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Conference Paper
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Editor of the Proceedings of an S.I.D Seminar on alternative Patterns of Development and Lifestyle in Eastern Africa with G.K Rukwaro.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1979. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Education and Self-Employment.". In: Apaper read at the conferenceon Human Development. Models in Action praxis and History in Mogadishu (Somalia) June 17th . Elsevier; 1979. Abstract
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KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Education and Self-Employment.". In: Paper read at the conferenceon Human Development. Models in Action praxis and History in Mogadishu (Somalia) June 17 th . Elsevier; 1979. Abstract
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A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "The Effects of Aorta-Iliac Operations on Sexual Function in the Male Re- emphasis on possible Preventive Measures.". In: East African Medical Journal 56 (10): 490 - 497. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1979. Abstract
A retrospective study of 42 patients with perforations of the oesophagus during the period 1981-1987 indicated that 57.1% of the perforations were iatrogenic. Diseases of the oesophagus and in contiguous structures and foreign bodies in the oesophagus caused perforations in 31% of the cases. Perforations in 35.7% of the patients were located in the middle third of the oesophagus. The lower and upper thirds were affected in 31% of the patients in each site. The presenting physical signs included tachycardia (78.6%), fever (76.2%) and dyspnoea (59.5%). The main accompanying symptoms were chest pain and coughs in 100% and in 50% of the patients respectively. Radiographic findings showed hydropneumothorax in 40.5% of the cases and consolidation in 38.1% of the patients. Oesophagoscopy was positive in 78% of cases tested while thoracocentesis was positive in all cases that were tested.
RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. "Exerpts from the Village Bride, Heinnemann.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1979. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu ET AL 1978. Plaque assay of IBR virus isolate. Kenya Veterinarian Journal vol.97. No. 39 p95.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1978. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al. 1978. Isolation of infectious bovine rhinotrachitis virus from bovine samples. Part 1. Kenya Veterinarian Journal .". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1978. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Economic Development Planning and Employment in English Speaking East and West Africa International Education Materials Exchange Geneva International Institute for Labour studies.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1978. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Educational reform and Social Change, Aspects of Educational Changes in Kenya, 1963-1991 Unpublished M.Sc. thesis of university of Edinburge, Sept.,(1978).". In: Paper read at the conferenceon Human Development. Models in Action praxis and History in Mogadishu (Somalia) June 17 th . Elsevier; 1978. Abstract
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GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD. "The effect of Processing parameters on the final quality of food dried by a single Drum Drier (MSc thesis). University of Nairobi & Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. Kisipan, M.L.; 1978. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Environmental aspects of Industrial Development. Nairobi. 1978. Paper presented at a "Land Use.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1978. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Effect of photoperiod, light intensity and temperature on the development and reproduction of the predacious mite, Amblyseius brazilli (Mesostigmata : Phytoseiidae). Rev. Brasil. Biol., 37: 579 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1977. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
S. PROFEL-BUSAIDYABDULGAFURH. "Electrical Resistivity of Concrete in the Oceans". Paper No.2803 pp 581-588.". In: Houston, Texas. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 1977. Abstract
     
