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Conference Paper
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Enhancing Democracy Through Public Interest Litigation and Law. An Evaluation of the Public Law Institute, Nairobi, September 1997.". In: From Sessional Paper No. 10 to Structural Adjustment. Published by IPAR, Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract
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P. PROFSITUMAFRANCISD. "Environmental Impact Assesment:its Genesis, Evolution,Legal and Institutional Aspect and Relevance to Kenya,in Mwakio P. Tole (ed.) Environmental Impact Assessment in Kenya:Theory and Practice (Academy Science Publishers,Nairobi p.1.". In: Law Journal,Issue No.4.; 1997. Abstract

New Directions in water legislation in Kenya?. A Paper presented as the National Workshop on environmental Governance in kenya, held at the UNEP Headquarters Gigiri, Nairobi, March 29-30. 2000

MOCHACHE DRJASONMOSOMI. "Envisioning Sustainable Architecture in Africa in The Horizon Dat Journal of Architecture Tradition in Africa; Vol 1. No.1 June 1997 pp31-37. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Juja, Kenya.". In: issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . University of Nairobi; 1997. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
M DRMUNYUASJ. "Essential Veterinary drugs list for Kenya (1997).Ed. S.J.M. MUNYUA, AND I.G. KAHIU.". In: Ed. S.J.M. MUNYUA, AND I.G. KAHIU. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1997. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
ODHIAMBO MROBIEROJOHNPAUL. "Estimation of Infiltration Parameters at the Steepland Research Station, Kabete, Nairobi, Kenya. Proceedings of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers Annual International Conference, Milimani Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: East African Medical Journal. East African Medical Journal; 1997. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Ethical Transformations - Changing Professional Demands" This article is the edited version of a presentation to the Institute's seminar held in Mombasa in 1996 dealing with professional conduct in a changing economic and business environment.". In: The Student Accountant (Ibid) (pages 3-17). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1997. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Ethnicity in the Electoral Process: The 1992 General Elections in Kenya.". In: African Journal of Political Science Vol. 2 No. 2,pp. 41-69. IPPNW; 1997. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
WASIKE MRWEREISAAC. "Europeans verses African: The land question. A case of Kikuyu people of Kenya. Catholic University of Eastern Africa.". In: MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
I.O JUMBA, N.F SUTTLE, E.A HUNTER, S.O W. "Effects on botanical composition on mineral concentrations in dry pastures in "Western Kenya. In: Appleton, J.D., Fuge, R. and MaCall, G.J.H. (eds).". In: Environmental Geochemistry and Health with Special Reference to Developing Countries, British Geological Society Special Publication No. 113, 39-45. Association of Africa Universities; 1996. Abstract

Abstract: The influence of botanical (pasture species), geographical (altitude) and pedological (bedrock type, soil pH and extractable mineral concentration) factors on mineral concentrations in dry season pasture was studied in samples of topsoil and herbage from 135 sites on 84 farms in the Mt Elgon region of western Kenya. Of the four major elements measured in herbage, only S was affected by geology, low values being found above Tertiary volcanic (TV) and metamorphic gneiss (MG) bedrocks. By contrast, only P was not affected by species, Setaria being low and Kikuyu grass usually high in macro minerals. Of the seven trace elements analysed in herbage, geology influenced only one: Cu; low values were again found above TV and MG but Cu availability to grazing ruminants would be relatively high because of the associated low S values. By contrast, only Se was unaffected by species, Kikuyu grass being high in all but Mn. Soil bedrock had a greater influence on soil composition but correlations between extractable soil and herbage mineral concentrations were poor for all elements, even within botanical species after correction for soil pH and soil contamination. Concentrations of Ca, P, Mg, S, Cu and Zn were often less than tabulated requirements for grazing livestock. However, risks of deficiency could not be predicted from the pedological factors measured.

Kanyari PWN;, Munyua W k;, Ng'ang'a JC;, Ngotho J. "Epidemiology Of Bovine Toxocara Vitulorum In Faecal And Milk Samples In Kenya."; 1996.
Kanyari PWN;, Munyua W k;, Ng'ang'a JC;, Ngotho J. "Epidemiology Of Bovine Toxocara Vitulorum In Faecal And Milk Samples In Kenya."; 1996.
Kanyari PWN;, Munyua W k;, Ng'ang'a JC;, Ngotho J. "Epidemiology Of Bovine Toxocara Vitulorum In Faecal And Milk Samples In Kenya."; 1996.
ISAAC PROFJUMBA, Wandiga. SO, Oduor FDO. "Evaluation of the mineral status of grazing cattle in Trans Nzoia: Preliminary assessment of Data. Proc.". In: 2nd Kenya Chemical Society Conference. 2nd-6th September 1996 pp 20-24. Association of Africa Universities; 1996. Abstract

Abstract
A number of diseases and production problems have been observed in grazing ruminants in many countries around the I world Some of these problems and health effects have been attributed to dietary imbalances in mineral supply and appear \ to be geographically distributed. Grazing cattle require different levels of minerals in their diet depending on the stage of class of development; young and growing, lactating or pregnancy. Common findings indicate that the lactating and young} and growing animals are the most vulnerable to mineral problems, thus providing a sufficient ground for their choice in\ experimental studies. In this preliminary review of the project, the nutritional status of cattle grazing on a range of farms in \ Irons Nzoia District are assessedfrom the mineral content of blood from young and growing as well as lactating animals] sampled during the dry and wet seasons of the study period. Data -will be evaluated in terms of established criteria normality.

MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD. "E.M. Mathu and T.C. Davies (1996) .". In: Ph.D. thesis, University of Nairobi, 338p. Kisipan, M.L.; 1996. Abstract
Tala Quarrry in African Geoscience Review Vol. 9 Number 4 pp. 385-396.  
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Education, Training and Population. Population Studies and Research Institute. Occasional Publicationss Series, Vol. V. Nairobi, Pp. 143 .". In: Occasional Publicationss Series, Vol. V. Nairobi, 1996. Pp. 143 . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1996. Abstract
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TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Einarsson, S., Madej, A. and Tsuma, V.T. (1996). The influence of stress on early pregnancy in the pig. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 42: 165-172,.". In: Proc. Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nairobi, Kenya,. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1996. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Encountering of East African Traditions in Paivikki Suojanen and risto Raittila (Eds). Folklore and the Encounters of Traditions.". In: Research Report No. 29. pp 71 - 80 (Proceedings of Finnish-Hungarian symposium on Folklore on the encounters of Traditions, 18 - 20 March 1996, Jyvaskyla, Finland) Published by the University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Ethnology. ISBN 951-34-088. European Psychiatric Journal; 1996. Abstract
Poverty, rapid urbanization, population growth rate, family instability and the declining role of the extended family system are among the key factors responsible for the prevalence of child abuse and neglect in Nairobi. In this state of flux, cases of children who have been battered, abandoned, abused and neglected by their families or displaced as a result of armed conflict in the region have increased at an astounding pace over the past several years. One out of every three children from poor urban families in Kenya is regularly battered or subjected to other forms of maltreatment by a parent or other family members, the public and the authorities. Basically, there are two levels of abuse and neglect. There is abuse and neglect which children experience at home and which drives them onto the streets. There is also abuse and neglect which street children endure while on the streets. This paper discusses some of the ways in which abuse and neglect affect the lives of street children and families. It also highlights the difficulties which they endure while on the street.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "The Environment and Waste Management in African Agriculture. Paper Presented at SESAE96 International Conference. Arusha Tanzania. 2- 4 October.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1996. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "The epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis within a sexually transmitted diseases core group. Brunham RC; Kimani J; Bwayo JJ; Maitha G; Maclean I; Yang C; Shen C; Roman S; Nagelkerke NJ; Cheang M; Plummer FA. J Infect Dis. 1996 Apr;173(4):950-6.". In: J Infect Dis. 1996 Apr;173(4):950-6. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1996. Abstract
The factors responsible for the explosive spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be identified and debated. One of the most controversial factors has been male circumcision. This cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the association between circumcision status and infection with HIV-1 among men with genital ulcer disease. Eight hundred and ten men participated in the study, of whom 190 (23%) were HIV-1-positive. A logistic regression model adjusted for behavioral and historical showed that HIV-1 positivity was independently associated with being uncircumcised (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3-7.2) and with a history of urethral discharge (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8). This association could not be explained by measures of sexual exposure to HIV-1 among this population. Male circumcision should be considered as an intervention strategy for AIDS control.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "The epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis within a sexually transmitted diseases core group. Brunham-RC; Kimani-J; Bwayo JJ.; Maitha-G; Maclean-I; Yang-C; Shen-C; Roman-S; Nagelkerke-NJ; Cheang-M; Plummer-FA. J-Infect-Dis. 1996 Apr; 173(4): 950-6.". In: J-Infect-Dis. 1996 Apr; 173(4): 950-6. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1996. Abstract
The factors responsible for the explosive spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be identified and debated. One of the most controversial factors has been male circumcision. This cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the association between circumcision status and infection with HIV-1 among men with genital ulcer disease. Eight hundred and ten men participated in the study, of whom 190 (23%) were HIV-1-positive. A logistic regression model adjusted for behavioral and historical showed that HIV-1 positivity was independently associated with being uncircumcised (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3-7.2) and with a history of urethral discharge (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8). This association could not be explained by measures of sexual exposure to HIV-1 among this population. Male circumcision should be considered as an intervention strategy for AIDS control.
AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. ""Establishment of Cold Storage Facilities a Strategic Landing Beaches along Lake Victoria', in Dying Lake Victoria (1996) Annex IX pp 77.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 1996.
. DRNYANGAYAJAMESA. "Ethanol Fuel substitution Through Fumigation Kenya Journal of Science and Technology Series A vol. 10 No.1 (1996).". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1996. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
WASIKE MRWEREISAAC. "An ethno-archaeological study of mortuary practices among the Pokot people.". In: MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1996. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The European Union - ACP Relaitonship: The Case of eastern Africa.". In: Working Paper EU Deveopment Policy, No. 4, Friedrich Ebert Foundation, Bonn, Germany. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1996. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
OBIMBO DRLAMUKAPETER. "Evaluation and review of bachelor of Science curricula in Food Science and Technology at Egerton University. Paper presented at Workshop on .". In: Eur J. Biochem. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1996. Abstract
Thymidine kinase is an enzyme involved in DNA precursor metabolism and DNA replication. The synthesis of this enzyme is highly regulated during the cell cycle and the activity of the enzyme is also regulated by feedback inhibition. Genes encoding thymidine kinase have been extremely useful as selectable markers for introducing DNA into a number of cells. In order to study cell cycle regulation of thymidine kinase, the gene which encodes this enzyme, as well as aspects of DNA replication in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila, we have purified thymidine kinase from Tetrahymena. Two forms of thymidine kinase with native molecular masses of 59 kDa and 80 kDa have been identified and purified 6800- and 4600-fold, respectively. The 59-kDa enzyme, a homodimer of 30-kDa subunits, has been purified to near homogeneity and polyclonal antibodies have been raised against the 30-kDa subunit. Serological studies indicate that the two enzymes are antigenically distinct. The antibody against the Tetrahymena protein cross-reacts with a polypeptide in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell extracts of 26 kDa which corresponds to the reported size of Chinese hamster thymidine kinase protein.
W DRGITHAIGAJOSEPH. "Evaluation of diagnostic peritoneal lavage and needle paracentesis in the management of penetrating and blunt abdominal trauma, at Kenyatta National Hospital. M.med thesis 1996.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Sep;79(9):457-60. University of Nairobi Press; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
OLEWE PROFNYUNYA. "Evolution of Indian Ocean as a Zone of Peace: Agenda for the Next Decade, The Making of the Indian Ocean Community.". In: New Age International (P) Ltd Publishers, New Delhi. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1996. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
Maingi N. "Epidemiology and control of gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants in Kenya. .". In: Presented during the 6th Annual Workshop on Tropical Animal Health and Production. , University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. ; 1995.
Maingi, N., Thamsborg, S.M., Gichohi, C.M., Munyua, W.K., Gathuma, J.M., Nansen P. "Effectiveness of the strategic use of closantel and albendazole in controlling gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in Kenya.". In: 15th International Conference of the WAAVP. Yokohama, Japan; 1995.
Maingi N. "Epidemiology and Control of Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Ruminants in the Tropics.". In: Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) Regional Workshop. Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania; 1995.
Laker CD;, Mukhebi AW;, Ssenyonga GSZ;, Gathuma JM. "The economic impact of East Coast Fever on cattle in Mbarara district, Uganda."; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard. NC. "Economically Important Diseases Of Goats In A Semi Arid Area Of Kenya.(poster Presentation).".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala, B.O.; Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard. NC. "Economically Important Diseases Of Goats In A Semi Arid Area Of Kenya.(poster Presentation).".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard. NC. "Economically Important Diseases Of Goats In A Semi Arid Area Of Kenya.(poster Presentation).".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard. NC. "Economically Important Diseases Of Goats In A Semi Arid Area Of Kenya.(poster Presentation).".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua ST;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard NC. "Economically impotent diseases of goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya.".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua ST;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard NC. "Economically impotent diseases of goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya.".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua ST;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard NC. "Economically impotent diseases of goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya.".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua ST;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard NC. "Economically impotent diseases of goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya.".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua ST;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard NC. "Economically impotent diseases of goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya.".; 1995.
Karuri EG;, Ojijo NKO. "Effect of storage conditions on sweet potato roots."; 1995. Abstract

Four sun-cured lots of sweet potato (cv KSP20) roots were stored under different conditions in the laboratory. One lot was stored in environmental cabinets operated at five temperature levels of 5, 10, 15, 20, arid 29°C.The other two lots were stored in open wooden boxes, one filled with soil and the other saw-dust. A control sample was exposed to the ambient air in the laboratory. Objective physical and chemical indices were used to monitor the quality changes in the stored roots. Although the storage time and temperature were important in influeincing the quality of the roots, temperatures of 10°C or lower and also higher than 15°C were unsuitable for storage. At those temperatures sprouting, rotting, pithiness, shrivelling or a combination of the physiological factors became more important in quality deteriaration. Subsequently, prolonged storage was possible only at 15 and 20°C and also in saw-dust and soil cover. Roots stored in soil or saw-dust were as wholesome as those at 15°C, save for the sprouting which depleted the dry matter content, and had superior appearance. Exponential decay could predict Vitamin C and B-carotene loss. Reducing sugar developed in all samples but was highest in the ambient air storage. Using the back-extrusion test, it was shown that there were no significant differences between boiled roots after 4 weeks of storage under all conditions.

