Nairobi county, Kenya." International Journal of current research. 2020;12(5):11570-11575.
Li D, Zhang Y, Guo Q, Sun X, Zhang H, Wang S, Birech Z, Hu J. "An efficient LSPR method to quantitatively detect dimethoate: Development, characterization and evaluation. ." Plos one. 2020;15(9):e0239632.
Nkunu Z, M GP, J.G. K. "Electrocatalytic reduction and characterization of Tetrachlorvinphos in acetonitrile-water (1:1) media in presence of cyanocobalamin." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2020;4:xxxx. Abstractabstract.pdfAfrica Journal of Physical Sciences


This work investigates a possible electrocatalytic degradation of tetrachlorvinphos pesticide in acetonitrile-water media using cyanocobalamin as the catalyst. The catalyst and its derivatives are employed in some organic synthesis due to their ability to form and selectively cleave Co-C bonds. There is inadequate data from previous related works. This study explores possible electrocatalytic route for degradation of tetrachlorvinphos using the catalyst at temperature of 24 ± 1° by cyclic voltammetry method. Tetrachlorvinphos exhibited two consecutive reduction peaks at ~-0.710 ± 0.004 V and ~ -1.096 ± 0.029 V Versus Ag/AgCl. The second reduction peak registered a diffusion coefficient value of 3.68 x 10-5 cm2s-1 and current density of be 5.83 x 10-5 A/cm2. The reduction potential for tetrachlorvinphos in presence of cyanocobalamin was observed to be -0.923 ± 0.03 V versus Ag/AgCl. The diffusion coefficient and current density value was reported at 3.37 x 10-5 cm2s-1 and 2.56 X 10-5 A/cm2 respectively for an electro-reduction process. This implies that, catalytic reduction of the pesticide occurred at a significantly lower potential compared to direct reduction. The over potential saving of about 0.168 V is an indication of the catalyst efficiency on the pesticide degradation.

Nkunu ZN, Guto PM, Kithure JG. "Electrocatalytic Reduction and Characterization of Tetrachlorvinphos in Acetonitrile-Water (1:1) Media in Presence of Cyanocobalamin." African Journal of Physical Sciences (AJPS). 2020;4:60-67.
O PA, Rambo CM. "Emerging Challenges in the Completion of Construction Projects through Public Private Partnerships: Empirical Literature Review." Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research. 2020:263-272.
Kaunda, Mwea, Dulo. "Emissions of Vehicular Traffic along Uhuru Highway Corridor in Nairobi." Journal of Engineering and Architecture. 2020;8(2):22-27.
Gathiaka JK, Muriithi MK. "Empirical Analysis of Livelihood Strategies and Food Insecurity in Turkana County, Kenya." Tanzanian Economic Review. 2020;10(1):139-162.
G M, G MI, J M. "End-of-Life Care Education Needs OF Nurses: A Cross-Sectional Study." Annals of Nursing and Practice. 2020;7(1).
Ombongi FO, Absaloms HO, Kibet PL. "Energy Efficient Resource Allocation in Millimeter-Wave D2D Enabled 5G Cellular Networks." Engineering, Technology and Applied Science Research (ETASR). 2020;10(4):6152-6160.
Mwangi P, Muvengei O, MBUYA TO, Ndeto M. "Energy Optimisation of a Single Toggle Jaw Crusher using Discrete Element Method." Journal of Sustainable Research in Engineering. 2020;5(4):180-193. Abstract

Comminution process has always been associated with very low energy efficiencies. Most of the energy during
comminution is lost through noise, heat and vibrations. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain the optimal operating parameters of a comminution machine. In this research, the efficiency of a jaw crusher has been optimised using Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Discrete Element Method (DEM) techniques. DEM, even though a powerful tool, demands high computational capabilities hence a scaled down jaw crusher was used for simulation purposes. The GA codes were used in determining the critical velocity and also in developing the equation for up-scaling the jaw crusher. Critical parameters which affect the power consumption of a jaw crusher are toggle speed, throw and reduction ratio. These parameters were varied during the simulation as guided by the design of experiment technique. In addition, a Bonded Particle Model (BPM), was used in modelling the rock used in the simulation. A BPM model gives more realistic results than Particle Replacement Model (PRM) and Fast Breakage Model (FBM). To create the BPM of an irregularly shaped rock, custom API factory was coded in C++ and loaded to EDEM software. At the end of this research, the optimal energy efficiency was obtained as 59.7758% at a toggle speed of 157.7965 rpm, a throw of 33.445 mm and a reduction ratio of 4. A mathematical model showing the relationship between energy efficiency and process parameters was also developed.

