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ADWATI SM, Edalia LG, Gathece L. "EFFECT OF PAST DENTAL EXPERIENCE ON PATIENTS ATTITUDES FOLLOW UP ORAL HEALTH CARE INTERVENTION." EAMJ. 2021;VOL 98 NO2 PG 3529-3537:VOL 98 NO2 PG 3529-3537.
Eyvazi J, Irannejad H, Kianmehr MH, Esmaeili M, Akbari QA, Onwonga RN. "The effect of Pellet fertilizer application on Wheat Yield and its Components." International Research Journal of Plant Science. 2010;1(6):163-171.eyvazi_et_al2010_the_effect_of_pellet_fertilizer_application_on_wheat_yield.pdf
Mathenge EM, JE G, M K, M O, LW I, WA H. "Effect of permethrin-impregnated nets on exiting behavior, blood feeding success, and time of feeding of malaria mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in western Kenya." Journal of medical entomology. 2001;38(4):531-536. AbstractPubMed link

The impact of permethrin-treated bednets on the feeding and house entering/exiting behavior of malaria vectors was assessed in two studies in western Kenya. In one study, matched pairs of houses were allocated randomly to receive bednets or no bednets. Exiting mosquitoes were collected in Colombian curtains hung around half of each house; indoor resting mosquitoes were collected by pyrethrum spray catches. The number of Anopheles gambiae Giles and An. arabiensis Patton estimated to have entered the houses was unaffected by the presence of bednets; Anopheles funestus Giles was less likely to enter a house if bednets were present. Anopheles gambiae and An. funestus were less likely to obtain a blood meal and significantly more likely to exit houses when bednets were present. No difference was detected in An. arabiensis rates of blood feeding and exiting. In a second experiment, hourly night biting collections were done on 13 nights during the rainy season to assess whether village-wide use of permethrin-treated bednets caused a shift in the time of biting of malaria vectors. A statistically significant shift was detected in the biting times of An. gambiae s.l., although the observed differences were small. No change was observed in the hourly distribution of An. funestus biting. Our study demonstrated that, at least in the short-term, bednets reduced human-vector contact and blood feeding success but did not lead to changes in the biting times of the malaria vectors in western Kenya.

Wafula CN, Wamalwa CM, Elamenya L, Ambetsa M, Osano B, Bosire KO, Wamalwa D, Okalebo FA, Wandolo, G. K. "Effect of pesticide exposure on serum cholinesterase levels among asthmatic children in Naivasha sub county, Kenya." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2015;4(1).
N. WC, Wamalwa CM, Ambetsa M, Elamenya L, Osano B, Okalebo FA, Bosire KO, Wandolo G, Karimi PN. "Effect of Pesticide Exposure on SerumCholinesterase Levels among Asthmatic Children in Naivasha Sub-County, Kenya. Afr. J.Pharmacol. Ther.2015. 4(1):." Afr. J.Pharmacol.. 2015;4(1):7-15. Abstractwafula_c.pdf

Effect of Pesticide Exposure on Serum Cholinesterase Levels among Asthmatic Children in Naivasha Sub-County, Kenya
Caroline N. Wafula a,b,*, Cecilia M. Wamalwa a,b, Margaret Ambetsa b,c, Linet Elamenya a,b, Boniface Osano d, Dalton Wamalwa d, Faith A. Okalebo c, Kefa O. Bosire c, George Wandolo e, and Peter N. Karimi a

a Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi, Kenya b Ministry of Health, Kenya

c Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi, Kenya d Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, School of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya
e Department of Human Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya
_____________

* Corresponding author: Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. Tel: +254-72-3245127; Email: wafulacaroline@yahoo.com

Background: Pesticide exposure is a risk factor for asthma exacerbations in flower farm regions in the world. Data on levels of serum cholinesterase among asthmatic children exposed to pesticides in Kenya is scanty.

Objectives: To compare and identify variables which affect the concentration of serum cholinesterases in children who are exposed and unexposed to pesticides.

Methodology: The design was a comparative cross-sectional study that involved exposed and unexposed children. The study was conducted between May and July, 2014 in Naivasha, Kenya. Patients were interviewed and serum samples were analysed for cholinesterase levels. Multi-linear regression was done to identify variables that affected cholinesterase activity.

Results: Children who were exposed to pesticides had a lower median ChE activity of 5828 [IQR 4863, 6443] compared to the unexposed arm whose median was 7133 [IQR 6063, 8179]. Five predictor variables were found to be significantly associated with depression of serum cholinesterase levels. The most important predictor variable for the levels of ChE in children, was not using protective clothing by the parent [adjusted β -1457.0 (95% CI - 2594, 1319.8)]. Others were not using household pesticides [adjusted β 96.3, (95% CI 22.6, 170.0)], female sex [adjusted β - 695.7 (95% CI -1296.2, - 95.3)], non school attendance [adjusted β -1676.8 (95% CI -3371.6, 18.1)] and not taking a break after spraying [adjusted β 1105.5 (95% CI (315.0, 1895.2)].

Conclusion: Children who were exposed to pesticides had low cholinesterase levels. Parents should therefore be encouraged to wear protective gear as this conferred protection of children from the effects of pesticide exposure.

Key words: asthma, exposure, children, pesticides, cholinesterase.

Received: November, 2014

Published: March, 2015

Shisia KS, Ngure V, Nyambaka H, Oduor FDO. "Effect of pH and forage species on mineral concentrations in cattle breeds in major grazing areas of Uasin Gishu County, Kenya." Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci. 2013;2(12):247-254. AbstractInt J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci

Description
The nutrition of grazing animals is a complicated interaction of soils, plants, and animals (Rocky, 2013). The performance and health of grazing livestock is dependent on the adequacy and availability of essential mineral elements from pastures. Grazing livestock requires an understanding of the dynamics of a broad range of forage nutrients (Provenza, 2003). This means that adequate intake of forages by grazing animals is essential in meeting mineral requirements. The ability of forage minerals to meet grazing livestock mineral requirements depends upon quantity (the concentration of minerals in the plant) and the bioavailability of those minerals (amount livestock can absorb from the digestive tract). Although mineral concentrations in the forage might be adequate, the percent that is available to the livestock might be much lower (Khan et al., 2006).

Rashid K;, Waithaka K. "The effect of phosphorous fertilization on growth and tuberization of sweet potato, ipomoea Batatas L.".; 1985. Abstract

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of phosphorus fertilizer levels on the growth and tuberization of two sweet potato cultivars. P did not cause any significant influence on growth or yield of vines and tubers in either cultivar. Cv. I (Musinya) produced significantly longer and a higher yield of vines than cv. II (Gikanda), but the latter produced a significantly higher yield and number of tubers than the former. There was no significant difference in dry matter accumulation in the tubers of both cultivars at all P levels and the control. However, cv. I accumulated significantly higher dry matter in the vines than cv. II, whereas cv. II accumulated significantly higher dry matter in tubers than cv. I during both seasons but P fertilization did not influence the accumulation.

EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Effect of photoperiod, light intensity and temperature on the development and reproduction of the predacious mite, Amblyseius brazilli (Mesostigmata : Phytoseiidae). Rev. Brasil. Biol., 37: 579 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1977. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
Muruga BN, Wagacha JM, Kabaru JM, Amugune N, Duboise SM. "Effect of physicochemical conditions on growth rates of cyanobacteria species isolated from Lake Magadi, a soda lake in Kenya." WebPub J Sci Res. 2014;2:41-50.
Jawuoro SO, Koech OK, Karuku GN, Mbau JS. "Effect of piospheres on physio-chemical soil properties in the Southern Rangelands of Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017;6:14.
Ojiambo PS, P.O A, Narla RD, Nyabundi JO. "Effect of plant age on sesame infection by Alternaria leaf spot." African Crop Science . 1999;7:91-96.
Nguthi FN;, Chweya JA;, Kimani PM. "Effect of plant density on growth, yield and quality of bulb onions."; 1984.
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Njogu SM. "Effect of Plant Derived Organic Binders on The Mechanical Properties of Kaolin - Based Refractories." Journal of Material Science., 43, 4107 - 4111.. 2008;43:4107-4111. AbstractWebsite

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Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats. 
Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.
 
