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Conference Paper
Rwigi S, Ouma G, Ouma C, Oloo F, Wekesa S, Olang L. "Effects of rainfall variability on water availability in the drylands of Northern Kenya under a changing climate.". In: AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts.; 2021. Abstract

The availability of water in the dryland regions is a function of climatic and land conditions, which determine the amount and distribution of atmospheric water and subsequent partitioning of that water into different hydrological components. Rainfall variability in the drylands affects water, food and livelihood security in the sensitive landscapes. For effective water resource management, it is important to quantify the effect of rainfall variability on the available water resource components to support food security, given that a majority of livelihoods in the drylands are dependent on rainfall. This study assessed rainfall variability and its effects on stream flows in the dryland regions of Turkana County in Northern Kenya. The Coefficient of Variation (CV), Standardised Precipitation Anomaly (SPA) and Mann-Kendal test approaches were used to determine variability and trends of rainfall. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), was employed to simulate hydrological components, including surface runoff, interflow, groundwater flow and the eventual water yield in the streams. The model simulations were driven by the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station CHIRPS and the Coordinated Regional Climate Downloading Experiment CORDEX projected rainfalls to establish the current and future water availability respectively. From the results, CV values ranging from 20 to 99% were obtained indicating that the region experiences moderate to high rainfall variability, often resulting in moderate to extreme floods and droughts in the area. The model simulations indicated that the stream-flows are increasing towards the 2020s decade compared to what was flowing in the 1980s decade, as observed between 1981 and 2020 using rainfall. This is probably a result of the increased rainfall observed in this region over the las four decades. Using Representative Concentration Pathways RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 projected rainfall scenarios, the model indicated that future stream flows will be higher than present. The findings show that, in the face of climate change scenarios, proper land management is required to promote water and food security in the drylands of sub-Saharan Africa in the future

Feldmann S, Gangishetty M, Bravić I, Neumann T, Peng B, Winkler T, Friend RH, Monserrat B, Congreve DN, Deschler F. "Exciton localization in doped perovskite nanocrystals enhances intrinsic radiative recombination.". In: Physical Chemistry of Semiconductor Materials and Interfaces XX. Vol. 11799. International Society for Optics and Photonics; 2021:. Abstract
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Muthomi M, Mumenya S, Mwero J. "Effect of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer Strengthening on the Axial Capacity and Ductility of Non-slender Square Concrete Columns.". In: Architecture & Engineering Conference. Nairobi; 2020.
Nyatuka DM, Ralwala AO. "Effectiveness of Health and Safety Policy and Audit on Kenya Power Last Mile Connectivity Project performance in Nakuru County, Kenya.". In: Scarcity and Creativity: Addressing Critical Spatial Needs. Sub-theme: Learning for Resource Efficiency and Resourcefulness. School of Architecture and Building Sciences (SABS) online conference, JKUAT; 2020.
Munyua M M, W MS, N MJ. "Effect of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Strengthening on the Axial Capacity and Ductility of Non-Slender Square Concrete Columns.". In: UoN Architecture & Engineering Conference. Nairobi Kenya; 2020.
N NB, O OT, O KD, N MJ. "Exploring the Possible Use of EN 197 CEM II/B-P and CEM IV/B-P in the Production of High-Performance Concrete.". In: IEK-EBK Conference. Diani, Kenya; 2019.
Ruto LC, Otieno DJ, Oluoch-Kosura W, Mureithi S, Nyberg G. "Emerging forms of land market participation and implications on pastoralists’ livelihoods in Kenya.". In: 20th Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty. Washington DC, USA; 2019.
Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of formulated nano-composite NPK fertilizer on growth and yield of maize, kale and capsicum29th Soil Science Society of Eastern Africa (SSSEA) held in Lake Naivasha Country Club in Naivasha town,Nakuru County from 18th-22nd Nov2019.". In: 29th Soil Science Society of Eastern Africa (SSSEA) . Lake Naivasha Country Club in Naivasha town, Nakuru County ; 2019.
Owino B, Ogacho A, Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Odari V. "Effect of TiO2 Compact Layer on Photovoltaic Characteristics of TiO2/Nb2O5 Dye Sensitized Solar Cells.". In: 10th International Conference of the African Materials Research Society (AMRS2019). Arusha, Tanzania, ; 2019.
HM M. "Effective monitoring and Evaluation of progress in postgraduate training." Kenya Climate Smart Agriculture postgraduate induction workshop, Nakuru; 2019.
Olali T. "Ecology as thematic foci: The identity of Swahili Poetry and Ecocriticism experiment.". In: Environments of African Literature. Marriott Wardman Park, Washington, D.C, USA ; 2018.
Macharia EM, Kimilu RK, Aganda A. "Evaluation of Properties of Waste Plastic Oil (WPO) as an Alternative Fuel for Compression -Ignition Engines.". In: Architecture and Engineering Conference 2018 (AEC 2018). Narobi, Kenya; 2018.
Malusi B, L.O O. "Effect of Handedness on Completion Rate of Chemistry Timed Tasks by LeftHanded Learners .". In: The IAFOR International Conference on Education. Dubai; 2018.iicedubai2018_39167.pdf
Mumbi M. "Evolution of Colonial Architecture and its contribution to Tropical Architecture.". In: annual Eastern African Regional Workshop, Nairobi. ADD Building, University of Nairobi; 2018.
Karuga SW, GATARI MJ, Marijnissen JCM, Kelder EM. "Electrospray synthesis of porous cathode material for lithium ion batteries.". In: Aerosol Technology Conference (AT2018). Bilbao, Spain; 2018.
Henry M. "Environmental Governance and its role in Kenya." International Scientific Conference for Asia and Pacific, Yokohama, Japan.; 2018.
Kiriinya LK, Raiji TK, GATARI MJ. "Ecosystem Management and Sustainable Livelihoods: A case study of North Eastern Mt.Kenya.". In: International Sustainability Transitions Conference (IST2017). Gothenburg, Sweden; 2017.
Kiriinya LK, Marijnissen JCM, GATARI MJ. "Effect of EHDA in the Simple jet mode with whipping break-up on the Evaporation ratio in Thermal Desalination Systems.". In: European Aerosol Conference (EAC2017). Zurich, Switzerland; 2017.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "The effects of Intermolecular Interaction in Line Broadening Phenomena.". In: J. Molecular Physics. University of Nairobi Press; 2017. Abstract

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Mbondo NN, Ambuko J, Sila DN, Owino WO, others. "Effect of drying methods and temperature on the bioactive compounds in African eggplant.". In: The 1st All Africa Post Harvest Congress & Exhibition, Reducing food losses and waste: sustainable solutions for Africa, 28th-31st March 2017, Nairobi, Kenya. Conference Proceedings. University of Nairobi; 2017:. Abstract
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Atieno L, Ateka EM, Ambuko J, Owino W, others. "Effect of edible coatings on shelf life and quality of cassava roots.". In: The 1st All Africa Post Harvest Congress & Exhibition, Reducing food losses and waste: sustainable solutions for Africa, 28th-31st March 2017, Nairobi, Kenya. Conference Proceedings. University of Nairobi; 2017:. Abstract
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Muiruri J, Ambuko J, Nyankanga R, Owino WO, others. "The effect of harvest maturity on the quality attributes of solar-dried mango products of selected mango varieties.". In: The 1st All Africa Post Harvest Congress & Exhibition, Reducing food losses and waste: sustainable solutions for Africa, 28th-31st March 2017, Nairobi, Kenya. Conference Proceedings. University of Nairobi; 2017:. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Chemining'wa GN, Mwachoni E, Wanjiru F, Owino WO, Nenguwo N, others. "Evaporative cooling technologies: simple and effective cooling alternatives for smallholder horticultural farmers.". In: The 1st All Africa Post Harvest Congress & Exhibition, Reducing food losses and waste: sustainable solutions for Africa, 28th-31st March 2017, Nairobi, Kenya. Conference Proceedings. University of Nairobi; 2017:. Abstract
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Mwinzi JM, Chepkoech S. "The Essential Strategies of Empowering the Youth as an Enterprise of Enhancing National Harmony and Social Cohesion in Kenya.". In: Commonwealth Association of Universities and Polytechnics in Africa. Mombasa; 2016.
Chepkoech S, Mwinzi DJM. "The Extent to which Enhancement of ICT in Public Technical and Vocational Education and Training Institutions in Kenya has Accelerated Skill Development.". In: Commonwealth Association of Universities and Polytechnics in Africa. Mombasa; 2016.edf_publications_1.pdf
Wanyoike MW. "Educational Reforms and Value-creating education in post-colonial Kenya: A Historical perspective.". In: International Conference on Value-Creating Education and Sustainable Development. University of Nairobi; 2016.
Makunda CS. "East African urban context research: Perspectives, lessons & opportunities.". In: The Nordic Association of Architectural Research Symposium 2016 – NAF Conference. Stockholm, Sweden; 2016.
Fulano AM, Muthomi JW, Wagacha JM, Mwang’ombe AW. "Efficacy of Antagonistic Fungal Isolates in Management of Diseases in Snap Beans.". In: 5th Biennial RUFORUM Conference. Cape Town, South Africa; 2016.
Otieno I, Omwenga E, Waema T. "The e-Government Paradox: Is it Real and How can it be Resolved?". In: IST Africa 2016. Durban, South Africa; 2016.
E NYENZE. "EXPERIENCE OF AN OCULOPLASTIC SPECIALIST IN AFRICA.". In: GERMANY OPHTHALMOLOGICAL SOCIETY CONFRENCE 2016 (DOG2016. BERLIN GERMANY; 2016.
Otieno I, Omwenga E, Waema T. "The e-government paradox: Is it real and how can it be resolved?". In: IST-Africa Week Conference, 2016. IEEE; 2016:. Abstract

The development and implementation of e-government has been viewed as an opportunity to bring the much-desired reforms in public administration. There are several studies that have been conducted in the field of e-government and many projects implemented in both developed and developing countries signifying a tremendous growth in the field. However, studies show that there is a mismatch between the level of investment and the results realized so far. This has led to what some researchers refer to as the `e-government paradox' that follows from the `productivity paradox' earlier documented for IT projects. There are several factors that are attributable to the `e-government paradox': measurement error; time lag between implementation and results; the fact that public administration and by extension e-government is driven by the need to create value for citizens and not economic value; and the mismanagement of the implementation process by e-government implementers. The measurement error has been identified as the most important factor contributing to the `e-government paradox'. Theories on development, implementation, measurement and evaluation of e-government are still at nascent stages of development. This study proposes the development of a citizen centric e-government evaluation model that is suitable in the context of a developing country to solve the measurement error. The study was conducted from government common citizen service (Huduma) centres in Kenya where citizens access government services. This study proposed a conceptual model that hypothesised relationships between the identified constructs. The model was tested using Structured Equation Modelling (SEM) and findings reported.

