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Forthcoming
Iraki XN. "Does Operations Research need a Renaissance?". In: 11 international Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Forthcoming.
Habwe J. "The Development of the Kiswahili: Prose and the Evolution of the Kiswahili." Journal of Literature UoN. Forthcoming.
J.N. M, Mbatiah M, Iribe M. Dhima na Majukumu ya Asasi Mbali Mbali katika Ukuzaji wa Kiswahili. Nairobi: Focus Books; Forthcoming.
Jayne M. A Dictionary and a Story Book. Nairobi: Nairobi Journal of Literature.; Forthcoming.
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Decentralisation in Uganda."; Forthcoming. Abstract
n/a
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Decentralisation without Democratisation in Kenya."; Forthcoming. Abstract
n/a
Submitted
Othieno CJ, Okoth RO, Peltzer K, Pengpid S, Malla LO. "Depression among university students in Kenya: Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates." Journal of affective disorders. Submitted;165:120-125. AbstractWebsite

Background Depression is a common cause of morbidity but prevalence levels among
Kenyan university students are poorly understood. A better understanding of depression and
its correlates is essential in planning for appropriate interventions in this population group.
Method A random sample of 923 University of Nairobi students (525 male and 365 female)
were interviewed using a questionnaire to record sociodemographic variables. Depressive
symptoms were measured using Centre for Epidemiological Studies Short Depression ..

Bojana Boh, David N. Kariuki AKJMSWOO. "Development of New Products: International - Un iversity - Industry Cooperation: Camomile Project." UNESCO - ICCS ; Submitted.
Jani PG, Gill H, Kotecha V. "Difficult Gallbladder Surgery, Improving Patient Outcomes Through Appropriate Surgical Decisions." East and Central African Journal of Surgery. Submitted;17(1).
Birithia R;, Subramanian S;, Villinger J;, Muthomi J;, Narla RD;, Pappu HR. "Distribution of tospoviruses, Iris yellow spot virus infecting onions in Kenya."; Submitted.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Dr. Peninnah M. Kako, Prof. Anna K. Karani, Prof.Patricia E. Stevens Reactions to HIV Diagnosis from Women Living with HIV in Kenya.". In: Paper presented at Safari Park Hotel STTI Conference on 3rd July, 2010. Dr.Peninnah M.Kako, Prof. Anna K. Karani, Prof.Patricia E. Stevens; Submitted. Abstract

Background: HIV prevalence in Kenya stands at 7.8%, with women being most affected with infection rates being 2-3 times higher than that of their male counterparts.  Studies that focus on health needs of HIV-infected women in Kenya are needed and necessary. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop an in-depth understanding of the reactions of 40 urban and rural HIV-infected Kenyan women to HIV diagnosis. Methods: Narrative inquiry principles were employed to guide this qualitative cross-sectional study. We conducted in-depth interviews using open-ended questions in April and May 2006.  Findings: Participants

MALLANS PROFRAMBOCHARLES. "DR. RAMBO CHARLES, DEVELOPING AND IMPLEMENTING MARKETING STRATEGIC PLANS: A PERSPECTIVE OF CREATING CUSTOMER VALUE ( TITLE OF THE BOOK ).". In: BOOK TITLE, Developing and Implanting Marketing Strategic Plans. European Psychiatric Journal; Submitted.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "DDT Persistence in a Tropical Climate.". In: Kenya Journal of Science and Technology. Series (A), (1984) 5, 31-44. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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O. DRABUNGUCORNELIO. "A Delphi Study to Determine Factors which Contribute to Success in Administration of AA High Schools in Texas".". In: Doctoral dissertation]. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; Submitted. Abstract
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ABDULHALIM DRHUSSEIN. "DESCRIPTIVE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE ORAL HEALTH STATUS OF CHILDREN WITH CLEFT LIP AND PALATE IN NAIROBI ( A MASTERS THESIS).". In: A MASTERS THESIS. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; Submitted. Abstract
No abstracts available
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Design and development of an electronic identification and traceability system for cattle under pastoral production systems: A case for Kenya.". In: Journal. Livestock Research for Rural Development; Submitted. Abstract
G O Matete, N Maingi*, G Muchemi, W Ogara and J M Gathuma Department of Veterinary Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi P.O Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com* Department of Veterinary Pathology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract Traceability systems offer strong incentives to livestock and meat exporting countries by altering their productive and industrial processes in order to access premium meat markets globally.  Kenya, whilst acknowledged as one of the countries within the horn of Africa with a reasonably credible veterinary service, has very limited access to beef and livestock markets in importing countries due to perceived risk or suspicions of presence of trans-boundary animal diseases (TADs) such as Rift Valley Fever (RVF) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), lack of capacity to prove the absence of TADs and absence of an effective traceability system that acts as proxy for quality assurance.  The objective of this study was to report on the processes through which a model traceability system was designed for pastoral production systems of Northeastern Kenya.   The study reports that industry-wide consultation is a critical ingredient in the design process that encompassed simple drop down menus, low price and phased process of implementation. The use of a single central database reduced considerably the cost of implementation and minimized response time for impact analysis. Key words: Design, electronic traceability systems
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Design and development of an electronic identification and traceability system for cattle under pastoral production systems: A case for Kenya.". In: Journal. Livestock Research for Rural Development; Submitted. Abstract
G O Matete, N Maingi*, G Muchemi, W Ogara and J M Gathuma Department of Veterinary Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi P.O Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com* Department of Veterinary Pathology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract Traceability systems offer strong incentives to livestock and meat exporting countries by altering their productive and industrial processes in order to access premium meat markets globally.  Kenya, whilst acknowledged as one of the countries within the horn of Africa with a reasonably credible veterinary service, has very limited access to beef and livestock markets in importing countries due to perceived risk or suspicions of presence of trans-boundary animal diseases (TADs) such as Rift Valley Fever (RVF) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), lack of capacity to prove the absence of TADs and absence of an effective traceability system that acts as proxy for quality assurance.  The objective of this study was to report on the processes through which a model traceability system was designed for pastoral production systems of Northeastern Kenya.   The study reports that industry-wide consultation is a critical ingredient in the design process that encompassed simple drop down menus, low price and phased process of implementation. The use of a single central database reduced considerably the cost of implementation and minimized response time for impact analysis. Key words: Design, electronic traceability systems
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Determination of carnivores prey base by scat analysis in Samburu community group ranches in Kenya.". In: Journal. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology; Submitted. Abstract

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William O. Ogara1, Nduhiu J. Gitahi1, Samuel A. Andanje2 , Nicholas Oguge3, Dorcas W. Nduati1 and Alfred O. Mainga1

1Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya

2Kenya Wildlife services, Nairobi, Kenya

3Earthwatch Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

This study determined the prey base for four main carnivores found in Samburu Community group ranches and grazing area, Lion (Panthera leo), Leopard (Panthera pardus), Wild dog (Lycaon pictus) and Hyaena (Crocuta crocuta, and Hyaena hyaena). A total of 96 scat samples including, 8 from Lion, 16 Leopards', 2 Wild dogs', and 70 Hyaenas' were collected, identified and microscopically analyzed for prey hair characterisation. At least 50 different hairs from every scat sample were mounted on slides and microscopically characterized using details from reference hairs. Hairs from 18 depredated species both domestic and wild ungulates were recovered from the scat samples. Predated species were identified, as either domestic (Cow, Sheep, Goat, Donkey, and Camel) or wild ungulate prey (Grant's gazelle, plain zebra, Grevy's Zebra, Impala, Waterbuck, Dikdik, Eland, lesser Kudu, greater Kudu, Baboon, rock Hyraxes, Elephant and Oryx). The carnivores showed a relatively high kill of wild ungulate prey compared to domestic prey. Camel was the most preferred cow and donkey respectively. Grevy's zebra contributed highest to the lion's diet while the Plain zebra was most preferred by the leopard. Both the hyaena and Wild dog had a preference for the waterbuck. The Hyaena had the highest domestic depredation, while all the other big cats depredated more on wild ungulates.

Key words: Scat, group ranch, domestic, wild ungulate, prey, depredation.

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Determination of carnivores prey base by scat analysis in Samburu community group ranches in Kenya.". In: Journal. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology; Submitted. Abstract

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William O. Ogara1, Nduhiu J. Gitahi1, Samuel A. Andanje2 , Nicholas Oguge3, Dorcas W. Nduati1 and Alfred O. Mainga1

1Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya

2Kenya Wildlife services, Nairobi, Kenya

3Earthwatch Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

This study determined the prey base for four main carnivores found in Samburu Community group ranches and grazing area, Lion (Panthera leo), Leopard (Panthera pardus), Wild dog (Lycaon pictus) and Hyaena (Crocuta crocuta, and Hyaena hyaena). A total of 96 scat samples including, 8 from Lion, 16 Leopards', 2 Wild dogs', and 70 Hyaenas' were collected, identified and microscopically analyzed for prey hair characterisation. At least 50 different hairs from every scat sample were mounted on slides and microscopically characterized using details from reference hairs. Hairs from 18 depredated species both domestic and wild ungulates were recovered from the scat samples. Predated species were identified, as either domestic (Cow, Sheep, Goat, Donkey, and Camel) or wild ungulate prey (Grant's gazelle, plain zebra, Grevy's Zebra, Impala, Waterbuck, Dikdik, Eland, lesser Kudu, greater Kudu, Baboon, rock Hyraxes, Elephant and Oryx). The carnivores showed a relatively high kill of wild ungulate prey compared to domestic prey. Camel was the most preferred cow and donkey respectively. Grevy's zebra contributed highest to the lion's diet while the Plain zebra was most preferred by the leopard. Both the hyaena and Wild dog had a preference for the waterbuck. The Hyaena had the highest domestic depredation, while all the other big cats depredated more on wild ungulates.