The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively.
The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.
 KEY WORDS
Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial

M.N M, R.D N, R.K M, F.W M. "Effect of plant extracts on growth of Alernaria porri (Ellis) Cif and other fungal pathogens of onion." Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2007;3(1):7-11.
Lengai GMW, Muthomi JW, Mbega ER. "Effect of plant extracts on important fungal pathogens and germination of tomato seed." International Journal of Biosciences (IJB). 2021;18(4):77-92.
Njogu S, Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. "Effect of plant-derived organic binders on fracture toughness and fatigue of kaolin-based refractories”,." Journal of Materials Science. 2008;43:107-4111. Abstract

The fracture properties of kaolin – based refractories prepared using plant derived binders from okra and
“mrenda” have been investigated. It was observed that okra binder improved the MOR of fired samples from 194.0± 0.1 MPa to 384 ± 0.1 MPa, while the fracture toughness increased from 3.9 ± 0.1 MPa (for binder free samples) to 5.6 ± 0.1 MPa and 5.7 ± 0.1 MPa for okra and ‘mrenda’ plasticized samples respectively. It is concluded that the use of organic binders enhances the reliability and service life of kaolin refractories used in thermally fluctuating environments.

El-Badry EA, El-Banhawy EM. "The effect of pollen feeding on the predatory efficiency of Amblyseius gossipi (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) Ent. Exp. & Appl., 7: 273.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1968. Abstract

We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten

Mbogo PK, Aduda J, Mwangi M. "The Effect of Portfolio Size on the Financial Performance of Portfolios of Investment Firms in Kenya." American Journal of Finance. 2017;1(2):1-15.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Effect of Post Basic Psychiatric Nursing Training on Knowledge, Attitudes and Skills of Nurses in the Management of Substance Dependent Patients at Mathari Hospital, Nairobi- Nov.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal KNJ 36:.(2):21-26:2007. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2007. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Effect of post treatment temperature on insecticidal activity of Melia Volkensii fruit extract against Locusta migratoria.". In: African Journal of Science & Technology: 3,20-23. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "The effect of post-harvest crop cover on soil erosion in a maize-legume based cropping system in Gatanga, Kenya. Journal of Agriculture in the Tropics and Subtropics, Vol 103, pp 17-28.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
DR. KABARU JACQUESM. "EFFECT OF POST-TREATMENT TEMPERATURE ON THE INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF MELIA VOLKENSII GURKE) FRUIT EXTRACT AGAINST THE AFRICAN MIGRATORY LOCUST LOCUSTA MIGRATORIA (REICHE & FAIRMAIRE).". In: Massachusetts. CABI. Pp 209. African Meteorological Society; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The influence of post- treatment temperature on the insecticidal activity of Melia volkensii (Gurke) fruit extract against the African migratory locust, Locusta migratoria (Reiche & Fairmaire) is reported. In laboratory tests conducted Oil adult locusts, the toxicity of crude 80% methanol extracts of M. volkensii fruit increased by more than 20-fold when the post-treatment temperature was raised from 1S"C to 40"C. This temperature-dependent toxicity was observed in insects treated either topically or via injection. This phenomenon could partly explain the wide variability in efficacy of M. volkensii fruit extracts reported by different investigators.  
Kabaru JM, Mwangi RW. "Effect of post-treatment temperature on the insecticidal activity of Neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extracts." Insect Science and its Application. 2000;20(1):77-79.
Ambuko JL, Sekozawa Y, Sugaya S, Zanol G, Gemma H. "Effect of postharvest hot air treatments on ripening and soluble sugars in banana fruits, Musa spp.'Williams'.". In: XXVIII International Horticultural Congress on Science and Horticulture for People (IHC2010): International Symposium on 934.; 2010:. Abstract
n/a
Onyango SO, Abong GO, Okoth MW, Kilalo DC, Mwang’ombe AW. "Effect of Pre-treatment and Processing on Nutritional Composition of Cassava Roots, Millet, and Cowpea Leaves Flours." Nutrition and Sustainable Diets, a section of the journal Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems. 2021;5(625735):1-8.
Nyangena IO, Owino WO, Imathiu S, Ambuko J. "Effect of pretreatments prior to drying on antioxidant properties of dried mango slices." Scientific African. 2019;6:e00148. Abstract
n/a
Nguu J, Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Musembi RJ. "Effect of Process-Related Parameters on Band Gap of Electrophoretically Deposited TiO2/Nb2O5 Composite Thin Films. ." African Journal of Physical Sciences. 2014;Volume [1], (June 2014 ):43-49.
Munguti LK, Mwathe PM, Robinson Musembi, Munji M, Odari B, Ntilakigwa AA, Nguu J, Aduda B, Muthoka B. "EFFECT OF PROCESS-RELATED PARAMETERS ON BAND GAP OF ELECTROPHORETICALLY DEPOSITED TIO2NB2O5 COMPOSITE THIN FILMS." Science Publishing Group. 2014;1. AbstractJournal Article Website

Pd-F:SnO2 thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique using an alcoholic precursor solution consisting of stannic chloride (SnCl4.5H20), ammonium fluoride (NH4F) and palladium chloride (PdCl2). Optimization on the deposition parameters has been done in order to obtain high quality thin films. The effect of varying the fluorine content on the optical properties of Pd-F:SnO2 thin films were studied. Data for transmittance and reflectance in the wavelength range from 300nm – 2500nm was measured using the solid spec 3700DUV spectrophotometer. The calculated optical band gap of the as prepared thin films has been found to range from 3.8eV to 4.11eV. Fluorine incorporation for Pd-F:SnO2 has been found to have a narrowing effect on the band gap, but at its higher concentration the band gap has been seen to increase. The band gap narrowing is due to the incorporation of F- ions in the crystal lattice therefore giving rise to donor levels in the SnO2 band gap which is an essential characteristic for the gas sensor applications. Both annealing and passivation have been found to have very insignificant change in optical band gap of Pd-F:SnO2.

GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD. "The effect of processing conditions on the quality of drum dried cassava. Proceedings of the eighth symposium of the International Society for Tropical Root Crops. Bangkok, Thailand. Oct. 30 .". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. Kisipan, M.L.; 1988. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD. "The effect of Processing parameters on the final quality of food dried by a single Drum Drier (MSc thesis). University of Nairobi & Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. Kisipan, M.L.; 1978. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
Fonta WM, Ichoku HE, KABUBO-MARIARA J. "The Effect of Protest Zeros on Estimates of Willingness to Pay in Healthcare Contingent Valuation Analysis." Applied Health Economics and Health Policy. 2010;8(4):225-37.
Onjala J, Awiti J, Gideon M. "Effect of Public Spending on Economic Growth in Kenya." Journal of Economics. 2018;6(2).
OMAYIO DUKEG, Abong' GO, Okoth MW, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Mwang'ombe AW. "Effect of pulping methods on the physicochemical properties of the Kenyan red and white‐fleshed guava pulp." JSFA Reports. 2022;2(3):131-142.
PN N, LW I, SK M. "Effect of puparia incubation temperature: increased infection rates of Trypanosoma congolense in Glossina morsitans centralis, G. fuscipes fuscipes and G. brevipalpis." Medical and veterinary entomology. 1992;6(2):127-130. AbstractPubMed link

Puparia of Glossina morsitans centralis (Machado), G.fuscipes fuscipes (Newstead) and G.brevipalpis (Newstead) were incubated at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, 28 +/- 1:25 +/- 1 degrees C, day:night or 29 +/- 1 degrees C throughout the puparial period, and maintained at 70-80% relative humidity. Puparial mortality was higher at 29 than at 25 degrees C (optimum temperature) in all three species, particularly in G.f.fuscipes and G.brevipalpis. Adults of G.m.centralis from puparia incubated at 29 degrees C, and those of this subspecies, G.f.fuscipes and G.brevipalpis from puparia incubated at 28:25 degrees C, day:night or 25 degrees C throughout, were infected as tenerals (27 h old) by feeding them at the same time on goats infected with Trypanosoma congolense (Broden) IL 1180 after the parasites were detected in the wet blood film. Infection rates on day 25 post-infected feed were higher in G.m.centralis from puparia incubated at 29 degrees C and in adults of the three different tsetse species from puparia incubated at 28:25 degrees C, day:night, than in those from puparia incubated at 25 degrees C. However, in G.f.fuscipes the labral and hypopharyngeal infection rates were not significantly different from those of the tsetse produced by puparia kept at 25 degrees C.

