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Wanjala C, Wanjala A. "East and Central Africa- A Personal Overview." Journal of Commonwealth Literature. 2005;40(5):253-265.
Dorothy McCormick, Atieno R. "Eastern Africa Productive Capacity Initiative.". In: Eastern Africa Productive Capacity Initiative. Vienna: UNIDO. Vienna: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2003. Abstract

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Mbithi LM. Eastern Africa’s Manufacturing Sector - Kenya Country Report. Nairobi: African Development Bank Group – Eastern Africa Regional Resource Centre (EARC); 2014.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Eastern and Central African Integration.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2004. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. ""Eastern and Central African Integration: What it Entails." Paper for Nairobi Stock Exchange (NSE) Golden Jubilee and 8th African Stock Exchanges Association (ASEA) Conference (Nairobi November 2004).". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2004. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Eastman SA, Makawiti DW, Collins WP, Hodges JK.Pattern of excretion of urinary steroid metabolites during the ovarian cycle and pregnancy in the marmoset monkey.". In: J Endocrinol. 1984 Jul;102(1):19-26. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 1984. Abstract
Non-invasive methods for monitoring reproductive status based on the measurement of urinary steroid conjugates were examined. Levels of urinary oestrone-3-glucuronide, oestrone-3-sulphate, oestradiol glucuronide, oestradiol sulphate and pregnanediol-3 alpha-glucuronide were determined during the ovarian cycle and pregnancy. Sequential hydrolysis showed oestradiol conjugates to be more abundant than oestrone conjugates. The levels of sulphates and glucuronides were similar in the follicular phase whereas sulphates predominated during the luteal phase and pregnancy. Although levels of oestrone-3-sulphate were two- to fourfold lower than those of oestradiol sulphate, measured after hydrolysis, the profiles throughout the cycle and pregnancy were similar. Levels of oestrone-3-sulphate, measured by direct assay, were below 1 mumol/mmol creatinine during the follicular phase, rising 3-4 days after ovulation to reach maximum values (2-8 mumol/mmol creatinine) in the mid-luteal phase. There was no consistent increase before ovulation. Levels during pregnancy rose gradually until days 70-90, after which there was no further increase (gestation length = 144 days). The pattern of pregnanediol-3 alpha-glucuronide was similar to that of oestrone-3-sulphate during the ovarian cycle but levels did not increase during pregnancy. The patterns of excretion of oestrogen and progesterone metabolites were similar to the pattern of the circulating hormones during the ovarian cycle. Circulating and urinary hormone patterns were similar for oestrogens throughout pregnancy but pregnanediol-3 alpha-glucuronide did not reflect progesterone secretion beyond day 70 of gestation.
Menger DJ, Philemon Omusula, Wouters K, Oketch C, Carreira AS, Durka M, Derycke J-L, Loy DE, Hahn BH, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Collins K Mweresa, Joop JA van Loon, Takken W, Alexandra Hiscox. "Eave screening and push-pull tactics to reduce house entry by vectors of malaria." The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene. 2016;94(4):868-878.
Ebrahim YH. Ebclima Software (Synthesis + interpretation of findings). May 2018 ed. Ebenergy Enterprises; 2018.
Ebrahim YH. Ebenergy Software (Simulations + experimentations). May 2018 ed. Ebenergy Enterprises; 2018.
Ebrahim YH. Ebstats Software (Collection, processing, preparation, analysis of data + results). May 2018 ed. Ebenergy Enterprises; 2018.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Echessah P. and C. Ackello-Ogutu, Editors (2002). Opportunities and Challenges of Intra-regional Trade in East and Southern Africa. Proceedings of a forum on regional integration of Eritrean cereals markets, held in Asmara, 23rd July 2002.". In: Proceedings of a forum on regional integration of Eritrean cereals markets, held in Asmara, 23rd July 2002. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2002.
McPherson CNL;, Zeyhle, E; Romig T,; Mwangi, M.; Rees P,; McPherson C;, Wachira T;, Cheruiyot H;, Gathura PB;, Gathuma JM;, Kinoti GK. "Echnicoccus – Research for appropriate control techniques for Turkana.".; 1985.
McPherson CNL;, Zeyhle E;, Mwangi M;, Rees P;, McPherson C;, Wachira T;, Cheruiyot H;, Gathura PB;, Gathuma JM;, Romig T;, Kinoti GK. "Echnicoccus – Research for appropriate control techniques for Turkana.".; 1985.
Conteh S, OGOLA EN, Oyoo GO, Gitura BM, Achieng L. "Echocardiographic abnormalities in systemic lupus erythematosus patients at Kenyatta National Hospital." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2016;3(3):19. AbstractWebsite

Background: The cardiovascular system is frequently affected in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Involvement of the pericardium, endocardium, myocardium, coronary and pulmonary vessels has been found in several clinical and autopsy studies in patients with SLE; most of which can be detected by noninvasive two dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. More than half of SLE patients experience clinical cardiovascular manifestation during the course of the disease and cardiovascular complications are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with SLE.
Objective: To determine the prevalence and spectrum of cardiac abnormalities; determined by echocardiography in SLE patients at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of SLE patients attending clinic at KNH. A targeted history and physical examination and a detailed trans-thoracic echocardiography were performed for all patients. The independent variables included; age, sex, duration of disease and medications. The echocardiogram outcome variables included; pericardial effusion, thickening and calcification, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, mitral valve thickening, stenosis and regurgitation, aortic valve thickening, stenosis and regurgitation, and pulmonary hypertension.
Results: Sixty three SLE patients participated in the study, the mean age was 36.7 years, with a female to male ration of 20:1 and a meadian duration of disease of 36 months. Over 70% of participants were on at least 2 disease modifying medication. The overall prevalence of echocardiographic abnormalities was 88.9%, the major drivers of this high prevalence being pericardial and valvular thickening. The single moast common cardiac lesion was pericardial thickening at 77.8%. The mitral valve was the most commonly affected valve with 69.8% and 30.2% having mitral thickening and regurgitation respectively. Aortic valve thickening and regurgitation was found in 25.4% and 6.3% of participants respectively. Diastolic dysfunction was found in 50.8% of participants and was found to be associated with older age at diagnosis. Pulmonary hypertension was found in 22.2% of participants.
Conclusion: The study demonstrates a high prevalence of cardiac abnormalities among SLE patients despite being on disease modifying medications. Even though the majority of these abnormalities comprised of clinically insignificant pericardial and valvular thickening, the prevalence of valvular insufficiency and pulmonary hypertension are substantially high and relatively higher than the prevalence seen in other studies in the case of pulmonary hypertension.