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "An error analysis and convergence of a quadrature formula to invert Laplace transforms.". In: J. Inst. Maths. Applics. 1977. 20, 21-32. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1977. Abstract
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OLE PROFMBATIAOLIVER. "Economic Contribution of Tourist Industry to Economic Development and Growth in Kenya.". In: Presented at 51st Annual Conference of Western Economic Association, June, 24-27, 1976, Hyatt Regency Hotel, San Francisco, California. University of Nairobi.; 1976. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
OGEDA MRODUMBEJACKONIAH. "Economic Justification of Adult Education in Kenya.". In: Seminar Discussion Paper CADE. Thought and Practice; 1976. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Einhorn N. Ojwang SBO Carcinoma of the cervix in Kenya Proceeding of the Conference of the working party on Radionuclides and Afterloading techinique in the treatment of cancer of the uterus in developing areas, Balgrade, Yugoslavia 1976.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1978.55, 194. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1976. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Einhorn N. Ojwang SBO Carcinoma of the cervix in Kenya Proceeding of the Conference of the working party on Radionuclides and Afterloading techinique in the treatment of cancer of the uterus in developing areas, Balgrade, Yugoslavia 1976.". In: East Afr Med J. 1977 Sep;54(9):472-5. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1976. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Ejide AO and WAMOLA I.A. The bacteriology of burns at Kenyatta National Hospital. EAMJ Vol 53 pp. 415 (1976).". In: EAMJ Vol 53 pp. 415 (1976). IBIMA Publishing; 1976. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "EAST AFRICA by W.T.W Morgan, Longman, A Review: in the Kenyan Geographer Vol.1, No. 1 pp.55-57, Nairobi.". In: The Kenyan Geographer, Vol.5(Special Issue) pp.1-6). UN-HABITAT; 1975. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
OLE PROFMBATIAOLIVER. "The Economics of Rural Development: The Case of Kenya.". In: Read at The 50th Annual Conference of Western Economic Association, June, 1975, Shelton-Harbor Hotel, San Diego, California. University of Nairobi.; 1975. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
M DRNJOKAHJOSEPHM. "Electrocardiographic Changes in systemic Hypertension in Africans.Hypertension in Africans.Edited by O.O Akinkugbe,Ed Bertrand,Literamed Publications (1975).p60-67.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Conference. 2004 Kabete Nairobi. au-ibar; 1975. Abstract
Department of Medical Physiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Finding a simple and easily reproducible formula for assessing fitness and growth for human body has been one constant search over the ages. It was the aim of this project to try and add to this search. Most formulae in this field have complex calculations. Most of them have been derived using single system measurements. To delineate our factor, multisystem measurements were used; metric and imperial. This yielded a factor for describing the relationship between weight and height over the ages. The height is in inches and weight in kilograms. This produced factors (D) and (G) which have childhood, adolescent, adult and old age values. A total of 368 black Kenyans were studied. The age range was 3-85 years.
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Enlargements of the Prostate.". In: M. Med. Dissertation. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1975. Abstract
A clinical, radiological, histological, and geographical study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya is reported. It was found that this cancer is diagnosed more often in males than in females, with a ration of 8:1 (Kenya Cancer Registry). The most common age in males and females is 50 to 59 years. The regions of the esophagus most commonly involved are the middle and lower thirds, in almost equal proportions. An unexplained tendency for the tumor to be poorly differentiated towards the lower third is noted. In addition a review on the possible etiological factors is presented.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Estimating Capital Stock in Kenya. Paper presented at the 14th Conference of the International Association for Research in Income and Wealth in Aulanko, Finland.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1975. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Effectively Increasing Employment an Agenda for Business. I.D.S Working Paper No. 152 Also privately circulated by S.G Hawkins and Associates.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1974. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Employment, Technology and Industrialization in Kenya: A Study in Development Strategy. Dissertation Abstracts International Seriess A Vol. 35, No. 1.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1974. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "E. M. W. Akunda, S. K. Imbamba and D. Kumar. High density plantings of coffee II. Adaptive changes in some plant characteristics.". In: E. Afri. Agri. For. J. (1979) 45(2) 133 . Kisipan, M.L.; 1973. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "Econo,ics of fertility, Joliso, east African Journal of Literature and Society, Vol.1,no.2,1973.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1973. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "Economics of Fertility, Joliso, East African Journal of Literature and Society, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1973.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1973. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "The Expatriates and Decision-Making in Kenya: A Comment". Conference of Canadian Association of African Studies, Carleton University, 1973.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1973. Abstract
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OLE PROFMBATIAOLIVER. "The Economic Effect of Fair Employment Laws in Occupation .". In: Presented at the American Economic Association Meeting, Atlanta City, New Jersey, September, 16-18, 1976. University of Nairobi.; 1972. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
OLE PROFMBATIAOLIVER. "Economic of Discrimination and Exploitation of Black Americans, European Meeting of Econometric Society, Budapest, Hungary, August, 1972.". In: Presented at the American Economic Association Meeting, Atlanta City, New Jersey, September, 16-18, 1976. University of Nairobi.; 1972. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Education, the individual, and society; Darlite March, 1972.". In: Nairobi School in June, 1975. Elsevier; 1972. Abstract
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M DRNJOKAHJOSEPHM. "Electrocardiographic Changes in systemic Hypertension in Ugandan Africans EAMJ 32,177(1972).". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Conference. 2004 Kabete Nairobi. au-ibar; 1972. Abstract
Department of Medical Physiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Finding a simple and easily reproducible formula for assessing fitness and growth for human body has been one constant search over the ages. It was the aim of this project to try and add to this search. Most formulae in this field have complex calculations. Most of them have been derived using single system measurements. To delineate our factor, multisystem measurements were used; metric and imperial. This yielded a factor for describing the relationship between weight and height over the ages. The height is in inches and weight in kilograms. This produced factors (D) and (G) which have childhood, adolescent, adult and old age values. A total of 368 black Kenyans were studied. The age range was 3-85 years.
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Electromagnetic tensor field Njijenhuis Tensor.". In: Tensor (N.S), Vol. 22, No.3, PP 249-54. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1971. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
El-Badry EA, El-Banhawy EM. "The effect of pollen feeding on the predatory efficiency of Amblyseius gossipi (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) Ent. Exp. & Appl., 7: 273.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1968. Abstract