Onjala J, Otele O. "The Emerging Dominance of Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Kenya’s Mineral Resources Windfalls.". In: The Conference on China-Africa Cooperation on Human Resources Training in the Sector of Mineral Resources . Yunnan University Kunming, China; 2015.
Muyera Z, Yegon E, Wanjiru M. "Environmental Scanning (ES) in the digital age: application of Web 2.0 tools in information institutions.". In: CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION OF LIBRARIANS IN AFRICA-KENYA. Nakuru; 2015.
Wasamba P. "Emerging Trends in Oral Genres Fieldwork in Africa.". In: Ethnographic Research in Africa. Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany; 2015.
D.W. Gakuya, Nganga CJ, Waruiru RM, Sabuni AZ, Muasa BS. "Evaluation of anthelmintic efficacies in controlling gastrointestinal helminth.". In: 49th KVA Annual Scientific Conference. Busia county,Kenya; 2015.evaluation_of_anthelmintic_efficacies_in_controlling_gastrointestinal_helminth.pdf
Kimeu M. "Environmental Building Design Guidelines for Practitioners in East Africa.". In: 6th East African regional Workshop . ADD; 2015.
Ngugi RW, Nyang'oro O. "Environment and Security: Perspectives on Kenya’s Resources.". In: Conference Proceedings, Kenya Scholars and Studies Association.; 2015.
Mbeche F. "Education for All in Africa; Challenges and Policy Implications.". In: 2nd AFRICE international conference . University of Nairobi, Kenya Science Campus; 2015.
Muigua DK. "Empowering the Kenyan People through Alternative Dispute Resolution Mechanisms.". In: CIArb Africa Region Centenary Conference 2015. CIArb Africa Region Centenary Conference 2015; 2015.empowering_the_kenyan_people_through_alternative_dispute_resolution_mechanisms_-_21st_docx.pdf
"Environmental Building Design Guidelines for Practitioners in East Africa.". In: The Board of Registration of Architects and Quantity Surveyors (BORAQS) Seminar. Safari Park Hotel.; 2015.
Chalo C, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF, Nguta JM. "Evaluation of Antimicrobial activity, Toxicity and Phytochemical composition of selected medicinal plants of Losho, Narok county, Kenya.". In: Nairobi Innovation week. university of nairobi; 2015. Abstract

In Kenya, microbial infections remain a threat to millions of lives of those individuals

Antibiotic effectiveness is threatened by increasing resistance of pathogenic microbes against most available drugs as new pathogens continue to emerge.

•Plants are a possible source of antimicrobial agents and could lead to the isolation of new and potentially effective antimicrobial compounds.

However for majority of herbal drugs, information on the efficacy, dosage safety and active principles is not well documented.

Antimicrobial activity, toxicity and phytochemical analysis of 4 most commonly used medicinal plants for treatment of ear, nose and throat infections (ENT), gastrointestinal disorders and skin ailments namely, Schrebera alata (Bark), Omorcarpum kirkii (Aerial part) ,Cussonia holstii (Bark)& Helichrysum forskahlii (Whole plant) was carried out .

DW.Gakuya, P.N.Mbugua, B.Kavoi, S.M.Mwaniki, S.G.Kiama. "Evaluation of Moringa oleifera leaf meal supplementation in broiler and layer chicken feed.". In: RISE-AFNNET Fellows conference on natural products. Imperial Royale hotel,Kampala,Uganda; 2015.evaluation_of_moringa_oleifera_leaf_meal_supplementation_in.pdf
MJ H, FK M, J A, M M, AW M'ombe, JJ A, F O. "Effect of cattle manure and calcium ammonium nitrogen on grwoth and leaf yield of local cowpea accessions in coastal Kenya.". In: KAPAP CGS COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH STAKEHOLDERS CONFERENCE. KALRO Headquaters ; 2015.
Wanjala G. "Education Curricula and the Development Needs of Africa : Is there a Mismatch?". In: Research conference of the Ghana Chapter of Educational Research Network for West and Central Africa (ERNWACA). At Windy Bay Lodge Hotel in Winneba.Ghana; 2015.
"Environmental Building Design Guidelines for Practitioners, Financiers & Developers in East Africa.". In: The Eastern Africa Real Estate Infrastructure Development & Finance Conference . Villa Rosa Kempinski Hotel, Nairobi.; 2015.
JO M, R W, J W, R O, C K, J M, E M. "Establishing adolescent friendly services and use of adolescent package of care to improve outcome of ALHIV at a rural health center.". In: 10th Annual HIV Prevention, Care & Treatment Consultative Forum, . Nairobi, Kenya; 2015.
Kimeu M. "The era of the glass skyscraper: Is it an option for the Hot Arid Climate?". In: Faisal Islamic Bank Sudan Headquarters & Cultural Centre International Design Competition Awards Ceremony. Khartoum, Sudan; 2014.
Muthee JK, Gakuya DW, Mbaria JM, Mulei CM, Mugambi JM, Nganga CJ. "Evaluation of anthelmintic efficacy of selected medicinal plants traditionally used in Loitoktok, Kenya.". In: 9th Biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Nairobi, Kenya; 2014.
Kaijage ES, Elly D. "EFFECT OF CORPORATE CHARACTERISTICS ON CAPITAL STRUCTURE DECISIONS OF SMES: A CASE OF DTMs IN KENYA.". In: THE 14TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AFRICAN BUSINESS AND SMALL BUSINESS (ICAESB). THE UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM BUSINESS SCHOOL (UDBS); 2014. Abstracteffect_of_corporate_characteristics_on_capital_structure_decisions_of_smes.pdf

The choice between debt and equity for a business firm has implications on the value of a firm as well as strategic importance for corporate managers. Previous studies have addressed the issue of capital structure decisions from the point of view of large firms. The capital structure of Small and Medium - sized Enterprises (SMEs) has become a research topic only recently despite the fact that SMEs play a very crucial role in fostering growth and employment in many countries. Some research studies have investigated the relationship between capital structure mix as an independent variable and specific corporate characteristics as dependent variables. This paper reverses this order by investigating the influence of various corporate characteristics on the capital structure of deposit taking microfinance institutions (DTMs) in Kenya. DTMs are a special group of SMEs in Kenya, which create money through deposit mobilization and lending and are regulated by the Central Bank of Kenya (CBK). Using secondary data from financial reports of 7 out of 9 Licensed DTMs in Kenya for the period 2008 to 2012, this study has applied ordinary least squares (OLS) fixed - effect regression models to estimate the influence of firm corporate characteristics on capital structure measure of debt equity ratio. The corporate characteristics considered are: size, profitability, liquidity, growth, tangibility of assets and volatility of earnings. The study findings suggest that size and growth positively influence, in a significant way, the capital structure of DTMs in Kenya. Furthermore, liquidity, profitability, and tangibility of assets have been found to be negatively influencing the capital structure of the DTMs. These findings generally concur with the predictions of the pecking order theory and the signaling effects of capital structure decisions of firms.

Key Words: Deposit taking microfinance institutions (DTMs), Microfinance institutions (MFIs), Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), Capital Structure and Corporate characteristics.

Kaijage ES, Elly D. "EFFECT OF CORPORATE CHARACTERISTICS ON CAPITAL STRUCTURE DECISIONS OF SMES: A CASE OF DTMs IN KENYA.". In: THE 14TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AFRICAN BUSINESS AND SMALL BUSINESS (ICAESB). THE UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM BUSINESS SCHOOL (UDBS); 2014. Abstracteffect_of_corporate_characteristics_on_capital_structure_decisions_of_smes.pdf

The choice between debt and equity for a business firm has implications on the value of a firm as well as strategic importance for corporate managers. Previous studies have addressed the issue of capital structure decisions from the point of view of large firms. The capital structure of Small and Medium - sized Enterprises (SMEs) has become a research topic only recently despite the fact that SMEs play a very crucial role in fostering growth and employment in many countries. Some research studies have investigated the relationship between capital structure mix as an independent variable and specific corporate characteristics as dependent variables. This paper reverses this order by investigating the influence of various corporate characteristics on the capital structure of deposit taking microfinance institutions (DTMs) in Kenya. DTMs are a special group of SMEs in Kenya, which create money through deposit mobilization and lending and are regulated by the Central Bank of Kenya (CBK). Using secondary data from financial reports of 7 out of 9 Licensed DTMs in Kenya for the period 2008 to 2012, this study has applied ordinary least squares (OLS) fixed - effect regression models to estimate the influence of firm corporate characteristics on capital structure measure of debt equity ratio. The corporate characteristics considered are: size, profitability, liquidity, growth, tangibility of assets and volatility of earnings. The study findings suggest that size and growth positively influence, in a significant way, the capital structure of DTMs in Kenya. Furthermore, liquidity, profitability, and tangibility of assets have been found to be negatively influencing the capital structure of the DTMs. These findings generally concur with the predictions of the pecking order theory and the signaling effects of capital structure decisions of firms.

Key Words: Deposit taking microfinance institutions (DTMs), Microfinance institutions (MFIs), Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), Capital Structure and Corporate characteristics.

Ochwang’i DO, Kimwele CN, Oduma JA, Gathumbi PK, Mbaria JM, Kiama SG. "Ethno-medicine; an alternative or a complement to cancer therapy.". In: 9th Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific conference and Exhibition. PHPT Auditorium, CAVS, University of Nairobi ; 2014.
J.K.Muthee, D.W. Gakuya, J.M. Mbaria, C.M.Mulei, J.M.Mugambi, J.C.Nganga. "Evaluation of anthelmintic efficacy of selected medicinal plants traditionally used in Loitoktok, Kenya.". In: 9th Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific conference and Exhibition. PHPT Auditorium,CAVS,University of Nairobi; 2014.
R.O.Onzago, S.G.Kiama, J.M. Mbaria, Z.M.Rukenya, D.W. Gakuya. "Efficacy and safety of Vernonia hymenolepis a medicinal plant used in Kenya for oral health.". In: 48th KVA Annual scientific conference. Boma Inn,Eldoret,Uasin Gishu county,Kenya; 2014.
R.O.Onzago, S.G.Kiama, Mbaria JM, Z.M.Rukenya, Gakuya DW. "Efficacy and safety of Vernonia hymenolepis a medicinal plant used in Kenya for oral health,.". In: . Published in the Proceeding of the 48th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual scientific conference . Boma Inn,Eldoret,Uasin Gishu county, Kenya; 2014.
Kasina1 M, Herren-Gemmill B, Wasilwa L, Martins D, Nderitu JH. "Ecological Approaches: Entomological diversity including pollinators.". In: International Symposium on Agroecology for Food Security and Nutrition. FAO Headquarters, Rome; 2014.abstract.pdf
Digolo OO(. "Education as a process of democratization in Africa. .". In: Pan-African Colloquium; Educational innovation in Post-Colonial Africa; . University of Cape Town, South Africa.; 2014.
"Efficacy of potassium salts of fatty acides in the management of thrips and whiteflies on snapbeans.". In: HAK. Nairobi; 2014. Abstractbook-of-abstracts-agrs-conference-dec-2014-final.pdf

EFFICACY OF POTASSIUM SALTS OF FATTY ACIDS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF THRIPS AND WHITEFLIES ON SNAP BEANS
G. O. Wafula*, J. W. Muthomi, J. H. Nderitu and G. N. Chemining’wa
Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection,University of Nairobi. P. O Box 29053-00625 Kangemi, Nairobi, Kenya
Email: ongoya@gmail.com, Tel. 0723144690
Abstract
Snap bean farmers mainly rely on chemical pesticides to manage insect pests and diseases but the introduction of strict maximum residue levels (MRLs) by European markets pose a challenge to the use of pesticides. This has necessitated the search for alternative pest management options that do harmful residues on produce. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the efficacy of potassium salts of fatty acids as alternative to synthetic chemicals in the management of snap bean pests. Field experiments were carried out in farmers’ fields in Mwea and Embu in 2013 for two cropping cycles. Potassium salts of fatty acids at 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% spray solution were applied weekly starting from three weeks after emergence (WAE) until early podding. The efficacy of the different concentrations was evaluated by assessing population of thrips, whitefly, and pest damaged pods, in addition to pod yield.. The application of potassium salts of fatty acids at 1% and 1.5% of spray solution significantly (P<0.05) reduced white fly and thrips populations by up to 61% and 69% respectively. Pod damage due to thrips was also significantly (P<0.05) reduced by up to 83% and marketable pod yield was significantly (P<0.05) increased by up to 151%. The results demonstrated that potassium salts of fatty acids are a viable alternative to synthetic chemical pesticides thereby enabling farmers to meet the strict European markets maximum residue level requirements.