Soki KB, Were AJ, OGOLA EN, Nyale GM, Murage MM. "An echocardiographic evaluation of pulmonary pressures in hemodialysis patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(6). AbstractWebsite

Abstract

Background: A high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has been noted. In these patients, PH increases morbidity and mortality and worsens prognosis post-renal transplant. Its aetiopathogenesis may be multifactorial, involving the process of haemodialysis itself.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of PH among patients with ESRD undergoing haemodialysis at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), using Doppler echocardiography

Design: 117 patients were consecutively recruited into this cross-sectional study.
Medical history was used to exclude patients with possible PH of known aetiology. Patients were examined for features of fluid overload. Each patient then underwent haemodialysis followed by echocardiography within two hours. Haemoglobin was measured.

Setting: The Renal Unit, KNH, a tertiary hospital in Nairobi

Subjects: Patients undergoing regular haemodialysis within the renal unit, thirteen years and above, who gave written informed consent or assent.

Results: 63.2% of the participants were male. Mean age was 44 years. Prevalence of PH among ESRD patients was 32.5%, with a median PASP of 47.3mmHg and a range of 36.1–79 mmHg. A strong association between PH and EF of less than 50%, as a marker of LV dysfunction, was demonstrated.

Conclusion: The prevalence of PH among end-stage renal disease patients was high. This suggests an indication for routinely screening haemodialysis patients for PH.

Keywords: ESRD: End stage renal disease, LV: Left ventricle, KNH: Kenyatta National Hospital, PASP: Pulmonary arterial systolic pressure, PH: Pulmonary Hypertension

YUKO- DRJOWICHRISTINEA. "Echocardiographic patterns of juvenile rheumatic heart disease at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J . 2005 Oct; 82 ( 10 ): 514-9 . PMID: 16450679 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Yuko-Jowi C, Bakari M.". In: East Afr Med J . 2005 Oct; 82 ( 10 ): 514-9 . uon press; 2005. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202 Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To describe the echocardiographic features of children with rheumatic heart disease seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: The Kenyatta National Hospital Heart Unit. SUBJECTS: Patients aged 20 years and less with echocardiographic diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease. RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty four echocardiograms were analysed. Seventy six point four of cases were aged between 5 and 15 years, while on 3% were less than five years. The combinations mitral and aortic regurgitation was the most common lesion followed by isolated mitral regurgitation. Isolated aortic regurgitation was as rare as isolated mitral stenosis in the paediatric age group 1.8% and 2.7% respectively. When seen in the younger age group, the leaflet morphology in mitral regurgitation was predominantly thickening and clubbing of the leaflets while in the older children the pathology was of marked fibrosis of the sub-valvular apparatus. Leaflet prolapse and commissural fusion was the major pathology in aortic regurgitation. Pulmonary hypertension was the most common complication commonly seen in mitral valve disease. Calcification was a rare encounter in this age bracket. CONCLUSIONS: Rheumatic heart disease in the paediatric age commonly presents as isolated mitral regurgitation or in combinations of mitral and aortic regurgitation. The complications of pulmonary hypertension was predominant in mitral valve disease. Valvular calcification is rare in juvenile rheumatic heart disease. PMID: 16450679 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Masai WS. "Eclectic Views on Impacts of Capital, Technology and Entrepreneurship on Africa’s Marginalization.". In: The Fifth (Biennial) African Symposium on Rhetoric at the Margins. Association for Rhetoric a nd Communication. Southern Africa (ARCSA). National University of Lesotho, Roma; 2001.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Ecohydrology to guide the management of a tropical protected area.". In: Lake Naivasha, Kenya: . Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology 4:255-273. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
Kyule MD. "Ecological and behavioural implications of early Later Stone Age Fauna from Ntuka River 3, southwest Kenya.". In: 4th World Archaeological Congress (WAC4). University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa ; 1999.
Kyule MD. "Ecological and Behavioural implications of early Later Stone Age Fauna from Ntuka River 3, Southwest Kenya.". In: 4th World Archaeological Congress (WAC4) . University of Cape Town, South Africa: Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2002.
Syano, N.M., Wasonga OV, Nyangito, Moses M, Kironchi G, Egeru A. "Ecological and socio-economic evaluation of dryland agroforestry systems in East Africa." RUFORUM Working Document Series . 2018;14(1):525-535.
Kasina1 M, Herren-Gemmill B, Wasilwa L, Martins D, Nderitu JH. "Ecological Approaches: Entomological diversity including pollinators.". In: International Symposium on Agroecology for Food Security and Nutrition. FAO Headquarters, Rome; 2014.abstract.pdf
Ochieng A, Gachie T, Ondiba IM, Nanyingi M, Olago D, Amimo FA, Oludhe C. "Ecological niche modelling and spatial distribution of rift valley fever vectors in Baringo County, Kenya." JOOUST. 2015. AbstractFull Text Link

The Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that has an impact on human health and animal productivity. It is caused by the Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV) which is primarily transmitted by flood water Aedes mosquitoes. Culex spp and Mansonia spp are secondary vectors which pick up the RVFV from domestic animals and amplify the infection to other domestic animals and humans. This study used ecological niche modelling algorithms to predict the effect of climatic variables on habitat suitability and the spatial distribution of RVF vectors in Baringo County. We ran the Boosted Regression trees and Random Forest algorithms to model the spatial distribution of Culex spp. using species occurrence data and AFRICLIM climate data. The species occurrence data was obtained from longitudinal sampling of mosquito larvae in four strata within the study area between June and December 2014. The AFRICLIM climate data consisting of 21 variables was downloaded from https://webfiles.york.ac.uk/KITE/AfriClim. Preliminary results indicate that rainfall, moisture and temperature ranges are the key factors that affect the spatial distribution of Culex spp in Baringo County. Culex spp. is likely to be found in the riverine zone along Kerio River and in the lowlands around Lakes Baringo, 94 and Bogoria.

Kimuyu J, Muthama J, Musyoka S. "Ecological Niche Modelling for Spatial Temporal quantification of the Changing Dynamics of Malaria Vector Distribution in Kenya under Climate Change Forcing." International Scientific Journal of Scientific and Technology Research . 2017;Vol. 5(Issue 6 ISSN 2277 -8616).
Olago D, Ochieng AO, Nanyingi M, Kipruto E, Ondiba IM, Amimo FA, et al. "Ecological niche modelling of Rift Valley fever virus vectors in Baringo, Kenya." Infection ecology & epidemiology. 2016;6(1):32322. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that has an impact on human health and animal productivity. Here, we explore the use of vector presence modelling to predict the distribution of RVF vector species under climate change scenario to demonstrate the potential for geographic spread of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV).
OBJECTIVES:

To evaluate the effect of climate change on RVF vector distribution in Baringo County, Kenya, with an aim of developing a risk map for spatial prediction of RVF outbreaks.
METHODOLOGY:

The study used data on vector presence and ecological niche modelling (MaxEnt) algorithm to predict the effect of climatic change on habitat suitability and the spatial distribution of RVF vectors in Baringo County. Data on species occurrence were obtained from longitudinal sampling of adult mosquitoes and larvae in the study area. We used present (2000) and future (2050) Bioclim climate databases to model the vector distribution.
RESULTS:

Model results predicted potential suitable areas with high success rates for Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex univitattus, Mansonia africana, and Mansonia uniformis. Under the present climatic conditions, the lowlands were found to be highly suitable for all the species. Future climatic conditions indicate an increase in the spatial distribution of Cx. quinquefasciatus and M. africana. Model performance was statistically significant.
CONCLUSION:

Soil types, precipitation in the driest quarter, precipitation seasonality, and isothermality showed the highest predictive potential for the four species.

AO O, M N, Kipruto E, IO O, FA A, C O, O. D, DO O, K I, IK N, BA E. "Ecological niche modelling of Rift Valley fever virus vectors in Baringo, Kenya." Infect Ecol Epidemiol. 2016;6:32323.
J.O. O, Bloh HV. "Ecological Sanitation Approaches in Kenya .". In: THE ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE ENGINEER AND VISION 2030.; 2009.ecosan2.pdf
MO F, ME T, B G, RJ S, J C, OB A-B, A K, AC MD, V P, M R. "An Ecological Study of the Association Between Environmental indicators and early childhood caries." BMC Res Notes. 2020;2020, 13:474.(2020, 13:474.):2020, 13:474.
MO F, MO O, M E-T, A K, OB A-B, B G, RJ S. "An ecological study on the association between early childhood caries and intimate partner violence in 20 low- and middle-income countries; 2007-2017." AAS Open Res. 2021;2021; 4:39.(2021; 4:39.):2021; 4:39.
MO F, ME T, JI V, CA F, M R, AM K, R V, OB A‐B, R A, B G, SZ M, A A, H D, A V, RJ S, for the Group ECCA. "An ecological study on the association between universal health service coverage index, health expenditures, and early childhood caries." BMC Oral Health. 2021;2021; 21:126.(2021; 21:126.):2021; 21:126.
Nyariki, D.M. WVO, Mworia JK. "Ecological, socio-economic and livelihood differentiation of Kenya.". In: Trends and Scope of Human Ecology. Vol. 5. Kamla-RaJ Enterprises, India; 2010:. Abstract
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Mukabana RW, Kannady K, Kiama MG, Ijumba JN, Mathenge EM, Ibrahim Kiche, Nkwengulila G, Mboera L, Mtasiwa D, Yamagata Y, Schayk IV, Knols BGJ, Lindsay SW, de Castro MC, de Castro MC, Tanner M, Fillinger U, Killeen GF. "Ecologists can enable communities to implement malaria vector control in Africa.". In: Malaria Journal, 5 (1): 9. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006. Abstract

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Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of
practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots
level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.