We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten

EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "The effect of non-prey food, mainly pollen, on the development, survival and fecundity of Ambylseius gossipi (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Ent. Exp. & Appl., 11: 269 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1968. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Effectiveness of the predacious mite, Amblyseius gossipi as a predator of three tetranychid miets (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Z. Angew. Ent., 62: 189 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Badry, E. A., Afifi, A. M., Issa, G. I. and El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1968. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Edited book entitled "Primary School Visual Geographies - Africa" by V.P. Aggarwall, 1966.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1966. Abstract
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P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Experience with Development planning in Kenya Chapter 6 in M Urrutia and S. Yukawa Planning in Mixed Economies Tokyo: United Nations University and Oxford Press forthcoming.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1965. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Elijah Masinde: A Biography Series : Makers of Kenya's History.". In: Series Editor Prof. Simiyu Wandibba East African Educational Publications, Nairobi, Kenya. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1963. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Elijah Masinde: A Biography Series : Makers of Kenya's History.". In: Series Editor Prof. Simiyu Wandibba East African Educational Publications, Nairobi, Kenya.; 1963. Abstract

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Conference Proceedings
Bone G, Parr T, Brameld J, Elmes M, Gonzalez-Carranza Z, Koech O. The effect of mezquite pod flour in a wheat-based diet on broiler chicken growth performance. University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK: Science Direct; 2021.
Otieno SP, Akuno EA, Diang’a R. Enhancing Creativity for Youth Empowerment and Community Development Conference Proceedings. Technical University of Kenya; 2019.
J Okwako, Musembi R, F Nyongesa, Ogacho A. Effect of Annealing on Structural and Optical Properties of CZTS thin films Deposited by SILAR Technique.. TUNISIA: ANSOLE DAYS; 2017.
Shah PS, Irandu. EM. Ecotourism as a strategy for promoting conservation of biodiversity in Tana River County. Mombasa, Kenya: National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA), Wetlands International, University of Nairobi; 2014.
and 1. J. K. Kibugu, J.N. Makumi KNGMMMJMJJN. Effects of mycotoxins on the pathogenesis of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in mice. . Panafric Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya ; 2013.
Alfred A, Musembi RJ, Waita SM, Mwabora JM. Effects of Oxygen Partial Pressure and Substrate Temperature on Optical Properties of Sputter Deposited Thin Films. United Kenya Club; 2013. Abstract

The effects of oxygen partial pressure and substrate temperature on optical properties of CuCrO_2 thin films deposited on float glass substrate by reactive DC magnetron sputtering system using CuCr alloy targets have been studied. The sputtering was performed in Argon (Ar) and Oxygen (O_2) atmosphere and the substrate temperature varied up to 263 °C. The optical constants: refractive index, n, extinction coefficient, k, dielectric constant, ε, and absorption coefficient, α, at different oxygen partial pressure and substrate temperatures were determined from measured transmittance and reflectance data fitted in SCOUT software for wavelength range 200-2247 nm. The optical studies gave energy band gap of about 2.47 eV at 0.153 μbar Po2 and 3.7 eV at 263 °C substrate temperature. The values obtained for Urbach energy were 0.27-0.31 eV for samples prepared at Po2 between 0.153-0.187 μbar and 0.81-1.45 eV for those prepared at substrate temperature of 263 °C and as-grown film, respectively.