Mwangi M, Kituyi E, Ouma G. "Enhancing adoption of climate services through an innovation systems approach." Scientific African. 2020:e00445.

Recent years have marked the emergence of the innovation systems approach as a shift from the conventional linear models of technology transfer. Linear technology diffusion models hinder participatory approaches of local actors such as smallholder farmers and regards them as spectators in the development process, which impedes wide adoption of technology by the intended beneficiary. This article sought to understand the potential of the innovations systems approach as an incentive to enhance the adoption of climate services by smallholder farmers through regarding them and other relevant stakeholders as part of the process, fostering knowledge sharing and interactive learning. The methodology included stakeholder/actor identification, mapping of stakeholder linkages, capacity building and active involvement of stakeholders through the climate services process. The results showed that unlike the conventional linear knowledge delivery process, the innovation systems approach takes into consideration the complex processes that are highlighted by non-linear processes, feedback loops, and other complex interactions that occur among heterogeneous actors. As such in place of the linear knowledge delivery approach, a more systems approach is necessary to help mobilize science and technology such as climate services to deliver benefits, which has the potential to enhance access, salience, credibility, and legitimacy of the scientific information.

Innovation systems approach; Climate services; Stakeholder linkages; Adoption

Nyawade S, Gitari HI, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Schulte-Geldermann E, Sharma K, Parker ML. "Enhancing Climate Resilience of Rain-Fed Potato Through Legume Intercropping and Silicon Application.". 2020.
Bauza V, Madadi V, Ocharo R, Nguyen TH, Guest JS. "Enteric pathogens from water, hands, surface, soil, drainage ditch, and stream exposure points in a low-income neighborhood of Nairobi, Kenya." Science of The Total Environment. 2020;709:135344. AbstractScience of The Total Environment

Child exposure to fecal-oral pathogens occurs through several transmission pathways. However, the relative importance of different exposure points for pathogen transmission both inside and outside households is not well understood. We conducted a cross-sectional study in the urban slum of Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya, collecting 237 environmental samples from 40 households from source water, stored drinking water, caregiver hands, child hands, household surfaces, soil, standing water, open drainage ditches, and streams. We quantified the fecal indicator Escherichia coli and the enteric pathogens of adenovirus, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella spp./enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), and Vibrio cholerae. At least one enteric pathogens was detected in 13% of household stored water, 47% of hand, 46% of table surface, 26% of plate surface, 75% of floor surface, 96% of soil, 56% of standing water, 77% of drainage ditch …

Bauza V, Madadi V, Ocharo R, Nguyen TH, Guest JS. "Enteric pathogens from water, hands, surface, soil, drainage ditch, and stream exposure points in a low-income neighborhood of Nairobi, Kenya." Science of The Total Environment. 2020;709(March 2020):135344.
Okumu MO, Mbaria JM, Gikunju JK, Mbuthia PG, Madadi VO, Ochola FO. "Enzymatic activity and brine shrimp lethality of venom from the large brown spitting cobra (Naja ashei) and its neutralization by antivenom." BCM Research Notes. 2020;13(25):1-7.
Okumu MO, Ochola FO, Madadi VO, Mbuthia PG, Gikunju JK, Mbaria JM. "Enzymatic activity and brine shrimp lethality of venom from the large spitting cobra (Naja ashei) and neutralization by antivenom." BMC Research Notes . 2020;(13:325 ).
Wanjala G, Ongosi BO. "Establishing the Impact of Double-Intake Programmes on the Physical Infrastructural Learning Environment at the University of Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge . 2020;5(2):17-29 .abstract.pdf
Kipchirchir IC. "ESTIMATINGAN EXPONENTIALLY DECAYINGFUNCTION OF RATE PARAMETER OF APOISSON PROCESS." Advances and Applications in Statistics. 2020;6(1):1-17. AbstractWebsite