Mukabana, W.R., K. Kannady, G.M. Kiama, J. Ijumba, E.M. Mathenge, I. Kiche, G. Nkwengulila, L.E.G. Mboera, D. Mtasiwa, Y. Yamagata, I. van Schayk, B.G.J. Knols, S.W. Lindsay, M. Caldas de Castro, H. Mshinda, M. Tanner, U. Fillinger, Killeen GF. "Ecologists can enable communities to implement malaria vector control in Africa." Malaria Journal. 2006;5(1):9.
Ephantus J Muturi, Mwangangi JM, John C Beier, Millon Blackshear, James Wauna, Sang R, Wolfgang R Mukabana. "Ecology and behavior of Anopheles arabiensis in relation to agricultural practices in central Kenya." Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 2013;29(3):222-230.
Muchai M. "The ecology and conservation of threatened grassland birds in Africa.". In: OSTRICH. Vol. 78. BIRDLIFE SOUTH AFRICA PO BOX 84394, GREENSIDE 2034, SOUTH AFRICA; 2007:. Abstract
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Olali T. "Ecology as thematic foci: The identity of Swahili Poetry and Ecocriticism experiment.". In: Environments of African Literature. Marriott Wardman Park, Washington, D.C, USA ; 2018.
Pimental D, Tort M, D’Anna L, Krawic A, Berger J, Rossman J, Mugo F, Doon N, Shriberg M, Howard E, Lee S, Talbot J. "Ecology of increasing disease, population growth, and environmental degradation.". 1998. AbstractWebsite

The World Health Organization (WHO) and other organizations report that the prevalence of human diseases during the past decade is rapidly increasing. Population growth and the pollution of water, air, and soil are contributing to the increasing number of human diseases worldwide. Currently an estimated 40% of world deaths are due to environmental degradation. The ecology of increasing diseases has complex factors of environmental degradation, population growth, and the current malnutrition of about 3.7 billion people in the world

Meroka, B.N., Gichuki, N. N., Kiboi S. "Ecology of small mammals in Oloolua forest in Nairobi, Kenya." Int. J. Zool. Appl. Biosci.. 2018;3(4):294-301.
Mwangi AM, den Hartog AP, Foeken DWJ, van't Riet H, Mwadime RKM, w.A. van Staveren. "The ecology of street foods in Nairobi." Ecology of Food and Nutrition. 2001;40:497-523.Website
MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ, Polome & Hill E. "Ecology of Tanzanian Language Situation." Language in Tanzania. 1980:139-175.
Mavuti KM. "Ecology of the Yala swamp.". 1989.Website
Kaur, SS & Nyamongo IK. Ecology, Growth and Nutritional Status . New Delhi: Ashish Publishing House; 1990.
ERASTO PROFMUGA. "Econo,ics of fertility, Joliso, east African Journal of Literature and Society, Vol.1,no.2,1973.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1973. Abstract
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JOHN DRMWANGI. "Econometric Methods in Economic Education .". In: Article for publication in Independent. au-ibar; 2003. Abstract
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Wale E;, Mburu J. "Economic Analysis of Farmers’ Preferences for Coffee Variety Traits — Lessons for on-Farm Conservation and Technology Adoption in Ethiopia."; 2003. Abstract

The knowledge to-date recaps Coffea arabica to have originated in Ethiopia and its genetic diversity in the country is proved to be high. On top of its role in the national economy, Ethiopia’s coffee diversity is important not only nationally but also in international research and conservation centers. However, this diversity is dwindling due to policy, institutional and market failures. Despite a tremendous attention to salvage this degradation through the emerging on-farm conservation, there is no adequate contextual research done as to how this strategy can be harmonized with farmers’ livelihood strategies and how policy can face the potential trade-off with modern technology adoption. To implement sensible on-farm conservation and variety adoption strategies, farmers’ preferences for variety traits and their land allocation behavior should be understood. To this end, the paper aims to study coffee farmers’ preferences for variety traits and examine land use decisions (between traditional and improved coffee trees). A household model that considers farmers’ variety trait preferences as a positive externality of their livelihood decisions is developed drawing from Lancaster’s characteristics model. The data come from 266 coffee growing farmers in South Western Ethiopia. Multinomial logit and two-limit Tobit regression models are estimated to examine farmers’ preferences for coffee variety traits and the proportion of coffee land that they allocate to traditional coffee trees, respectively. The results have shown the factors inducing farmers’ preference for certain variety traits, relative importance of coffee variety traits to farm households of different features, and factors motivating farmers to continue planting traditional coffee trees. Based on the empirical results, the paper derives policy implications in the areas of on-farm conservation, improved variety adoption, and coffee breeding priority setting.