Obadiah N'ang'a, George N, W K, Abungu NO. An experimental Prototype for Low Head Small Hydro Power Generation Using Hydram.. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology(JKUAT): JKUAT; 2012. Abstractjkuat_conference_paper.pdf

The global rise in energy demand has resulted to the over exploitation of both renewable and non renewable energy sources. Most feasible hydroelectric power (HEP) plants sites have been exploited and the current focus is on harnessing energy from small HEP plants which have low head and flow velocity rendering them unsuitable for HEP generation. Previous research work focused on improving the turbine shape and efficiency; designing better water intake, improving the generator and development of turbines suitable for low heads. The main aim of this research was to optimize the power generated by low head small hydro plants through the use of hydraulic ram pump (hydram) to boost the water pressure before it impinges on the turbine. In the current work, a smallHEP prototype system was designed fabricated and test runs conducted. The prototype comprised of; a low head water reservoir, a hydraulic ram pump which was used to increase the head of the water emanating from a low head source, a high head reservoir mounted at a the most optimal height based on the hydram flow rate and pressure considerations and a double cup pelton wheel turbine suitably designed to extract power from the water jet. A drive pipe was used to connect thehydram pump to the low head reservoir while the delivery pipe connected the pump to the high head reservoir. Water from the high head reservoir was used to turn the pelton turbine which was coupled to a generator. The flow rate in the drive pipe and the delivery pipe as well as the pressurein the hydram were optimized by adjusting the waste valve stroke length. It was observed that the hydram was able to pump water to a higher head which then increased the power produced by the turbine.

Ayah R, Oluoch-Aridi J. Early results of improved management of CHWs: Lessons from MVP sites in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Montreux, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2010.
and DO Ogoyi, CJ Mwita EKNCOWPMS. Effect of heavy metal pollution on microalgae richness and diversity in Lake Victoria. Bujumbura, Burundi: VICRES; 2009.
Otuoma J, Kinyamario J, Ekaya W, Kshatriya M, Nyabenge M. Effects of human–livestock–wildlife interactions on habitat in an eastern Kenya rangeland.; 2009.
Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO. Essential oil bearing plants from Kenya: Chemistry, biological activity and applications. In H.R. Juliani, J.E. Simon and C.T. Ho (eds).. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society Symposium Series 1021,American Chemical Society; 2009.
Waema TM, Mureithi M, Wanjira A, Schluep M, Finlay A. E-waste in Kenya: Baseline Assessment..; 2008.
Okoth S, Jefwa MJ, Karanja N, Kahindi J, Muya E, Okoth P. Exploring the potential of beneficial soil fungi to enhance productivity in agricultural systems.; 2007.
Okoth S, Jefwa MJ, Karanja N, Kahindi J, Muya E, Okoth P. Exploring the potential of beneficial soil fungi to enhance productivity in agricultural systems.; 2007.
P. Ajuoga, A. Ogacho MAJMBO. Effects of concentration of dopant states on photactivity in niobium-doped TiO2. 24th July-4th August 2006, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 2006.
Inyega J, Thomson N, BUTLER MALCOLMB. Evidence-based chemistry unit lesson plan designing and implementation following in-service programs: Multi-site cases of teachers in Kenya. Dallas, Texas, USA: NARST; 2005. Abstract

This paper examines multi-site cases of in-service teachers' classroom practices and experiences about chemistry unit lesson planning and implementation following the Strengthening of Mathematics and Science in Secondary Education (SMASSE) professional development programs in Kenya. A descriptive comparison was made of chemistry district in-service educators in two districts in four different settings (boys' boarding, girls' boarding, mixed boarding, and mixed day schools). The study found that participants prepared student-centred lesson activities, improvised teaching/learning materials, and conducted small-scale experiments in areas involving dangerous reactions. They enhanced their lesson planning and teaching skills in the areas of the periodic table, the "mole concept," electrochemistry and organic chemistry (the satisfiers or benefits from the In-service education). Participants were dissatisfied because of increased school workloads and not being compensated for implementing district in-service education programs during the 5-year project duration. Implementation of inquiry-based student activities and improvisations in chemistry was hindered by national examinations which do not contain items from such areas.