Key words: Scat, group ranch, domestic, wild ungulate, prey, depredation.

N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Determination of Trace Elements in Medicinal Plants and Herbal Medicines. J. Phytochemistry, Submitted.". In: Electroanal. Chem., 17, 1984, 265. Survey Review; Submitted. Abstract
n/a
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. ""Dipole Moments of Halogenogermanes from Non-Resonant Absorption of Vapours.". In: Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 11, 70 719 (1974. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
n/a
ONDEKO DRNYONJERAPHAEL. "DR. NYONJE RAPHAEL ONDEKO, EVALUATION OF THE KENYA EDUCATION STAFF INSTITUTE.". In: THE ICEMSSP PROGRAMME. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; Submitted.
MALLANS DRRAMBOCHARLES. "DR. RAMBO CHARLES, SMALL ENTERPRISES MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT ( TITLE OF THE BOOK ).". In: BOOK TITLE, Small Enterprises Management and Development. European Psychiatric Journal; Submitted.
In Press
JP E, J K, LW I, F H. "Description of pre-adult stages of the coconut bug, Pseudotherapthus wayi ." Journal of Insect Science . In Press.
Obiero JPO, Gumbe LO, Omuto CT, Hassan MA, Agullo JO. "Development of Pedotransfer functions for saturated hydraulic conductivity." Open Journal of Modern Hydrology. In Press.
Kemoli AM. "Dilemma of managing multi-surface dental caries in the primary dentition using the atraumatic restorative treatment: renaissance or dimming hope." East Afr Med J . In Press. Abstract

Background: Alot of research work has been carried out to determine the effectiveness of using atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) in the management of dental caries, but there are still unresolved issues surrounding the use of the technique particularly in very large carious lesions.
Objective: To determine the current survival rates of multi-surface ARTrestorations placed in the primary dentition and any consequences to the restored tooth after premature loss of the restoration.
Study selection: Using a set of specific key words, a Pubmed/Medline search was carried out to retrieve all publications on ARTrestorations placed in primary teeth in the period January 2000 to December 2011. Only publications whose studies had multi-surface ARTrestorations as an item of study were retrieved and relevant data extracted.
Data synthesis: Twelve studies contained in 12 publications fulfilled the selection criteria and were included in the study. The selected publications were analysed by the author to establish the study follow-up period and the survival rate of the multi-surface ARTrestorations for the different follow-up periods. Further information was adduced on any other effects of restoration on the tooth after premature loss of the restoration.
Results: The search findings indicated that the survival rate for most of the multi-surface restorations were generally very low. Further, there were indications that even after the premature loss of the ARTrestorations, most of the affected teeth survived for the period of the study with a number of them having shown no signs of secondary caries or associated dental abscessees.
Conclusion: While the survival rates of multi-surface ARTrestorations in the studies documenetd in the review were low, the ART restorations appeared to provide some beneficial effects to the retention-longevity of the restored tooth even after their premature loss.

2020
S D, GO O, V O-H. "Depression and its association with disease activity and quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis at the Kenyatta National Ho." Afr J Rheumatol. 2020;8(1):15-21. Abstractdepression_and_its_association_with_disease_activity.pdf

Background: Rheumatoid arthritis
is a systemic inflammatory disease that affects the synovial membrane,
resulting in the structural damage of cartilage, bone and ligaments. The
course of RA differs between patients, and its severity can range from selflimiting
disease to severe destruction and systemic complications. RA affects
patients physically, psychologically and socially. Patients experience pain,
joint swelling, stiffness, functional limitations and fatigue and overall poor
quality of life. In addition, they report anxiety and depressive symptoms
and concerns about increased physical limitations. Experiencing
psychological distress may inflate the subjective severity of patient-reported
symptoms such as pain and tenderness. Furthermore, patients experience a
loss of independence and restrictions in participation, i.e. a decrease in
socializing which may in turn propagate symptoms of depression. An accurate
description of the relationship between depression, disease severity and quality
of life is necessary for our setting. If an interaction exists, then there is a
group of vulnerable patients who could benefit from earlier identification
of depression and the impact their disease has on HRQoL and appropriate
management provided. Objective: To determine the prevalence
of depression and the relationship between depression, disease activity
and quality of life in ambulatory patients with rheumatoid arthritis at
the Kenyatta National Hospital.Design: A descriptive-cross sectional

Sola L, Levin NW, Johnson DW, Pecoits-Filho R, Aljubori HM, Chen Y, Claus S, Collins A, Cullis B, Feehally J, Harden PN, Hassan MH, Ibhais F, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Levin A, Saleh A, Schneditz D, Tchokhonelidze I, Kazancioglu RT, Twahir A, Walker R, Were AJO, Yu X, Finkelstein FO. "Development of a framework for minimum and optimal safety and quality standards for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis." Kidney International Supplements. 2020.
2019
Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Gichuhi S, Onyango J, Newton R, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Delay Along the Care Seeking Journey of Patients with Microbial Keratitis in Uganda." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2019:1-10. AbstractWebsite

PURPOSE:To describe the care seeking journey and causes of delay among patients with Microbial Keratitis in Uganda.
METHODS:A prospective cohort of patients presenting with microbial keratitis at the two main eye units in Southern Uganda (2016-2018). We collected information on demographics, home address, clinical history, and presentation pathway including, order of facilities where patients went to seek care, treatment advice, cost of care, and use of Traditional Eye Medicine. Presentation time was noted. We compared "direct" presenters versus "indirect" presenters and analysed predictors of delay.
RESULTS: About 313 patients were enrolled. All were self-referred. Only 19% of the patients presented directly to the eye hospital. Majority (52%) visited one facility before presenting, 19% visited two facilities, 9% visited three facilities, and 2% visited four facilities. The cost of care increased with increase in the number of facilities visited. People in a large household, further distance from the eye hospital and those who used Traditional Eye Medicine were less likely to come directly to the eye hospital. Visiting another facility prior to the eye hospital and use of Traditional Eye Medicine aOR 1.58 (95%CI 1.03-2.43), p = .038 were associated with delayed presentation to the eye hospital.
CONCLUSION: This study provided information on patient journeys to seek care. Delay was largely attributable to having visited another health facility: a referral mechanism for microbial keratitis was non-existent. There is need to explore how these health system gaps can be strengthened.

Sabo MC, Richardson BA, Lavreys L, Martin HL, Jaoko W, Mandaliya K, Baeten JM, Overbaugh J, McClelland SR. "Does bacterial vaginosis modify the effect of hormonal contraception on HIV seroconversion." AIDS. 2019;33(7):1225-1230. Abstract

A recent study of HIV serodiscordant couples found that depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) were associated with increased HIV risk in the presence, but not in the absence, of bacterial vaginosis. We assessed whether bacterial vaginosis is an effect modifier of the association between hormonal contraception and HIV seroconversion in female sex workers (FSWs) in Mombasa, Kenya.

Kalai, J.M., Mulu C. "Determinants of Female Teachers' Progression to Governance Positions in Public Primary Schools in Mutitu Sub County , Kenya.". In: International Conference on Research and Innovation in Education University of Nairobi.; 2019.
Mbembe EA, Otieno DJ, Nyikal R, Odendo M. "Determinants of market participation by smallholder soybean farmers in Kakamega County, Kenya”.". In: 6th African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE) . Abuja, Nigeria; 2019.
Ojwang SO, Otieno DJ, Okello JJ, Muoki P, Nyikal RA. "Does nutrition education influence retention of vitamin A biofortified orange-fleshed sweet potato in farms? Evidence from Kenya.". In: 6th African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE) . Abuja, Nigeria; 2019.
Kwadha CA, Janet Irungu, George Ongamo, Paul Ndegwa, Suresh Raina AFT. "Decanal as a major component of larval aggregation pheromone of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella." Journal of Applied Entomology. 2019;143(4):417-429.
Kwadha CA, Mutunga JM, Irungu J, Ongamo G, Ndegwa P, Raina S, Fombong AT. "Decanal as a major component of larval aggregation pheromone of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella." Journal of Applied Entomology. 2019;143(4):417-429.
Obosi OJ. "Decentralized Governance in the Management of Urban Health Care Systems in Developing Countries." Open Journal Of Political Science. 2019;9(1):189-202.
Mwololo, M.H., Nzuma, M.J., Ritho, N.C., Ogutu, S.O., Kabunga, N. "Determinants of actual and potential adoption of improved indigenous chicken under asymmetrical exposure conditions in rural Kenya." African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development. 2019;DOI: 10.1080/20421338.2019.1636489.
Kawakyu N, Nduati R, Obimbo E, Munguambe K, Coutinho J, Mburu N, DeCastro G, Inguane C, Zunt A, Abburi N, Sherr K, S. G. "Development and Implementation of a Mobile Phone-Based Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV Cascade Analysis Tool: Usability and Feasibility Testing in Kenya and Mozambique." JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2019;13;7(5):( doi: 10.2196/13963.):e13963.
"Development of Special Education for the Visually Impaired Learners in Kenya: A Historical Perspective." European Journal of Special Education Research, . 2019;4(2):80-92.
"Device Simulation of Sb2S3 Solar Cells by SCAPS-1D Software." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2019;3, 2019. Abstract