Anastacia K, Ibrahim K. "Effect of Pupil-Teacher Ratio on Graduation Rate of Early Childhood Development and Education in Embu County Public Primary Schools, Kenya." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice. 2020;1(1):18-21.
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. "The Effect of Quartz and Mullite Pahses on Strength of Triaxial Porcelain." East African Journal of Physical Sciences. 2004;1(5):11-24. Abstract

The effect of quartz and mullite crystalline phases on the strength of triaxial porcelain in the system
quartz-feldspar-kaolin composed of 20%wt silica and feldspar/kaolin ratio of 5:8 has been
investigated. It was found that secondary mullite crystals enhanced both the compressive strength and
elastic properties of porcelain by the interlocking mechanism. Excess glass formation decreased the
fracture strength of porcelain as a result of the combined effect of circumferential cracks around
quartz grains and the microcracks within the quartz grains. The circumferencial cracks due to the
difference in the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the glassy and the quartz phases,
whereas the microcracks were due to a- to b- quartz phase inversions.

Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. "The Effect of Quartz and Mullite Phases on Strength of Triaxial Porcelain." East African Journal of Physical Sciences. 2004;5(1):11-24.
Ombega NJ, S. M. Mureithi, O. K. Koech, Karuma AN, Gachene CKK. "Effect of rangeland rehabilitation on the herbaceous species composition and diversity in Suswa catchment, Narok County, Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017.
Ombega NJ, S. M. Mureithi, O. K. Koech, Karuma AN, Gachene CKK. "Effect of rangeland rehabilitation on the herbaceous species composition and diversity in Suswa catchment, Narok County, Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017.
Ombega NJ, S. M. Mureithi, O. K. Koech, Karuma AN, Gachene CKK. "Effect of rangeland rehabilitation on the herbaceous species composition and diversity in Suswa catchment, Narok County, Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017.
Ombega NJ, S. M. Mureithi, O. K. Koech, Karuma AN, CKK G. "Effect of rangeland rehabilitation on the herbaceous species composition and diversity in Suswa catchment, Narok County, Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017.
Ombega NJ, Mureithi SM, Koech OK, Karuma AN, Gachene CKK. "Effect of rangeland rehabilitation on the herbaceous species composition and diversity in Suswa catchment, Narok County, Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017;6(1):41.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "The effect of rapid HIV-1 testing on uptake of perinatal HIV-1 interventions: a randomized clinical trial. Malonza IM, Richardson BA, Kreiss JK, Bwayo JJ, Stewart GC. AIDS. 2003 Jan 3;17(1):113-8.". In: AIDS. 2003 Jan 3;17(1):113-8. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2003. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
Ndiritu A, RUGENDO CAROLINE, Chandi J, Keiyoro P, Mbwesa J. "The effect of Reading skills on academic performance of Distance learners: A case of the University of Nairobi Distance Learners."; 2013. Abstract

Vision 2030 reveals the magnitude of wastage in the transition from secondary to University Education. It notes that secondary school enrolment has risen from 112,229 in the 2006/2007 academic year to 118,239 in 2007/2008 academic year; the passage to university is at 3 percent. To raise the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) of university students from the present 3 per cent to the projected 15 per cent, the government must continue increasing the number of students joining higher education from 130,000 (2008) to 450,000 (2015). This can be done by expanding the capacities of existing universities through establishment of new courses in Distance Education. The university of Nairobi school of continuing and distance education runs a course in distance education. It has been observed that many students fail to score a total of 40% in a given course and they re-sit the failed units. The failure rate goes up to 63% with 27% out of 38% cases, which is a very high failure rate. High failure rate and the ever increasing time taken to graduate is a chronic problem in Distance learning. One of the reasons why there could be poor performance is lack of quality time in reading. It is therefore worth knowing how efficiency in distance learning can be enhanced. To find out the effect of reading skills on academic performance a study was carried out. A total number of 650 students were selected using stratified random sampling technique. This sample was taken from 4,500 University of Nairobi students who were registered for B.Ed degree in different levels of study in the school of continuing and distance Education. A mixed mode method approach was used in data collection. Correlational research design was employed in data analysis. Pearson correlations were used to establish if there was a relationship between reading skills and academic performance. The analysis indicated a strong relationship between reading skills and academic [r= 0.569]. The value of r2 =0.324, indicated that reading skills accounts for about 32.4% of the variation in average performance.
Key words reading skills:, Distance Learning

Robinson Musembi, Aduda B, Mwabora J, Rusu M, Fostiropoulos K, Lux-Steiner M. "Effect of Recombination on Series Resistance in eta Solar Cell Modified with In(OH)xSy Buffer Layer." International Journal of Energy Engineering. 2013;3(3):183-189. AbstractWebsite

Transport mechanism studies in TiO2/In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS eta solar cell have been carried out. The characterizations have been performed both in the dark and under varying illumination intensity for temperature range 200 K – 320 K. Calculations from ideality factor have shown that the recombination process of the eta solar cell in the dark to be tunneling enhanced, while under illumination it is thermally activated and takes place through exponentially distributed energy recombination levels. The temperature has been found to influence series resistance of the solar cell. Series resistance has been found to be high at low temperature and low at higher temperature, thus we can conclude that the recombination is thermally activated.

Keywords: Eta Solar Cell, Recombination, Series Resistance, Buffer Layer

Cite this paper: Robinson Musembi, Bernard Aduda, Julius Mwabora, Marin Rusu, Konstantinos Fostiropoulos, Martha Lux-Steiner, Effect of Recombination on Series Resistance in eta Solar Cell Modified with In(OH)xSy Buffer Layer, International Journal of Energy Engineering, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2013, pp. 183-189. doi: 10.5923/j.ijee.20130303.09.

Musembi R;, Aduda B;, Mwabora J;, Rusu M;, Fostiropoulos K;, Lux-Steiner M. "Effect of Recombination on Series Resistance in eta Solar Cell Modified with In(OH)xSy Buffer Layer." Internatio n al J ournal of Ene r g y En gi nee ri ng 20 1 3. 2013. Abstract

Transport mechanism studies in Ti02/In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS eta solar cell have been carried out. The characterizations have been performed both in the dark and under Varying illumination intensity for temperature range 200 K - 320 K. Calculations from ideality factor have shown that the recombination process of the eta solar cell in the dark to be tunneling enhanced, while under illumination it is thermally activated and takes place through exponentially distributed energy recombination levels. The temperature has been found to influence series resistance of the solar cell. Series resistance has been found to be high at low temperature and low at higher temperature, thus we can conclude that the recombination is thermally activated.