In this paper, we consider point estimation of an exponentiallydecaying function of rate parameter of Poisson process usingdiscrete (increments) and continuous (interarrival times) variablesundermaximum likelihood and minimum variance paradigms. It isfound that for increments, momentsof estimators are in terms ofelementary function-the exponential function whereas for interarrivaltimes, moments of estimators are in terms of special functions-modified Bessel function ofthethirdkind for maximum likelihoodestimators and confluent hypergeometric function for the uniformlyminimum variance unbiased estimators. Behaviourally, the momentsmirror the exponentially decaying function of. The maximumlikelihood estimators are biased, however, it is found thatasymptoticunbiasedness forfixedn wheren is the sample size corresponds to a

O OT, O. KD, N. MJ. "Evaluating Superplasticizer Compatibility in the Production of High Performance Concrete using Portland Pozzolana Cement CEM II/B-P." SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering. 2020;Vol. 7(6):92-100.
Nyakundi JO, Ombui JN, Wanyonyi WC. "Evaluation of Bacillus cereus Strain 1-p Protease for the Unhairing of Goatskins during Leather Production." Textile & Leather Review., ,. 2020:1-17.
Peter Aweer Duot Ajak, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Wanyoike MMM. "Evaluation of Dairy Cattle Productivity in Smallholder Farms in Nyeri County, Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2020;2(1).
N. MJ. "Evaluation of Stiffnesss of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Dry and Green Bamboo." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2020;Vol 10(4):676-687.
Onyango EJ, Okalebo F, Oluka M, Kinuthia R, Loice Achieng, Godman B, Kurdi A. "Evaluation of the clinical practice of aminoglycoside use in paediatric patients in Kenya: findings and implications for lower-middle income countries." JAC Antimicrob Resist.. 2020;2(1):087.elias_et_al_2020.pdf
Obiero DK, Ombui JN, Onyuka AS, Sasia AA. "Evaluation of the physical properties of leathers tanned with plectranthus barbatus Andrewa extract.." African Journal of Biotechnology. 2020;19(3):137-143.
D O, J.N O, A.S O, A.A S. "Evaluation of the physical properties of leathers tanned with Plectranthus barbatus Andrews extracts." African Journal of Biotechnology. 2020;19(3):137-141.
Ronoh M, Chirove F, Wairimu J, Ogana W. "Evidence-based modeling of combination control on Kenyan youth HIV/AIDS dynamics." PloS one. 2020;15(11):0242491. AbstractWebsite

We formulate a sex-structured deterministic model to study the effects of varying HIV testing rates, condom use rates and ART adherence rates among Adolescent Girls and Young Women (AGYW) and, Adolescent Boys and Young Men (ABYM) populations in Kenya. Attitudes influencing the Kenyan youth HIV/AIDS control measures both positively and negatively were considered. Using the 2012 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS) microdata we constructed our model, which we fitted to the UNAIDS-Kenya youth prevalence estimates to understand factors influencing Kenyan youth HIV/AIDS prevalence trends. While highly efficacious combination control approach significantly reduces HIV/AIDS prevalence rates among the youth, the disease remains endemic provided infected unaware sexual interactions persist. Disproportional gender-wise attitudes towards HIV/AIDS control measures play a key role in reducing the Kenyan youth HIV/AIDS prevalence trends. The female youth HIV/AIDS prevalence trend seems to be directly linked to increased male infectivity with decreased female infectivity while the male youth prevalence trend seems to be directly associated with increased female infectivity and reduced male infectivity.

N MJ, N OV. "Experimental Study on Behavoir of Lightweight Concrete with Partial Replacement of Coarse Aggregates with Expanded Polystyrene." The Open Journal of Scientific and Research Publication. 2020;Vol 10(2):351-362.
Kabue KG, Njogu PM, Mwangi AN. "Exploring different approaches to improve the success of drug discovery and development projects." Futur. J. Pharm. Sci. 2020;6:27.
Muasya, Juliet N, Kahiga, Ruth W. "Exploring Men and Women Students Experiences of Sexual Harassment: A Case Study of one Public University in Kenya." International Journal of Gender and Women’s Studies . 2020;8 (2):122-130.
Mosenda E, Chemining'wa G, Ambuko J, Owino W. "Effect of Water Stress on Growth and Yield Components of Selected Spider Plant Accessions." Journal of Medicinally Active Plants. 2020;9:81-97. Abstract
Wang C, Jiang X, Zhao G, Zhang M, Hsu CW, Peng B, Stone DA, Jiang L, Yang L. "Electromagnetically induced transparency at a chiral exceptional point." Nature Physics. 2020;16:334-340. Abstract
Li Q, Zhao X, Deng L, Shi Z, Liu S, Wei Q, Zhang L, Cheng Y, Zhang L, Lu H, others. "Enhanced valley Zeeman splitting in Fe-doped monolayer MoS2." ACS nano. 2020;14:4636-4645. Abstract
Mwangi WE. "Epidural Lidocaine and Medetomidine-Ketamine Anaesthesia in Feline Orthopaedic Surgery." International journal of veterinary sciences. 2020;9:164-167. Abstract
Mutwedu VB, Ayagirwe RBB, Bacigale SB, Mwema LM, Butseme S, Kashosi T, Mitima B, Manyawu GJ, Nyongesa AW. "Effect of dietary inclusion of small quantities of Mucuna pruriens seed meal on sexual behavior, semen characteristics, and biochemical parameters in rabbit bucks (Oryctolagus cuniculus)." Trop Anim Health Prod. 2019;51(5):1195-1202. Abstract