Antimony sulphide (Sb2S3) has drawn research interest due to its promising properties for photovoltaic applications. The progress in developing highly efficient Sb2S3 solar cells has stimulated this study to a great extent. In this paper, we present the results of a simulation of solar cell processing parameters on the performance of the solar cell through theoretical analysis and device simulation using SCAPS software. The results of this simulation show that the solar cell performance can be enhanced to a great extent by adjusting the thickness, doping concentration and defect density of both the TiO2 buffer layer and Sb2S3 absorber layer and also the electron affinity of the TiO2 buffer layer. Optimized parameters were found to be: doping concentration of (1.0 X 1017CM3 for TiO2 and 3.0 X 1016 CM3 for Sb2S3), defect density of the Sb2S3 absorber at (1.0 X 1015.....3) and the electron affinity of the buffer layer at (4.26 eV). The results obtained were as follows: Voc of 750 mV, Jsc of 15.23 mA/cm2, FF of 73.55% and efficiency of 8.41%. These results show that Sb2S3 is a potential earth-abundant compound that can yield highly efficient solar cells.

Mwololo, M.H., Nzuma, M.J., Ritho, N.C. "Do farmers’ socio-economic characteristics influence their preference for agricultural extension methods?, ." Development in Practice. 2019;DOI: 10.1080/09614524.2019.1638344.
2018
Mwangi N, Minnies D, Parsley S, Patel D, Gichuhi S, Muthami L, Moorman C, Macleod D, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Developing open online learning resources: Lessons from a short course on the control of blindness from diabetic retinopathy.". In: College of Ophthalmologists in Eastern Central & Southern Africa (COECSA). Addis Ababa; 2018. Abstract

Background: A need identified during another study prompted the development of the open online course on control of blindness from diabetic retinopathy. In our technological age, potential for learning online can provide a unique opportunity to develop context-specific content for local relevance. We report on the lessons learnt in the development of this short online course for an international audience of diverse eye care practitioners.

Methods: We developed this online short course through a formal planning process facilitated by UNESCO. The participants included eye health educators, learning designers, and content experts. The course curriculum was informed by learning from an ongoing doctorate program, as well as by clinical, public health and educational experience.

Results: Lessons learnt include:
1. Identifying the need and content – Learning and research from a doctorate research program can inform content development.
2. Identifying the relevance – the content needs to be customized for the target audience and local context.
3. Developing the learning design – promoting digital teaching skills and co-creation of content are valuable entry points.
4. Accommodating appropriate peer review and mentorship may enhance learning and quality assurance.
5. Resource planning activities need to be documented as a learning point.
6. There are significant costs in course development, such as time spent in content development, and ongoing maintenance eg maintaining the online platform.
7. Sources of quality open access resources in eye care are limited.

Conclusion: Content development is a unique learning experience, and it is essential to develop and support context specific learning resources. Open educational practice supports a collaborative process that enhances relevance and quality of training. The online format emphasizes the importance of learning design requirements to bridge the transactional distance between the participant and the educator.

Pankau MD, Dalton Wamalwa, Benki-Nugent S, Tapia K, Ngugi E, Langat A, Otieno V, Moraa H, Maleche-Obimbo E, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart GC, Lehman DA. "Decay of HIV DNA in the Reservoir and the Impact of Short Treatment Interruption in Kenyan Infants." Open Forum Infect Dis. 2018;5(1):ofx268. Abstract

We compared change in HIV reservoir DNA following continued antiretroviral therapy (ART) vs short treatment interruption (TI) in early ART-treated Kenyan infants. While HIV DNA in the reservoir decayed with continued ART, HIV DNA levels were similar to pre-TI HIV DNA reservoir levels in most children after short TI.

Mutekhele, B; Rambo ONCM; O;. "Data Dissemination and Use and Performance of Educational Building Infrastructural Projects: A Case of Bungoma County, Kenya." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) . 2018;7(10).
Kimani M, E A, P W, R P, M N, H K. The Data Services Layer: A Data analytics approach to evidence-based decision making for healthcare in Kenya. Nairobi: The Pan African Health Informatics Association; 2018.
Muigua K. "Dealing with Conflicts in Project Management." Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (Kenya), Alternative Dispute Resolution.. 2018;6(2):1-36.dealing_with_conflicts_in_project_management.pdf
M’Ikiugu MH. "Demographic Factors that Affect Adoption of Biogas Technology in Kiambu County, Kenya." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH AND KNOWLEDGE. 2018;3(1):48-57.mbali_et_al._2018-_mutemebi-_muthee.pdf
Maina EG, Gachanja AN, Gachanja AN, Price H. "Demonstrating PM2.5 and road-side dust pollution by heavy metals along Thika superhighway in Kenya, sub-Saharan Africa." Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2018;(190):251.
Kuballa T, Hausler T, Okaru AO, Neufeld M, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Rehm J, Luy B, Walch SG, Lachenmeier DW. "Detection of counterfeit brand spirits using 1H NMR fingerprints in comparison to sensory analysis." Food Chem.. 2018;245:112-115. Abstract

Beverage fraud involving counterfeiting of brand spirits is an increasing problem not only due to deception of the consumer but also because it poses health risks e.g. from possible methanol admixture. Suspicious spirit samples from Russia and Kenya were analysed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in comparison to authentic products. Using linear regression analysis of spectral integral values, 4 counterfeited samples from Russia and 2 from Kenya were easily identifiable with R2 < 0.7. Sensory analysis using triangle test methodology confirmed significant taste differences between counterfeited and authentic samples but the assessors were unable to correctly identify the counterfeited product in the majority of cases. An important conclusion is that consumers cannot assumed to be self-responsible when consuming counterfeit alcohol because there is no general ability to organoleptically detect counterfeit alcohol. Beverage fraud involving counterfeiting of brand spirits is an increasing problem not only due to deception of the consumer but also because it poses health risks e.g. from possible methanol admixture. Suspicious spirit samples from Russia and Kenya were analysed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in comparison to authentic products. Using linear regression analysis of spectral integral values, 4 counterfeited samples from Russia and 2 from Kenya were easily identifiable with R2 < 0.7. Sensory analysis using triangle test methodology confirmed significant taste differences between counterfeited and authentic samples but the assessors were unable to correctly identify the counterfeited product in the majority of cases. An important conclusion is that consumers cannot assumed to be self-responsible when consuming counterfeit alcohol because there is no general ability to organoleptically detect counterfeit alcohol.

Machio PM. "Determinants of Neonatal and Under-five Mortality in Kenya: Do Antenatal and Skilled Delivery Care Services Matter?" Journal of African Development, African Finance and Economic Association. 2018;20(1):59-67.
Aluda AT, Amugune BK, Abuga KO, Kamau FN. "Development and Validation of a Gas Chromatographic Method for Determination of Menthol in Cold-Cough Syrups." PJK. 2018;23(3):90-93. Abstract

Background
Common cold is the most common infection of the upper respiratory tract and cold-cough syrups are often prescribed. Although menthol is one of the common constituents of these syrups, quality checks on cold-cough syrups normally target the major active pharmaceutical ingredients without regard to menthol content.

Objective
To develop and validate a gas chromatography method for determination of menthol in cold-cough syrups.

Methods
A simple, rapid, robust, accurate and reliable Gas Chromatography method was developed and validated for the determination of menthol in cold-cough syrups that may also contain ambroxol, chlorpheniramine, guaifenesin, bromhexine and salbutamol.

Results
Optimized chromatographic conditions were: A ZB-WAXplus 60m ×0.25mm; 0.25μm fused silica capillary column. Oven temperature program of 110 0C (2 min), ramp 10 0C/min to 190 0C (2 min). Injector port temperature maintained at 240 0C. Injection volume of 1.0 μl split in the ratio of 50:1. Carrier gas as nitrogen at 1.0mL/min which also serves as make up gas (30 mL/min) in the flame ionization detector (260 0C). Other detector gases were hydrogen (30 mL/ min) and industrial air (300 mL/ min) and the diluent for samples and standards was grade chloroform.
From recovery studies, 97.56 to 102.97 % recovery was reported. Repeatability studies had a coefficient of variation of 0.55 while intermediate precision was 0.32. The method was linear over a range of 0.042 to 0.169 mg/mL with a coefficient of determination (R2) 0.9986.
Of the 21 samples analyzed, only 10 samples (47.6 %) complied with assay specifications of 90.0 to 110.0 % label claim for finished products according to the United States Pharmacopeia 2016.

Conclusion and recommendation
A gas chromatographic method was developed and validated for the determination of menthol in cold-cough syrups in Kenya. This method can be used together with a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method to assay cold-cough syrups that may also contain ambroxol, bromhexine, chlorpheniramine maleate, guaifenesin and salbutamol.
This method can be useful in routine analysis such as pre-registration studies as well as post market surveillance to curb substandard and counterfeit cold-cough syrups.