Key words: Phaseolus vulgaris L., potassium salts of fatty acids, pesticide residues, market access

Kaingu CK, Mbaria J, Oduma JA, Kiama SG. "Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants traditionally used in Tana River County for management of illnesses.". In: Asian Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine 0 2 (0 2 ); 201 4 ; 0 1 - 05.; 2014. Abstract

Aim of the study: The objective of the study was to identify and document medicinal plants traditionally used by people of Tana River County, Kenya for the management of various ailments. Materials and methods: The study was conducted in March 2012. Information was gathered from 80 traditional practitioners who lived and practiced in Garsen, Itsowe and Ngao Subdivisions of Tana River using semi-structured questionnaires and focused group discussion. Voucher specimen of cited plants were collected and deposited at the university of Nairobi herbarium. Results: A total of 31 plants distributed in 25 families were identified. The most popular plant species were eleven and were used for the management of pneumonia, arthritis, kidney problems, fibroids, typhoid, breast cancer, tooth ache, malaria, diabetis, convulsions, stomach ache, constipation, poisoning, cholera, diarrhea, mastitis, migraine, tonsilitis, ulcers, asthma, high blood pressure, urinary incontinence, body warts, milk letdown and as immune boosters. Conclusion: The use of herbs is still very common amongst Tana River inhabitants and the healers still rely largely on naturally growing plant species in their locality. Furthermore, the documented medicinal plants can be used as a basis for future phytochemical and pharmacological studies. Keywords: medicinal plants, indigenous management of illnesses Tana River.

Oyoo.G.O, Odhiambo.J, Amayo.E. "An evaluation of quality of life in ambulatory patients with systemic lupus erythematosus attending rheumatology clinic in Kenyatta National Hospital.". In: ISSN.; 2014. Abstractan_evaluation_of_quality.pdf

Background: Systemic Lupus
Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic
autoimmune disease that affects all
organs of the body. It is becoming
increasingly clear that SLE is not as rare
in Kenya as was previously thought. Due
to its chronicity SLE has been known to
affect the quality of life of those affected
by it. There is minimal data on SLE in
East Africa and especially in Kenya. The
quality of life of SLE patients in this
country has never been assessed.
Objectives: To document the quality
of life of patients with SLE in Kenyatta
National Hospital using LUPUS QOL
questionnaire. We also sought to correlate
HRQOL with duration of illness, drugs
used and age of the patient.
Design: This was a cross sectional study
done on patients attending Rheumatology
Clinic in Kenyatta National Hospital.
Methods: Patients who satisfy the ACR
criteria were consecutively recruited.
All patients with SLE attending the
clinic were included in the study.
Consent was obtained from the patients
after which their demographic data was
obtained. Patients were examined for
the presence of malar rash, discoid rash,
arthritis/athralgia, photosensitivity, CNS
symptoms, serositis and oral ulcers. The
patients then filled the LUPUS QOL
questionnaire. The information acquired
was then analysed using SPSS version
17.0 using student t test and regression
analysis. The quality of life was
calculated and then correlated with age,
duration of illness and drug management.
Results: Sixty two patients were analysed
(60 females 2 males). Mean age of the
population was 37.3 years (range 14-71
years). All patients had some level of
education with 61.3% of the population
having some form of secondary education.
Most patients 54.8% were married.
Mean age of diagnosis was 34.5 years
with mean duration of illness 1.5 years.
Majority (88.7%) had arthritis/ athralgia,
oral ulcers (62.9%), malar rash (59.7%),
photosensitivity (58.1%), serositis
(32.3%), CNS symptoms (27.4%) and
discoid rash (17.7%). Patients scored
globally low in all domains of LUPUS
QOL. Highest domain was planning
63.7 (29.3), emotional health 61.3 (26.5),
burden to others 58.9 (31.2), fatigue 57.5
(30.0), pain 56.6 (29.6), physical health
54.0 (23.3), body image 47.1 (24.2)
intimate relations 41.1 (38.4).The most
common drug in use in our population
was prednisone at 74.2%. This was
followed by HCQ at 69.4%, NSAIDS
54.8%, azathioprine 37.1%, methotrexate
22.6%, mycofenolate mofetil 8.1%, CCB
11.3%, cyclosporine 3.2%. HRQOL
correlated positively with advance in age
for the domains. Physical health, burden
to others, emotional health and fatigue.
There was no correlation between
HRQOL and duration of illness or drugs
used by the population.
Conclusion: The HRQOL of our SLE
patients was found to be low in all
domains and to correlate with advance
in age in the domains of physical health,
burden to others, emotional health and
fatigue. However there was no correlation
with duration of illness or the drugs used
by the patients

Owino WO, Yumbya P, Shibairo S, Ambuko J. "Efficacy of Activebag® packaging on postharvest quality of purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims).". In: XXIX International Horticultural Congress on Horticulture: Sustaining Lives, Livelihoods and Landscapes (IHC2014): 1120.; 2014:. Abstract
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Magutu PO, Chirchir MK, Mulama OA. "The Effect of Logistics Outsourcing Practices on the Performance of Large Manufacturing Firms in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: ORSEA.; 2013. Abstractthe_effect_of_logistics_outsourcing_practices_on_the_perform.pdf

Abstract. Outsourcing of services has become a common practice among large manufacturing firms worldwide and this is due to the various benefits that accrue to a firm as a result of outsourcing. Contracting out production of goods and services to a firm with competitive advantages in terms of reliability, quality and cost was found out to be the main driver of outsourcing. However the various studies covered have not extensively delved into logistics outsourcing practices in relation to the performance of large scale manufacturing firms. As a result, this study explored outsourcing practices viz a viz the performance of large manufacturing firms Nairobi, Kenya. The population of the study in this research was all the large scale manufacturing companies that are based in Nairobi. Stratified random sampling method was applied to come up with the sample size, since the population in different large manufacturing firms is considered heterogeneous, implying that a simple random sample would have been unrepresentative. The response rate was 83%. The results established that the firms were outsourcing transportation management, warehouse management and material handling management. The firms opted to outsource their services due to its advantages and its possible influence on organizational performance, as it enables the firms to focus on its core competencies. The outsourcing practices adopted by the large manufacturing firms will in the long run determine their survival as they would seek to reduce operating costs, improved customer satisfaction and timely delivery of services to clients which in turn increase productivity and reduce lead time and improved profits. The study confined itself to large manufacturing firms in Nairobi and the findings may not be applicable in other sectors as a result of uniqueness of the manufacturing firms. It is therefore recommended that the study is replicated in other service sectors to establish the logistics outsourcing services and performance.

Magutu PO, Chirchir MK, Mulama OA. "The Effect of Logistics Outsourcing Practices on the Performance of Large Manufacturing Firms in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: ORSEA. Uganda; 2013. Abstractthe_effect_of_logistics_outsourcing_practices_on_the_perform.pdf

Abstract. Outsourcing of services has become a common practice among large manufacturing firms worldwide and this is due to the various benefits that accrue to a firm as a result of outsourcing. Contracting out production of goods and services to a firm with competitive advantages in terms of reliability, quality and cost was found out to be the main driver of outsourcing. However the various studies covered have not extensively delved into logistics outsourcing practices in relation to the performance of large scale manufacturing firms. As a result, this study explored outsourcing practices viz a viz the performance of large manufacturing firms Nairobi, Kenya. The population of the study in this research was all the large scale manufacturing companies that are based in Nairobi. Stratified random sampling method was applied to come up with the sample size, since the population in different large manufacturing firms is considered heterogeneous, implying that a simple random sample would have been unrepresentative. The response rate was 83%. The results established that the firms were outsourcing transportation management, warehouse management and material handling management. The firms opted to outsource their services due to its advantages and its possible influence on organizational performance, as it enables the firms to focus on its core competencies. The outsourcing practices adopted by the large manufacturing firms will in the long run determine their survival as they would seek to reduce operating costs, improved customer satisfaction and timely delivery of services to clients which in turn increase productivity and reduce lead time and improved profits. The study confined itself to large manufacturing firms in Nairobi and the findings may not be applicable in other sectors as a result of uniqueness of the manufacturing firms. It is therefore recommended that the study is replicated in other service sectors to establish the logistics outsourcing services and performance.

Mbaria JM. "Experiences with Dossier Assessments in Kenya.". In: East African Regional Training Meeting on Harmonization of Registration of Veterinary Vaccines. The Jacaranda Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya. ; 2013.
Mwabu G, Henstridge M, Hamaguchi N, Hino H. "Empowering Young Africans to Live Their Dreams.". In: ), Report to TICAD V, Yokohama, Japan.; 2013.
Muirhead JD, Kattenhorn SA, Dindi EW, Gama R. "The evolving contribution of border faults and intra-rift faults in early-stage East African rifts: insights from the Natron (Tanzania) and Magadi (Kenya) basins.". In: AGU FALL 2013. San Francisco, California; 2013. Abstract

In the early stages of continental rifting, East African Rift (EAR) basins are conventionally depicted as asymmetric basins bounded on one side by a ~100 km-long border fault. As rifting progresses, strain concentrates into the rift center, producing intra-rift faults. The timing and nature of the transition from border fault to intra-rift-dominated strain accommodation is unclear. Our study focuses on this transitional phase of continental rifting by exploring the spatial and temporal evolution of faulting in the Natron (border fault initiation at ~3 Ma) and Magadi (~7 Ma) basins of northern Tanzania and southern Kenya, respectively. We compare the morphologies and activity histories of faults in each basin using field observations and remote sensing in order to address the relative contributions of border faults and intra-rift faults to crustal strain accommodation as rifting progresses. The ~500 m-high border fault along the western margin of the Natron basin is steep compared to many border faults in the eastern branch of the EAR, indicating limited scarp degradation by mass wasting. Locally, the escarpment shows open fissures and young scarps 10s of meters high and a few kilometers long, implying ongoing border fault activity in this young rift. However, intra-rift faults within ~1 Ma lavas are greatly eroded and fresh scarps are typically absent, implying long recurrence intervals between slip events. Rift-normal topographic profiles across the Natron basin show the lowest elevations in the lake-filled basin adjacent to the border fault, where a number of hydrothermal springs along the border fault system expel water into the lake. In contrast to Natron, a ~1600 m high, densely vegetated, border fault escarpment along the western edge of the Magadi basin is highly degraded; we were unable to identify evidence of recent rupturing. Rift-normal elevation profiles indicate the focus of strain has migrated away from the border fault into the rift center, where faults pervasively dissect 1.2-0.8 Ma trachyte lavas. Unlike Natron, intra-rift faults in the Magadi basin exhibit primarily steep, little-degraded fault scarps, implying greater activity than Natron intra-rift faults. Numerous fault-associated springs feed water into perennial Lake Magadi, which has no surface drainage input, yet survives despite a high evaporation rate that has created economically viable evaporite deposits. Calcite vein-filled joints are common along fault zones around Lake Magadi, as well as several cm veins around columnar joints that imply isotropic expansion of the fracture network under high pressures of CO2-rich fluids. Our work indicates that the locus of strain in this portion of the EAR transfers from the border fault to the center of the rift basin some time between 3 and 7 million years after rift initiation. This transition likely reflects the evolving respective roles of crustal flexure and magma budget in focusing strain, as well as the hydrothermal fluid budget along evolving fault zones.