The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of Mucuna pruriens seed meal (MSM) on sexual behavior, semen, and biochemical parameters in rabbit bucks. Twenty-four 12-week-old rabbit bucks weighing 1002 to 1156 g were randomly allocated to three experimental diets containing 0, 1.5, and 3% of MSM in a 3-month trial. Sexual behavior parameters such as mounting latency, mounting frequency, successful mounting frequency, intromission latency, and post ejaculatory interval were monitored at the end of the experiment by mating with receptive females. Thereafter, rabbits were weighed, stunned, and humanely sacrificed and testes, epididymis, and vas deferens were harvested for evaluation of organ weights and semen characteristics. Results indicate that supplementing rabbit diet with MSM induced a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in mounting latency (69.7%) and intromission latency (19.7%), while it significantly (P < 0.05) increased successful mounting frequency (60%) as well as relative weight of testis (33.3%) and vas deferens (54.5%). There was a dose-dependent increase (P < 0.05) in sperm motility (35.7%) and concentration (65.9%), serum albumin (19.1%) and protein concentration (9.9%), and a decrease in sperm morphological alterations (68.3%), serum cholesterol (13.4%), and urea (11.6%) in treatment groups where MSM was supplemented at 3% compared to controls. From the findings, it appears MSM is a potential enhancer of male reproductive performance that can be recommended to rabbit farmers for improving reproductive performance and quality of semen, hence a boon to reproduction and production in rabbit farming industry.

Marangu D, Gray D, Vanker A, Zampoli M. "Exogenous lipoid pneumonia in children: A systematic review." Paediatr Respir Rev. 2019. Abstract

To describe the clinical-radiological-pathological characteristics and treatment outcomes of children with suspected exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP).

Davison B, Ongaro J, Szendr\H oi B. "Enumerating coloured partitions in 2 and 3 dimensions." Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 2019;DOI=10.1017/S0305004119000252:1-27. Abstract


Odhiambo SA, ZP Q, PM N, Kosgei RJ, AB K, Ayieko P, PK K, A O, Odawa FX, GN G, MK K, O K, O O. "Early Neonatal Outcomes among Mothers receiving variable doeses of Dexamethasone for Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes at Kenyatta National Hospital: A restrospective Cohort Study ." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East & Central Africa. 2019;30(2):54-61.Website
Winfred Sila, Gachuiri CK, John Recha, James Audho, Ojango JMK. "Economic Performance of Small Ruminants on Smallholder Farms in Climate Smart Villages of Nyando.". 2019.
Alphayo I. Lutta, Lance W. Robinson, Oliver V. Wasonga, Ruto E, Jason Sircely, Nyangito MM. "Economic valuation of grazing management practices: Discrete choice modeling in pastoral systems of Kenya." Journal of Environmental Planning and Management . 2019.
Alphayo I. Lutta, Lance W. Robinson, Oliver V. Wasonga, Ruto E, Jason Sircely, Nyangito MM. "Economic valuation of grazing management practices: Discrete choice modeling in pastoral systems of Kenya." Journal of Environmental Planning and Management . 2019.
Koome SG, Wafula CM, Nyonje RO. "Educational Programmes as Key Variable Towards Change of Behavior Among Inmates in Correctional Facilities in Kenya." public Policy and Administration Research. 2019;9(11).

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