Chikondi Memory Liomba, Catherine Nkirote Kunyanga AA. "Development of Multimix Composite Flour as Complementary Food for Infants in Malawi. ." International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2018;(2):11.
Wachege PN, Cherono F. "Discourse on Ecumenical Implications of Pneumatological Vital Force Towards University Students' Welfare." IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2018;23(7):62-73.prof_wachege__cherono_article.pdf
J K, P N, Ndegwa P, L I, J I, B BO, C. A. "Discovery of Phlebotomus Species of Sand Flies in Mwea Irrigation Scheme, Kirinyaga County, Kenya: A Possible Leishmaniases focus. ." Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology . 2018;4(3):1103-1107.
MM M, Opanga S, Oluka M, Godman B. "'Dispensing of antimicrobials in Kenya: a cross sectional pilot study and its implications' ." Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice. 2018:1-8.
Waswa G. A, I. M, Abong'o D. A, Mbugua J. K., D. A, Aluoch A. O. "Dissipation and Sorption of Urea on Eburru Soils in Kenya." Journal of Physical Chemistry and Biophysics. 2018;8(3):271.
Ong’amo GO, Pallangyo B, Ali A, Njaku M, LeRu BP. "Diversity and abundance of lepidopteran stem borers and their respective native hosts in different vegetation mosaics in Tanzania." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):50-62.
Templer N, Probst L, Onwonga R, Kamusingize D, Ogwali H, Hauser M, Owamani A, Mulumba LN. "Does certified organic agriculture increase agroecosystem health? Evidence from four farming systems in Uganda." 2018 Impact Factor 2.243 International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability. 2018;16(2):150-166 .
Twalib MH, K'OBONYO PO. "DOES KISSING UP TO THE BOSS PAY?" International Journal of Innovation Research and Knowledge.. 2018;3(3):1-10. Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the influence of ingratiation on employees’ career mobility. The study used a descriptive survey and a population study of 169 employees with a response rate of 122(72.2%). This is considered sufficient as recommended by experts (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2009). Primary data was collected using self-administered structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the data and the hypothesis formulated was analysed using linear regression analysis. The results confirmed the hypothesis thatingratiation influences career mobility (R2=.944, F=2011.237, P≤0.05). The correlation coefficient for the model was 0.971 which also confirms that there is a strong relationship between ingratiation and career mobility. The study recommends that objective means of performance appraisals be established and followed by superiors to ensure fair and credible ways of career mobility to its employees. The paper suggests if the same study can be replicated in other organizations using a longitudinal research design.

Omondi F, Tasiran AC, Ever E, Doddapaneni K, Shah P, Mostarda L, Gemikonakli O. "Does the assumption of exponential arrival distributions in wireless sensor networks hold?" mdx.ac.uk. 2018;26(2):81-100. Abstractauthor_version_inderscience.pdf

Wireless Sensor Networks have seen a tremendous growth in various application areas despite prominent performance and availability challenges. One of the
common configurations to prolong the lifetime and deal with the path loss phenomena
is having a multi-hop set-up with clusters and cluster heads to relay the information.
Although researchers continue to address these challenges, the type of distributions
for arrivals at the cluster head and intermediary routing nodes is still an interesting
area of investigation. The general practice in published works is to compare an empirical exponential arrival distribution of wireless sensor networks with a theoretical
exponential distribution in a Q-Q plot diagram. In this paper, we show that such comparisons based on simple eye checks are not sufficient since, in many cases, incorrect
conclusions may be drawn from such plots. After estimating the Maximum Likelihood parameters of empirical distributions, we generate theoretical distributions
based on the estimated parameters. By conducting Kolmogorov-Smirnov test statistics for each generated inter-arrival time distributions, we find out, if it is possible to
represent the traffic into the cluster head by using theoretical distribution. Empirical
exponential arrival distribution assumption of wireless sensor networks holds only
for a few cases. There are both theoretically known such as Gamma, Log-normal
and Mixed Log-Normal of arrival distributions and theoretically unknown such as
non-Exponential and Mixed cases of arrival in wireless sensor networks. The work is
further extended to understand the effect of delay on inter-arrival time distributions
based on the type of medium access control used in wireless sensor networks

Olago D, Marchant R, Richer S, Capitani C, Courtney-Mustaphi C, Prendergast M. "Drivers and trajectories of land cover change in East Africa: Human and environmental interactions from 6000years ago to present." Earth-Science Reviews. 2018;178:322-378. AbstractFull Text

East African landscapes today are the result of the cumulative effects of climate and land-use change over millennial timescales. In this review, we compile archaeological and palaeoenvironmental data from East Africa to document land-cover change, and environmental, subsistence and land-use transitions, over the past 6000 years. Throughout East Africa there have been a series of relatively rapid and high-magnitude environmental shifts characterised by changing hydrological budgets during the mid- to late Holocene. For example, pronounced environmental shifts that manifested as a marked change in the rainfall amount or seasonality and subsequent hydrological budget throughout East Africa occurred around 4000, 800 and 300 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP). The past 6000 years have also seen numerous shifts in human interactions with East African ecologies. From the mid-Holocene, land use has both diversified and increased exponentially, this has been associated with the arrival of new subsistence systems, crops, migrants and technologies, all giving rise to a sequence of significant phases of land-cover change. The first large-scale human influences began to occur around 4000 yr BP, associated with the introduction of domesticated livestock and the expansion of pastoral communities. The first widespread and intensive forest clearances were associated with the arrival of iron-using early farming communities around 2500 yr BP, particularly in productive and easily-cleared mid-altitudinal areas. Extensive and pervasive land-cover change has been associated with population growth, immigration and movement of people. The expansion of trading routes between the interior and the coast, starting around 1300 years ago and intensifying in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries CE, was one such process. These caravan routes possibly acted as conduits for spreading New World crops such as maize (Zea mays), tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) and tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), although the processes and timings of their introductions remains poorly documented. The introduction of southeast Asian domesticates, especially banana (Musa spp.), rice (Oryza spp.), taro (Colocasia esculenta), and chicken (Gallus gallus), via transoceanic biological transfers around and across the Indian Ocean, from at least around 1300 yr BP, and potentially significantly earlier, also had profound social and ecological consequences across parts of the region.

Through an interdisciplinary synthesis of information and metadatasets, we explore the different drivers and directions of changes in land-cover, and the associated environmental histories and interactions with various cultures, technologies, and subsistence strategies through time and across space in East Africa. This review suggests topics for targeted future research that focus on areas and/or time periods where our understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and land-cover change are most contentious and/or poorly resolved. The review also offers a perspective on how knowledge of regional land-use change can be used to inform and provide perspectives on contemporary issues such as climate and ecosystem change models, conservation strategies, and the achievement of nature-based solutions for development purposes.

Mewa E. A, Okoth M. W KRCNMN. "Drying Modelling, Moisture Diffusivity and Sensory quality of Thin Layer dried Beef." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2018;6(2):552-565.
Ebanda RO, Michieka RW, Otieno DJ, Geiger V. "The dynamics of culture on environmental sustainability: A case of Central Africa." The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Environmental Studies. 2018;12(3)(ISSN 2329-1559):1-15.
Ebanda RO, Michieka RW, Otieno DJ, V. G. "The Dynamics of Culture on Environmental Sustainability: A Case of Central Africa." The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social and Community Studies. 2018;12(3):1-15.
FA F, J K, CF O, A W, S N. "Dysglycaemia among kidney transplant recipients at a national referral hospital in Kenya." Journal of Kenya Association of Physicians. 2018;1(1).
Omollo EO, Wasonga OV, Elhadi MY, Mnene WN. "Determinants of pastoral and agro-pastoral households." Pastoralism. 2018;8:9. Abstract
n/a
Kalambuka Angeyo H. "Developing Kenya." International Journal of Nuclear Security. 2018;4:2. Abstract
n/a
2017
Gichuhi S, Kabiru J, Zindamoyen AM'bongo, Rono H, Ollando E, Wachira J, Munene R, Onyuma T, Sagoo MS, Macleod D, Weiss HA, Burton MJ. "Delay along the care-seeking journey of patients with ocular surface squamous neoplasia in Kenya." BMC Health Serv Res. 2017;17(1):485. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:

In Africa, accessing eye health services is a major challenge. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is a substantial ocular health problem in Africa related to solar UV light exposure and HIV infection among other risk factors. The disease causes visual loss and even death in advanced cases. This study was conducted to assess referral pathway and treatment delay for patients with OSSN in Kenya.
METHODS:

Adults with conjunctival lesions presenting to four eye centres were asked about their occupations, when they noticed the growth, health facilities visited in seeking care, cost of consultation, surgery, medicines and histopathology and dates at each step. The time-to-presentation was divided into quartiles and correlates analysed using ordinal logistic regression.
RESULTS:

We evaluated 158 first-time presenters with OSSN. Most were women (102 [65%]), living with HIV (78/110 tested [71%]), with low to medium income (127 [80%]). Most of the HIV patients (49/78 [63%]) were in antiretroviral care programs. About half (88/158, [56%]) presented directly to the study centres while the rest were referred. Indirect presenters sought care earlier than direct presenters (median 2.0 months vs 5.5 months) and travelled a shorter distance to the first health facility (median 20 km vs 30 km) but had surgery later (median 12.5 months vs 5.5 months). Visits beyond the first health facility for indirect presenters markedly increased delay (median 7.3, 29.0, 37.9, and 32.0 months for 1-4 facilities, respectively). Delay was associated with number of health facilities visited (adjusted ordered OR = 9.12; 95%CI 2.83-29.4, p < 0.001) and being female (adjusted ordered OR = 2.42; 95%CI 1.32-4.44, p = 0.004). At the time of presentation at the study centres for surgery the median tumour diameter in both directly and indirectly presenting patients was 6 mm (p = 0.52) and the histological spectrum of OSSN was similar between the groups (p = 0.87).
CONCLUSIONS:

Referral delays definitive treatment for OSSN. Women were more likely to experience delay. Despite regular contact with the health system for those with known HIV infection, delays occurred. Early detection and referral of OSSN in the HIV service might reduce delays, but reassuringly delay did not give rise to a larger proportion with more advanced grade of OSSN.