Malenje EM, Missohou A, Tebug SF, König EZ, Jung’a JO, Bett RC, Marshall K. "Economic Analysis of Smallholder Dairy Cattle Enterprises In Senegal." research square . 2022.
Malenje EM, Ayao Missohou SFT, König EZ, Jung’a JO, Bett RC, Marshall K. "Economic Analysis of Smallholder Dairy Cattle Enterprises In Senegal.". 2022.
Mulwa MR. Economic and Environmental Performance of Sugarcane Production in Kenya: Non-Parametric Frontier Approaches. Farming and Rural System Economics, Volume 84, Magraf-Verlag Publishers, Weikersheim, Germany: ; 2006.
and Bilsborrow R.E., Oucho MJOJW. "Economic and Ethnic Factors in Kenyan Migration Movements." Eastern Africa Economic Review. 1986;2(1):31-50.
KIRITI DRNG'ANG'ATABITHAWAGITHI. "The Economic and Social Context of Labour Migration from Africa.". In: International Journal of Human Development and Information System, Vol. (3) NO.1. Serials Publications; 2008. Abstract
Migration leads to a significant loss of human capital and subsequent manpower gaps in key sectors for national development. Brain drain is one of the negative consequences of international labour migration and has affected many African countries. Brain waste results when the migrants abilities are not well utilised in the countries of destination.  However, migration contributes to balancing economic growth within
Grainger A, Wong G, KABUBO-MARIARA J, Mbuvi D, Low PK, Low PS. "Economic and Social Impacts Assessment of DLDD. Chapter 2 .". In: Economic and social impacts of desertification, land degradation and drought. White Paper I. UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference, prepared with the contributions of an international group of scientists; 2013.unccd_white_paper_1.pdfunccd_key_findings_policy_implications_and_recommendations_of_wp_i.pdf
Manda, DK; Kimalu NKNP; N; D;. "The Economic Burden of Malaria .". 2006.Website
Kioko U. "Economic Burden of Malaria on Subsistence Crop Production in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research (IJER). 2013.
Kioko UM. "The Economic Burden of Malaria on the Household Income in Kenya." International Journal of Development Studfies (IJDS). 2013.
Jennings L, M M, Linnemayr S, Trujillo A, M. M’anyengo. "Economic Context and HIV Vulnerability in Adolescents and Young Adults Living in Urban Slums in Kenya: A Qualitative Analysis Based on Scarcity Theory." AIDS and Behavior. 2017;21(9):2784-2798.
Nyariki D, Oliver Wasonga, Otieno C, Ogadho E, Ikutwa C. "The Economic Contribution of Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya." World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva. 2009. Abstract
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Mwaura MW, Wasonga OV, Elhadi YAM, Ngugi RK. "Economic contribution of the camel milk trade in Isiolo Town, Kenya." London: IIED. 2015. Abstract
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Mwaura MW, Wasonga OV, Elhadi YAM, Ngugi RK. Economic contribution of the camel milk trade in Isiolo Town, Kenya. London: IIED; 2015.
Mercelino Napao Iruata, Oliver Vivian Wasonga RKN. "Economic contribution of the pastoral meat trade in Isiolo County, Kenya: Findings from Oldonyiro and Garbatulla Towns." IIED Country Rerport. 2015. Abstract
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Gituku BC, Wasonga OV, Ngugi RK. "Economic contribution of the pastoral meat trade in Isiolo Town, Kenya." London: IIED. 2015. Abstract
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Gituku BC, a OVW, Ngugi RK. Economic contribution of the pastoral meat trade in Isiolo Town, Kenya. London: IIED; 2015.
OLE PROFMBATIAOLIVER. "Economic Contribution of Tourist Industry to Economic Development and Growth in Kenya.". In: Presented at 51st Annual Conference of Western Economic Association, June, 24-27, 1976, Hyatt Regency Hotel, San Francisco, California. University of Nairobi.; 1976. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
Kiriti-Nganga TW. "Economic Development and Food Security in Kenya: T he Shamba System.". In: Globalisation and Development: Coun t ry Experi ences , Edited by Kartik Roy and Anita Medhekar,. ova Science Publishers, New York: USA , pp, 147 - 160 .; 2010.
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Economic Development and Malaria Prevalence: An Empirical Analysis with Reference to Kenya," in Malaria and Development in Africa, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1991. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
Mugo MG. "Economic Development in Africa.". In: Centre for Study of African Economies (CSAE). Oxford, UK; 2012.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Economic Development Planning and Employment in English Speaking East and West Africa International Education Materials Exchange Geneva International Institute for Labour studies.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1978. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
OLE PROFMBATIAOLIVER. "The Economic Effect of Fair Employment Laws in Occupation .". In: Presented at the American Economic Association Meeting, Atlanta City, New Jersey, September, 16-18, 1976. University of Nairobi.; 1972. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Economic Efficiency and the Mechanisation of Small Farms in J.KG Mati Appropriate Mechanisation of Small Farms in africa (Nairobi Kenya National academy with B.A Ateng.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1980. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Mulwa MR, Emrouznejad A, Muhammad L. "Economic Efficiency of Smallholder Maize Producers in Western Kenya: A DEA Meta-Frontier Analysis." International Journal of Operational Research. 2009;4(3):250-267.
Mulwa, M R, Nuppenau E-A. "Economic Efficiency of Sugarcane Production in Kenya: A DEA Meta-frontier Approach.". In: In (Bauer, S. and L. Karki Eds.), Issues and Challenges in Rural Development: A Compendium of Approaches for Socio-Economic and Ecological Development in Developing Countries, Vol. 1. Margraf Publishers, ISBN 978-3-8236-1502-6: Pp. 195-208; 2007.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Economic Evaluation in PHC: presented at fourth Meeting of the Scientific Working Group on Social and Economic Research, Geneva 14th to 28th Nov. 1984.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1987;25(6):625-30. SITE; 1984. Abstract
Essential drug schemes in the Third World countries face many problems. These include dependency on imported drugs in the face of chronic shortages of foreign exchange, inadequate manpower and technical capability for selection and procurement of drugs, competition between generic and brand drugs, weak local drug procurement and distribution systems and inability to commence local manufacturing even in situations where there may exist comparative advantage. Many of these problems relate to each other and are compounded by the domination of the pharmaceutical industry by multinational firms. Third World countries are in a very weak position in the international pharmaceutical industry. It is suggested that the essential drug situation would improve in Third World countries if certain strategies and policies were adopted. These include: intensification of personnel training in pharmaceuticals, deliberate use of generic drugs rather than brand name drugs, the involvement of the public sector in the procurement and distribution of drugs, buying drugs in bulk, changing drug prescription and consumption practices through continuous education, changing or instituting regulations to guard against unfavourable patents and commencing domestic production of essential drugs where this is not in conflict with the principle of comparative advantage.
Njogu RNE, Kariuki DK, Kamau DM, Wachira FN. "Economic Evaluation of Foliar NPK Fertilizer on Tea Yields in Kenya." Journal of Plant Studies. 2015;4(1):35-43.
Njogu RN, Kariuki DK, Kamau D, Wachira FN. "Economic Evaluation of Foliar NPK Fertilizer on Tea Yields in Kenya.". 2015.
Woyengo TA;, Gachuiri CK;, Wahome RG;, Mbugua PN. "Economic evaluation of increasing the energy value of Zea mays stover by urea treatment.".; 2004.
Woyengo TA;, Gachuiri CK;, Wahome RG;, Mbugua PN. "Economic evaluation of increasing the energy value of Zea mays stover by urea treatment.".; 2004.
Woyengo TA;, Gachuiri CK;, Wahome RG;, Mbugua PN. "Economic evaluation of increasing the energy value of Zea mays stover by urea treatment.".; 2004.
Ramisch J;, Nyikal RA;, Kimenye LN;, Kimani SK;, Macharia JM. "Economic Evaluation of Organic and Inorganic Resources for Recapitalizing Soil Fertility in Smallholder Maize-based Cropping Systems of Central Kenya."; 2006. Abstract