KEINO DINAHCHEBET, GACHUNGA HAZEL, Ogollah K. "EFFECT OF RECRUITMENT ON EMPLOYER BRANDING IN THE MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATION SECTOR IN KENYA." The strategic Business and change Journal of Management. 2016;3(1):146-166.dinah_keino_gachunga_and_ogollah_2016.pdf
Magoha GAO. "The effect of rectal examination on serum acid phosphatase levels in benign and malignant prostatic disease." Postgraduate Medical Journal . 1982;(58):763-766. Abstract

Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.

Kinyanjui E, Ochieng DE. "Effect of Remittances from Diaspora on Financial Sector Deepening in the East African Community ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):82-10. Abstract

Abstract
Purpose – This paper investigated the effect of diaspora remittances on financial sector deepening in the East African Community. Personal diaspora remittances were used as a measure of remittances from diaspora. The three proxies for financial deepening that were employed in the study were domestic credit as a ratio of GDP, total credit provided by the financial sector as a percentage of GDP and degree of monetization, M2 as a percentage of GDP.
Methodology – The study adopted an explanatory research design. It employed panel data analysis - fixed effects method, to model the linear regression equation. The population of the study was the five East African Community member countries and covered a 20-year period (1997 to 2016). The data for this study was obtained from the World Bank statistics website.
Findings – This study established that there exists a positive relationship between remittances from diaspora and financial sector deepening in the EAC but this relationship is not significant. The three models analyzed in this study, show that a 0.31, 0.08 and 0.28 change respectively, in remittances in the respective models, leads to a unit change in the level of financial sector deepening in the EAC.
Implications – The results of this study show that an increase in the level of remittances leads to increased financial deepening in the EAC economies. There is therefore need for the government in liaison with the private sector, to provide a conducive environment for development of financially innovative products that ease and reduce the cost of sending remittances as this will foster further financial deepening, which has the positive effect of financial inclusion, access to credit and economic growth.
Value – This study recommended the fostering of activities that are geared towards the ease of sending remittances and cost reduction of sending the remittances through employment of new financial technologies. Further studies have also been recommended to increase the frontiers of the study especially on developed countries in order to gain more conclusive understanding and generalizability of the remittances-financial sector deepening nexus.

Key Words; Diaspora remittances, Financial sector deepening, East Africa Community

Katimi L, Mumenya SW. "The effect of retarding chemical superplasticizers on the setting time of cement pastes in Kenya: A case study of Ready Mix Concrete in Nairobi." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) . 2016;28(2):184-219.
Mustafa KN;, Chemining'wa GN;, Nyabundi JO. "Effect of rhizobium inoculation of beans on growth and yield of maize and beans under different Intercropping patterns."; 2005. Abstract

The same row and this also out-yielded sole Rhizobium inoculation of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and intercropping patterns of maize and beans were evaluated for two seasons in a field study. Plant population of each crop in all planting patterns was 53,333 plants ha-1. Beans were either uninoculated or inoculated with Rhizobium. Planting patterns consisted of maize and beans intercropped in the same hill, maize and beans intercropped as. alternating plants in the same row, maize and beans intercropped in alternate rows, sole maize and sole beans. Increasing intimacy between the intercrop species and inoculation significantly increased biomass and leaf area indices of both maize and beans, and also the number of nodules per bean plant. Inoculation significantly increased yield of maize in all intercropping treatments. In the inoculated treatments, intercropping maize and beans in the same hill had significantly higher maize grain yield than intercropping in alternate hills in the same row and this, in turn, out-yielded sole maize cropping and intercropping in alternate rows whose yields were not significantly different. When beans were inoculated, similar results were obtained but in the second season no difference was observed between intercropping in the same hill and intercropping in alternate hills in the same row. Sole maize was also significantly superior to maize intercropped with beans in alternate rows. Beans intercropped with maize in the same hill out-yielded beans intercropped with maize in alternate hills in the same row and this also out-yielded sole beans. Beans intercropped with maize in alternate rows had the lowest yield. These results demonstrate the superiority of intercropping maize and beans in close proximity and Rhizobium inoculation both of which promoted nodulation by the bean plants. There is need to establish why beans intercropped with maize in the same hill out¬yielded sole beans.

Muthomi JW, Otieno PE, Chemining´wa GN, Nderitu JH, Wagacha JM. "Effect of root rot pathogens and fungicide seed treatment on nodulation and biomass accumulation." Journal of Biological Sciences. 2007;7:1163-1170.
Muthomi JW;, Otieno PE;, Chemining’wa GN;, Nderitu JH. Effect Of Root Rot Pathogens And Fungicide Seed Treatment On Nodulation In Food Grain Legumes.; 2013. Abstract

Greenhouse experiments were conducted over 2 cropping cycles to investigate the effect of fungicide seed treatment and fungal root rot pathogens on nodulation and dry matter accumulation of selected food legumes. The legumes were common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.var GLP 2), green gram (Vigna radiata L., variety M66) and lablab (Lablab purpureus L.). Treatments included, inoculation of legumes with pathogen alone (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. phaseoli or Macrophomina phaseolina or Sclerotinia sclerotiorum or Rhizoctonia solani), or with appropriate rhizobia alone or application of fungicide (copper oxychloride) or their combinations. Results of the study indicated that fungicide seed treatment reduced disease incidence on Sclerotinia and Rhizoctonia inoculated plants. However, fungicide treatment significantly (p=0.05) depressed nodulation of the legumes but its effect on nodulation was significantly suppressed when applied together with rhizobia on infected seeds. Fungicide application significantly reduced seedlings mortality (pre-emergence damping off) and number of nodules per plant but had no effect on dry matter accumulation. Combination of fungicide and rhizobia inoculation improved nodulation as well as reducing disease incidence. It is therefore concluded that this combination yields better results if the aim is to reduce root rot incidence while improving nodulation concurrently.

SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Effect of Rotenoids from the seeds of Millettia dura on Larvae of Aedes aegypti.". In: Chemical Sciences Journal Vol. 2012: CSJ-56. Elsevier; 2003. Abstract

A crude chloroform extract of seeds of Millettia dura Dunn (Leguminosae) showed high activity (LC50 = 3.5 microg ml(-1) at 24 h) against second-instar larvae of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti L (Diptera: Culicidae). The rotenoids, deguelin and tephrosin, isolated from the seeds of this plant also showed potent activities, with LC50 values of 1.6 and 1.4 microg ml(-1) at 24 h, respectively. The related rotenoids millettone and millettosin were inactive at 20 microg ml(-1). Saturation at the B/C ring junction and the presence of methoxy groups at C-2 and/or C-3 in deguelin and tephrosin appear to be important for the observed larvicidal activity.

Otsyina HR, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Ogara WO. "Effect of ruminal plastic bags on haematological and biochemical parameters of sheep and goats." Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;53:5-16. Abstract
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Otsyina HR, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Ogara WO. "Effect of ruminal plastic bags on haematological and biochemical parameters of sheep and goats." Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;53:5-16.
Otsyina HR, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Ogara WO. "Effect of ruminal plastic bags on haematological and biochemical parameters of sheep and goats." Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;53:5-16.
Otsyina H, Nguhiu J, E M, Mbuthia P G, W O. "Effect of ruminal plastic bags on wellbeing of goats." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production Africa. 2017;65:435-443.
Otsyina H, Nguhiu J, E M, Mbuthia P G, W O. "Effect of ruminal plastic bags on wellbeing of goats." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production Africa. 2017;65:435-443. Abstract
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Otsyina HR, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mbuthia PG, Mogoa EGM, Ogara WO. "Effect of ruminal plastic bags on wellbeing of goats." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2017;65(3):439-447.
MBUYA TO, ODUORI MF, Rading GO, WEKESA MS. "Effect of runner design on mechanical properties of permanent mould aluminium castings.". 2006. AbstractWebsite

A comparison of the influence of different runner designs on the mechanical properties of aluminium castings has shown that filtered rectangular runners (FRRs) yield aluminium castings with higher and more reliable mechanical properties than the conventional unfiltered rectangular runners. Unfiltered vortex flow runners have also been shown to improve the reliability of the modulus of rupture of cast aluminium alloys over unfiltered rectangular runners. In the present paper, experimental results of a comparative study on the effect of the unfiltered vortex flow and FRR designs on the tensile strength of permanent mould aluminium castings are reported. The results show that an FRR yields castings with higher and more reliable tensile strengths than the unfiltered vortex flow runner. Castings poured into a mould with an FRR had strengths between 269 and 291 MPa and a Weibull modulus of 50·2 while castings poured into the vortex flow runner had strengths between 255 and 280 MPa and a Weibull modulus of 40·3.