Awino ZB. "An Empirical Study Of Top Management Team Diversity, And Performance In The Service Industry.". In: International Conference on Ongoing Research on Management and IT VIII (INCON VIII). university of Pune, Chinchwad, Pune, 411019, Maharastra, India; 2013.
MUSEMBI NICODEMUSNDAWA, Hutchinson MJ, Waithaka K. "The Effects of 6-Benzylaminopurine and Gibberellic acid on Postharvest Physiology of Lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum) Flowers: I. Novel Synergism Improves Water Balance and Vase Life.". In: 1st International Symposium on Ornamentals in Africa (Organized by The ISHS). Morendat Conference Centre - Naivasha; 2013.
MUSEMBI NICODEMUSNDAWA, Hutchinson MJ, Waithaka K. "The Effect of Aluminium Sulphate, Sodium Hypochlorite plus Citric Acid and Silver Thiosulphate on Water Relations and Vase Life of Harvested Eustoma grandiflorum Flowers.". In: 1st International Symposium on Ornamentals in Africa (ISHS). Morendat Conference Centre - Naivasha, Kenya; 2013.
MUSEMBI NICODEMUSNDAWA, Hutchinson MJ, Waithaka K. "The Effects of 6-Benzylaminopurine and Gibberellic Acid on Postharvest Physiology of Lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum) Flowers: II. Influence of Dose on Inflorescence Architecture and Quality.". In: 1st International Symposium on Ornamentals in Africa. Morendat Conference Centre - Naivasha; 2013.
Nzunza R, Wurapa E, Kariuki N, Chek J, Ongus J, Bulimo W. "Epidemiological and clinical description of human metapneumovirus infectious diseases in Mbagathi District Hospital, Kenya, in 2008.". In: Options for the Control of Influenza VIII. Cape Town, South Africa; 2013:. Abstract

Background: Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), a recently identified respiratory virus, is a leading cause of acute respiratory tract infection in children, the elderly, and immune-compromised persons. Studies have been done in a hospitalized pediatric population in coastal Kenya. However, there is limited information about the prevalence, epidemiology, and clinical presentation of hMPV infections in the general population. The aim of this study was to outline the epidemiologic and clinical description of human metapneumovirus infectious disease in patients attending the outpatient department of Mbagathi District Hospital, Kenya, in 2008. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted from 2008 in patients ≥ 2 months of age presenting at the outpatient department of Mbagathi District Hospital for acute respiratory infection. Nasopharyngeal swabs were systematically tested for several respiratory viruses. Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of hMPV-infected children were compared with those of patients with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and other viral infections. Results: A total of 498 patients were enrolled in this study. Viral investigations detected a total of 271 viruses. Of these, 77 (15.5%) were hMPV infections, 78 (15.7%) seasonal flu A, 60 (12%) seasonal flu B, 13 (2.6%) panenterovirus, 36 (7.2%) parainfluenza viruses, and 6 (1.2%) RSV infections. Human metapneumovirus infections were higher in males (43, 55%) than in females (34, 45%), and predominantly in children ≤ 5 years (97%), only 2 (3%) were aged between 6 and 9 years. The hMPV infection had peaked in January-February, and was uncommon after March. Most of the patients infected with hMPV were < 1 year of age, and cough (100%) and difficulty in breathing (75%) were the predominant diagnosis in these patients with clinical symptoms of a lower respiratory tract infection. The severity of the disease was similar to those of RSV patients. Conclusions: These results highlight that hMPV plays an important role in seasonal acute respiratory tract infections, especially in children, with a severity similar to RSV infections. This work is ongoing to cover the wider Kenyan population.

DC K, HW C, C BL, Maingi N, Nyaga P N, Njagi L W. "Effect of parasite control on Newcastle disease vaccination response in free-ranged family chicken in Eastern province, Kenya.". In: 47th Kenya Veterinary Association (KVA) annual Scientific conference. Mombasa; 2013.abstract_-_kemboi_et_al.pdf
Chege HW, D.C.Kemboi, Bebora LC, Maingi N, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW. "Efficacy of piperazine citrate, levamisole hydrochloride and albendazole in the treatment of chickens naturally infected with gastrointestinal helminths.". In: 47th Kenya Veterinary Association (KVA) annual Scientific conference . Mombasa; 2013.abstract_-_chege_et_al.pdf
Abong’ GO, Kabira JN, Okoth MW. "Enhancing β-carotene, ascorbic acid and sensory properties of potato crisps using carrot powder as a flavoring agent.". In: Trends and opportunities in the production, processing and consumption of staple food crops in Kenya-Conference. Hotel intercontinental, Nairobi; 2013.flavored_crisps_for_staple_foods_conference_abstract.doc
Nambafu GN, Onwonga RN, Karuku GN, Ariga ES, Vanlauwe B, de Nowina RK. "Effect of maize variety and Nitrogen levels in the control of striga weed in western Kenya.". In: The 27th Soil Science Society of East Africa and 6th Africa Soil Science Society Conference. Hotel Cathy, Nakuru, Kenya; 2013.
Diaz W, G.N K. "Effect of Shubbhodaya Mycorrhiza on crop performace, draught tolerance and yields.". In: The 27th Soil Science Society of East Africa and 6th Africa Soil Science Society Conference. Hotel Cathy, Nakuru, Kenya; 2013.
K'Obonyo P, Busienei JR, Ogutu M. "Effect of Universalistic Perspective of Human Resource Strategic Orientation On Performance Of Large Private Manufacturing Firms in Kenya.". In: AIBUMA Conference. NAIROBI; 2013. Abstract

The study was set to investigate the effect of universalistic perspective of human resource strategic orientation on performance of large private manufacturing firms in Kenya. The target population was all large private manufacturing firms in Kenya that were registered members of Kenya Association of Manufacturers. The research adopted descriptive research design which utilized both descriptive and inferential statistics for effective generation of the required output. Using probability sampling, a sample of 108 firms was chosen. Data was collected using questionnaires developed by other researchers and that these were modified by the researcher. The respondents
were human resource managers, finance managers, corporate planning managers or any other senior manager. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version seventeen (17) was used to analyze the data. The results of this study showed that there was high positive correlation between universalistic human resource strategic orientation and firm performance. These results to a great extent show that all forms of universalistic human resource strategic orientation enhance performance of manufacturing firms and most particularly those registered with the Kenya Association of Manufacturers (KAM). These findings can also be generalized
to cover all other manufacturing firms in the country. As of the direction for further study, the researcher recommends that future research in universalistic human resource strategic orientation focus on public manufacturing firms and for the sake of knowledge, consider the use of longitudinal research design as opposed to the survey research designed which was central to this study. Further still, researchers should consider moderating or intervening variables. The main contribution of this paper lies in highlighting the fact that, proper configuration of universalistic human resource strategic orientation in manufacturing firms, will enable them enhance performance.

Musau LM, Migosi JA. "Effect of class size on girls’ academic performance in science mathematics and technology subjects.". In: First Annual Conference in Education. Riara University, Nairobi, Kenya.; 2013.
Johnson N, SG K, NA M, Gathumbi P K, JM K. "Erythrina abyssinica ameliorates neuroinflammation in African Trypanosomiasis mouse model.". In: 11th SONA International Conference. Rabat, Morocco; 2013.
Nyakundi A, Mberia H, Ndeti N. "The Effectiveness of Communication Campaigns in Enhancing Knowledge of Mental Health in Kenya.". In: School of Human Resource Development Annual Research Conference. JKUAT Main Campus; 2013.
Mwabu G, Kioko U, Kimuyu P. "The Economic Impact of Malaria on Wage Earnings in Kenya.". In: International Journal of Education and Research.; 2013.
Ndiritu A, RUGENDO CAROLINE, Chandi J, Keiyoro P, Mbwesa J. "The effect of Reading skills on academic performance of Distance learners: A case of the University of Nairobi Distance Learners."; 2013. Abstract

Vision 2030 reveals the magnitude of wastage in the transition from secondary to University Education. It notes that secondary school enrolment has risen from 112,229 in the 2006/2007 academic year to 118,239 in 2007/2008 academic year; the passage to university is at 3 percent. To raise the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) of university students from the present 3 per cent to the projected 15 per cent, the government must continue increasing the number of students joining higher education from 130,000 (2008) to 450,000 (2015). This can be done by expanding the capacities of existing universities through establishment of new courses in Distance Education. The university of Nairobi school of continuing and distance education runs a course in distance education. It has been observed that many students fail to score a total of 40% in a given course and they re-sit the failed units. The failure rate goes up to 63% with 27% out of 38% cases, which is a very high failure rate. High failure rate and the ever increasing time taken to graduate is a chronic problem in Distance learning. One of the reasons why there could be poor performance is lack of quality time in reading. It is therefore worth knowing how efficiency in distance learning can be enhanced. To find out the effect of reading skills on academic performance a study was carried out. A total number of 650 students were selected using stratified random sampling technique. This sample was taken from 4,500 University of Nairobi students who were registered for B.Ed degree in different levels of study in the school of continuing and distance Education. A mixed mode method approach was used in data collection. Correlational research design was employed in data analysis. Pearson correlations were used to establish if there was a relationship between reading skills and academic performance. The analysis indicated a strong relationship between reading skills and academic [r= 0.569]. The value of r2 =0.324, indicated that reading skills accounts for about 32.4% of the variation in average performance.
Key words reading skills:, Distance Learning

Ndiritu A, Chandi J, Kidombo H, Keiyoro P, Mbwesa J. "THE EFFECT OF TIME MANAGEMENT ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF DISTANCE LEARNERS: A CASE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI DISTANCE LEARNERS."; 2013. Abstract

Vision 2030 reveals the magnitude of wastage in the transition from secondary to University Education. It notes that secondary school enrolment has risen from 112,229 in the 2006/2007 academic year to 118,239 in 2007/2008 academic year; the passage to university is at 3 percent. To raise the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) of university students from the present 3 per cent to the projected 15 per cent, the government must continue increasing the number of students joining higher education from 130,000 (2008) to 450,000 (2015). This can be done by expanding the capacities of existing universities through establishment of new courses in Distance Education. The University of Nairobi’s School of Continuing and Distance Education runs a course in distance education. It has been observed that many students fail to score a total of 40% in a given course and they re-sit the failed units. The failure rate goes up to 63% with 27% out of 38% cases, which is a very high failure rate. High failure rate and the ever increasing time taken to graduate is a chronic problem in Distance learning. One of the reasons why there could be poor performance is lack of quality time in reading. It is therefore worth knowing how efficiency in distance learning can be enhanced. To find out the effect of time management of academic performance a study was carried out. A total number of 650 students were selected using stratified random sampling technique. This sample was taken from 4,500 University of Nairobi students who were registered for B.Ed degree in different levels of study in the school of continuing and distance Education. A mixed mode method approach was used in data collection. Correlational research design was employed in data analysis. Pearson correlations were used to establish if there was a relationship between time management and academic performance. The analysis indicated a strong relationship between time management and academic [r= 0.569]. The value of r2 =0.324, indicated that time management accounts for about 32.4% of the variation in average performance.
Key words: Time management, Distance Learning

Chandi J, Ndiritu A, Kidombo H, Mbwesa J, Keiyoro P. "The effect of time management on academic performance of Distance learners: A case of the University of Nairobi Distance Learners.".; 2013. Abstract