Maingi N;, Thamsborg SM;, Gichohi CM;, Munyua W k;, Gathuma JM;, Nansen P. "Effectiveness Of The Strategic Use Of Closantel And Albendazole In Controlling Gastrointestinal Nematodes Of Sheep In Kenya."; 1995.
Maingi N;, Thamsborg SM;, Gichohi CM;, Munyua W k;, Gathuma JM;, Nansen P. "Effectiveness Of The Strategic Use Of Closantel And Albendazole In Controlling Gastrointestinal Nematodes Of Sheep In Kenya."; 1995.
Maingi N;, Thamsborg SM;, Gichohi CM;, Munyua W k;, Gathuma JM;, Nansen P. "Effectiveness Of The Strategic Use Of Closantel And Albendazole In Controlling Gastrointestinal Nematodes Of Sheep In Kenya."; 1995.
I.O JUMBA, N.F SUTTLE, S.O W, E.A HUNTER. "Effects of soil origin and mineral composition of herbage species on the mineral composition of forages in the Mount Elgon region of Kenya I. Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Sulphur.". In: Tropical Grasslands (Journal of Australian Grassland Society) 29, 40-46. Association of Africa Universities; 1995. Abstract

Samples of topsoil (0-30 cm) and dry season herbage from 135 sites in the Mt Elgon region of Kenya were classified according to farm (n = 84), site altitude, underlying soil bedrock (6 types) and botanical composition (6 classes). Effects on pasture concentrations of Ca, P, Mg and S were determined using a mixed model for unbalanced data sets and the Wald (W) statistic to assess the significance of fixed effects. Associated effects on pH, plus extractable Ca and P concentrations in the topsoils were also evaluated.
Soil bedrock influenced herbage concen-trations of S (P < 0.001) but not those of Ca, P or Mg. Mean herbage S concentrations were lowest on volcanic and metamorphic gneiss associations (1.2 g/kg DM) but only extreme values would be inadequate for grazing livestock. Altitude appeared to affect the concentration of P (P < 0.01) and not those of Ca, Mg and S in herbage but the effect on P was dependent on soil P. Geological and topographical maps cannot be used to predict macro-mineral disorders in live¬stock in the Mt Elgon region.
Herbage species differed markedly in their concentrations of S (P < 0.001), Ca (P < 0.001) and Mg (P < 0.05) but not P. Ca deficiency may arise on setaria, S deficiency on some napier grass pastures and P deficiency on some dry season pastures irrespective of botanical compo¬sition.
Low herbage P concentrations may reflect advanced maturity rather than low soil P status (mean value 20 mgP/kg DM). The correlation between soil P and herbage P was significant (r = 0.595), and similar in slope and intercept for all herbage classes but not strong enough to predict deficient Ijerbages. Herbage Ca was not corre¬lated with soil Ca.

O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "The Entrepreneurial Context of Strategic Management.". In: Students Finance. Vol.1 pp.10-12.; 1995.
O. PROFMAGOHAGEORGEA. "Epidemiological and clinical aspects of carcinoma of the penis at Kenyatta National Hospital. East African Medical Journal, 72: 360-364, 1995.". In: East African Medical Journal, 72: 360-364, 1995. EAMJ; 1995. Abstract

Thirty one patients with carcinoma of penis were studied retrospectively at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, over a 20-year period (1971-1990). The majority of patients presented late with symptomatology of over one year duration. 88% of patients with carcinoma were uncircumcised, while the three (12%) patients who were circumcised but developed carcinoma were all circumcised late in adolescence and adulthood, confirming that late circumcision may not protect one from developing penile carcinoma as reported in literature. These findings also indicate that carcinoma of penis may be rare in this locality but is still common among the uncircumcised African tribes.

O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW, M PROFSYAGGAPAUL, MBATHA DRCHRISTOPHER, CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Education for a modern integrated survey professional: a model curriculum with special reference to developing countries.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,.; 1995. Abstract
ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW, M PROFSYAGGAPAUL, MBATHA DRCHRISTOPHER, CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Education for a modern integrated survey professional: a model curriculum with special reference to developing countries.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1995. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW, M PROFSYAGGAPAUL, MBATHA DRCHRISTOPHER, CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Education for a modern integrated survey professional: a model curriculum with special reference to developing countries.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1995. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW, M PROFSYAGGAPAUL, MBATHA DRCHRISTOPHER, CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Education for a modern integrated survey professional: a model curriculum with special reference to developing countries.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. Survey Review; 1995. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
P. PROFSITUMAFRANCISD. "The Effacacy of International Environmental Law-A personal Reflection.2 ILSA Journal of International and Comparative Law 61.". In: Law Journal,Issue No.4.; 1995. Abstract

New Directions in water legislation in Kenya?. A Paper presented as the National Workshop on environmental Governance in kenya, held at the UNEP Headquarters Gigiri, Nairobi, March 29-30. 2000

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Effect of human immunodeficiency virus on local immunity in children with diarrhoea. Kakai R; Bwayo JJ; Wamola IA; Ndinya-Achola JO Plummer FA. East Afr Med J. 1995 Nov;72(11):699-702.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Nov;72(11):699-702. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1995. Abstract
The factors responsible for the explosive spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be identified and debated. One of the most controversial factors has been male circumcision. This cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the association between circumcision status and infection with HIV-1 among men with genital ulcer disease. Eight hundred and ten men participated in the study, of whom 190 (23%) were HIV-1-positive. A logistic regression model adjusted for behavioral and historical showed that HIV-1 positivity was independently associated with being uncircumcised (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3-7.2) and with a history of urethral discharge (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8). This association could not be explained by measures of sexual exposure to HIV-1 among this population. Male circumcision should be considered as an intervention strategy for AIDS control.
WAMBUI JANE. "The effects of Economic Liberalization measures on Women in Nairobi." Project paper for Winrock International; 1995. Abstract
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ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Effects of soil origin and mineral composition of herbage species on the mineral composition of forages in the Mount Elgon region of Kenya I. Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Sulphur.". In: Tropical Grasslands (Journal of Australian Grassland Society) 29, 40-46. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1995. Abstract
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S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Effects of temperature on germination of three pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) genotypes. Discovery and Innovation, 7: 283-287.". In: Paper submitted in the 3rd International Weed Science Congress in June 2000 at Foz du Iguasu, Brazil. Taylor & Francis; 1995. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Efficacy of halofantrine in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. East Afr Med J. 1995 Dec;72(12):796-9. Mbori-Ngacha DA, Onyango FE, Chunge C, Luta M, Oloo AJ, Muga RO.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Dec;72(12):796-9. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1995. Abstract
In sub-Saharan Africa, where the effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have been most devastating, there are multiple subtypes of this virus. The distribution of different subtypes within African populations is generally not linked to particular risk behaviors. Thus, Africa is an ideal setting in which to examine the diversity and mixing of viruses from different subtypes on a population basis. In this setting, it is also possible to address whether infection with a particular subtype is associated with differences in disease stage. To address these questions, we analyzed the HIV-1 subtype, plasma viral loads, and CD4 lymphocyte levels in 320 women from Nairobi, Kenya. Subtype was determined by a combination of heteroduplex mobility assays and sequence analyses of envelope genes, using geographically diverse subtype reference sequences as well as envelope sequences of known subtype from Kenya. The distribution of subtypes in this population was as follows: subtype A, 225 (70.3%); subtype D, 65 (20.5%); subtype C, 22 (6.9%); and subtype G, 1 (0.3%). Intersubtype recombinant envelope genes were detected in 2.2% of the sequences analyzed. Given that the sequences analyzed represented only a small fraction of the proviral genome, this suggests that intersubtype recombinant viral genomes may be very common in Kenya and in other parts of Africa where there are multiple subtypes. The plasma viral RNA levels were highest in women infected with subtype C virus, and women infected with subtype C virus had significantly lower CD4 lymphocyte levels than women infected with the other subtypes. Together, these data suggest that women in Kenya who are infected with subtype C viruses are at more advanced stages of immunosuppression than women infected with subtype A or D. There are at least two models to explain the data from this cross-sectional study; one is that infection with subtype C is associated with a more rapid disease progression, and the second is that subtype C represents an older epidemic in Kenya. Discriminating between these possibilities in a longitudinal study will be important for increasing our understanding of the role of specific subtypes in the transmission and pathogenesis of HIV-1.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Einarsson, S., Sterning, M., Tsuma, V.T. and Rydmer, L. (1995). Oestrus in primiparous sows: relationships with weight loss, metabolism and endocrine regulation.". In: 46th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production. PP 31. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Estambale BB, Simonsen PE, Vennervald BJ, Knight R, Bwayo JJ.Bancroftian filariasis in Kwale District of Kenya. III. Quantification of the IgE response in selected individuals from an endemic community.Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1995 Jun;89(3):287-95.". In: Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1995 Jun;89(3):287-95. Taylor & Francis; 1995. Abstract
One hundred and sixty-two individuals from a community in Kwale District, Kenya, endemic for bancroftian filariasis, were selected for a study on the IgE response to filarial antigen (prepared from adult Brugia pahangi). Following clinical and parasitological examination, the individuals were grouped into different categories, based on the presence/absence of microfilaraemia, the presence/absence of acute or chronic (hydrocele or elephantiasis) clinical manifestations, and age. The total and filarial-specific IgE responses were evaluated in all individuals, and the responses in the various categories were compared with each other and with the responses of control groups of individuals from filariasis-free areas. The majority of individuals from the endemic area had highly elevated serum concentrations of total IgE. Overall and within each clinical category, the concentration of total IgE was higher in those individuals from the endemic area who had microfilaraemias than in those that did not. The majority of individuals from the filariasis endemic area also had significantly elevated levels of filarial-specific IgE. In contrast, the concentration of specific IgE was lower in subjects with microfilariae than in those without, irrespective of their clinical status. Only a small proportion of total IgE was filarial-specific, the mean value varying from 0.4% to 9.8%, depending on category. Among the endemic individuals, the mean proportion of total IgE which was filarial-specific was 3.6 times higher in the microfilaria-negative than in the microfilaria-positive, indicating that much of the filarial-induced IgE in microfilaraemic individuals could be non-specific. No clear relationship was observed between the IgE response and the clinical manifestations or age of the endemic individuals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Evaluation and mapping of soil erosion susceptibility: an example from Kenya. Soil Use and Management Vol. II, 1-4.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1995. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
Ochanda H, Young AS, Medley GF, Shaw MK, Perry BD. "Efficiency of transmission of Theileria parva stocks by different instars of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. .". In: British Society for Parasitology Spring . University of Bath ; 1994.
Nyamongo IK. "Education and Age at First Marriage among Pastoral Borana Girls of Marsabit District, Kenya.". In: African Anthropology, Vol. 1(1&2): 69-76. Wiley Interscience; 1994. Abstract