MBUYA TO, ODUORI MF, Rading GO, WEKESA MS. "Effect of runner design on mechanical properties of permanent mould aluminium castings.". 2006. AbstractWebsite

A comparison of the influence of different runner designs on the mechanical properties of aluminium castings has shown that filtered rectangular runners (FRRs) yield aluminium castings with higher and more reliable mechanical properties than the conventional unfiltered rectangular runners. Unfiltered vortex flow runners have also been shown to improve the reliability of the modulus of rupture of cast aluminium alloys over unfiltered rectangular runners. In the present paper, experimental results of a comparative study on the effect of the unfiltered vortex flow and FRR designs on the tensile strength of permanent mould aluminium castings are reported. The results show that an FRR yields castings with higher and more reliable tensile strengths than the unfiltered vortex flow runner. Castings poured into a mould with an FRR had strengths between 269 and 291 MPa and a Weibull modulus of 50·2 while castings poured into the vortex flow runner had strengths between 255 and 280 MPa and a Weibull modulus of 40·3.

MBUYA TO, ODUORI MF, Rading GO, WEKESA MS. "Effect of Runner System Design on the Mechanical Properties of Permanent Mould Aluminium Castings." International Journal of Cast Metals Research. 2006;19(6):357-360. AbstractWebsite

Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated.
PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Ambuko JL, Sekozawa Y, Sugaya S, Itoh F, Nakamura K, Gemma H. "Effect of seasonal variation, cultivar and production system on some postharvest characteristics of the banana.". In: IV International Conference on Managing Quality in Chains-The Integrated View on Fruits and Vegetables Quality 712.; 2006:. Abstract
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Mumia BI, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Nyongesa M, Olubayo FM. "Effect of Seed Potato Tuber Storage Methods on Occurrence of Potato Diseases." International Journal of Research in Agricultural Sciences . 2017;4(4):23-48.
Buyela SN, Muthomi JW, Mwang’ombe AW, Njau P, Olubayo F. "Effect of Seed Treatment on Wheat Seed Viability and Vigour." American Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;5(1):1-9.
P M, Abuodha SO, N MJ, N MG. "The Effect of Selected Cement Brands in Kenya on the Critical Penetration depth of Rust in Reinforced Concrete Water Conveyancing Structures." International Journal of Scientific Research Publication. 2018;Vol 8(11):276-285.
P M, O AS, N MJ, Mang'uriu GN. "Effect of Selected Commercially Available Corrosion Inhibitors in Kenya on Bond Strength of Reinforced Concrete." British Journal of Civil and Architecture Engineering. 2020;Vol 02(1):133-152.
Mwangi PM, Ochieng DE. "The Effect of Selected Macro-economic Variables on Exchange Rates in Kenya." African development finance journal. 2017;1(2):162-177. Abstractthe_effect_of_selected_macro_economic_variables_on_exchange_rates_in_kenya.pdf

Purpose – This paper sought to establish the effect of selected macro-economic variables
on exchange rates in Kenya. The selected macro-economic variables for this study were
interest rates, inflation rates and trade flows.
Methodology – The study was modeled as a descriptive survey. A data collection sheet
was used to collect secondary data from the published bulletin and other publications by
Central Bank of Kenya and Kenya National Bureau of Statistics for a period of ten years
between 2006 and 2015. The data was examined using descriptive, correlation and
regression analyses.
Findings - Results of the study showed that interest rate had a positive correlation
coefficient of 0.446 with exchange rate, Inflation rate and exchange rate had a correlation
coefficient of negative 0.395 while the Level of aggregation of trade flows had a
correlation coefficient of positive 0.829 to the exchange rate. The value of R square was
0.745, a discovery that 74.5 percent of the deviations in exchange rates in Kenya
occurred due to changes in interest rate, inflation rate and trade flows at 95 percent
confidence level. The significance value obtained was less than p=0.05 implying that the
model was statistically significant in predicting how the macro economic variables of
interest rate, inflation rate and trade flows affect exchange rates in Kenya.
Implications - The Kenyan shilling has been depreciating in value over the years
implying a weakening of its purchasing power in the international markets. Policy makers
should come up with policies that will contribute to reversing this trend. Managing the
prevailing levels of inflation, interest rates and trade flows will be key as they have been
found to significantly affect exchange rates.
Value - The study will act as a guide to variou

N MRMAINGIELIUD. "Effect of selection pressure for thiabendazole resistance on fitness of Haemonchus contortus in sheep. Parasitology, 100:327-335.". In: Tidsskrift for Dansk Fareavl (Danish Sheep Breeders Journal) 60: 19-20. Kisipan, M.L.; 1990. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

Abong'o DA, Onyatta JO, Mbugua H. "The Effect of Septic Tanks Sewage Disposal System Distances on Borehole Water Quality in Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, Kenya." European International Journal of Science and Technology. 2017;6(3):1-10.
A A’oD, J.O O, M H. "The Effect of Septic Tanks Sewage Disposal System Distances On Borehole Water Quality in Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, Kenya:." The Effect of Septic Tanks Sewage Disposal System Distances On Borehole Water Quality in Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, Kenya. 2017;6(3):1-10.
Munyao SM, ODOCK SO, Rucha K. "Effect of service quality management practices on operational performance of petroleum distributing firms in Kenya." International Journal of Science Arts and Commerce. 2017;2(2):49-71. Abstract

The desire of any service organization is to deliver quality service that meets their customer expectations so as to remain profitable and in business. The service market has now become more competitive than ever before and meeting customer needs is a necessity. Petroleum distributing firms in Kenya are at a great task of perfecting their service delivery systems to ensure that their customers get quality product at the right time, right quantity and above all safely. Well managed service quality practices have the potential of transforming the operational performance of an organization. The objectives of the study were to determine the extent of adoption of service quality management practices by petroleum distributing firms in Kenya, the challenges they face in the implementation of these practices and the effect of these practices on the firms’ operational performance. The study was carried out through a descriptive survey of 32 petroleum distributing firms in Kenya. Drop and pick later questionnaires were used to collect primary data. The collected data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and descriptive statistics like mean and standard deviation used to summarize the findings. The regression analysis technique was used to establish the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. The research findings were presented in tables. The findings indicated that petroleum distributing firms adopted various service quality management practices to a large extent. The findings also indicated that the firms were faced by various challenges in their endeavour to implement the service quality management practices. Further, the findings indicated that there existed generally a positive relationship between service quality management practices and operational performance. The main conclusion was that the adoption of service quality management practices by petroleum distributing firms was inevitable since it improved the operational performance of these firms. The researcher recommends that policy makers should ensure organizations embrace service quality management practices for improved productivity and better returns from their investments. The researcher concludes by suggesting that similar research to be carried out in other sectors of the economy other than petroleum industry.