Vision 2030 reveals the magnitude of wastage in the transition from secondary to University Education. It notes that secondary school enrolment has risen from 112,229 in the 2006/2007 academic year to 118,239 in 2007/2008 academic year; the passage to university is at 3 percent. To raise the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) of university students from the present 3 per cent to the projected 15 per cent, the government must continue increasing the number of students joining higher education from 130,000 (2008) to 450,000 (2015). This can be done by expanding the capacities of existing universities through establishment of new courses in Distance Education. The university of Nairobi school of continuing and distance education runs a course in distance education. It has been observed that many students fail to score a total of 40% in a given course and they re-sit the failed units. The failure rate goes up to 63% with 27% out of 38% cases, which is a very high failure rate. High failure rate and the ever increasing time taken to graduate is a chronic problem in Distance learning. One of the reasons why there could be poor performance is lack of quality time in reading. It is therefore worth knowing how efficiency in distance learning can be enhanced. To find out the effect of time management of academic performance a study was carried out. A total number of 650 students were selected using stratified random sampling technique. This sample was taken from 4,500 University of Nairobi students who were registered for B.Ed degree in different levels of study in the school of continuing and distance Education. A mixed mode method approach was used in data collection. Correlational research design was employed in data analysis. Pearson correlations were used to establish if there was a relationship between time management and academic performance. The analysis indicated a strong relationship between time management and academic [r= 0.569]. The value of r2 =0.324, indicated that time management accounts for about 32.4% of the variation in average performance.
Key words: Time management, Distance Learning

Mueni J. "Engendered Benefit Incidence Analysis: Case of Blantyre Agricultural Development Division (BLADD) Budget.". In: International Journal of Innovative research and development. Vol. Vol. 2.; 2013.
J N, SG K, Gathumbi P K, AN M, J K. "Erythrina abyssinica ameliorates meningoencephalitis and conserves proteins in Trypanosoma brucei brucei chronic mouse model.". In: 15th International Neuroscience Winter Conference. Austria; 2013.
John Nderitu1, Kaburu D. Mishek2, Kasina3 JM. "Evaluation of Safe Pesticides and Varieties for Management of Insect Pests in Snap beans in Kenya.". In: 1Mount Kenya University, Research and Development. MKU; 2013.nderitu_et_al-poster_tropentag_20131.pptx
Ambuko J, Yumbya PM, Hutchinson MJ, Shibairo SI, Gemma H, Owino WO. "Efficacy of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) in Purple Passion (Passiflora edulis Sims) Fruits as Affected by Dosage and Maturity Stage.". In: HORTSCIENCE. Vol. 48. AMER SOC HORTICULTURAL SCIENCE 113 S WEST ST, STE 200, ALEXANDRIA, VA 22314 …; 2013:. Abstract
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Peng B, Lei F, Ozdemir SK, Long GL, Yang L. "Engineering the spectral properties of photonic molecules.". In: CLEO: QELS\_Fundamental Science. Optical Society of America; 2013:. Abstract
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Oranga JO. "The East African Integration: Dynamics of Media Engagement.". In: the East African Communication Association Conference. St. Agustine University, Mwanza, Tanzania; 2012.
Machio P. "The Effect of Chronic Illness on Labor Market Outcomes in Kenya.". In: Center for the Study of Africa Economies. Oxford, UK; 2012.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Effects of New Land Laws on Surveying & Related Professions: Highlights of Aspects the Land Act(2012) relating to Land Economists.". In: The Institution of Surveyors of Kenya Workshop. Kenya Bankers Sacco, Nairobi.; 2012.
J Nasimolo, S G Kiama PKGMKAJ. "Erythrina abyssinica ameliorates meningoencephalitis and conserves proteins in Trypanosoma brucei brucei chronic mice model.". In: RISE AFNNET Workshop. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Wairire GG. "Emerging alternatives for challenging adversities in rural and urban communities: the case of Vyamas in Kenya.". In: International Conference on Strengths Based Practices in Social Work and Human Services. Dhulikhel Lodge Resort- Kathmandu, Nepal; 2012.
Symekher. SML, Bulimo. WD, Kakai. R, Simwa. J, Sang. A, Magana. J. "Epidemiology and Molecular Characterization of Influenza Viruses Isolated From Children Admitted at The Kenyatta National Hospital in April-July 2008.". In: 2nd MEDICAL AND VETERINARY VIROLOGY RESEARCH-2 symposium. Sarova Panafric Hotel Nairobi Kenya; 2012. Abstract
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Mugo MG. "Economic Development in Africa.". In: Centre for Study of African Economies (CSAE). Oxford, UK; 2012.
Kimeu M. "Emerging Trends In Building Envelope Technologies: A Thermal Comfort Analysis for Nairobi.". In: 3rd East African Regional Workshop. ADD building, University of Nairobi; 2012.
Mulwa MM. "Extending financial services to the poor and Marginalized. A Case Study of Mobile Banking in Kenya.". In: 2nd East African Communication Association Conference. St. Augustine University in Mwanza, Tanzania; 2012.extending_financial_services_to_the_poor_and_marginalized_revised_edition.pdf
Onyango CM, Imungi JK, Onwonga RN. "Effect of Nitrogen Source, Crop Maturity Stage and Storage Conditions on Phenolics and Oxalate Contents in Vegetable Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus).". In: Journal of Agricultural Science. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2012.
Maina JG;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngugi JN;, Karuri EG;, Owiti GO;, Omolo B;, Orina P;, Wangia SM. "Effects Of Management‟s Practices And Economic Stimulus Program On Fish Production In Mwea Division Of Kirinyaga County.".; 2012.
Maina JG;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngugi JN;, Karuri EG;, Owiti GO;, Omolo B;, Orina P;, Wangia SM. "Effects Of Management‟s Practices And Economic Stimulus Program On Fish Production In Mwea Division Of Kirinyaga County.".; 2012.
Maina JG;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngugi JN;, Karuri EG;, Owiti GO;, Omolo B;, Orina P;, Wangia SM. "Effects Of Management‟s Practices And Economic Stimulus Program On Fish Production In Mwea Division Of Kirinyaga County.".; 2012.
Maina JG;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngugi JN;, Karuri EG;, Owiti GO;, Omolo B;, Orina P;, Wangia SM. "Effects Of Management‟s Practices And Economic Stimulus Program On Fish Production In Mwea Division Of Kirinyaga County.".; 2012.
Ireri TG, Abungu NO. "An Efficient Method of Load Forecasting for Non-Working Days.". In: Kenya Society of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Kenya Society of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (KSEEE); 2012. Abstract

Power utility companies are required to supply customers with power within specified voltage limits. Voltage rise in networks with distributed generators therefore poses a challenge. This paper presents a coordinated network controller whose objective is to maintain an optimal voltage profile across the power network. The operations of distributed generators, on-load tap-changing transformers and reactive power sources are controlled. The controller is modelled as an optimisation problem which is solved using Particle Swarm Optimisation. The IEEE 30-bus test network is then used to verify the effectiveness of the controller. The results obtained show that this controller can greatly improve the voltage profile of a power network by varying the parameters of existing generation and voltage control equipment.

DR. OYIEKE FLORENCEAWINO. "Electric nets and sticky materials for the study of gravid Anopheles mosquitoes.". In: Malaria Journal. Sissay Dugassa et al; 2012. Abstract

Background & objectives: Bancroftian filariasis in Kenya is endemic in coastal districts with anestimated number of 2.5 million people at risk of infection. The main mosquito genera involved intransmission of Wuchereria bancrofti in these areas are Anopheles, Culex and Mansonia. Thestudy was envisaged to compare the infectivity rates of Bancroftian filariasis vectors between thehigh transmission (wet) and the low transmission (dry) seasons.Methods: Mosquitoes were sampled from houses and compounds from two study sites, Gazi andMadunguni, on the Kenyan coast. Day resting indoor collection (DRI), pyrethrum spray catch(PSC) and CDC light traps were used to collect mosquitoes. After identification, female mosquitoeswere dissected to search for W. bancrofti III stage larvae.Results: A total of 1832 female mosquitoes were dissected. Infectivity rates of vectors in Madunguniwere 1.49 and 0.21% in wet and dry seasons respectively, whereas in Gazi, these were 1.69 and0%, respectively. There was a significant difference in the infectivity rates between the two seasonsin both Madunguni and Gazi villages (p <0.05). Anopheles gambiae s.l. was the main vector inboth study sites followed by Culex quinquefasciatus and An. funestus.Conclusion: There was a difference in infectivity rates of Bancroftian filariasis vectors betweenthe wet and dry seasons. The abundance of An. gambiae s.s. during the transmission season couldbe responsible for the increased infectivity rates of vectors in this season.

Behrens Roger, Dorothy McCormick, Mfinanga D. "An Evaluation of Policy Approaches to Upgrading and Integrating Paratransit in African Urban Public Transport Systems.". In: First Round of a Delphi Survey, 15th International CODATU Conference. Addis Ababa; 2012.
Mwinzi JM. "Education and Development in Africa.". In: Education and Development in Africa, Catholic University of Eastern Africa.; 2012. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Githiga RW, Hutchnison MJ, Gemma H, Owino WO. "Effect of maturity stage and cultivar on the efficacy of 1-MCP treatments in mango fruits.". In: II All Africa Horticulture Congress 1007.; 2012:. Abstract
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MORAA DRONYANGOCECILIA, K PROFIMUNGIJASPER, ONWONGA DRRICHARDNDEMO. "Effect of Nitrogen Source, Crop Maturity Stage and Storage Conditions on Phenolics and Oxalate Contents in Vegetable Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus).". In: Journal of Agricultural Science. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2012. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This article gives practical guide on methods of handling data in qualitative research paradigm. It briefly states the characteristics of qualitative research and gives short description of some of the commonly used designs. The article also discusses the stages to be followed when carrying out qualitative research. It is the authors hope that this article will offer useful tips on how to successfully use qualitative approach to collect and analyze data quickly and effectively.
MORAA DRONYANGOCECILIA, K PROFIMUNGIJASPER, ONWONGA DRRICHARDNDEMO. "Effect of Nitrogen Source, Crop Maturity Stage and Storage Conditions on Phenolics and Oxalate Contents in Vegetable Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus).". In: Journal of Agricultural Science. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2012. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Elisha T. O. Opiyo, Distributed computing, agents and trends. In the proceedings of the Unesco-Hp Brain Gain Workshop on Distributed Systems, 29th August 2012, at Kenya School of Monetary Studies in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the Unesco-Hp Brain Gain Workshop on Distributed Systems, 29th August 2012, at Kenya School of Monetary Studies in Nairobi, Kenya. AJFAND; 2012.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Elisha T. O. Opiyo, Multi-Agent Systems Scheduler in a Dynamic Environment Using a Load Optimizing Strategy. A PhD Thesis, University of Nairobi, June 2012.". In: Proceedings of the Unesco-Hp Brain Gain Workshop on Distributed Systems, 29th August 2012, at Kenya School of Monetary Studies in Nairobi, Kenya. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2012.
Kamau, Paul CO. "The EU-EPAs: Separating the Myths from the Truths.". University of Nairobi Press; 2012. Abstract
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Mwangi SW, Njihia M. "An Evaluation of Community Based Information Communication and Technology for Development Projects: Case of Digital Villages in Kenya.". In: The 8th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference (ORSEA). Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 25th and 26th October 2012: ORSEA; 2012. Abstract
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K.Muriithi M, G.Mutegi R, Mwabu G. "The Effect of Educational Policies on Kenyan Education Profile.". In: NTA Meetings. Belo Horizonte, Brazil; 2011.
Florence N. "Emerging Trends in Building Envelope Technologies; Transferable Technologies in Nairobi.". In: 2nd Annual East African Regional Workshop; . ADD Building, University of Nairobi; 2011.
Mishek DK;, Nderitu J, Kasina JM;, Chemingwa GN;, Olubayo F. "Evaluation of neonicotinoid seed dressing formulations for control of bean fly (OPhiomyia spp.) in snapbeans in Mwea, Central Kenya.". In: NCST 4th National Conference for dissemination of research results and exhibition of innovations held at KICC, . Nairobi; 2011.
Khasakhala" "AA. "Ethnic Fertility Differentials and their Proximate Determinants in Kenya.". In: 201 Population Association of America Annual Meeting. Marriot Warder Park Hotel, Washington DC; 2011.
Osanjo L. "The Emerging Opportunities for Design Development in the new Kenya.". In: Nairobi International Design Conference. National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi; 2011.
N. KC, K. BH, V. S, V. V, K. IJ, W. OM. "Evaluation of the role of flavanoids present in indigenous foods regarding health and nutrition of vulnerable groups in Kenya.". In: II World Congress of Public Health Nutrition and I Latin-American Congress of Community Nutrition. Alfandega Congress Centre, Porto, Portugal ; 2011.
Kamanu JK;;, Chemingwa GN;, Nderitu JH, Ambuko J. "Effect of varying inorganic nitrogen fertilizer regimes on growth, yield and quality of snapbeans.". In: Agro2011. UoN; 2011.
Ngesa JL. "Effect of malocclusion on the oral health-related quality of life of 12-14 year-olds in.". In: 1st CHS International Scientific Conference. CHS - University of Nairobi; 2011.
Simiyu J, Aduda B, Mwabora J. "Electron Transport and Recombination Studies on TiO2 Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Employing Electrochemical Potential Techniques: the Effect of Film Thickness.". In: 5th International Conference on Electroceramics, 2011 (ICE 2011) . University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; 2011. Abstract