Structural adjustments programs (SAPs) in the last two decades have eliminated all farm-support programs leading to low usage of fertilizers by Kenyan smallholders. One way of addressing this problem is use of organic nutrient resources. This paper examines their cost-effectiveness as capital investments in replenishment of Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K) and soil organic matter (SOM) in smallholder, Maize-based cropping systems. On-farm trials were established in Maragwa and Kirinyaga Districts in 2003/04. Maize was planted in 3 replicates in randomised complete block design (RCBD) using different levels of organic and inorganic fertilizer resources. A blanket rate of 40kg P/ha was applied in all treatment except the control to increase organic N-utilization efficiency. The test crop was harvested, oven-dried and weighed. Net Present Values (NPV) were computed using Partial Budgeting Analysis Model. Increasing levels of inorganic N increased maize yields significantly (P<0.05). However, higher yields were necessary but not sufficient criteria to determine profitability of different treatments. Manure + 60 kg N/ha gave highest NPV (USD 564), Manure + 40kg N/ha gave second highest NPV (USD 511) in Maragwa District while Manure + 60kg N/ha gave highest NPV (USD 633) and Manure + 40kg N/ha second highest NPV (USD 618) in Kirinyaga District. These results suggested that higher N-levels were not necessarily the most economical. Use of organic resources with modest amounts of mineral fertilizers seemed more profitable and held the key to enhancement of nutrient budgets, food security and rural livelihoods.

Onjala J. Economic Evaluation of Roads Infrastructure Projects in Galkaiyo, Somaliland. Nairobi: International Labour Organization (ILO) Somalia Programme; 2013.
Nzuma MJ. An Economic Evaluation of the Impacts of Trade Liberalization on Kenya’s Maize Secto. Düsseldorf, Germany: VDM Verlag Publishers; 2008.
Iraki XN. "The economic goldmine in Happy Valley legacy." The Standard, August 18, 2015.
Kiriti-Nganga TW. "Economic Growth and Poverty in Kenya: Will the Poverty Reduction Stra tegy Paper Help?". In: Poverty Alleviation and Social Disadvantage: Analysis, Case Studies and Policies , Edited by Clem Tisdell Ph.D , Vol. III.VII, . Serials Publications, New Delhi: India; 2007.
Kiriti-Nganga TW. "Economic Growth and Poverty in Kenya: Will the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Help?" Indian Development Review , Special Issue. 2006;4(2):323-338.
Mureithi LP. "Economic Growth as an Instrument for a Just Society in Kenya." Wajibu: A Journal of Social and Ethical Concern. 2007;22(3):18-20.
Kiriti-Nganga TW. "Economic Growth in Kenya: How does Gender Inequality Matter?". In: Gender Inequality in Developing Countries / edited by Siddhartha Sarkar and Tabitha Kiriti - Nganga. New Delhi: Arise Publications and Distributors; 2008.
Laker CD;, Mukhebi AW;, Ssenyonga GSZ;, Gathuma JM. "The economic impact of East Coast Fever on cattle in Mbarara district, Uganda."; 1995.
Mwabu G, Kioko U, Kimuyu P. "The Economic Impact of Malaria on Wage Earnings in Kenya.". In: International Journal of Education and Research.; 2013.
Kioko UM. "The economic impact of malaria on wage earnings in Kenya: a household level investigation." nternational Journal of Education and Research. 2013.
Barasa L. "Economic impact of relocating hawkers from Nairobi central business district to the new Ngara market." International Journal of Professional Practice. 2011;2(2):149-156.
Ondicho TG. "The Economic Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Women's Empowerment in Kenya." Pathways to African Feminism and Development. 2021;6(2):104-116.
Oluoch-Kosura W;, Okeyo AM;, Waithaka MM;, Okilla EA. The economic implications of declining artificial insemination service provision in Kenya..; 2000.
Iraki XN. "The Economic Implications of Peaceful and Fair General Elections in Kenya.". In: Youth and Peaceful Elections in Kenya, ISBN :978-9966-028-37-2. Nairobi: Twaweza communications; 2013.
J.O K. Economic importance and local use of the Kenyan Mangroves. Nairobi, Kenya: ICRAF; 1981.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Economic importance and local use of the Kenyan mangroves.". In: Proceedings of the Kenyan Seminar on Agroforestry. ICRAF, Nairobi, pp. 377-386. University of Nairobi Press; 1980. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
S.M G, M.A O, B.O I, S.M T. "Economic important diseases of goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya." International Conference of Institutions of Tropical Veterinary medicine. 1995;(8):60-61. Abstract

Goats are well adapted to the arid and semi arid areas as they are able to utilize feed resources which are otherwise unpalatable to other ruminants. A survey of diseases that limit goat production carried out in the semi-arid area of Embu District where goats are the main livestock enterprise. The mean annual rainfall is 750mm falling in two season April to June and October to December. The latter are heavier and more reliable.

Twenty five randomly selected farmers were interviewed on the prevalence of diseases that affect their goats nd any control measures they were taking, using a questionnaire also including land use number of goats. Other livestock kept, feed resources and water sources. Their average farm sizes was eleven acres.