Peng B, Li Q, Feng X-Q, Gao H. "Effect of shear stress on adhesive contact with a generalized Maugis-Dugdale cohesive zone model." Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids. 2021;148:104275. Abstract
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Xu X, Du Q, Peng B, Xiong Q, Hong L, Demir HV, Wong TKS, Kyaw AKK, Sun X. "Effect of shell thickness on small-molecule solar cells enhanced by dual plasmonic gold-silica nanorods." Applied Physics Letters. 2014;105:148\_1. Abstract
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Abayo GO;, Ransom JK;, Oswald A;, Ariga ES;, Friesen D. "Effect Of Short-term Improved Fallow On Striga Infestation In Maize.".; 2000.
Diaz W, G.N K. "Effect of Shubbhodaya Mycorrhiza on crop performace, draught tolerance and yields.". In: The 27th Soil Science Society of East Africa and 6th Africa Soil Science Society Conference. Hotel Cathy, Nakuru, Kenya; 2013.
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. "Effect of Silica Additions on Strength and Elastic Modulus of Kenyan Industrial Clay Ceramics." African Journal of Science. 2000;2(2):77-89.
Kimani ST;, Patel NB;, Kioy PG. "Effect of single and daily khat (Catha edulis) extract on locomotor behaviour in CBA mice." Scientific Research and Essay. 2008;3(5):187-196.
Kimani, S.T. PKNBPG. "Effect of single and repeated khat (Catha edulis) extract on locomotor behaviour in CBA mice." Scientific Research and Essays . 2008;3(5):187-196.
Kimani, S.T. PKNBPG. "Effect of single and repeated khat (Catha edulis) extract on locomotor behaviour in CBA mice." Scientific Research and Essays. 2008;3(5):187-196.
and Kimani NSTAW. "Effect of single daily khat (Catha edulis) extract on spatial learning and memory in CBA mice." Behavioral Brain Research. 2008;(195):192-197.
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. Effect of Sintering Temperature on Material Properties of Kenyan Industrial Clay Ceramics. Kampala, Uganda: Makere University; 1999.
K DRKARUUSIMONP. "The effect of SO 4 2- , Cl - , F - and PO 4 3- on sewer fabric with emphasis on the concrete systems" 231 pages.". In: Proceedings of the Australian Soc. of Reproductive Biology, Melbourne, 27 31 August, 1984. Page 60. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2000. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Wanjekeche E;, Imungi JK;, Karuri EG. "Effect of Soaking on the Cookability and Nutritional Quality of Mucuna Bean."; 2010. Abstract

Mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) is a legume with high but unexploited potential for food and soil fertility improvement. Use of the seed as food is limited by the hard-to-cook defect and the presence of several antinutritional factors notably the non-protein amino acid, 3, 4 ...

Wanjekeche E;, Imungi JK;, Karuri EG. "Effect of Soaking on the Cookability and Nutritional Quality of Mucuna Bean."; 2010. Abstract

Mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) is a legume with high but unexploited potential for food and soil fertility improvement. Use of the seed as food is limited by the hard-to-cook defect and the presence of several antinutritional factors notably the non-protein amino acid, 3, 4 .

Wambugu S, Okello JJ, Nyikal R. "Effect of Social Capital on Performance of Smallholder Farmer Organizations in Western Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 2010;4(6):10-19. AbstractWebsite

Development literature has recently promoted the use of producer organizations in linking farmers to better-paying
commodity markets. However, empirical studies find mixed performance of such organizations. This study examines the producer
organizations’ internal factors that may explain the differences in the performance of producer organizations. The study specifically
analyzes the role of social capital, within a producer organization, on the performance of such organization using quantitative
techniques. The level of commercialization is used as proxy of organization’s performance. The study finds that social capital
positively affects the performance of producer organizations. These findings imply that development strategies that target the
promotion commercialization of smallholder agriculture through producer organizations should pay attention to the internal factors
within such organizations.
Key words: Smallholder farmers, agricultural commercialization, social capital, performance of farmer organizations, Kenya.

J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Effect of social capital on performance of smallholder producer organizations in western Kenya.". In: Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Technology. 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja; 2011. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
F. NJ, N MJ, T N, K DV. "Effect of Sodium Hydroxide Concentration on the Surface and Mechanical Properties of Borassus Aethiopium Mart Fibre." International Journal of Science and Research Publications (IJSRP). 2018;Vol. 7(11):774-779.
M W, MW O, GO A', J M, JN K. "Effect of Soil Characteristics on Potato Tuber Minerals Composition of Selected Kenyan Varieties." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2014;6(12):163-171.soil_and_tuber__mineral.pdf
Wekesa MN, Okoth MW, Abong’ GO, Muthoni J, Kabira JN. "Effect of Soil Characteristics on Potato Tuber Minerals Composition of Selected Kenyan Varieties." Journal of Agricultural Science;. 2014;6(12).wekesa_2014a_effect_of_soil_characteristics_potato.pdf
Morris MM, Muthomi JW, Wagacha JM. "Effect of Soil Fertility and Intercropping on the Incidence and Severity of Root Rot Diseases of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). ." World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;5(4):189-199.
Wachira PM, Okoth S, Kimenju J, Mibey RK, Kiarie J. "Effect of soil fertility management practices on nematode destroying fungi in Taita, Kenya." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2011;(13):43-49. Abstract

The study aimed at identifying soil fertility practices that promoted nematode destroying fungi in the soil and the treatments comprised of Mavuno fertilizer, Triple super- phosphate and calcium ammonium nitrate (TSP+CAN), cow manure and a control where no amendments were applied. This experiment was replicated in ten farms for three planting seasons. There were significant difference (P= 1.705 x 10-06) in occurrence of the nematode destroying fungi between soil fertility treatments. The highest mean occurrence of nematode destroying fungi was 1.6 which was recorded in soils amended with cow manure and the least was in soils from the control plots. A mean of 0.78 was recorded in soils from both TSP+CAN and Mavuno fertilizers. Plots amended with cow manure gave the highest diversity of nematodes followed by the control, then TSP+CAN and least in Mavuno with shannon indices of 0.34, 0.15, 0.13 and 0.11 respectively. Sixty percent of all the isolated nematode destroying fungi genera were from plots treated with cow manure and only twenty percent were from plots amended with the inorganic fertilizer

Wachira, P.M, Okoth, S.A. "Effect of Soil fertility management practices on nematode edstroying fungi in Taita, Kenya." Tropical and Subtropical Agro ecosystems. 2011;13(1):51-57.
Wepukhulu M, Kimenju J, Anyango B, Wachira P.M, G.K K. "Effect of soil fertility manangement practices and Bacillus subtilis on plant parasitic nematodes associated with common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystem. 2011;13(1):27-34.
Ngunjirir J, Keiyoro P, Ochanda H, Oyieke FA. Effect of soil pH on Tunga penetrans population.; 2013.
Ngunjirir J, Ochanda H, Oyieke FA, Keiyoro P. "Effect of soil pH on Tunga penetrans population.". 2013.
Marenya PP;, Barnett CB. "The effect of soil quality on fertilizer use rates among smallholder farmers in western Kenya."; 2009. Abstract

Studies of fertilizer use in sub-Saharan Africa have been dominated by analyses of economic and market factors having to do with infrastructure, institutions, and incentives that prevent or foster increased fertilizer demand, largely ignoring how soil fertility status conditions farmer demand for fertilizer. We apply a switching regression model to data from 260 farm households in western Kenya in order to allow for the possibility of discontinuities in fertilizer demand based on a soil carbon content (SCC) threshold. We find that the usual factors reflecting liquidity and quasi-fixed inputs are important on high-SCC plots but not on those with poorer soils. External inputs become less effective on soils with low SCC, hence the discernible shift in behaviors across soil quality regimes. For many farmers, improved fertilizer market conditions alone may be insufficient to stimulate increased fertilizer use without complementary improvements in the biophysical conditions that affect conditional factor demand. JEL classification: Q12, Q18, Q24

Zemek J, Bílik V, Zákutná L. "Effect of some aldoses on growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae inhibited with molybdenum." Folia Microbiol. (Praha). 1975;20(6):467-9. Abstract

The inhibitory effect of molybdenum ions on growth of yeasts at pH 5.5 was found to be decreased by aldoses in the following order: D-talose greater than L-mannose greater than L-ribose greater than D-lyxose greater than L-galactose greater than L-arabinose greater than L-glucose greater than L-xylose. Increased concentrations of molybdenum brought about morphological changes of yeast cells. Cells grown under these conditions were smaller, had thicker walls and formed clusters.