Mwaguni S, Ayiemba E, Onyari J. "DANCING TO THE TUNE OF OPPORTUNITIES –HUMAN SETTLEMENTS ALIGNED TO SHARE THE JACKPOT OF KENYA’S COASTAL TOURISM BENEFITS SPOIL THE BROTH.". 2017. AbstractFull text link

This paper highlights how human settlements aligned themselves to share the benefits to arise from coastal tourism development in
the Kenya coast, but have come to bedevil the industry through poor management of domestic waste. The study area comprised of
Nyali-Bamburi-Shanzu and Diani-Chale, which are two important tourist destinations in the country. It attempted to establish
population numbers in these habitations, the waste loads generated, and how it was managed. The study was accomplished through
field visits, library research and application of the World Health Organization (WHO 1989) rapid assessment methods for land, air
and water pollution. The relevant data for assessment was obtained from records of population census, bed nights, occupancy, and the
waste disposal methods in use. The study revealed that human settlements aligned themselves in clusters inland, reflecting the clusters
of the beach hotels dotting the shore line of the Indian Ocean. Large volumes of domestic waste were being generated in both the
human settlements and in the hotels. Management of the waste in the settlements was largely on-site and mixed, through the use of
both pit latrines and septic-tank/soakage pit systems in the human settlements, and only through septic-tank/soakage pits in the hotel
establishments. None of the settlements had wastewater treatment facilities. Only 5 beach hotels had wastewater treatment plants.
While the settlements positioned themselves to benefit from the tourism industry, tapping in business and employment opportunities,
the arrangement has seemed to spoil the broth as the settlements came to be the main source domestic waste affecting environmental
quality and undermining tourism growth and sustainability. Also, through the large number of visitors, during the peak tourist periods,
the beach hotels themselves have come contribute to large waste generation. On-site sanitation, it is concluded, is not appropriate for
managing domestic waste in coastal areas dependent on good quality environmental to flourish the tourism economic sector. Tourism
thrives in areas where the environment is aesthetically appealing; domestic waste undermine. Consequently, it is recommended that
innovative approaches are pursued for domestic waste management in order to flourish and sustain the industry.

Parkar RB, Wanyoike GJ, Otieno D, J O. "Day Care Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy outcomes at a dedicated unit in Nairobi, Kenya: Is it time to change?" East African Medical Journal . 2017;94:6-12.
"Kanyinga K". "Demystifying politics of land tenure: Okoth-Ogendo and the concept of land in Africa.". In: The Gallant Academic: Essays in Honour of H. W. O. Okoth-Ogendo. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Kihara EN  , P G, Liversidge HM, F B, Gikenye. "Dental age estimation in a group of Kenyan children using Willems' method: a radiographic study." Ann Hum Biol. 2017;44:614-621(7):614-621.
Osiro OA, Simila HO, Kisumbi BK. "Dental Biomaterials Science (Module IV): Indirect Restorative and Prosthetic Materials." Nairobi: learning@uonbi.ac.ke; 2017.
S Q, A L, J G, K K, W W, EA D. "Design and Implementation of the Retinoblastoma Collaborative Laboratory." Ocular Oncology and Pathology. 2017.
Njogu PM, Okombo J, Chibale K. "Designed Hybrid Compounds for Tropical Parasitic Diseases.". In: Design of Hybrid Molecules for Drug Development (First Edition). London: Elsevier; 2017.
Gichamba A, Wagacha PW, Ochieng DO. "Designing mAgriculture Applications for Rural Smallholder Farmers.". 2017. Abstract

ICT has been widely accepted and adopted as a key driver for various sectors of
the economy for both the developing and developed nations. In developing countries, there
have been multiple interventions to employ the available technology such as mobile,
wireless, radio and TV technologies in key areas that concern human development such as
health, agriculture, education and finance. The design and development practices, are
mostly borrowed from established markets with different user profiles, and do not always

KARURI J, Waiganjo P, Daniel ORWA. "Determinants of Acceptance and Use of DHIS2 in Kenya: UTAUT-Based Model." Journal of Health Informatics in Developing Countries. 2017;11(1). Abstractfull text link

Background: In 2010, Kenya initiated the process of adoption and implementation of a web-based system (DHIS2) as the national HIS to facilitate management of routine health information for evidence-based decision making. To reap maximum benefit from this implementation, DHIS2 needed to gain acceptance from all categories of targeted users. This study, conducted between June and August 2014, sought to develop a new technology acceptance model that can better explain the key determinants of acceptance and use of DHIS2 in Kenya.
Methods: The model was adapted from the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). An exploratory study was conducted primarily through the use of quantitative methods, but qualitative Key Informant Interview (KII) data was also collected in a pre-study to provide the background and contextual information used in refining the model. In the main phase of the study, a questionnaire was administered to health workers through cross-sectional survey both at national and regional levels.
Results: The total number of valid questionnaires returned was 269 against the 300 that were issued. This number represents slightly more than 20% of the approximately 1,100 health workers who have been trained on DHIS2 in Kenya, and these were drawn from at least 10 of Kenya’s 47 counties. Analysis of the survey data was done in two parts: descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS statistical analysis tool for the purpose of obtaining frequencies, means, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis. Subsequently Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and specifically Partial Least Square path modeling (PLS), was used to analyze the conceptual model and test the proposed hypotheses.
Conclusion: The resulting model revealed that social influence was the most pertinent predictor of behavioral intention in the study setting, while facilitating condition and computer anxiety play a significant role in predicting actual use of DHIS2. Findings from this case study can be extended to explain acceptance and use of health IT in other similar settings. Future research can test more variables and moderators to increase the overall predictive levels of the model.

Maalim H, Omuga B, Ongeso A, Okube T. "Determinants of Mode of Delivery Among Postnatal Mothers Admitted in Wajir County Referral Hospital, Kenya." EC Gynaecology. 2017;6(4):128-138. Abstract

Background: Globally, giving birth through the natural process, ‘Vaginally’ has been widely accepted as unquestioned mode of birth. On the other hand, use of caesarean Section (CS), which involves a surgical incision, has also been utilized as a mode of delivery especially among women with medical or obstetric indications. Delivery through CS is a life saving measure which plays a crucial role in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality from direct causes such as hemorrhage, infection, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and obstructed labor [1]. In Kenya, the National maternal mortality rate was 362/100,000. However, in the study area, Wajir county, it was 1683/100,000 [2]. Advances in technology and its adoption in reproductive health have resulted in an increase in the number of Caesarean delivery in the recent years. This has increased options for preferred mode of delivery for mothers and plays a significant role in reduction of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity rates. However, in most African countries, mainly in rural and marginalized areas, use of caesarian section remains low even when there is clear indication. Despite this, limited studies to establish determinants of modes of delivery have been done especially in remote rural areas such as Wajir County.
Objective: The main objective of this study was to establish determinants of mode of delivery among postnatal mothers admitted in Wajir County referral Hospital.
Materials and Methods: A hospital based descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. Mixed method of quantitative and qualitative data was employed among 178 postnatal mothers who were systematically sampled from Wajir county Referral hospital.
Quantitative data was collected using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire and qualitative data was collected using Focus group discussion from the postnatal mothers. Descriptive analysis using means, frequency and proportions was computed. Chi-square test
(p < 0.05) with corresponding 95% confidence interval was used to determine the association between the various variables.
Results: The prevalence of Caesarian Section delivery among the respondents was 32%. Analyses with Chi-Square test of independence revealed that maternal age (p = 0.001), marital status (p = 0.016), level of education (p = 0.007), parity (p = 0.03), FGM practice
(p = 0.001) and belonging to the social health groups (p = 0.001) were the variables significantly associated with mode of delivery. A substantial number of women did not have sufficient knowledge on delivery options, benefits and risks to inform their decisions on delivery modes.
Conclusion: Vaginal Delivery is the most preferred mode of delivery even when CS is medically indicated. Caesarian section acceptance remains low due to lack of correct knowledge, poor attitude towards CS and lack of proper women counseling during ANC visits. Therefore, there is need for educational and economic empowerment of women and girls complemented with effective community sensitization and awareness campaigns on delivery-related complications, risks and alternative delivery options for emergency cases.
Keywords: Mode of Delivery; Postnatal Mothers; Wajir County Referral Hospital; Vaginal Delivery