The farmers identified eight diseases to be economically important as they caused losses through death or poor growth. Therse were. Helminthiasis, cowdriosis (heartwater,) pneumonia, ticks and fleas, mange, orf, footrot, and trypanosomiais in order of priority. They reported that helminthiasis caused about 46% deaths in kids less that six months and 20% deaths in adults every year. this was based on clinical signs observed before death. These were mainly diarrhea and emaciation despite enough feed been available. These signs occurred immediately after the onset of the rains and could be attributed to hypobiosis(Gatongi 1995).

N. DRIRAKIW. ""Economic Indicators (GDP, PPI, CPI, etc.) and Their Statistical Significance on Market Movements" A Presentation to American Association of Individual Investors, (AAII), Louisville Chapter.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2006.
CHANDRA DRSAMANTAPURNA. "The Economic Integration of an island economy: The Case of Zanzibar to Tanganyika.". In: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. 103, No. 3., pp. 211-220. Journal of Natural Products; 1986. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
Okidi CO, Mbote P, Akech M, Nyangena W. "Economic Issues for Environmental and Resource Management in Kenya.". In: Environmental Governance in Kenya: Implementing the Framework Law.; 2008.
OGEDA MRODUMBEJACKONIAH. "Economic Justification of Adult Education in Kenya.". In: Seminar Discussion Paper CADE. Thought and Practice; 1976. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
Moronge J. Economic Liberalisation and Industrial Restructuring in Kenya. Saarbrucken: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2015.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Economic Liberalization and its Impact on African Economies.". In: Kivutha Kibwana et al (eds): Law and Developemnt in the Third World, Faculty of Law, University of Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1994. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
Bwihangane AB, Gitao CG, Bebora LC. "Economic losses associated with peste des petits ruminants in South Kivu Province of Democratic Republic of Congo." Research Opinions in Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 2017;7(12):77-84.bwihangane-_economic_losses_ppr_congo.pdf
Kihu SK, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Njenga JM, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG. "Economic losses associated with Peste des petits ruminants in Turkana County Kenya." Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice . 2015;5(9):DOI 10.1186/s13570-015-0029-6.kihu_et_al_2015_loses.pdf
Kihu SM, Gitao GC, Bebora LC, Munene NJ, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG. "Economic losses associated with Peste des petits ruminants in Turkana County Kenya." Pastoralism. 2015;5(1):9.
Iraki XN. Economic Models in Africa: Poverty vs. Cohesion. Juja, Kenya: Jomo Kenyatta University of Science and Technology; 2015.
Nyandemo S, Singh. "Economic of Development and Planning."; 2003.
OLE PROFMBATIAOLIVER. "Economic of Discrimination and Exploitation of Black Americans, European Meeting of Econometric Society, Budapest, Hungary, August, 1972.". In: Presented at the American Economic Association Meeting, Atlanta City, New Jersey, September, 16-18, 1976. University of Nairobi.; 1972. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
WASIKE MRWEREISAAC. "Economic Organisation of the Pre-colonial Pokot Society.". In: MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
Onjala J. "Economic Performance across Monetary Unions in Africa.". In: Aloysius Amin (ed) Monetary and Financial Institutions, Integration and Economic Performance in Africa. Palgrave Macmillan; In Press.
Winfred Sila, Gachuiri CK, John Recha, James Audho, Ojango JMK. "Economic Performance of Small Ruminants on Smallholder Farms in Climate Smart Villages of Nyando.". 2019.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Economic Plannig in Kenya. An Exploratory Introduction. Paper read at a UN University 's Workshop on Conditions Effective National Planning at Penang, Malaysia.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1984. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Gor SO. "Economic Policy and Urban Poverty in Kenya.". In: 7th Congress of the Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa. Khartoum, Sudan; 2002.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Economic Policy Reforms and Environmental Education, a Paper presented at he Regional Workshop on Environmental Education, Nyeri, Kenya, 5th - 10th.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
ethe NN ’, Omosa M, Nyangena W. "Economic Processes and Poverty in Kenya.". In: Drivers and Maintainers of Pove rty in Kenya - A Research Agenda.; 2010.
ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Economic Reform Programs: No Ideal Models for stalled Economies" in Kasneb Newsline.". In: The Professional Journal of The Kenya Accountants and Secretaries National Examinations Board, July- September. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002. Abstract
This article considers IMF economic reform programmes in the context of developing economies. The fundamental features of these programmes are considered and then a critical appraisal is conducted of the performance of economies implementing these programmes. The evolution of IMF programmes in developing economies is also considered. Many country case studies are used to demonstrate that there are no ideal models for stalled economies.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The Economic Situation in East Africa and Its Implication on Education, in Seppala (ed) Liberalizede and Neglected? Food Marketing Policies in Eastern Africa, (WIDER).". In: World Development Studies No. 12, United Nations University, World Institute for Developemnt Econoics research. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1998. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Verbal autopsy was used to determine causes of death in 239 children under the age of 5 years. The diagnosis derived from verbal autopsy was corroborated with hospital diagnosis in 39 cases. There was concurrence of diagnosis in 72% of the cases. Using the diagnosis of bronchopneumonia to validate the method, verbal autopsy was found to have a sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 92%, a positive predictive value of 85%. Reliability index of agreement was 0.654. Recall period up to 29 months after death was found to be reliable. PMID: 2282890 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Economic Situation in Kenya: Presentationa nd Analysis.". In: paper presented at the seminar on Economic Policy and Developemtn. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1985. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
WINFRED DR MWANGI. "The Economic Survival strategies Among the Youth, Nairobi’s Kasarani Division.". In: Nordic Africa Institute Conference. Iceland; 2005.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Economic Systems in Africa, in Tukumboth, A. (ed). A Christian Mind in a Changing Africa, AEAM, Nairobi.". In: World Developemnt, Vol. 21, No. 7. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1993. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
Alphayo I. Lutta, Lance W. Robinson, Oliver V. Wasonga, Ruto E, Jason Sircely, Nyangito MM. "Economic valuation of grazing management practices: discrete choice modeling in pastoral systems of Kenya." Environmental Planning and Management. 2020;63(2).
Alphayo I. Lutta, Lance W. Robinson, Oliver V. Wasonga, Ruto E, Jason Sircely, Nyangito MM. "Economic valuation of grazing management practices: Discrete choice modeling in pastoral systems of Kenya." Journal of Environmental Planning and Management . 2019.
Alphayo I. Lutta, Lance W. Robinson, Oliver V. Wasonga, Ruto E, Jason Sircely, Nyangito MM. "Economic valuation of grazing management practices: Discrete choice modeling in pastoral systems of Kenya." Journal of Environmental Planning and Management . 2019.
Ongeri BO. "Economic Value - Accounting Value Nexus: –The Effect of Accounting Measures on Economic Value Added Amongst the Kenyan Commercial Banks." Global Journal of Contemporary Research in Accounting, Auditing and Business Ethics (GJCRA). 2014;(ISSN: 2311-3162) Vol: 1 (Issue: 3):pages 182-200.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard. NC. "Economically Important Diseases Of Goats In A Semi Arid Area Of Kenya.(poster Presentation).".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala, B.O.; Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard. NC. "Economically Important Diseases Of Goats In A Semi Arid Area Of Kenya.(poster Presentation).".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard. NC. "Economically Important Diseases Of Goats In A Semi Arid Area Of Kenya.(poster Presentation).".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard. NC. "Economically Important Diseases Of Goats In A Semi Arid Area Of Kenya.(poster Presentation).".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua ST;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard NC. "Economically impotent diseases of goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya.".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua ST;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard NC. "Economically impotent diseases of goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya.".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua ST;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard NC. "Economically impotent diseases of goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya.".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua ST;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard NC. "Economically impotent diseases of goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya.".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua ST;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard NC. "Economically impotent diseases of goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya.".; 1995.
KIMPEI DRMUNEI. "Economics factors affecting the level of beef production from ranching: an example for Kenya.". In: Paper presented at a seminar on sustainable pastoral production system and environmental securities in dry lands of Kenya. (Machakos, Kenya October 1999). Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1993. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
Samanta P. "The Economics of Culture.". In: Realizing African Development etc vol. II,.; 2007.
Mwabu G, Wang’ombe J. "The Economics of Essential Drugs Schemes: The Perspecti ves of Developing Countries." Social Science and Medicine ,. 1987;25(6):625-630.
ERASTO PROFMUGA. "Economics of Fertility, Joliso, East African Journal of Literature and Society, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1973.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1973. Abstract
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K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Economics of Health (resources, strategies, constraints) in Kenya, paper presented at the Ministry of Health/UNICEF Workshop on Health and Nutrition, Kisumu, Kenya, July, 1984.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1984;18(5):375-85. SITE; 1984. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