MBUYA TO, ODERA BO, NG’ANG’A SP, ODUORI MF. "Effect of Some Casting Parameters on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Recycled Aluminium Castings of Various Automobile Components." The Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2007;3(1):29-43. AbstractWebsite

Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated.
PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI. "Effect of source, time and method of nitrogen application on growth and yield components of potato in Kenya. African Crop Science Journal 8:1-8.". In: Poster presented at the fifth Regional meeting of the Forum for Agricultural Resource Husbandry 12-16 August 2002,Entebbe. University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Effect of source, time and method of nitrogen application on growth and yield components of potato in Kenya. African Crop Science Journal, 8(4): 387-402.". In: Poster presented at the fifth Regional meeting of the Forum for Agricultural Resource Husbandry 12-16 August 2002,Entebbe. Taylor & Francis; 2000. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
A. OA, Abuodha SO, Mwero JN. "The Effect of Specimen Shape on the Mechanical Properties of Sisal Fiber-Reinforced Concrete." The Open Civil Engineering Journal.. 2018;Vol 12:368-382.
Sila MM, Nyamasyo GHN, Nderitu JH. "Effect of Steinernema kari and Heterobabditis indica against sweet potato weevil.". In: African Crop Science Society.; 2003.
Sila, M. M. N, N. GH, Nderitu JH. "Effect of Steinernema kari and Heterobabditis indica against sweet potato weevil (Cylas punticollis )." agric entomology. 2003;2(5):23-25.
Mutegi CK, Wagacha JM, Christie ME, Kimani J, Karanja L. "Effect of storage conditions on quality and aflatoxin contamination of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.)." International Journal of AgriScience. 2013;3:746-758.
Karuri EG;, Ojijo NKO. "Effect of storage conditions on sweet potato roots."; 1995. Abstract

Four sun-cured lots of sweet potato (cv KSP20) roots were stored under different conditions in the laboratory. One lot was stored in environmental cabinets operated at five temperature levels of 5, 10, 15, 20, arid 29°C.The other two lots were stored in open wooden boxes, one filled with soil and the other saw-dust. A control sample was exposed to the ambient air in the laboratory. Objective physical and chemical indices were used to monitor the quality changes in the stored roots. Although the storage time and temperature were important in influeincing the quality of the roots, temperatures of 10°C or lower and also higher than 15°C were unsuitable for storage. At those temperatures sprouting, rotting, pithiness, shrivelling or a combination of the physiological factors became more important in quality deteriaration. Subsequently, prolonged storage was possible only at 15 and 20°C and also in saw-dust and soil cover. Roots stored in soil or saw-dust were as wholesome as those at 15°C, save for the sprouting which depleted the dry matter content, and had superior appearance. Exponential decay could predict Vitamin C and B-carotene loss. Reducing sugar developed in all samples but was highest in the ambient air storage. Using the back-extrusion test, it was shown that there were no significant differences between boiled roots after 4 weeks of storage under all conditions.

Mdenye BB, Kinama JM, Olubayo FM'mogi, Kivuva BM, Muthomi JW. "Effect of storage methods of cassava planting materials on establishment and early growth vigour." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR) . 2018;12(1):1-10.
Mdenye BB, Kinama JM, Olubayo FM, Kivuva BM, Muthomi. JW. "Effect of Storage Methods on Carbohydrate and Moisture of Cassava Planting Materials." Journal of Agricultural Science . 2016;8(12):100-111.
MATOGO DROMWEGAABIUD. "Effect of storage on the quality and safety of grains: a case study of Tharaka District, Kenya. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, Vol 3 No 2.". In: Kenya J. Sci. and Tech. (B) vol. 7 (1) 23-28,. Departmental seminar; 2003. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
Musuva JK, Radon JC. "The Effect Of Stress Ratio And Frequency On Fatigue Crack Growth.". 1979. AbstractWebsite

Fatigue crack growth tests were performed on compact tension specimens (CTS) made in two thicknesses 12 and 24 mm. Tests were conducted at two frequencies of 0·25 and 30 Hz, applying a stress ratio R varying from – 0·7 to 0·7. The results were analysed using the linear elastic fracture mechanics approach. They showed that the increase in both positive and negative R caused increased fatigue crack growth rates. Also an empirical effective stress intensity factor range, ΔKeff, was found more appropriate to correlate the fatigue crack growth data than the ΔK factor frequently used in crack growth studies. The loading frequency had only a little influence on crack growth rates at low R. However, at high R, growth rates were significantly higher at lower frequencies. It is suggested that this frequency influence may be associated with environmental effects, due to the embrittlement caused by hydrogen from the moist air, while the crack was fully open.

MULI MRMUTUAJOHN. "Effect of sulphur on the degree of cross - linking at the Post graduate seminar held at Kenyan University.". In: African Crop Science Conference. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 1998. Abstract
n/a
Gakuya DW, Mbugua PN, Mwaniki SM, Kiama SG, Muchemi GM, Njuguna A. "Effect of Supplementation of Moringa oleifera (LAM) Leaf meal in Layer Chicken Feed." International Journal of Poultry Science . 2014;13 (7)::379-384.
D.W G, P.N M, S.M M, S.G K, G.M M, A N. "Effect of Supplementation of Moringa Oleifera (LAM) leaf meal in layer chicken feed. International Journal of poultry science 13(7): 379-384." International Journal of Poultry Science. 2014;13(7):379-384.fin2600.pdf
D.W. G, Mbugua PN, B. K, Kiama SG. "Effect of Supplementation of Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal in Broiler Chicken Feed." International Journal of Poultry Science . 2014;13 (4): 208-213, 2014. Abstracteffect_of_supplementation_of_moringa_oleifera_leaf_mela_in_broiler_chicken_feed.pdf

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing Moringa oleifera leaf meal
(MOLM) at different levels in broiler chicken. Broiler starter and finisher diets were formulated using raw
materials obtained from local feed manufacturers. MOLM was first analyzed for crude protein and then added
to diets at levels of 0% (T1), 7.5% (T2), 7.5% (T3) (without Methionine and lysine), 15 (T4) and 30% (T5). Two
hundred (200) day old broiler chicks were randomly allocated into the 5 treatment groups with 4 replicates
of 10 birds each and the diets introduced. The feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), weight gain, lipid
profile, abdominal fat pad and feed digestibility were determined. The MOLM crude protein level was 23.33%.
The weight gain was significantly different between the various diets with the highest weight gain being in
T1 at 1464 and the lowest in diet T5 at 500. MOLM supplementation at levels above 7.5% decreased the feed
intake and dry matter digestibility. The abdominal fat pad (AFP) was significantly higher in T1 compared to
T2, T4 and T5. The males had a significantly high levels of High density lipids (HDL) than females in T2, T3
and T4 (p<0.05). The yellow colour of the carcass increased with the increased levels of MOLM. It was
concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) was well tolerated and can only be included in the feed
to levels of up to 7.5% as higher levels affected weight gain, feed intake and digestibility. Further studies on
the yellowing of the carcass, its quality and acceptability by consumers is needed.
Key words: Moringa oleifera leaf meal, broiler chicken, feed intake, weight gain, abdominal fat pad, feed
digestibility