Electron transport and recombination has been investigated in dye-sensitized electrochemical solar cells at varying TiO2 film thickness using experimental electrochemical potential technique. Photocurrent transients resulting from small-amplitude square wave modulation of the incident light were analyzed, and the effect of illumination intensity and film thickness studied. Photovoltage decay measurements were studied on solar cells when switched from short-circuit and under illumination to open circuit and dark at varying illumination intensity for different film thickness. The analysis was done for varying film thickness at constant illumination intensity and varying illumination intensity at constant film thickness. The varying film thicknesses in this study were 3.0 m, 6.0 m, 12.8 m, 23.5 m and 25.3 m while illumination intensities were 0.5, 1.2, 2.4, 5.1, 9.0 and 15.6 mWcm-2. The voltage decay measured (known as open circuit voltage, Vsc) was seen to first rise to a maximum value then followed by decay. The maximum Vsc (Vsc, max) increased with film thickness at constant prior illumination. On the other hand, Vsc, max was found to depend on the prior illumination and exhibited logarithmic increase with light intensity. The time (tmax) to attain Vsc, max varies exponentially with light intensity and closely matches the electron transport time measured by photocurrent decay measurements.

Magutu PO, Mwangi M. "E-Commerce Products And Services In The Banking Industry: The Adoption And Usage In Commercial Banks In Kenya.". In: Journal of Electronic Banking Systems. IBIMA Publishing; 2011. Abstract

Globalization, collaboration and wireless technologies have led to stiff competition. As a result,
commercial banks have generally adopted the use of e-commerce products and services in their delivery
of services to customers. This study’s main objective was to explore the challenges faced and benefits that
accrue from adoption and usage of e-commerce products and services banking by commercial banks in
Kenya. A survey was carried out to achieve the envisaged aims of the study. A total of 100 questionnaires
were distributed however only 70 banks responded. Overall, research showed that while the majority of
the banks in Kenya have adopted e-commerce products and services, usage levels have remained
relatively low, as not many customers are using this innovation in Kenya.
To establish benefits and challenges in the adoption and usage of e-commerce, 32 variables were used to
measure the level of application among these banks. These variables were analyzed using factor analysis
procedure and in order to achieve a simple and meaningful structure, that is, have a nonzero loading of
the explained variance for each individual factors, varimax rotation was done. As a result, 10 critical
factors were established as the best practices which include: improved customer service, reduced number
of customers in the banking hall, reduced operating costs and increased market share. The challenges
faced in the adoption of e-commerce products and services include compatibility with existing legacy
systems, cost of implementation and security concerns ranked high, ensuring desired levels of security
and privacy. Unreliable telecommunication as well as lack of legislation governing e-commerce
transactions rated highly.
Keywords: e-commerce, e-commerce products and services, benefits and challenges, commercial banks

W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Effect of dental caries on the oral health related quality of life of 12-14 year-olds in Viwandani slums, Nairobi.". In: The 29th Kenya Dental Association Scientific conference. KDA conference, Panafric Hotel Nairobi. October 13th to 15th 2011. Opondo IA, Kemoli A, Ngesa JL, Gathece LW; 2011. Abstract

Background: Traditional methods of measuring oral health mainly use clinical dental indices. In recent years, the use of subjective assessments to gain information about the impact of oral disorders on Oral-Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) has been advocated. By supplementing the clinical assessments with subjective assessments, a comprehensive account of the oral health of populations can be given. Studies on the OHRQoL of children in Kenya are so far largely unexplored. Objective: This study aimed at assessing the effect of dental caries and malocclusion on the OHRQoL of 12-14 year-old children residing in Viwandani slum. Study design: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Subjects and methods: A total of four hundred and fifty two children aged 12-14 years attending public and private primary schools in Viwandani slum, Nairobi participated in the study. Their mean age was 12.9 years. The two public schools in the slum were included in the study. The private schools were selected through simple random sampling. The children in each school were selected through stratified random sampling method. Data on OHRQoL was obtained using an interviewer administered Child-Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (Child-OIDP) Index. Intra-oral clinical examination was done to assess caries experience using the DMFT index and severity of malocclusion, using the Dental Aesthetic (DAI) Index. The data obtained were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) programme. Spearman's Rank Order Correlation and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to relate caries experience and severity of malocclusion with OHRQoL. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 56.2%. The overall mean DMFT was 1.72 ±2.40, with the mean DMFT for the female and male children being 1.73 ±2.07 and 1.71 ±2.40 respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the males and females (p=O.95) with regard to their mean DMFT. The prevalence of malocclusion was 32%, of which 19.9% had definite malocclusion, 6.7% had severe malocclusion and 5.4% had handicapping malocclusion. More males than females had malocclusion with the difference being statistically significant (p=O.01). A statistically significant correlation was found between caries experience and OHRQoL (~=O.09, p=O.OO). There was no association between the presence of malocclusion and OHRQoL (p=O.20). Conclusion: Dental caries was found to affect many aspects of the children's Oral Health-Related Quality of Life, while malocclusion had no effect on the OHRQoL of these children. Recommendation: There is a need for preventive and curative oral health services for the children in Viwandani slum. More studies are needed to determine the dietary patterns and oral hygiene practices of the children living in the slum in order to aid in future planning of appropriate interventions.

W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Effect of health education on oral hygiene and gingival status of persons living with HIV attending two Comprehensive Care Centres in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: African Journal of AIDS Research. 2011;10:481-486. (In Press). Gathece LW, Wang; 2011. Abstract

The study aimed to describe the effect of an oral health education intervention on oral hygiene status and gingival inflammation among persons with HIV attending two comprehensive healthcare centres in Nairobi, Kenya. This was a quasi-experimental study of 195 participants (with 102 in the intervention group, and 93 serving as the control group) who were selected using stratified random sampling. The data were collected at baseline, at three months (review 1), and at six months (review 2) using an interviewer-administered World Health Organization clinical examination form. The prevalence of plaque among the participants in the intervention decreased from 70.6% to 18.6%, with a significant decrease in their mean plaque score, from 0.89 to 0.15. The prevalence of gingival inflammation in the intervention group decreased from 58.2% to 12.7%, with a significant decrease in the mean gingival score, from 0.66 to 0.11. No significant change in degree of oral hygiene and gingival inflammation was observed among the non-intervention group. There was a strong association between the change in the mean gingival score and the change in the mean plaque score between baseline and at six months for the intervention group. The regression analysis yielded a coefficient of determination (r2) of 0.76; therefore, 76% of the variation in change in gingival score was explained by the variables in the equation. Only the change in mean plaque score was a significant predictor of the change in gingival score.

Keywords: Africa, dental hygiene, dental plaque, gingival inflammation, oral health education, oral manifestations of HIV infection, periodontal disease

African Journal of AIDS Research 2011, 10(4): 495–500

Macharia PN;, Gachene CKK;, Mureithi JG;, Kinyamario JI;, Ekaya WN;, Thuranira EG. "The effect of introduced forage legumes on improvement of soil fertility in natural pastures of semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya."; 2011. Abstract

A two phase study was carried out from 2002 to 2005 in the semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya to determine the effect of introduced forage legumes on soil fertility improvement of natural pastures. During legume evaluation phase, Neonotonia wightii (Glycine), Macroptilium atropurpureum (Siratro), Lablab purpureus cv. Rongai (Dolichos), Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) and Stylosanthes scabra var. Seca (Stylo) were screened for adaptability and growth performance under the semi-arid conditions for two years. Results of soil analysis showed there were significant increases in soil pH (4.92 to 5.36), organic carbon (1.17 to 2.57%) , nitrogen (0.17 to 0.22%) and potassium (1.23 to 1.68 me%) probably due to the large amounts of organic residues produced by the legumes (particularly Glycine, Siratro and Stylo which are perennials). The calcium content decreased significantly from 7.97 to 4.50 me% (which was attributed to plant uptake) while the decrease of phosphorus was not significant. During the second phase of study for 1½ years Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were integrated into natural pastures. The results showed that only the soil pH significantly increased from 5.23 to 5.31 while all the other nutrients decreased results, which were attributed to production of less organic residues by the legumes compared to the residues produced during the legume evaluation phase. The study concluded that Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were capable of improving the soil fertility of semi-arid natural pastures only if the respective dry matter production was 10.31, 7.81 and 3.52 tha-1, amounts which were able to produce large amounts of organic residues.

Macharia PN;, Gachene CKK;, Mureithi JG;, Kinyamario JI;, Ekaya WN;, Thuranira EG. "The effect of introduced forage legumes on improvement of soil fertility in natural pastures of semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya."; 2011. Abstract

A two phase study was carried out from 2002 to 2005 in the semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya to determine the effect of introduced forage legumes on soil fertility improvement of natural pastures. During legume evaluation phase, Neonotonia wightii (Glycine), Macroptilium atropurpureum (Siratro), Lablab purpureus cv. Rongai (Dolichos), Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) and Stylosanthes scabra var. Seca (Stylo) were screened for adaptability and growth performance under the semi-arid conditions for two years. Results of soil analysis showed there were significant increases in soil pH (4.92 to 5.36), organic carbon (1.17 to 2.57%) , nitrogen (0.17 to 0.22%) and potassium (1.23 to 1.68 me%) probably due to the large amounts of organic residues produced by the legumes (particularly Glycine, Siratro and Stylo which are perennials). The calcium content decreased significantly from 7.97 to 4.50 me% (which was attributed to plant uptake) while the decrease of phosphorus was not significant. During the second phase of study for 1½ years Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were integrated into natural pastures. The results showed that only the soil pH significantly increased from 5.23 to 5.31 while all the other nutrients decreased results, which were attributed to production of less organic residues by the legumes compared to the residues produced during the legume evaluation phase. The study concluded that Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were capable of improving the soil fertility of semi-arid natural pastures only if the respective dry matter production was 10.31, 7.81 and 3.52 tha-1, amounts which were able to produce large amounts of organic residues.