Miruri R, Wanjohi J. "Determinants of performance of irrigation projects: Case of Nthawa irrigation project of Mbeere North Sub-county, Embu County, Kenya." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2017;2(1):447-463. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Water Irrigation has become one of the
vital income generating activities on land
,in that it enhances food security ,creates
employment opportunities ,improves
nutritional status of a nation and brings
about good health in a particular society.
The purpose of this study was to establish
the determinants of performance of
irrigation projects a case of Nthawa
irrigation project of Mbeere North Subcounty of Embu county Kenya. The study
sought to determine the effect of
management of the project, community
participation, resources adequacy,
technology and availability of sizable land
for irrigation on performance of irrigation
projects in Mbeere North Sub-county,Embu
county Kenya. The target population for
this study comprised the 500 registered
members in Nthawa Irrigation Project of
Mbeere North Sub- County, Embu County.
In addition, 19 key informants comprising
9 executive management committee
members from the project and 10 Ministry
of Water and Irrigation officials made up of
2 technical officers from the District
Irrigation Office and 8 Water Resource
Management Authority (WRMA) regional
officials. For this study, the sample size
was 130 respondents. On the Executive
committee members and officials, the
researcher did not sample since the target
population was small, hence the study
employed a census method that is by
capturing the entire population of
Executive Committee Members and
Ministry of Water and Irrigation Officials.
The primary data was collected using selfadministered questionnaires made up of
both open ended and closed ended
questions. The data collected was analyzed
using Statistical Package for Social
Sciences (SPSS Version 21.0). All the
questionnaires received were referenced
and items in the questionnaire were coded
to facilitate data entry. After data cleaning,
the data was presented inform of tables
showing frequencies, percentages, mean
score and standard deviation. From the
results, it was observed that management of
the projects , resource adequacy, and
technology used, community participation
and availability of sizable land for
irrigation all positively and greatly affect
the performance of public irrigation
projects in Kenya. It is thus recommended
that full participation of members in
irrigation project development should been
encouraged to enhance capacity to perceive
their own needs and members’ managed
irrigation projects should encourage a
maximum number of people to participate
at various stages of project development.

Muatha IT, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA. "Determinants of smallholder farmers’ awareness of agricultural extension devolution in Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research (AJAR). 2017;12(10)(ISSN – 1991-637x):3549-3555.
Opanga SA, Mwang’ombe NJ, Okalebo FA, Oluka M, Kuria K. "Determinants of the effectiveness of antimicrobial prophylaxis among neurotrauma patients at a referral hospital in Kenya: Findings and implications." Journal of Infectious Diseases and Preventive Medicine. 2017:1-7.
and Joseph G. Kabiru PMEMN. "Determinants of workers’ welfare in cut flower industry in Kenya." International Jounal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2017;4(2313-3759):1-17.
Okoth S. "Determining resistance to Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin accumulation in African maize inbred lines resistant to Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxins." Euphytica. 2017;213(4):93. Abstract10.10072fs10681-017-1883-7.pdfWebsite

Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus
flavus cause Fusarium ear rot (FER) and Aspergillus
ear rot (AER) of maize, respectively. Both pathogens
are of concern to producers as they reduce grain yield
and affect quality. F. verticillioides and A. flavus also
contaminate maize grain with the mycotoxins fumonisins
and aflatoxins, respectively, which has been
associated with mycotoxicosis in humans and animals.
The occurrence of common resistance mechanisms to
FER and AER has been reported. Hence, ten Kenyan
inbred lines resistant to AER and aflatoxin accumulation
were evaluated for resistance to FER, F.
verticillioides colonisation and fumonisin accumulation;
and compared to nine South African lines
resistant to FER and fumonisin accumulation. Field
trials were conducted at three localities in South Africa
and two localities in Kenya. FER severity was
determined by visual assessment, while F. verticillioides
colonisation and fumonisin content were
quantified by real-time PCR and liquid chromatography
tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Significant
genotype x environment interactions was
determined at each location (P B 0.05). Kenyan
inbred CML495 was most resistant to FER and F.
verticillioides colonisation, and accumulated the lowest
concentration of fumonisins across localities. It
was, however, not significantly more resistant than
Kenyan lines CML264 and CKL05015, and the South
African line RO549 W, which also exhibited low FER
severity (B5%), fungal target DNA (B0.025 ng lL-1
)
and fumonisin levels (B2.5 mg kg-1
). Inbred lines
resistant to AER and aflatoxin accumulation appear to
be promising sources of resistance to F. verticillioides
and fumonisin contamination.
Keywords Fusarium ear rot Aspergillus ear rot
Resistance Mycotoxins Maize inbred lines
In

English MM, Irimu GG, Nyamai RR, Were FF, Garner PP, Opiyo NN, F W. "Developing guidelines in low-income and middle-income countries: lessons from Kenya." Arch Dis Child. 2017;1(6). AbstractWebsite

There are few examples of sustained nationally organised, evidence-informed clinical guidelines development processes in Sub-Saharan Africa. We describe the evolution of efforts from 2005 to 2015 to support evidence-informed decision making to guide admission hospital care practices in Kenya. The approach to conduct reviews, present evidence, and structure and promote transparency of consensus-based procedures for making recommendations improved over four distinct rounds of policy making. Efforts to engage important voices extended from government and academia initially to include multiple professional associations, regulators and practitioners. More than 100 people have been engaged in the decision-making process; an increasing number outside the research team has contributed to the conduct of systematic reviews, and 31 clinical policy recommendations has been developed. Recommendations were incorporated into clinical guideline booklets that have been widely disseminated with a popular knowledge and skills training course. Both helped translate evidence into practice. We contend that these efforts have helped improve the use of evidence to inform policy. The systematic reviews, Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approaches and evidence to decision-making process are well understood by clinicians, and the process has helped create a broad community engaged in evidence translation together with a social or professional norm to use evidence in paediatric care in Kenya. Specific sustained efforts should be made to support capacity and evidence-based decision making in other African settings and clinical disciplines.

Wambua L, Bernd Schneider, Allan Okwaro, Joseph Odhiambo Wanga, Olive Imali, Peninah Nduku Wambua, Lavender Agutu, Cassandra Olds, Chris Stephen Jones. "Development of field-applicable tests for rapid and sensitive detection of Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae." Molecular and cellular probes. 2017;35:44-56.
Awad O, Malek A, Ogeng’o J. "DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC IRON DEFICIENCY ANAEMIA ON JUNCTIONAL AND LABYRINTHINE ZONES OF PLACENTA IN SPRAGUE DAWELY RAT." Anatomy Journal of Africa. . 2017;6(1):840-846. Abstractdifferential_effects_of_chronic_iron_deficiency.pdfWebsite

Iron deficiency anaemia causes adverse pregnancy outcome. Studies reveal its generalized effects on
histomorphometry of the placenta, without details on specific zones nor effect of gestational age. These data are
important for planning intervention. This study was, therefore, designed to describe the histomorphometric changes
associated with iron deficiency anaemia on placenta of albino rat. Fourty nine (49) Sprague – Dawely albino rats
were randomly separated into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was rendered anaemic by
removing 1.5 ml of blood per bleed on five alternate days. Placentas were collected on gestational days 17, 19 and
21. Five cubic milimetre segments were fixed in 10 % buffered formaldehyde solution; dehydrated in ethanol and
embedded in paraffin wax. Five micron thick sections were cut, deparaffinized and stained with Hematoxylin and
Eosin. Micrographs were taken using Leica ICC 50 digital photomicrographic camera attached to a computer at
magnification x40 and the thickness of the labyrinth and junctional zones measured. Student t- test was used to
compare values for the experimental and control groups. The labyrinth in the chronic anaemia group was thinner
than in the control group at gestational days 17, 19 and 21. The junctional zone, on the other hand, was consistently
thicker in anaemic than in the control animals. The difference in thickness of junctional zone varied with gestational
age. At gestational day 17, the zone was significantly thicker in the anaemic group (628.9 μ) than in the control
(381 μ). On day 19 and 21, however, the difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, the effects of
chronic iron deficiency anaemia on the labyrinth differ from those on the junctional zone of the placenta. This
differential effect appears to depend on the function and gestational age. The decrease in thickness of the labyrinth
may be designed to maintain placental diffusion capacity while increased thickness of the junctional zone constitutes
a compensatory physical and nutritional adaptation to hypoxia.