Gakuya DW, Mbugua PN, Kavoi B, Kiama SG. "Effect of Supplementation of Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal in Broiler Chicken Feed." International Journal of Poultry Science. 2014;13(4):208-213.
Gakuya DW, Mbugua PN, Kavoi BM, Kiama SG. "Effect of Supplementation of Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal in Broiler Chicken Feed." International Journal of Poultry Science . 2014;13:208-213.
D.W. Gakuya, P.N.Mbugua, S.M.Mwaniki, S.G.Kiama, G.M.Muchemi, A.Njuguna. "Effect of supplementation of Moringa oleifera(LAM) leaf meal in layer chicken feed." International Journal of Poultry Science. 2014;13(7):379-383.effect_of_supplementation_of_moringa_oleiferalam_leaf_meal_in_layer_chicken_feed.pdf
Okinyi SA, Osano SN. "The effect of surcharge Pressure on soil-geotextile interface: ." Icastor. 2018;Vol. 11(No. 3):103-110.
Atieno L, Owino W, Ateka EM, Ambuko J, others. "Effect of Surface Coatings on the Shelf life and Quality of Cassava." Journal of Food Research. 2018;7:46-60. Abstract
n/a
D.D.Keruyu, Z.I.Oonge, P.K.Ndiba. "The Effect of Surface Treatment on Corrosion Behavior of 316L Stainless Steel." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2014;7(1).
EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Effect of synthetic pyrethroids and other compounds on the susceptibility and development of the egg stage of the predacious mite, Amblyseius gossipi (Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae). Entomophaga, 30: 265 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banahwy, E. M. and Abou-Awad, B.A; 1985. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
"The effect of tax amnesty on anti money laundering in Bangladesh ." Journal of Money Laundering Control. 2014;17(2):243-255.
Mukui G, Onjala J, Awiti J. "Effect of Tax and Debt Financed Government Expenditure on Economic Growth in Kenya." Journal of Economics, Management and Trade. 2020;26(1):1-13.
6. Muriithi EM. "Effect of teacher characteristics on learner academic achievement in physics in Kenyan secondary schools." International Journal of Education and Research. 2018;6(3):169-178.
Busienei J, Irungu P, Gichungi H, Muriithi B, Diiro G. "Effect of Technological Innovation on Gender Roles: The Case of Fruit Fly IPM Adoption on Women’s Decision‑Making in Mango Production and Marketing in Kenya." The European Journal of Development Research. 2020;10.1057(s41287-020-00282-z).
Kimilu R.K, Nyang’aya J.A, Onyari JM. "The effect of Temperature and blending on the specific gravity and viscosity of Jatropha Methyl ester." Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2011;6(12):97-105.
Khadioli N, Tonnang ZEH, Muchugu E, Ong’amo G, Achia T, Kipchirchir I, Kroschel J, LeRu B. "Effect of temperature of the phenology of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidopteran); simulation and visualization of the potential future distribution of C. partellus in Africa." Bulletin of Entomological Research. 2014;(104):823-832.
Khadioli N, Tonnang ZEH, Muchugu E, Ong’amo G, Achia T, Kipchirchir I, Kroschel J, LeRu B. "Effect of temperature of the phenology of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe)(Lepidopteran); simulation and visualization of the potential future distribution of C. partellus in Africa." Bulletin of Entomological Research. 2014;(104).
A. MEWAE, W. OM, N. KC, MN R. "EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON DESORPTION ISOTHERMS FOR BEEF." Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and Environment. 2019;5(1):1-7.
KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "Effect of temperature on properties of bituminous mixtures.". In: Accepted for presentation in the 8th Conference on asphalt pavements for Southern Africa Sun City South Africa,. Longhorn; 2004. Abstract
Kenya experienced extraordinarily heavy rainfall between May 1997 and February 1988 due to the El Nino weather phenomenon. This period of about 10 Months of heavy rainfall caused widespread landslides and floods in various parts of the country. An enormous number of landslides occurred in Central, Western and to the Coast Provinces. This triggered a nation-wide crusade to plant trees in an effort to counter future landslide phenomenon. However, little quantitative research has been conducted to assess the impact of plant roots on soil strength. As a result, planting of trees tend to be more empirical without consideration of the structural measures for reinforcing soil that combine the ecological benefits of vegetation. This paper describes the contribution of plant roots of various species to soil shear strength. Soil samples with roots of various plant species were tested in a large modified direct shear apparatus in a laboratory set-up. Shear stress results of rooted soils were compared with results of soil without roots of similar soil types. The contribution of roots to soil strength was estimated by comparing the difference between the maximum shear stress of the shear-displacement curves obtained for soils with and without roots for the different species tested. Results suggested that the rooted soils contributed more to soil strength than rootless soils. However there was varying degree of shear strength contribution for different root species suggesting that for each species, contribution of shear strength was governed by root density. The results suggested that a composite soil-root system consumes energy while resisting shear displacement. This feature could be included in stability analysis of vegetated hillslopes in terms of energy associated with shearing in a soil-root system.
Khadioli N, Tonnang ZEH, Ong’amo G, Kroschel J, LeRu B. "Effect of temperature on the life history parameters of noctuid lepidopteran stem borers, Busseola fusca (Fuller) and Sesamia calamistis Hampson." Annals of Applied Biology. 2014;(165):373-386.
Khadioli N, Tonnang ZEH, Ong'amo G, Achia T, Kipchirchir IC, Kroschel J, Ru LB. "Effect of temperature on the life history parameters of noctuid lepidopteran stem borers, Busseola fusca and Sesamia calamistis." Annals of Applied Biology. 2014;165(3):373-386.
Luambano ND, Manzanilla-López RH, Kimenju JW, Powers SJ, Narla RD, Wanjohi WJ, Kerry BR. "Effect of temperature, pH, carbon and nitrogen ratios on the parasitic activity of Pochonia chlamydosporia on Meloidogyne incognita. Biological Control.". 2015;80:23-29.
undefined Mutisya DL, El-Banhawy EM, Kariuki CW, Khamala CP, Fiaboe KKM, undefinedKungu MM. "Effect of the cassava green mite, Mononychellus progressivus, on the development and reproduction of the introduced predatory mite, Phytoseiulus longipes ( Acari: Tetranychidae;Phytoseiidae )." Systematic& Applied Acarology. 2012;17:378-383.
AMAKOVE DRWALAELIZABETH. "Effect of the chronic dose of diazepam on the intensity and characteristics of the precipitated abstinence syndrome in the dog. Sloan JW, Martin WR, Wala E.J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 Jun;265(3):1152-62.". In: J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 Jun;265(3):1152-62. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
The ability of different chronic doses of diazepam to produce dependence was studied in groups of six dogs who received diazepam p.o. (0.05625, 0.225, 0.5625, 4.5, 9 or 36 mg/kg/day) every 8 hr. After 5 to 6 weeks of stabilization, the intensity of precipitated abstinence was measured by benzodiazepine-precipitated abstinence scores (BPAS) after the p.o. administration of graded doses of the benzodiazepine antagonist, flumazenil (0.66, 2, 6, 18, 36 and 72 mg/kg or a placebo). A modified Latin square design was used. Dogs receiving the two lowest stabilization doses of diazepam showed only liminal signs of precipitated abstinence even with 72 mg/kg of flumazenil. The intensity of the precipitated abstinence syndrome increased with the stabilization dose of diazepam. There was also a dose-related increase in BPAS for increasing doses of flumazenil for all doses of diazepam except the 9-mg/kg/day dose. Not only were quantitative differences observed in precipitated abstinence signs for different levels of diazepam dependence, but the pattern of abstinence signs differed also. Dogs dependent on high doses of diazepam were more sensitive to flumazenil than those dependent on lower doses. Furthermore, seizure activity was seen only in dogs dependent on 9 and 36 mg/kg/day of diazepam. BPAS increased linearly with plasma and brain total and free levels of the sum of diazepam and its metabolites (oxazepam and nordiazepam), but not with free plasma and brain levels of diazepam.
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "The Effect of the Debt Crisis on the Family in Africa.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1991. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective

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