E.K K, R.D N, R.K M, L.M.S A. Etiology of Septoria Leaf Spot of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp.) in Kenya.. Maseno, Kenya: Maseno University; 2003.
Gathuma JM, Mbaria JM, Wanyama JB, Kaburia HFA, Mpoke L, and healers ST. Efficacy of Myrisine africana, Albizia anthelmintica and Hilderbrantia sepalosa herbal remedies against mixed natural sheep helminthosis in Samburu District, Kenya.. Kenya Wildlife Service Training Institute, Naivasha, Kenya.; 2001.
Gathuma JM, Mbaria JM, Wanyama JB, Kaburia HFA, Mpoke L, and healers ST. Efficacy of Myrisine africana, Albizia anthelmintica and Hilderbrantia sepalosa herbal remedies against mixed natural sheep helminthosis in Samburu District, Kenya.. Kenya Wildlife Service Training Institute, Naivasha, Kenya.; 2001.
Wakhungu JW, Olukoye GA, Wamicha WN, Kinyamario JI, Mwanje JI. Environmental impacts of livestock-wildlife ranching in Laikipia District, Kenya.; 2001.
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. Effect of Crystalline Phases on Strength of Quartz-Kaolin-Feldspar Porcelain. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 2000.
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. Effect of Sintering Temperature on Material Properties of Kenyan Industrial Clay Ceramics. Kampala, Uganda: Makere University; 1999.
Hashim NO, Kinyua AM, MANGALA MJ, Rathore IVS. EDXRF analysis of lead and other toxic trace elements in soil samples along two major highways of Kenya.; 1998. Abstract

Adjacent lands along most major highways of Kenya are left as open spaces, or used for small scale farming and grazing of cattle and livestock. Some grass and plants are expected to have high levels of lead and other toxic metals. So far, no study has been carried out to determine the concentrations of toxic metals in soil samples along Thika and Mombasa highways of Kenya. This work is important and essential to the study of the impact of pollution on health and the environment.

Karlsson LM, AN M. Estimation of the mean epithelial cell size in the bat intestine.. Amsterdam, Netherlands: International Society for stereology; 1998.
Ciarunji C. East African Women Writers.; 1996.
Tsuma VT, Einarsson S, Madej A, Lundeheim N. Endocrine changes during fasting of primiparous sows in early pregnancy.. Bangkok, Thailand; 1994.
Seneveratne A, Absaloms H, Ginige T, Fry M. Effect of Timer Management on Protocol Execution Performance. Wollongong, Australia; 1993.
Mugo FW. Energy and Environment.; 1992.
Mugo FW. Energy policy and programs.; 1990.
Mugambi JNK. Ecumenism.; 1989.
Obala LM, Olima WHA. The effect of existing land tenure systems on urban land development: A case study of Kenya's secondary towns, with emphasis on Kisumu.; 1988. Abstract

The Kenya Government has over a number of years pursued policies geared towards the promotion of secondary towns. Included in this strategy is the achievement of an orderly and coordinated urban land development. However, experience from these towns indicates that, planned land development has encountered a lot of bottlenecks particularly in relation to the institution of private ownership of land. This paper traces the land tenure systems that have existed in the Kenya’s secondary towns. In general, the paper examines the effects of land tenure forms on the provision of housing and the related infrastructure. The effects of existing land tenure identified include influence on housing development, influence on planned land development, cloudiness of titles, hoarding and speculation, insecurity, inflexibility and inequity. The paper concludes by making suggestions based on the observed bottlenecks that should be considered to encourage and promote systematic urban land development in secondary towns.

Obala LM, Olima WHA. The effect of existing land tenure systems on urban land development: A case study of Kenya's secondary towns, with emphasis on Kisumu.; 1988. Abstract

The Kenya Government has over a number of years pursued policies geared towards the promotion of secondary towns. Included in this strategy is the achievement of an orderly and coordinated urban land development. However, experience from these towns indicates that, planned land development has encountered a lot of bottlenecks particularly in relation to the institution of private ownership of land. This paper traces the land tenure systems that have existed in the Kenya’s secondary towns. In general, the paper examines the effects of land tenure forms on the provision of housing and the related infrastructure. The effects of existing land tenure identified include influence on housing development, influence on planned land development, cloudiness of titles, hoarding and speculation, insecurity, inflexibility and inequity. The paper concludes by making suggestions based on the observed bottlenecks that should be considered to encourage and promote systematic urban land development in secondary towns.