The author illustrates how qualitative data from open-ended interviews, pile sorts, and triad sorts can be used to test quantitatively for intracultural variation in norms. Specifically, the author tests whether Gusii men and women in the Suneka Division of Kisii District in southwest Kenya have developed a common set of standards in response to symptoms of malaria. In this small sample, the focus is on internal, rather than external, validity. While the findings about Gusii responses to malaria are not generalizable beyond the village where the data were collected, the method described may be used to study cultural similarities across socioeconomic, gender, and other groups.

KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "Effect of Ageing of Bitumen of performance of Asphalt pavements in Tropical Environments,.". In: 6th conf. On Asphalt pavements for Southern Africa , Vol. 1 PP 77-95 Cape Townv. Longhorn; 1994. Abstract

Bovine foscioliosis coused by F. giganticais widespread in   There is a large collection of reports of fasciolosis in Kenya based on  abattoir data records from veterinary investigation laboratories (VILS) as well as reports on a few farm study was carried out to improve on the reports. 
Diagnosis of fasciola infection has traditionally been based on detection of typical eggs in the faeces.  A variety of other techniques are now available eg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which has shown to be sensitive and useful.
Three agro-ecological zoned were defined depending on the reported prevalence; high risk, medium risk and low risk zones.  Two study districts were picked at random from each zone.  The study farms were selected using the two stage cluster sampling.
Faecal and blood samples were collected on the farm.  Serum was later harvested.  ELISA and faecal sedimatation tests (FST) were carried out.
A total of 2434 faecal and blood samples were screened.  ELISA achieved the highest (66%) positive rate of the samples from Kwale district and the lowest (23%) rate in Nakuru.  An overall positive prevalence of (43%) for fasciolosis was achieved.  The faecal sedimentation test showed prevalence of 19%.  In both tests high prevalence were observed in Kwale and Kilifi districts.  ELSA was always positive when FST was positive but not the converse.
The on-famr survey utilizing two reliable diagnostic tests was meant to improve on existing abattoir reports.  Both tests showed fair to good agreements.  The higher detection by ELISA might be due to deworming and other reasons.  It was concluded that on-farm surveys are better than retrogressive studies; thought the latter are cheaper and faster.,  the current prevalence of fasciolosis are different from past reports with coastal showing higher than expected prevalences.

MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD. "E.M. Mathu, D.W. Ichang.". In: Proceedings of the international Geological Field Conference held in the Mozambique Orogenic belt in East Africa, Arusha, Tanzania (1994). IGCP Project 348 (Extended Abstract). Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract
Tala Quarrry in African Geoscience Review Vol. 9 Number 4 pp. 385-396.  
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "The East African rift system in the light of KRISP 90.". In: Tectonophysics, 236, 465- 483. Wiley Interscience; 1994. Abstract
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IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Economic Liberalization and its Impact on African Economies.". In: Kivutha Kibwana et al (eds): Law and Developemnt in the Third World, Faculty of Law, University of Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1994. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "ed. With Bukenya, a. and Kabira, W.M. Understaining Oral Literature Kenya: Nairobi University Press.". In: In Southern African Review of Education, Vol.4, pp 5-10. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1994. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Effect of Coagulation aspects and colour removal from textile wastes", J. Biochemiphysics, 3 (1994) 41.". In: Proceedings, Biochemical Society, Nairobi, Sept. 1996. Survey Review; 1994. Abstract
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W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "The effect of media and light regimes on cultural and morphological characteristics and sporulation of Phaeoisariopsis griseola. East Africa Agricultural and Forestry journal (1994) 59 (3): 241-251.". In: Proceedings of the International Workshop under European Commission contract N. ERB IC18 CT97 0139: pp 95-104 (1998). J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 1994. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Einarsson, S. and Tsuma, V.T. (1994). Relationship between nutrition and fertility. Reprod. Dom. Anim., 29: 340-342,.". In: 46th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production. PP 31. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "Electoral Politics in Kenya, The 1983 Geenral Election in Langata constituency.". In: Department of Government seminar on Electroal in Kenya. University of Nairobi, July.; 1994. Abstract
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W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "Empowering women for Democratic Change in Kenya: which way forward? A paper presented at regional conference on: women and democracy, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania 5th -7th September.". In: A paper presented at regional conference on: women and democracy, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania 5th -7th September.; 1994. Abstract
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W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "Empowring Blind Women in Africa.". In: Paper presented as keynote address at an international seminar of the Blind women in Africa, Nairobi Kenya, 3rd October.; 1994. Abstract
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IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Entrepreneurship, Industrialization and the national Bourgeoisie in Africa.". In: Jointly with Arne Tostensen, Michelsea Institute. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1994. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Environmental Stress and Conflicts in Africa: Case Studies of Drainage Basins (Nairobi: Acts Press; Ecopolicy Series No. 6, 1994).". In: ISBN 92-807-1763-4. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1994.
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Error Analysis of Dynamical Model in Epidemiology.". In: International J. Math & Math Sci., Vol.17, No.1 PP 119-124. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
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J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Error Analysis of Dynamical Model in Epidemiology.". In: International J. Math & Math Sci., Vol.17, No.1 PP 119-124. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1994. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Estambale BB, Simonsen PE, Knight R, Bwayo JJ.Bancroftian filariasis in Kwale District of Kenya. I. Clinical and parasitological survey in an endemic community. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1994 Apr;88(2):145-51.". In: Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1994 Apr;88(2):145-51. Taylor & Francis; 1994. Abstract
A cross-sectional parasitological and clinical survey for Wuchereria bancrofti infection was carried out in an endemic community of south-eastern Kenya, to obtain background epidemiological information for detailed serological studies on bancroftian filariasis in the same community. Quantitative examination of night blood samples (100 microliters) from 1129 individuals (76% of the population), using the counting chamber technique, revealed circulating microfilariae in 13.7% of the study group. Prevalence increased with age, and was higher in males (15.9%) than in females (11.6%). The geometric mean intensity among infected individuals was 223 microfilariae/ml blood (336 microfilariae/ml for males and 212 microfilariae/ml for females). Approximately 16.5% of the males aged > or = 15 years had hydrocele and 2.4% of the population had elephantiasis. The prevalence of these conditions increased with age; in those aged > or = 50 years, 23.8% of males had hydrocele and 6.1% of the total population had elephantiasis. Acute cases of epididymo-orchitis, adenolymphangitis and funiculitis were also seen. The microfilarial prevalence in males with hydrocele was not significantly different from that in asymptomatic males, but none of the elephantiasis cases had microfilaraemia. The striking difference in microfilaraemia pattern between hydrocele and elephantiasis patients may reflect different mechanisms underlying the development of these two chronic manifestations. The overall prevalences of microfilaraemia and clinical manifestations in this community were moderate when compared with those found in other studies carried out along the coast of eastern Africa.
B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Estambale BB, Simonsen PE, Vennervald BJ, Knight R, Bwayo JJ.Bancroftian filariasis in Kwale District of Kenya. II. Humoral immune responses to filarial antigens in selected individuals from an endemic community.Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1994 Apr;88(2):153-.". In: Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1994 Apr;88(2):153-61. Taylor & Francis; 1994. Abstract
Humoral immune responses to filarial infection were investigated in 162 individuals, covering the full clinical and parasitological spectrum of bancroftian filariasis as seen in an endemic community of Kwale District, Kenya. Sera were tested for specific antifilarial antibodies (total immunoglobulins, IgM, IgGl, IgG4 and IgE) using ELISA. Most individuals showed an immunological response to the filarial antigen (prepared from adult Brugia pahangi). How these responses were related to the clinical manifestations, parasitological status and age was analysed by comparing the mean antibody levels among different categories of endemic individuals, and by comparing these to the levels in control groups from filariasis-free areas. IgM and IgE anti-filarial antibodies were detected with low specificity in unabsorbed sera. A higher specificity, clearly distinguishing the mean antibody levels in the endemic categories from those of control groups, was obtained for total specific immunoglobulins, and for IgE in sera absorbed with protein A. The most specific results were obtained for IgGl and IgG4; clear inter-category differences were observed for these classes. The mean level of specific IgG4 was significantly higher in microfilaraemic groups than in amicrofilaraemic groups, whereas the mean level of specific IgGl was significantly higher in amicrofilaraemic, symptomatic cases than in microfilaraemic, symptomatic cases. In most categories of endemic individuals, and for most antibody isotypes, the mean levels of specific antibodies tended to be higher (although not significantly) in the younger individuals than in the older individuals. Overall, the differences in the filarial antibody responses were more closely related to the presence or absence of microfilariae and to the age of the individuals than to the disease manifestations in this endemic population.
W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "Ethinicity in a multi-party democracy: whither Gender? A paper presented at a Conference in Multi-Ethnic Society, Mount Safari Club, Nairobi 29 June 1- July.". In: A paper presented at a Conference in Multi-Ethnic Society, Mount Safari Club, Nairobi 29 June 1- July.; 1994. Abstract
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V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "Ethnicity, Patronage and Class in a Local Arena: "High" and "Low" politics in Kiambu, Kenya, 1982-92, in Gibbon, P., (ed) The New Local Level Politics in East Africa. Research Report No. 95. Uppsala: Nordic African Institute, 1994.". In: The Politics of Transition in Kenya: From Kanu to Narc. Nairobi: Heinrich Boll Foundation. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Ethnicity, Patronage and Class in a Local Arena: "High" and "Low" politics in Kiambu, Kenya, 1982-92, in Gibbon, P., (ed) The New Local Level Politics in East Africa. Research Report No. 95. Uppsala: Nordic African Institute, 1994.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Eulogy,Writers Association of Kenya National Short Story Competition.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1994. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

M PROFOGUTUGILBERTE. "Exploitation and Changes in the Fishers of Lake Victoria as experienced by the Small Scale fish Systems Project.". In: The African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries Vol. 5 No. 2.; 1994. Abstract
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Maingi, N., Munyua, W.K., Gichohi VM. "Epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminths and liver flukes in sheep in Nyandarua District.". In: 2nd Annual Seminar of the DANIDA-funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. Na1robi, Kenya; 1993.
Mukhebi AW;, Carles AB;, Okeyo AM;, Shavulimo RS. "Experiences and lessons of the small ruminant collaborative research support in Kenya."; 1993.
MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD. "E.M. Mathu, I.O. Nyambok (1993) .". In: 5th Conference on the Geology of Kenya. Geological Society of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya, pp. 63-68. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
Tala Quarrry in African Geoscience Review Vol. 9 Number 4 pp. 385-396.  
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Economic Systems in Africa, in Tukumboth, A. (ed). A Christian Mind in a Changing Africa, AEAM, Nairobi.". In: World Developemnt, Vol. 21, No. 7. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1993. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
KIMPEI DRMUNEI. "Economics factors affecting the level of beef production from ranching: an example for Kenya.". In: Paper presented at a seminar on sustainable pastoral production system and environmental securities in dry lands of Kenya. (Machakos, Kenya October 1999). Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1993. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Education Through The Third Channel; Basic Education Forum, Vol. 3, April, 1993, pp. 23-30.". In: Basic Education Forum, Vol. 3, April, 1993, pp. 23-30. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1993. Abstract
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WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1993. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
W DRBARJALINON. "Effect of Noise and Inertia on Modulation Induced Negative Differential Resistance.". In: Physical Review B, vol. 47, p 14200, June 1993. ISCTRC; 1993. Abstract

This research examines the relationship between commercial banks (CBs) and the small enterprise sector (SES) and identifies constraints' which impede the flow of financial assistance from the commercial banks to the latter in Kenya. The variables that were examined included; requirements for successful loan application, lending levels, degree of risk attached to small enterprise lending, levels of economic impact and stages in business development at which banks become willing to support. For the small enterprises, the study sought to profile the business and its owner and, to examine its financing. The sampling units were drawn from CBs and SES within Nairobi. In data collection, questionnaires, interview and document review was employed. The study found that high interest rates and long processing procedures kept small businesses away from banks. The study established that, on the part of the banks, the entrepreneurs lacked business management skills and did not keep proper records. Moreover, the banks experienced general reproach from the small business owners, based upon conventional beliefs.