King-Okumu C, Wasonga OV, Jarso I, Salah YMS. "Direct use values of climate-dependent ecosystem services in Isiolo County, Kenya.". 2017. Abstract

n/a

Okumu PO, Karanja DN, Gathumbi PK. Diseases of domestic rabbits and associated risk factors in Kenya. Germany : LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing ; 2017.
Nguhiu J, P M F M, JK W, Mbuthia P G. "Disorders of the claw and their association with laminitis in smallholder zero-grazed dairy cows." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2017;6(2):64-69.
Bernard K, Wandiga SO, Madadi VO, Mukabi M. "Dissipation studies of Amitraz in cattle dips in Bureti, Kericho county- Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;3(5):248-253.
Kamau BN, Wandiga SO, Madadi VO. "Dissipation Studies of Ridomil Gold Pesticide on Potatoes in Nyandarua County, Kenya." IJSRSET. 2017;3(5):221-229.
Nyaga LW, Gach. "Distance Learning Approach to Train Health Sciences Students at the University of Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(February 2017):101-105.
Aldhaher A, Langat M, Ndunda B, Chirchir D, Midiwo JO, Njue A, Schwikkard S, Carew M, Mulholland D. "Diterpenoids from the roots of Croton dichogamus Pax." Phytochemistry. 2017;144:1-8. AbstractFull text

Four previously undescribed diterpenoids including two crotofolanes, crotodichogamoin A and B, and two halimanes, crothalimene A and B, a new sesquiterpenoid, and fifteen previously reported compounds, including the crotofolane, crotohaumanoxide, the casbane, depressin, a further seven furanohalimane diterpenoids, three patchoulane and two further cadinane sesquiterpenoids and aleuritolic acid were isolated from the root of Croton dichogamus. Crotodichogamoin B is an important biosynthetic intermediate of the crotofolane class and this is the first report of patchoulene sesquiterpenoids from the genus. Compounds were tested at one concentration, 1 × 10−5 M, in the NCI59 cell one-dose screen but did not show significant activity snd were also evaluated for their cytotoxicity against Caco-2 cell lines using the neutral red assay. 10-epi-Maninsigin D reduced Caco-2 cell viability at 10, 30 and 100 μM, with values of decreased viability of 28%, 48% and 43% respectively. None of the other tested compounds showed significant activity.
Keywords
Croton dichogamusEuphorbiaceaeCrotofolaneCrotodichogamoin BCrothalimene ACrothalimene BPatchoulaneCaco-2 cell viability

Ondiba IM, Oyieke FA, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BB. "Diversity, distribution and abundance of potential rift valley fever vectors in Baringo County, Kenya." International Journal of Mosquito Research. 2017;4(4):42-48.ondiba_etal_2018.pdf
ODHIAMBO G O, J W, OLUOCH M F, J. OOKO. "Dividend Announcements and Market Value of Shares in the Agricultural Companies Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange." Scholars Journal of Economics, Business and Management. 2017;4(3):213-228.
Odhiambo, G. WOOJJ & M. "Dividend Announcements and Market Value of Shares in the Agricultural Companies Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange. ." Scholars Journal of Economics, Business and Management. 2017.
Mulanda ES, Awori RM, Chuhila Y, Adero MO, Amugune NO, Akunda E, Kinyamario JI. "A DNA-barcode for Melia volkensii Grke (Meliaceae) and its phylogenetic relationship with some economically important relatives." African Journal of Plant Science. 2017;10(3):58-67.
Kariuki Samwel Muiruri, Britt A, Amugune NO, Nguu E, Chan S, Tripathi L. "Dominant Allele Phylogeny and Constitutive Subgenome Haplotype Inference in Bananas Using Mitochondrial and Nuclear Markers." Genome biology and evolution. 2017;9(10):2510-2521.
Madadi VO, Ngotho MW, Masese FA. "Drinking Water Quality Challenges in Nakuru County, Kenya." IJSRSET. 2017;3(6):5-11.
Dr. Juliet Gathoni Muiga PRWR. "Drivers of Gated Community Developments in Urban Areas (Case Study: Nairobi, Kenya)." International Journal of Architecture and Urban Development -IJAUD. 2017;Volume 7(Issue 4):Pages 5-18.
Egeru A, Wasonga O, Majaliwa Mwanjalolo GJ, MacOpiyo L, Mburu J. "Dynamics of land use and land cover change in semi-arid Karamoja sub-region, Uganda.". 2017. Abstract

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Buregeya A, Buregeya A. "Dyslexia and dysgraphia in the reading and writing of English words by upper-primary pupils from select schools in Sabatia Sub-county in Kenya." The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics. 2017;6(Oct 2017):Oct 2017.
Nguhiu J, P M F M, JK W, Mbuthia P G. "Disorders of the claw and their association with laminitis in smallholder zero-grazed dairy cows." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2017;6:64-69. Abstract
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2016
Kanyinga K. "Devolution good for Kenya but it might brew violence in 2017." Daily Nation, March 13, 2016.
MJ Nyetanyane MM. "Development of UmobiTalk: ubiquitous mobile speech based learning translator for Sesotho language." Central University of Technology, Free State. 2016;15(1):115-132. AbstractFull text link

The need to conserve the under-resourced languages is becoming more urgent as some of them are becoming extinct; natural language processing can be used to redress this. Currently, most initiatives around language processing technologies are focusing on western languages such as English and French, yet resources for such languages are already available. Sesotho language is one of the under-resourced Bantu languages; it is mostly spoken in Free State province of South Africa and in Lesotho. Like other parts of South Africa, Free State has experienced a high number of non-Sesotho speaking migrants from neighbouring provinces and countries. Such people are faced with serious language barrier problems especially in the informal settlements where everyone tends to speak only Sesotho. As a solution to this, we developed a parallel corpus that has English as a source and Sesotho as a target language and packaged it in UmobiTalk - Ubiquitous mobile speech based learning translator. UmobiTalk is a mobile-based tool for learning Sesotho for English speakers. The development of this tool was based on the combination of automatic speech recognition, machine translation and speech synthesis. This application will be used as an analysis tool for testing accuracy and speed of the corpus. We present the development, testing and evaluation of UmobiTalk in this paper. Keywords: UmobiTalk, Automatic speech recognition (ASR), Machine translation (MT), Text to speech (TTS) and Parallel corpora

Osanjo L, Ambole LA. "Design with Social Impact for Rural Communities in Africa.". In: Sustainable Energy for All by Design conference. Cape Town, South Africa; 2016.osanjo__ambole_2016.pdf
Oboko RO, Maina EM, Waiganjo PW, Omwenga EI, Wario RD. "Designing adaptive learning support through machine learning techniques.". In: IST-Africa Week Conference, 2016. IEEE; 2016. Abstract

The use of web 2.0 technologies in web based learning systems has made learning more learner-centered. In a learner centered environment, there is need to provide appropriate support to learners based on individual learner characteristics in order to maximize learning. This requires a Web-based learning system to have an adaptive interface to suit individual learner characteristics in order to accommodate diversity of learner needs and abilities and to maintain an appropriate context for interaction and for achieving personalized learning. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how machine learning techniques can provide adaptive learning support in a Web-based learning system. In this research, two machine learning algorithms namely: Heterogeneous Value Difference Metric (HVDM) and Naive Bayes Classifier (NBC) were used. HVDM was used to determine those learners who were similar to the current learner while NBC was used to estimate the likelihood that the learner would need to use additional materials for the current concept. To demonstrate the concept we used a course in object oriented programming (OOP).

Oyieke F, Ondiba I, Ong’amo G, Njaanake K, Nyamongo I, Estambale B. "Diversity and Distribution of Mosquitoes Transmitting Malaria and Rift Valley Fever in Baringo County, Kenya." South Africa; 2016.poster-columbia.pptx
Mpho Mbele MM. "Development of adaptive environmental management system: A participatory approach through fuzzy cognitive maps.". In: IST-Africa Week Conference. Durban, South Africa ; 2016. Abstract

Mining industries develop environmental management systems/plans to mitigate the impact their operations has on the society. Even with these plans, there are still issues of pollution affecting the society. Though there are ICT-based pollution monitoring solutions, their use is dismal due to lack of appreciation or understanding of the disseminated information. This result in mining communities depending on their own local knowledge to observe, monitor and predict mining-related environmental pollution. However, this local knowledge has never been tested scientifically or analysed to recognize its usability or effectiveness. Mining companies tend to ignore this knowledge from the communities as it is treated like common information with no much scientific value. As a step towards verifying or validating this local knowledge, we demonstrate how fuzzy cognitive maps can be used to model, analyse and represent this linguistic local knowledge

Berkley JA, Ngar M, JT, Mutai B, KA. "Daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to prevent mortality in children with complicated severe acute malnutrition: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial ." Lancet Glob Health . 2016;4:464-73. Abstractdaily_cotrimoxazole_prophylaxis_to_prevent__mortality.pdf

Children with complicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM) have a greatly increased risk of mortality
from infections while in hospital and after discharge. In HIV-infected children, mortality and admission to hospital
are prevented by daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, despite locally reported bacterial resistance to co-trimoxazole. We aimed to assess the efficacy of daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis on survival in children without HIV being treated for complicated SAM

Guthua SW, MW KAMAU. "Debilitating Lymphangiomatous Macroglossia –a case report:." Journal of the Kenya Dental Association. 2016;7 (3):425-429.
Mariabeth Silkey, Tobias Homan, Nicolas Maire, Alexandra Hiscox, Mukabana R, Takken W, Smith TA. "Design of trials for interrupting the transmission of endemic pathogens." Trials. 2016;17(1):278.
Nyamwaya D, Wang'ondu V, Amimo J, Michuki G, Ogugo M, Ontiri E, Sang R, Lindahl J, Grace D, Bett B. "Detection of West Nile virus in wild birds in Tana River and Garissa Counties, Kenya." BMC Infectious Diseases. 2016;16:696.
Nyamwaya D, Wang’ondu V, Amimo J, Michuki G, Ogugo M, Ontiri E, Sang R, Johanna Lindahl, Grace D, Bett B. "Detection of West Nile virus in wild birds in Tana River and Garissa Counties, Kenya.". 2016.
Maina SW, Osanjo GO, Ndwigah SN, Opanga SA. "Determinants of discontinuation of contraceptive methods among women at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. ." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2016;5(1):28-34.
Maina W, Osanjo G, Ndwigah S, Opanga S. "Determinants of discontinuation of Contraceptive Methods among Women at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. ." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2016;5(1).
LC Ng éno, VK Mukthar, SJ Kulei, Chege M. "Determinants of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine uptake among children attending immunisation services at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2016. Abstract

East African Medical Journal 2016

Open Access Subscription or Fee Access
Determinants of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine uptake among children attending immunisation services at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya
LC Ng éno, VK Mukthar, SJ Kulei, M Chege

Abstract

Objective: To establish the determinants of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine uptake among children brought to Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: A cross-sectional hospital-based quantitative and qualitative study
Setting: Kenyatta National hospital which is the largest teaching and referral hospital in East and Central Africa situated in Nairobi, Kenya.