Mwabu G, Mwangi WM. "The Economics of Health and Nutrition in Kenya." Social Science and Medicine. 1986.
KIMPEI DRMUNEI. "Economics of livestock production under pastoralism.". In: Paper presented at a seminar on sustainable pastoral production system and environmental securities in dry lands of Kenya. (Machakos, Kenya October 1999). Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1999. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. "The Economics of Primary Health Care.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1982. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
OLE PROFMBATIAOLIVER. "The Economics of Rural Development: The Case of Kenya.". In: Read at The 50th Annual Conference of Western Economic Association, June, 1975, Shelton-Harbor Hotel, San Diego, California. University of Nairobi.; 1975. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "The Economics of Tropical Disease Control in the context of PHC: a Methodological Approach with reference to Kenya (with Andrew Creese), presented at the IXth Scientific Meeting of the International Epidemiological Association, 22nd to 29th August, 1981 E.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1984;18(5):375-85. SITE; 1981. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Economist Intelligence Unit Quarterly.". In: Country Report for Kenya for the period January-December. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001. Abstract
The researcher collaborated on with the lead researcher in the preparation of these published reports which analysed the fundamental economic and political trends in Kenya in the year 2001 and attempted to predict the future directions of these trends.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The Economy (Chapter 5) in Kenya.". In: An Offocial Handbook 1963-88, Ministry of Information and Boradcasting, Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1988. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Economy after Boom.". In: Gardian (London). Asian Economic and Social Society; 1979. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
Kyule MD. Economy and subsistence of Iron Age Sirikwa culture at Hyrax Hill, Nakuru: A Zooarchaeological approach. Koch DC, Mutoro DH, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1992.
Kiriinya LK, Raiji TK, GATARI MJ. "Ecosystem Management and Sustainable Livelihoods: A case study of North Eastern Mt.Kenya.". In: International Sustainability Transitions Conference (IST2017). Gothenburg, Sweden; 2017.
Shah PS, Irandu. EM. Ecotourism as a strategy for promoting conservation of biodiversity in Tana River County. Mombasa, Kenya: National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA), Wetlands International, University of Nairobi; 2014.
Shah. P. and Irandu. E. "Ecotourism: The case of Karura Forest, Nairobi." African Journal of Tourism and Hospitality. 2015;Volume 2(2):21-40.
Shah P, Irandu EM. "Ecotourism: The case of Karura Forest, Nairobi ." African Journal of Tourism and Hospitality. 2015; 1(2):21-40.

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