Macharia PN;, Gachene CKK;, Mureithi JG;, Kinyamario JI;, Ekaya WN;, Thuranira EG. "The effect of introduced forage legumes on improvement of soil fertility in natural pastures of semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya."; 2011. Abstract

A two phase study was carried out from 2002 to 2005 in the semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya to determine the effect of introduced forage legumes on soil fertility improvement of natural pastures. During legume evaluation phase, Neonotonia wightii (Glycine), Macroptilium atropurpureum (Siratro), Lablab purpureus cv. Rongai (Dolichos), Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) and Stylosanthes scabra var. Seca (Stylo) were screened for adaptability and growth performance under the semi-arid conditions for two years. Results of soil analysis showed there were significant increases in soil pH (4.92 to 5.36), organic carbon (1.17 to 2.57%) , nitrogen (0.17 to 0.22%) and potassium (1.23 to 1.68 me%) probably due to the large amounts of organic residues produced by the legumes (particularly Glycine, Siratro and Stylo which are perennials). The calcium content decreased significantly from 7.97 to 4.50 me% (which was attributed to plant uptake) while the decrease of phosphorus was not significant. During the second phase of study for 1½ years Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were integrated into natural pastures. The results showed that only the soil pH significantly increased from 5.23 to 5.31 while all the other nutrients decreased results, which were attributed to production of less organic residues by the legumes compared to the residues produced during the legume evaluation phase. The study concluded that Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were capable of improving the soil fertility of semi-arid natural pastures only if the respective dry matter production was 10.31, 7.81 and 3.52 tha-1, amounts which were able to produce large amounts of organic residues.

W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Effect of light intensity on the light cure characteristics of photo-polymerised dental composites.". In: 1st International Scientific Conference; College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. June 15th to 17th 2011. Kassim BA, Kisumbi BK, Lesan WR, Gathece LW.; 2011.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Effect of malocclusion on the oral health related quality of life of 12-14 year-olds in Viwandani slums, Nairobi.". In: . 1st International Scientific Conference; College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. June 15th to 17th 2011. Opondo IA, Kemoli A, Ngesa JL, Gathece LW.; 2011.
Onyango CM;, Harbinson J;, Shibairo SI;, Imungi JK. "Effect of organic and in organic fertilisers on yield and quality of amaranth in sub-Saharan Africa."; 2011. Abstract

This study was designed to evaluate the influence of manure and mineral fertilization on yield, Kjeldahl nitrogen (as protein equivalents), Vitamin C and nitrate accumulation in Amaranthus hypochondriacus. The vegetables were produced in field trials, set up in the University of Nairobi, Kenya, during the long rains period between March and May in 2007 and 2008 using diammonium phosphate (DAP; 20, 40 and 60 kg N ha-1) and manure; 40 kg N kg ha-1,) and the yield, Kjeldahl nitrogen (K-N; a proxy for protein content), vitamin C and nitrate levels were measured. The manure treatment produced little increase in productivity though it increased K-N levels. The DAP treatments produced increases in yield, but these saturated at 40 kg N ha -1. The K-N content of the leaves was high, ranging from 2.5 % to just over 4 %, and, broadly, increased with fertiliser application though the variation between the treatments was lower than that for yields. Nitrate levels, however, also increased with DAP fertilisation, resulting in an increase in the nitrate:K-N at high DAP applications, especially in younger plants. There were no clear correlations between ascorbic acid content and K-N. Nonetheless, the plants grown under different fertilisation regimes can be placed into three broad groups; those characterised with low to moderate K-N contents and low to high ascorbic acid contents, moderate to high K-N and low to high ascorbic acid content, and lastly high K-N and low ascorbic contents. Therefore, the growth environment of amaranth, can have a major impact not only on the productivity of the crop but its nutritional value. In this respect the mineral nutrient supply to the crop is of particular importance.

Onyango CM;, Harbinson J;, Shibairo SI;, Imungi JK. "Effect of organic and in organic fertilisers on yield and quality of amaranth in sub-Saharan Africa."; 2011. Abstract

This study was designed to evaluate the influence of manure and mineral fertilization on yield, Kjeldahl nitrogen (as protein equivalents), Vitamin C and nitrate accumulation in Amaranthus hypochondriacus. The vegetables were produced in field trials, set up in the University of Nairobi, Kenya, during the long rains period between March and May in 2007 and 2008 using diammonium phosphate (DAP; 20, 40 and 60 kg N ha-1) and manure; 40 kg N kg ha-1,) and the yield, Kjeldahl nitrogen (K-N; a proxy for protein content), vitamin C and nitrate levels were measured. The manure treatment produced little increase in productivity though it increased K-N levels. The DAP treatments produced increases in yield, but these saturated at 40 kg N ha -1. The K-N content of the leaves was high, ranging from 2.5 % to just over 4 %, and, broadly, increased with fertiliser application though the variation between the treatments was lower than that for yields. Nitrate levels, however, also increased with DAP fertilisation, resulting in an increase in the nitrate:K-N at high DAP applications, especially in younger plants. There were no clear correlations between ascorbic acid content and K-N. Nonetheless, the plants grown under different fertilisation regimes can be placed into three broad groups; those characterised with low to moderate K-N contents and low to high ascorbic acid contents, moderate to high K-N and low to high ascorbic acid content, and lastly high K-N and low ascorbic contents. Therefore, the growth environment of amaranth, can have a major impact not only on the productivity of the crop but its nutritional value. In this respect the mineral nutrient supply to the crop is of particular importance.

Onyango CM;, Harbinson J;, Shibairo SI;, Imungi JK. "Effect of organic and in organic fertilisers on yield and quality of amaranth in sub-Saharan Africa."; 2011. Abstract

This study was designed to evaluate the influence of manure and mineral fertilization on yield, Kjeldahl nitrogen (as protein equivalents), Vitamin C and nitrate accumulation in Amaranthus hypochondriacus. The vegetables were produced in field trials, set up in the University of Nairobi, Kenya, during the long rains period between March and May in 2007 and 2008 using diammonium phosphate (DAP; 20, 40 and 60 kg N ha-1) and manure; 40 kg N kg ha-1,) and the yield, Kjeldahl nitrogen (K-N; a proxy for protein content), vitamin C and nitrate levels were measured. The manure treatment produced little increase in productivity though it increased K-N levels. The DAP treatments produced increases in yield, but these saturated at 40 kg N ha -1. The K-N content of the leaves was high, ranging from 2.5 % to just over 4 %, and, broadly, increased with fertiliser application though the variation between the treatments was lower than that for yields. Nitrate levels, however, also increased with DAP fertilisation, resulting in an increase in the nitrate:K-N at high DAP applications, especially in younger plants. There were no clear correlations between ascorbic acid content and K-N. Nonetheless, the plants grown under different fertilisation regimes can be placed into three broad groups; those characterised with low to moderate K-N contents and low to high ascorbic acid contents, moderate to high K-N and low to high ascorbic acid content, and lastly high K-N and low ascorbic contents. Therefore, the growth environment of amaranth, can have a major impact not only on the productivity of the crop but its nutritional value. In this respect the mineral nutrient supply to the crop is of particular importance.

Magutu PO, Ondimu GM. "Effects of Cybercrime on State Security:Types, Impact and Mitigations with the Fiber Optic Deployment In Kenya.". In: Journal of Information Assurance & Cybersecurity. IBIMA Publishing; 2011. Abstract

The identification of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as an essential tool for sustainable development has proved to be worth every investment. As a result of this, Internet usage in Kenya has grown rapidly resulting in the explosion of Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and Internet access points. The general objective of this study was to model the impact of Cybercrime on security in Kenya, Nairobi as the case study. This was a census study on modeling the effects of Cybercrime on the security in Nairobi. Thirty one (31) out of the 3ifty one (51) responded giving a response rate of 60.78% percent. It was found that the Cybercrime is prevalent in Nairobi although largely unreported. To a great extent, it was discovered that
Internet Service Providers had established basic measures in order to curb the growing cyberspace crimes; as spamming activities remain prevalent in Kenya. Also, to a great extent the Criminal Investigation department (CID) and Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) have recognized that cybercrime is a growing threat to security in Nairobi and have collaborated with ISP’s to implement measures.
Keywords: State Security, Cybercrime, Types, Impact & Mitigations

NGUTA DRJOSEPHMWANZIA. "Ethnodiagnostic Skill of the Digo Community for Malaria: A lead to traditional bioprospecting. J.M.Nguta*, J.M.Mbaria; D.W.Gakuya;P.K.Gathumbi; J.D.Kabasa; S.G.Kiama.". In: Frontiers in Pharmacology. Frontiers, 2011; 2011. Abstract

Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the development of resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases. This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills, and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting. The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of 60 respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided the targeted information. The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria. This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses 60 medicinal plants distributed in 52 genera and 27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains, and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions. The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques.

Keywords: malaria, antimalarials, ethnopharmacology, ethnodiagnostic skills, Digo community, bioprospecting

Odhiambo JA, Dossaji SF, Lukhoba CK. "Ethnomedicinal knowledge in the traditional management of human ailments in Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya.". In: Botany 2011 . J.A. Odhiambo, W. Lukhoba & S.F. Dossaji; 2011. Abstract

Though the majority of inhabitants in the Kenya rely on ethnomedicinal plant species to manage a wide range of human ailments, much the indigenous knowledge largely remains undocumented. An ethnomedicinal study was conducted to document the plant species used medicinally in the Lake Victoria Basin. Data was collected by interviewing the herbalists from the region. A total of thirty four plant species distributed in twenty one botanical families were identified. The plant family with highest number of plants used for medicine was Compositae, followed by Leguminosae then Labiatae. The herbals were prepared mainly as concoctions and decoctions and were majorly administered orally and dermally to treat ailments such as typhoid, malaria, and chest and skin related complications. A rich knowledge of medicinal plants was recognized and phytochemical and bioactivity analyses of these herbal plants are recommended to determine their safety and efficacy.

Ongeti KW, OGENGO J. "Evaluating Low Back Pain Patients for Prolapsed Interverbral Disc in a Kenyan Teaching Hospital.". In: Annals of African Surgery. Surgical Society of Kenya; 2011. Abstract

Background: Accurate evaluation of low back pain is essential for its rational management. The extent of use of clinical and imaging findings in identificationof prolapsed intervertebral disk varies between centers. In Kenya, thediagnostic procedure is obscure.Objective: To assess the evaluation of low back pain patients for prolapsed intervertebral disk at a Kenyatta National Hospital, a teaching and referralhospital in Kenya.Study Design: A retrospective chart studyPatients and Methods: Historical, physical and imaging findings of patients who presented with low back pain and subsequently diagnosed with prolapsed inter-vertebral disk between Jan 1997 and December 2007 were evaluated.Results: Of the six hundred and three patients (267 males, 336 females) whowere evaluated, risk factors were recorded in 39.5% patients, 35.3%patients had sciatica while straight leg raising test was performed in52.2% patients. Investigations performed in these patients included plainroentograms (38.5%), CT scan (9.1%) and MRI (44.1%).Conclusion: The evaluation of low back pain for prolapsed inter-vertebral disk was incomplete. History of sciatica, SLRT, crossed SLRT and MRI use arerecommended for routine evaluation of low back pain for PID.