Gichaga FJ, Misoi GK, Carson RN. Effect Of Vehicle Speeds On Corrugation Formation.; 1986.
Magoha GAO. The effect of exogenous testosterone on the testicular histology in male rats. . EAMJ; 1983. Abstract

Primary malignant lymphomas of the female breast are rare up to date such tumors have been described in the male. Majority of the malignant tumors of the breast are the well known infiltrating duct carcinoma. This is report of a mammary non-Hodgkins malignant lymphoma in a 35 year old Nigerian female. This tumor had a rapid progression terminating in death seven months after histological diagnosis. The clinical presentation, treatment, prognosis and the differential diagnosis with medullary and poorly differentiated carcinoma of the breast are discussed.

Gichaga FJ. Evaluation of flexible road pavements in Kenya.; 1983. Abstract

Experience from some of the recently completed roads shows that road pavements have at times failed prematurely thereby leading to unplanned expenditure in the exercise of rehabilitating them. This paper outlines results of studies carried out to establish long-term behaviour of road pavements under tropical climatic conditions. The studies involved measurements of elastic deflections, pavement distortion and rutting, cracking as well as establishing traffic loading patterns for typical high standard trunk roads of varying design in Kenya. The results of the studies show that while pavements are weakened by repeated wheel load applications pavements also tend to develop strength with age. The results further showed that for a pavement approaching failure elastic deflections are a function of cracking and rutting; and that higher elastic deflections are obtained during the months of high rainfall and high temperatues. The paper recommends that there is need for road authorities to regularly monitor factors that relate to road pavement performance such as traffic loading, pavement condition, etc. in order to help in the financial planning for pavement strengthening and maintenance works and that the necessary funds should be set aside in the budget. (TRRL)

J.O K. Economic importance and local use of the Kenyan Mangroves. Nairobi, Kenya: ICRAF; 1981.
KAAYA GP, LOSOS GJ, MAXIE MG, VALLI VEO. Effect of bovine trypanosomiasis on hematopoiesis.; 1979.
Khamala CPM, Castelino JB. Energy sources in E. Africa.; 1976.
Film
Wambui Kiai, Edwin Nyutho (Eds.). Excellence in Communication and Media Training in East Africa. University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; 2008.
Journal Article
Habwe J, Foundation KFJK. "The Ekegusii Determiner Phrase. Analysis in the Minimalist Programme. ." International Journal of Linguistics and Communication. Forthcoming.
Mbuge DO, MM K, E BKM, S M, DA M, J A. "The Effect of Drying Temperature on Nutrient levels in Oyster Mushroom." AJST. Submitted.
Mbuge DO, Kanyara MM, B.K.Mutai E, Murunga S, Mutuli DA, Agullo J. "The Effect of Drying Temperature on Nutrient levels in Oyster Mushroom." AJST. Submitted; ( ). Abstractdocument_2.pdf

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Mutembe N, Elly D. "Effect of Financial Literacy on Voluntary Retirement Planning Among Employees of State Corporations Under the Ministry of Health in Nairobi County, Kenya ." African development finance journal . Submitted;1(1):1-27 . Abstracteffect_of_financial_literacy_on_voluntary_retirement_planning_among_employees_of_state_corporations_under_the_ministry_of_health_in_nairobi_county_kenya.pdf

Purpose - The study sought to determine the effect of financial literacy on voluntary retirement planning among employees of state corporations under the Ministry of Health in Nairobi County, Kenya. Methodology – This study adopted a descriptive study design and uses primary data collected using a questionnaire with a five point Likert scale on the parameters of each variable. The study applied simple random sampling technique to select respondents to participate in the study. Data is analysed using means, percentages and frequencies. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the relationship between financial literacy and voluntary retirement planning. Findings – Financial literacy was found to influence the level of voluntary retirement planning among the employees since they are able to make key decisions that involve money in such a way that there is minimal risk to them. The study also established that financial literacy has a positive impact on voluntary retirement planning, however the results indicate that other factors such as income levels, age, marital status and level of education are also strongly related to retirement planning. Implications – To boost the voluntary retirement planning process, the eventuality of retirement should be made obvious for all the employees in the Kenyan economy so as to influence peoples’ attitude and receptiveness to the process. There is therefore need to develop financial education programs that focus particularly on important financial planning aspects for employees that will help them strike a balance between consumption and saving. Value – The findings of this study would also be valuable to the Retirement Benefits Authority and the Government of Kenya in development of policies and regulations

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