AMAKOVE DRWALAELIZABETH. "Effect of the chronic dose of diazepam on the intensity and characteristics of the precipitated abstinence syndrome in the dog. Sloan JW, Martin WR, Wala E.J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 Jun;265(3):1152-62.". In: J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 Jun;265(3):1152-62. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
The ability of different chronic doses of diazepam to produce dependence was studied in groups of six dogs who received diazepam p.o. (0.05625, 0.225, 0.5625, 4.5, 9 or 36 mg/kg/day) every 8 hr. After 5 to 6 weeks of stabilization, the intensity of precipitated abstinence was measured by benzodiazepine-precipitated abstinence scores (BPAS) after the p.o. administration of graded doses of the benzodiazepine antagonist, flumazenil (0.66, 2, 6, 18, 36 and 72 mg/kg or a placebo). A modified Latin square design was used. Dogs receiving the two lowest stabilization doses of diazepam showed only liminal signs of precipitated abstinence even with 72 mg/kg of flumazenil. The intensity of the precipitated abstinence syndrome increased with the stabilization dose of diazepam. There was also a dose-related increase in BPAS for increasing doses of flumazenil for all doses of diazepam except the 9-mg/kg/day dose. Not only were quantitative differences observed in precipitated abstinence signs for different levels of diazepam dependence, but the pattern of abstinence signs differed also. Dogs dependent on high doses of diazepam were more sensitive to flumazenil than those dependent on lower doses. Furthermore, seizure activity was seen only in dogs dependent on 9 and 36 mg/kg/day of diazepam. BPAS increased linearly with plasma and brain total and free levels of the sum of diazepam and its metabolites (oxazepam and nordiazepam), but not with free plasma and brain levels of diazepam.
Ogot M, ALAG SATNAM. "An effective Mixed Annealing/Heuristic Algorithm for problems in kinematic mechanical design.". In: 34th Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference.; 1993:. Abstract
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DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "Effective ways of communicating the dangers of HIV infection among rural women in Kenya.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1993. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

O PROFMUMMAALBERT. "Encyclopedia of Environmental Law, Sweet & Maxwell, 1993, (Asst. Editor).". In: UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy, vol. 19, 2000/2001, No. 1 at p. 181. Departmental seminar; 1993. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
OWANO MRSOCHIENOLYNN. "English Language as a Tool for Transition.". In: conference of house maids and bar maids. oxford press; 1993. Abstract

matina ma nguku

A MRSOMBOKMARGARET. "Enterpreneurial behaviour: A manual for Higher Diploma in Enterpreneurship ILO, UNOP,.". In: The Kenya Times (Nairobi: November 27,1983), p.6. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1993. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "The Entrepreneur and Entrepreneurship.". In: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT). ISCTRC; 1993. Abstract

This research examines the relationship between commercial banks (CBs) and the small enterprise sector (SES) and identifies constraints' which impede the flow of financial assistance from the commercial banks to the latter in Kenya. The variables that were examined included; requirements for successful loan application, lending levels, degree of risk attached to small enterprise lending, levels of economic impact and stages in business development at which banks become willing to support. For the small enterprises, the study sought to profile the business and its owner and, to examine its financing. The sampling units were drawn from CBs and SES within Nairobi. In data collection, questionnaires, interview and document review was employed. The study found that high interest rates and long processing procedures kept small businesses away from banks. The study established that, on the part of the banks, the entrepreneurs lacked business management skills and did not keep proper records. Moreover, the banks experienced general reproach from the small business owners, based upon conventional beliefs.

CONSTANTINE DRMWIKAMBA. "Ethnic Religion: Conflict and Social Changes in Kenya, IN: Dialogue, New York.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1993.
E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "Evolution of Geomorphology of Kenya. In. The Evolution of Geomorphology. A Nation by Nation Summary of Development. Edited by H.J. Walker and W.E. Grabau.". In: John Wiley & Sons Publishers, Chichester. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1993. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
M PROFOGUTUGILBERTE. ""Exploitation and Changes in the Fisheries of Lake Victoria", Proceedings of Kenya Assembly of Women and the Environment, WIDEN.". In: The African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries Vol. 5 No. 2.; 1993. Abstract
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M PROFOGUTUGILBERTE. "Exploitation and Changes in the Fisheries of Lake Victoria, Proceedings of Kenya Assembly of Women and the Environement, WIDEN.". In: The African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries Vol. 5 No. 2.; 1993. Abstract
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O PROFORINDADA. "External quality control performance in Clinical Chemistry experience in Kenya M. J. N. Mbiti, P. J. Ojwang and D.A.O. Orinda E. A. Med. Journal Vol. 70, No. 4 April, 1993.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Apr;70(4 Suppl):16-20. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1993. Abstract
Analysis of eleven biochemical laboratory tests was done during an International External Quality Assessment Scheme (IEQAS) in which the clinical chemistry laboratory at Kenyatta National Hospital participated. Technicon SMA II continuous flow system was used in the biochemical analyses apart from glucose which was assayed manually by the glucose oxidase method. Using the standard deviation index (SDI), twenty six percent of the results were found to be outside the two standard deviation (2SD) limit. However, when variance index score (VIS) was used, 42% of the results were found to be outliers. Overall, our laboratory performed poorly compared to other laboratories in both the IEQAS and the United Kingdom External Quality Assurance Scheme (UKEQAS). This poor performance is attributed to the use of improper equipment which is not regularly maintained, lack of diagnostic reagents, lack of quality control (QC) materials and inadequate staff training in the field of quality control.
Mbaria JM, Maitho TE, Muchiri DJ. "Effects of pyrethrins on Haemonchus contortus in vitro.". In: Proceedings of the first inter-university pharmacology and Toxicology subject meeting. Arusha, Tanzania ; 1992.
Abate A;, Wakhungu JW;, Mutiga ER. "Effect of feeding system on animal production and reproduction.".; 1992.
Karuku GN. "Effects of soil, vegetation and land use on infiltration in two semi-arid sub-locations (Sibilo and Loruk) in Baringo District. National Capacity Building for Child Survival and Development Workshop (funded by UNICEF).". In: East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. EAMJ; 1992. Abstract

This study uses CROPWAT model to predict water use in rainfed agriculture and simulate irrigation requirement for tomato production in Kabete Field Station. The model predicted increased irrigation requirement for tomato crop of 33.1, 28.1 and 36.6 mm water, in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd 10-day periods of development stage, respectively. The crop evapotranspiration (ETc) requirements by tomato crop were predicted at 456.5 mm for the short rainy season while actual evapotranspiration (ETa) was 232.1 mm for the short rains giving a yield response factor of 0.49. The model suggested an addition of 253.7 mm of irrigation water in order to realize optimal tomato yields as the crop experienced an irrigation deficiency of 48.8%. The moisture deficit at harvest was 63.6 mm of water which resulted in total yield reduction of 51.3%. In relation to actual yields calculated, the mean potential optimal tomato yields in the study area were 23.3 Mg/ha with proper soil management and adequate water supply. The suggested supply system was at 10 days irrigation interval/stage where the soils were irrigated just below or above field capacity. Rainfall losses and irrigation requirements would be reduced to 41.9 and 267.7 mm, with minimum water deficit at harvest of 15.5 mm and an irrigation efficiency of 100%. At this point, ETa would equal ETm and optimal tomato yield would be obtained with yield losses predicted at 0.1%. Yield gap analysis revealed that radiation, sunshine and temperature are favourable for crop production, but the heavy dependence on rainfall makes the area very vulnerable to drought.

OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Embree J.E., Datta P, Stackiw W., Sekla L., Ndinya-Achola J.O., Branddick M., Pamba H.O., Wamola I.A., Kreiss J.K. and Plummer F.A.: Increased Risk of Early Measles in Infants of HIV-1 Seropositive Mothers. J. Inf. Dis. 165 (2): 262, 1992.". In: J. Inf. Dis. 165 (2): 262, 1992. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1992. Abstractincreased_risk_of_early_measles_in_infants_of_human_immunodeficiency_virus_type_1-seropositive_mothers.pdf

This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.

KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "E.R. Mutiga, G.K. Gitao and S.J. Munyua. A study of blocked teats in small scale dairy farms. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. (1992) 40: 73-76.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. (1992) 40: 73-76.; 1992. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Economic Policy Reforms and Environmental Education, a Paper presented at he Regional Workshop on Environmental Education, Nyeri, Kenya, 5th - 10th.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "Ed. With Nandwa, J. Reflections on Theories and Methods in Oral Literature KOLA.". In: In Southern African Review of Education, Vol.4, pp 5-10. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1992. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
JEFWA DRMWERIGEORGE. "Editor- The 3rd East Africa Sign Language Seminar proceedings report(1992).". In: Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa Vol. 1 (2) pp. 160-174. Kenya Society of deaf Children; 1992. Abstract
This textbook does not aim at helpig teachers to acquire Kenyan Sign Language(KSL). It is meant for teachers who already have a good mastery of KSL and whose primary objective is to learn how to teach it. It thus introduces teachers to teaching of KSL as a language focusing on theory and skillsof langauge teaching in general and teaching of sign Language in particular using KSl as base language.
WAMBUI DRGICHUHILOISEPAMELA. "Education Achievement in the upcoming slum areas; Nairobi Province (Upcoming).". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1992.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Effect of fermentation, malted flour treatment and drum drying on nutritional quality of Uji. Ecology of Food and Nutrition. Vol. 28: 271 .". In: Workshop initiated by UNACC Subcommittee on Nutrition ACC/SCN), UNHCR and WFP with support by GTZ, 5 . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
OKECH MROWITIMAURICED. "Elections and Us/Uchaguzi na Sisi (Nairobi, Legal Education and Aid Programme of the Kenya adult Education Association (LEAPKAEA).". In: Chapter 3. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1992. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
SAMUEL PROFKIBICHO. "Eleven (II) Chapters in African Religion Part 2, a follow up of African Religion part I aove, Bond and released fro use.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 1992. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Embree J E, Datta P, Stackiw W, Sekla L, Braddick J, Kreiss J K, Pamba HO, WAMOLA I.A . Increased risk of early measles in infants of HIV-1 seropositive mothers. J. Inf. Dis. 165: 262-7, 1992.". In: J. Inf. Dis. 165: 262-7, 1992. IBIMA Publishing; 1992. Abstract
An increase in illness due to measles is one of the potential consequences of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Africa. During a study of perinatal HIV transmission conducted in Kenya, the risk of acquiring measles before vaccination (9 months of age) was found to be 3.8 times higher in infants born to HIV-seropositive mothers than in control infants (10 [9%] of 109 vs. 5 [3%] of 194 infants; P = .02; odds ratio, 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-13.2). The majority of infants who developed measles in this study had significant sequelae related to their measles infection. The increased risk of measles appeared to be related to relatively lower anti-measles antibody titers detected in cord blood samples of affected infants born to HIV-seropositive mothers. However, 94% of all infants were susceptible to measles on the basis of ELISA testing at age 6 months regardless of maternal HIV serology. These observations highlight the need for improved measles vaccination strategies in Africa and for studies to delineate the effects of HIV infection on the incidence,
W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "Empowering women in Kenya for Environmental Management and Sustainable Development.". In: paper presented at the workshop on people's participation in Management of Natural Resources, Research Needs and Research Priorities. Stockholm, Sweden, 5-6 October.; 1992. Abstract

Journal of Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies

F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Environmental Management in East Africa: Resources, Human Development, Recreation and Biosphere Reserves, in MANAGING PROTECTED AREAS IN AFRICA. Compiled by W.J. Lusigi. UNESCO-World Heritage Fund. Chapter 8. pp56-61.". In: In 2nd proceedings of the African Mountain Research and Development, Vol. 12, No.4, 1992. UN-HABITAT; 1992. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
P. PROFSITUMAFRANCISD. "The Environmental Problems of Nairobi. A Paper presented at the first International Confrence on Urban and Sprartial Plannong of nairobi of Nairobi, held at Nairobi. Kenya on December 13-17, 19988 (Publiishes in 7(1/2) Africa Urban quartely 167.". In: Law Journal,Issue No.4.; 1992. Abstract

New Directions in water legislation in Kenya?. A Paper presented as the National Workshop on environmental Governance in kenya, held at the UNEP Headquarters Gigiri, Nairobi, March 29-30. 2000

HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Epistemology, Biodiversity and Economic Growth: Some Historical Perspectives", paper prepared for the Biodiversity Suport Program, Washington, D.C.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Estambale BB, Knight R, Chunge R.HaematemTrans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1992 Jul-Aug;86(4):458.". In: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1992 Jul-Aug;86(4):458. Taylor & Francis; 1992. Abstract
Reactivation of latent infection is the principal mechanism relating Toxoplasma gondii and Pneumocystis carinii to HIV. Less common is reactivation in Leishmania donovani, Trypanosoma cruzi, and microsporidian infections. An impaired primary immune response occurs in all these infections, and also with Cryptosporidium and Isospora belli. Association of HIV infection with gut parasites including Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica, and also with Trichomonas vaginalis infection is likely to be related to sexual modes of contact that favour both HIV and the parasite. The severity of malaria is not definitely associated with HIV, but Plasmodium falciparum infection may favour more rapid evolution of the HIV infection. Both malaria and trichomoniasis favour HIV transmission; the former by necessitating blood transfusion, and the latter by enhancing viral transmission during sexual contact.
Varma S. "Equine Practice in Kenya.". In: Presented at the Annual Conference of the Kenya Veterinary Association,. Nairobi, Kenya; 1991.
Varma S. "Equine Practice in Kenya.". In: Presented at the Annual Conference of the Kenya Veterinary Association,. Nairobi, Kenya; 1991. Abstract
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M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al (1991 Incidence of sheep and Goat pox in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa Vol. 41 No. 77 p79.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1991. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al (1991) incidence of lumpy skin disease virus in cattle. Bulletin of Animal Health and production in Africa Vol.39 No. 78 p93 .". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1991. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al (1991). Incidence of Leptospirosis in Nakuru district of Kenya . Kenya Veterinaryian Journal. Vol. 79. No.77 P.79-87.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1991. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S. Kilelu et al (1991). Incidence of Newcastle disease in Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian Journal Vol. 77 No. 67 p77-87.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1991. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "E.S.Kilelu et al (1991) incidence of Brucellosis in Kajido district of Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian Journal vol. 77 No. 93 p 79-89.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1991. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Economic Development and Malaria Prevalence: An Empirical Analysis with Reference to Kenya," in Malaria and Development in Africa, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1991. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Editorial, design and Illustration of the "Youth Forum" Magazine.". In: Family Planning Private Sector, Nairobi. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1991. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "The effect of age, sex and education on reception and retention of health information: lessons from a rural area of Kenya. Cah Sociol Demogr Med. 1991 Jan-Mar;31(1):45-56.". In: Cah Sociol Demogr Med. 1991 Jan-Mar;31(1):45-56. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1991. Abstract
Two male patients with diabetes mellitus and alcohol dependence syndrome are presented. Both were married and in middle age. MI stayed alone in the city while his spouse and two children lived in the rural home. He showed no obvious underlying psychiatric morbidity. FWK was living with his family in the city. He was an alcoholic receiving psychiatric care for alcoholism. They both presented separately at different hospitals with decompensated diabetes following heavy alcohol consumption. The history and clinico-laboratory picture of both patients are presented and brief management programme and outcome are also given. Review of literature on alcoholism and its potential impact on the course and management of diabetes is presented.
KIMPEI DRMUNEI. "The effect of land tenure changes on the pastoral economy in Kajiado.". In: Proceeding of a conference held in Kajiado, August1991. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1991. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "The Effect of the Debt Crisis on the Family in Africa.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1991. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
OTIENO DRJOWI. "The effective Utilization of Instructional Resources in University Staff Development.". In: Part Two of the Papers presented in the workshop in Mombasa Kenya august 1991. (University Staff Development, Part two). The Kenya Medical Association; 1991. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
OBIMBO DRLAMUKAPETER. "Effects of Lyophilized Thermophilus whey and Irradiation on Bacteriological quality of mechanically Deboned Chiken Meat. Abstract IFT Annual Meeting. Dallas Texas. June 1 .". In: Eur J. Biochem. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1991. Abstract
Thymidine kinase is an enzyme involved in DNA precursor metabolism and DNA replication. The synthesis of this enzyme is highly regulated during the cell cycle and the activity of the enzyme is also regulated by feedback inhibition. Genes encoding thymidine kinase have been extremely useful as selectable markers for introducing DNA into a number of cells. In order to study cell cycle regulation of thymidine kinase, the gene which encodes this enzyme, as well as aspects of DNA replication in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila, we have purified thymidine kinase from Tetrahymena. Two forms of thymidine kinase with native molecular masses of 59 kDa and 80 kDa have been identified and purified 6800- and 4600-fold, respectively. The 59-kDa enzyme, a homodimer of 30-kDa subunits, has been purified to near homogeneity and polyclonal antibodies have been raised against the 30-kDa subunit. Serological studies indicate that the two enzymes are antigenically distinct. The antibody against the Tetrahymena protein cross-reacts with a polypeptide in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell extracts of 26 kDa which corresponds to the reported size of Chinese hamster thymidine kinase protein.
E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "Effects of Sea Level Changes on Geomorphological Processes along the coast. Workshop Report No.77 UNESCO.". In: Nairobi University Press. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1991. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "Effects of temperature on appressorium formation and pathogenicity of Colletrotrichum coffeanum. Journal of Plant Protection in the tropics 8(3) : 181-188 (1991).". In: African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, Kampala 14-18 June 1993. PP 260-262. J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 1991. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
W MRMAINAFRANCIS, S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Effects of the triphasic oral contraceptive on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1991;9(1):23-9. PMID: 12316812 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].". In: J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1991;9(1):23-9. uon press; 1991. Abstract

PIP: The effects of the triphasic oral contraceptive (OC) ethinyl estradiol (EE) and levonorgestrel (LNG) on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism were evaluated in 97 black Kenyan women. Subjects were recruited from the Family Planning Clinic and were followed for 12 months. There was an increase in fasting levels of total cholesterol. These changes were not statistically significant. However, the triglyceride increase was statistically significant at 9 months and 12 months (p0.05). The high density cholesterol remained unchanged. Thus, this triphasic OC was found to have minimal effect on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. author's modified

W MRMAINAFRANCIS, S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Effects of the triphasic oral contraceptive on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1991;9(1):23-9. PMID: 12316812 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].". In: J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1991;9(1):23-9. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1991. Abstract

PIP: The effects of the triphasic oral contraceptive (OC) ethinyl estradiol (EE) and levonorgestrel (LNG) on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism were evaluated in 97 black Kenyan women. Subjects were recruited from the Family Planning Clinic and were followed for 12 months. There was an increase in fasting levels of total cholesterol. These changes were not statistically significant. However, the triglyceride increase was statistically significant at 9 months and 12 months (p0.05). The high density cholesterol remained unchanged. Thus, this triphasic OC was found to have minimal effect on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. author's modified

SILAS DRMURERAMANZI, SILAS DRMURERAMANZI. "Electric Field Light Scattering Studies on the Mechanisms of Orientation of Chloroplast fragments.". In: Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium and School on Colloid and Molecular electro -optics. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1991.
ABDEL PROFMALEKADELKAMEL. "Elsharkawi S, Abdel Malek AK et al. 1991. Morphological features of foot impressions of Upper Egyptians. Proc 9th Ann conf Fac Med. Assiut Univ.". In: Proc 9th Ann conf Fac Med. Assiut Univ. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1991. Abstract
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G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "The Emergency of a sub-Nation. A History of Babukusu in the TransAfrican.". In: Journal of History, Vol. 1:20. G.S. Were Pres, Nairobi, Kenya. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1991. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "The Emergency of a sub-Nation. A History of Babukusu in the TransAfrican.". In: Journal of History, Vol. 1:20. G.S. Were Pres, Nairobi, Kenya.; 1991. Abstract

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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "The Employment Situation in Kenya: Paper presented by IDS to the Presidential Commission on Unemployment: IDS Occasional Paper No. 60, 1991.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1991. Abstract
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WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "Energy use in a large Kenyan dairy factory. Lebensmittel-Technologie 24(4), 90 (1991) (Abstract of Ph.D. Thesis).". In: Proceedings of the Annual Seminar of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers (Engineering for Sustainable Development), pp. 86-96, August 5-7, 1992, Jomo Kenyatta University College of Agric. & Technol., NAIROBI. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "Energy use in a large Kenyan dairy factory. Lebensmittel-Technologie 24(4), 90 (1991) (Abstract of Ph.D. Thesis).". In: Proceedings of the Annual Seminar of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers (Engineering for Sustainable Development), pp. 86-96, August 5-7, 1992, Jomo Kenyatta University College of Agric. & Technol., NAIROBI.; 1991. Abstract
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KONYIMBIH DRTOM. "Enhancing Community Participation and Women.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1991. Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Eosinophilia and eosinophil helminthotoxoity in patients treated for Schistoma mansoni infections G. Kimani, C.N Chunge, A.E Buterworth, T. Kamau, Bwayo JJ, G.Gachuhi and M. Mugambi. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1991;.". In: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1991;85: 89-492. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1991. Abstract
The factors responsible for the explosive spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be identified and debated. One of the most controversial factors has been male circumcision. This cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the association between circumcision status and infection with HIV-1 among men with genital ulcer disease. Eight hundred and ten men participated in the study, of whom 190 (23%) were HIV-1-positive. A logistic regression model adjusted for behavioral and historical showed that HIV-1 positivity was independently associated with being uncircumcised (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3-7.2) and with a history of urethral discharge (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8). This association could not be explained by measures of sexual exposure to HIV-1 among this population. Male circumcision should be considered as an intervention strategy for AIDS control.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Essential National Health Research in Kenya: A situational Analysis, Germano Mwabu, Dr. Simon Kiugu, Joseph Wang'ombe, Francis Mworia, Prepared for Ministry of Health and Ministry of Research Science and Technology, April 1991.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1991. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

HENRY PROFINDANGASI. "European Fiction. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1991. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
KONYIMBIH DRTOM. "Evaluating Community/Self-help Water Management Systems in Arid and Semi-Arid Districts in Kenya.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1991. Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  

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