Mwabu G. "Exploring Social Protection as an Instrument for Achieving Millennium Development Goals in Kenya.". In: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa, Final Report.; 2011.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Effect of social capital on performance of smallholder producer organizations in western Kenya.". In: Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Technology. 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja; 2011. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Elisha T. O. Opiyo, Eric Ayienga, William Okello-Odongo, Bernard Manderick, Ann Now.". In: In UNESCO-HP . UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2011.
Nyabuga G. "Enhancing Equity in the East African Regional Integration Process: Role of the Media." Nairobi:Society for International Development; 2011. Abstract
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J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Enrichment of PUFA in Nile perch free fatty acids by selective enzymatic esterification and subsequent analysis using HPLC-ELSD.". In: European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 29 MAR 2011 DOI: 10.1002/ejlt.201000560. Wiley; 2011. Abstract
PUFA from oil extracted from Nile perch viscera were enriched by selective enzymatic esterification of the free fatty acids (FFA) or by hydrolysis of ethyl esters of the fatty acids from the oil (FA-EE). Quantitative analysis was performed using RP-HPLC coupled to an evaporative light scattering detector (RP-HPLC-ELSD). The lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus discriminated against docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) most, resulting in the highest DHA/DHA-EE enrichment while lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia discriminated against eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) most, resulting in the highest EPA/EPA-EE enrichment. The lipases discriminated between DHA and EPA with a higher selectivity when present as ethyl esters (EE) than when in FFA form. Thus when DHA/EPA were enriched to the same level during esterification and hydrolysis reactions, the DHA-EE/EPA-EE recoveries were higher than those of DHA/EPA-FFA. In reactions catalysed by lipase from T. lanuginosus, at 26 mol% DHA/DHA-EE, DHA recovery was 76% while that of DHA-EE was 84%. In reactions catalysed by lipase from P. cepacia, at 11 mol% EPA/EPA-EE, EPA recovery was 79% while that of EPA-EE was 92%. Both esterification of FFA and hydrolysis of FA-EE were more effective for enriching PUFA compared to hydrolysis of the natural oil and are thus attractive process alternatives for the production of products highly enriched in DHA and/or EPA. When there is only one fatty acid residue in each substrate molecule, the full fatty acid selectivity of the lipase can be expressed, which is not the case with triglycerides as substrates.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Enzymatic Synthesis of Lipophilic Rutin and Vanillyl Esters From Fish By Products. Accepted.". In: J. Agric. Food Chem. 2011. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 2011. Abstract
p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal { margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt; font-size: 12pt; font-family: "Times New Roman"; }div.Section1 { page: Section1; } Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of lipophilic phenolic antioxidants was carried out with a concentrate of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), recovered from oil extracted from Salmon (Salmon salar) by-products. Vanillyl alcohol and rutin were selected for the esterification reaction and obtained esters yields were 60 and 30 %, respectively. The antioxidant activities of the esters were compared with those of commercial butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and α-tocopherol using DPPH radical scavenging and thiobarbituric acid assays. In DPPH assay, rutin esters showed better activity than vanillyl esters and on the contrary in lipophilic medium, vanillyl esters were found to be superior to rutin esters. In bulk oil system, the antioxidant activities of rutin and vanillyl derivatives were lower than that of BHT and α-tocopherol but in emulsion, they showed better activity than α-tocopherol. By attaching PUFAs to natural phenolics, the PUFAs are protected against oxidation while PUFA improves the hydrophobicity of the phenolic which could enhance its function in lipid systems.
Opot. B, Osuna. F, Wadegu. M, Achilla. R, Wurapa. E, Bulimo. W. "Establishment of DNA sequencing capacity at the Kenyan National Influenza Centre to underpin molecular virology research at USAMRU-K. .". In: 1st International Scientific Conference at the College of Health Sciences University of Nairobi. University of Nairobi, Nairobi Kenya; 2011. Abstract
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E. DROWAKAHFRANCIS. "The Ethics of Deontology in Corporate Communication.". In: Thought & Practice: A Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya. The Philosophical Association of Kenya/AJOL; 2011. Abstract
This paper seeks to provide guidelines on how to respond to the ethical challenges entailed in corporate communication. It argues for the need for an ethical grounding for the practitioner of corporate communication, before critically examining the two broad ethical theories - deontology and teleology - and their place in ethical judgment. The authors underscore the importance of deontological ethics in the practice of corporate communication
ONGETI DRKEVINWANGWE, A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Evaluating Low Back Pain Patients for Prolapsed Interverbral Disc in a Kenyan Teaching Hospital.". In: Annals of African Surgery. Surgical Society of Kenya; 2011. Abstract
Background: Accurate evaluation of low back pain is essential for its rational management. The extent of use of clinical and imaging findings in identificationof prolapsed intervertebral disk varies between centers. In Kenya, thediagnostic procedure is obscure.Objective: To assess the evaluation of low back pain patients for prolapsed intervertebral disk at a Kenyatta National Hospital, a teaching and referralhospital in Kenya.Study Design: A retrospective chart studyPatients and Methods: Historical, physical and imaging findings of patients who presented with low back pain and subsequently diagnosed with prolapsed inter-vertebral disk between Jan 1997 and December 2007 were evaluated.Results: Of the six hundred and three patients (267 males, 336 females) whowere evaluated, risk factors were recorded in 39.5% patients, 35.3%patients had sciatica while straight leg raising test was performed in52.2% patients. Investigations performed in these patients included plainroentograms (38.5%), CT scan (9.1%) and MRI (44.1%).Conclusion: The evaluation of low back pain for prolapsed inter-vertebral disk was incomplete. History of sciatica, SLRT, crossed SLRT and MRI use arerecommended for routine evaluation of low back pain for PID.
KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Evaluation of the role of flavanoids present in indigenous foods regarding health and nutrition of vulnerable groups in Kenya.". In: II World Congress of Public Health Nutrition and I Latin-American Congress of Community Nutrition.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Executive Liability for Company Offenses".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 24-26.; 2011. Abstract
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J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Export standards, market institutions and smallholder farmer exclusion from fresh export vegetable high value chains: Experiences from Ethiopia, Kenya and Zambia.". In: Journal of Agricultural Sceince. Julius J. Okello; 2011. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Export standards, market institutions and smallholder farmer exclusion from fresh export vegetable high value chains: Experiences from Ethiopia, Kenya and Zambia.". In: Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja; 2011. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
Mogambi H. "An ethnographic overview of patterns of consumption of local language radio in rural Kenya. .". In: Global Media Research Centre. Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, USA; 2010.
Aduda BO. "ENERGY DEMAND, USAGE AND CONSEQUENCES: THE KENYAN CASE.". In: Conclave of Afro Asia Young Scientists. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research; Jakukur, Bangalore-560 64, India; 2010. Abstract

Kenya is a developing country aspiring to gain the status of an industrialized country by the year 2030. In pursuit of this political goal various policies and targets are being proposed and pursued. It has thus become very apparent that the stated goal would not be achieved unless there is sufficient exploitable energy available to meet the anticipated demand. To this end various options such as nuclear energy, exploration of oil, exploitation of the geothermal energy reservoirs, building of windmills for energy generation, solar energy, and biofuels are proposed. We discuss Kenya’s present situation and preparedness with respect to the stated goal and how these present and proposed sources of energy have impacted/will impact on the environment and climate and development.

Bebora, L.C., Maingi, N., Nyaga, P. N., Mbuthia, P.G., Gor, C.O, Njagi LW, Githinj JM. "Enhancing village chicken productivity through parasite management for effective Newcastle disease vaccination in Kenya.". In: 2nd Biennial Ruforum meeting. Kampala, Uganda; 2010.2010_-_effect_of_worm_burden_on_nd_vaccination_response.pdf
J.M. K. "Enhancing Quality of Educational Management .". In: Access to University Education: The challenge of access and quality . Migori Teachers’ Training College; 2010.
WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Extraction of Resistances in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Fabricated from Obliquely Sputtered TiO2 Films,.". In: Opto-Electronics Devices: Their potential for Sustainable Development, conference held at the Department of Physics, University of Nairobi. DEPT OF PHYSICS, UON: Elsevier; 2010. Abstract

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Muthomi JW;, Kinyungu TN;, Nderitu JH;, Olubayo FM;, Kabira J. "Effect of maize border crop placement distance on aphid population and aphid-transmitted virus diseases in potato.". In: 12th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference, KARI,. Nairobi; 2010.
Kisipan ML, Makanya AN, Oduor-Okelo D, Onyango DW. "The epididymis of rufous sengi (Elephantulus rufescens): Structure, adaptations and role in sperm maturation and storage.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 7th Biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibitions. Nairobi: Kisipan, M.L., Makanya, A.N., Oduor-Okelo, D. and Onyango, DW; 2010. Abstract

Sengis are testicondid endemic african mammals that constitute the order Macroscelidae. The epididymides of five male rufous sengis (Elephantulus rufescens) were studied both macroscopically and microscopically to describe the structure and possible features or adaptations making it a suitable site for sperm maturation and storage in testicondas. The epididymis had three distinct topographic regions; the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis. The caput and cauda epididymis were placed further apart; the former occuring as a longitudinal mass on dorsolateral border of the tesis while the latter occurred as a pear-shaped mass placed laterally between the rectum and the pelvic urethra, the two being connected by a slender corpus epiddidymis. The epithelium comprised of principal and basal cells with the former exhibiting numerous secretory granules and apical blebing in the caput. In the cauda, principal cells had numerous vacuoles and its lumen was densely packed with spermatozoa and occasional masses that appeaed to engulf spermatozoa. This study demonstrates that the pricipal cells of the caput of sengi produces materials either through merocrine or apocrine secretion, the latter being shown by apical blebs that are shed off as epididymosomes, which in turn transfers epididymis-secreted proteins to the plasma membrane of spermatozoa. Additionally, the study has shown that the cauda epididymis remarkably descends to a site probably cooler than the core body temperature for optimal sperm storage, and the numerous vacuoles indicating its involvement in fluid reabsortion and phagocytosis of residual bodies and damaged spermazoa.

Odhiambo JA, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF. "Ethnomedicial knowledge in traditional management of human ailments in Lake Victoria Basin,.". In: 51st annual Meeting of the Society for Economic Botany, Veracruz, Mexico. Vera Cruz, Mexico: J.A. Odhiambo, .W. Lukhoba*, S.F. Dossaji; 2010. Abstract

Though the majority of inhabitants in the Kenya rely on ethnomedicinal plant species to manage a wide range of human ailments, much the indigenous knowledge largely remains undocumented. An ethnomedicinal study was conducted to document the plant species used medicinally in the Lake Victoria Basin. Data was collected by interviewing the herbalists from the region. A total of thirty four plant species distributed in twenty one botanical families were identified. The plant family with highest number of plants used for medicine was Compositae, followed by Leguminosae then Labiatae. The herbals were prepared mainly as concoctions and decoctions and were majorly administered orally and dermally to treat ailments such as typhoid, malaria, and chest and skin related complications. A rich knowledge of medicinal plants was recognized and phytochemical and bioactivity analyses of these herbal plants are recommended to determine their safety and efficacy.

WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Electrochemical Characterization of TiO2 Blocking Layers Prepared by Reactive DC Magteron Sputtering.". In: African School on Nanoscience for solar Energy Conversion, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. AKAKI CAMPUS, ADDIS ABABA: Elsevier; 2010. Abstract

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Oredo J. "Evaluation of Computer Use in Teacher Education.". In:  Kenya Education Staff Institute (KESI) Annual Conference . KICC-Nairobi; 2010.
M.Kimeu. "Emphasis of Green Architecture in Training and PracticeEmphasis of Green Architecture in Training and Practice.". In: East African regional Workshop . ADD building, University of Nairobi; 2010.
Mutahi J, Nganga W. "Extending the Grammatical Framework with Swahili Translation Capability.". In: Tenth CHAKITA Conference.; 2010. Abstract
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