Subjects: The respondents were the parents/guardians of children less than two years of age attending immunisation services at KNH and those admitted in the peadiatric wards with pneumonia.
Results: The study established that the determinants of uptake of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine are age(OR 5.8, CI 1.4-23.4, p=0.014), level of education (OR 5.8, CI 1.5-22.4, p=0.01), parity (OR 0.2, CI 0.1-0.7, p=0.017), occupation (OR 6.5, CI 1.5-27.6, p=0.011), family income (OR 8.8, CI 1.4-55.6, p=0.001), knowledge (OR 6.5, CI 1.1-15.2, p=0.011) and attitude (OR 6.3, CI 1.9-26.8, p=0.001).
Conclusion: The study concluded that factors of the caregivers/parents that are statistically significant to the uptake of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine uptake are Income, parity, education leve, age and occupation. Also a friendly attitude from health personnel was shown to motivate parents/guardians’ adherence to vaccination schedules

Akaranga SI, Simiyu PC. "Determinants of Secondary school learners’ performance in Christian Religious Education in Lelan sub county, Kenya." Journal of Education and Practice. 2016;7(5):125-130.
W.D O, S.O D, A PM. "Determining Break Down of Hydrocarbons in Effluent Discharges from Petroleum Service Stations." Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering . 2016;Vol. 1(No. 5):112-117 .
Ogweno, J.O., Kalai, J.M., Okoth, S.A. "Determining the influence of Principals’ use of participatory decision making on the status of students’ discipline in secondary schools I Kiambu County, Kenya." International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Research. 2016:841-861.12.pdf
Ogweno J, Kalai J, Okoth UA. "Determining the Influence of the Principals’ Use of Participatory Decision Making on the Status of Students’ Discipline in Secondary Schools in Kiambu County, Kenya." International Journal of Social Science and Economic Research (IJSSER). 2016;1(7):841-861.
Ireri BN, Omwenga EI, Oboko RO, Wario R. "Developing Pedagogical Skills for Teachers: A Learner Centered Approach for Technology Supported Instruction. Accepted for publication In J. Keengwe, & G. Onchwari (Eds.)." Handbook of Research on Active Learning and the Flipped Classroom Model in the Digital Age. 2016.
Ireri BN, Omwenga EI, Oboko R, Wario R. "Developing Pedagogical Skills for Teachers: A Learner-Centered Approach ." Handbook of Research on Learner-Centered Pedagogy in Teacher Education and Professional Development. 2016:128. AbstractFull Link Text

A Learner-Centered Approach for
Technology Supported Instructions ABSTRACT Bonface Ngari Ireri Africa Nazarene
University, Kenya Elijah I. Omwenga University of Nairobi, Kenya Robert Oboko University of
Nairobi, Kenya Ruth Wario University of Free State, South Africa Since technology alone without
the instructor or teacher cannot deliver learning to learners, the presence of the teacher or instructor
is very important. For any meaningful teaching and learning to take place in a class, the teacher
must gain learner's attention. Teachers who use learner centered approaches have a strong
trust in students, they believe that students want to learn, have great faith in student ability and
offer students ownership of class activities. They are able to manage their classroom.

Z Q, A M. "Development of Basic Obstetric Theater Facility in a Low-resource Setting.". In: Gynecologic and Obstetric Surgery Challenges and Management Options.; 2016.
and P ISE. "Development of cultural heritage tourism in Kenya: A strategy for diversification of tourism products.". In: Conservation of natural and cultural heritage in Kenya. LONDON: University College London (UCL) Press; 2016.
John Habwe RTAS&. "The Development of Kiswahili Prose and the Evolution of the Kiswahili Novel." In Reyono Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies St. Thomas College Kozhencherry Kerala, India . 2016;5(2):21-43 .
Kanyinga. "Devolution and New Politics of Development in Kenya." African Studies Review. 2016;59(3):155-167.
Mugambi I, Williams F, Muthomi J, Chege F, Oronje ML. "Diagnostic support to plantwise plant doctors in Kenya. ." Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development. 2016;8(11):232-239.
Williams S, White A, Waiganjo P, Orwa D, Klopp J. "The digital matatu project: Using cell phones to create an open source data for Nairobi's semi-formal bus system." Journal of Transport Geography. 2016;49:39-51. AbstractFull text link

In many of the world's growing cities, semi-formal buses form the basis of public transit systems. However, little open and standardized data exist on these systems. The Digital Matatus project in Nairobi, Kenya set out to test whether the geo-locative capabilities of mobile technology could be used to collect data on a semi-formal transit system and whether that data could be translated into the General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS) data standard for wider use. The results of this work show that mobile technologies, particularly mobile phones, which are increasingly prevalent in developing countries, can indeed be used effectively to collect and deliver data in a modified GTFS format for semi-formal transit. Perhaps more importantly, through our work in Nairobi, we were able to identify the benefits and technical needs for developing data on semi-formal transit. Overall, the work illustrates (1) how the GTFS can be adapted to semi-formal systems and used by other cities with such transit systems, (2) that there is demand from technologists as well as transport communities for comprehensive data on semi-formal transit, (3) that releasing the data openly in the GTFS standard format can help to encourage the development of transportation applications, and (4) that including the entire transit community during the data development can create a community of users and mechanisms for institutionalizing a process of data updating and sharing. The engagement strategies our research team developed around the data collection process in Nairobi became just as important as the resulting data it produced.

Makori EO, Osebe NM. "Digital Technology Acceptance in Transformation of University Libraries and Higher Education Institutions in Kenya." Library Philosophy and Practice (E-journal). 2016;(1379).
Wanjare, J. & Kirui G(2016). "Discerning Cash Conversion Cycle Management Practices by Sugar Cane Out-grower Companies in Kenya." International Journal of Advanced Research, ISSN 2320-5407. 2016;Vol 5.
KM N, GO O, KM B, CS I. "Disease activity measurement in rheumatoid arthritis." Afr J Rheumatol. 2016:19-24.disease_activity_measurement.pdf
Archary D, Seaton KE, Passmore JAS, L Werner, A Deal, Dunphy LJ, Arnold KB, NL Yates, Lauffenburger DA, P Bergin, Liebenberg LJ, Samsunder N, Mureithi MW, M Altfeld, Garrett N, Karim AQ, S Abdool Karim, L Morris, Tomaras GD. "Distinct genital tract HIV-specific antibody profiles associated with tenofovir gel." Mucosal immunology. 2016.
Pauline Aluka1*, Fabrice Davrieux2, Kahiu Ngugi3*, Rose Omaria4, Gerard2 F,, J.N Kiiru, and MD2, Pinard. "The Diversity of Green Bean Biochemical Compounds in Robusta Coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner) as Evaluated by." Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture ·. 2016;12(2):1-13.the_diversity_of_green_bean_biochemical.pdf
Anne Fischer, Ivette Santana-Cruz, Wambua L, Cassandra Olds, Charles Midega, Matthew Dickinson, Praphat Kawicha, Zeyaur Khan, Masiga D, Joerg Jores, Bernd Schneider. "Draft genome sequence of “Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae” strain Mbita1, the causative agent of Napier grass stunt disease in Kenya." Genome announcements. 2016;4(2):e00297-16.
T E, M B, N.W P, S A, J A, G E, S H, C H, R H, O K, J N, D O, E O, N O, M.E.M S, M S, E.-J S, C.-F W, G Y, M Z, Q Z, M.S A-D, K A, G A, D B, D B-G, V B, L.K O,, J.N Kiiru, et al. "Drug discovery and biopiracy of natural products" ." Phytomedicine. 2016;Elsevier(23(2)):166-173.efferth_et_al._2016.pdf
Hurisso TT, Norton U, Norton JB, Odhiambo J, Grosso SDJ, Hergert GW, Lyon DJ. "Dryland soil greenhouse gases and yield-scaled emissions in no-till and organic winter wheat–fallow systems." Soil Science Society of America Journal. 2016;80(1):178-192.
Luciani R, Laneve G, Mito C, Jahjah M. "Developing a satellite based automatic system for crop monitoring: Kenya's Great Rift valley a case study.". In: ESA SP 740, LPS16, Proceedings of the conference held 9–13 May 2016. L. Ouwehand. Vol. 740.; 2016:. Abstract
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Gakungai DK. "Development of education in Kenya:Influence of the political factor beyond 2015 MDGs." Journal of education and Practice. 2016;7:55-60. Abstract
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Alphayo L, Wasonga OV, Odadi WO, Ngugi RK. "Differences of Soil Properties between Planned and Unplanned Grazing Sites in Semi-Arid Pastoral Rangelands of Northern Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Development|| ISSN 2278–0211. 2016;5. Abstract
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2015
Iraki XN. "Does setting minimum, maximum land acreage make economic sense." The Standard, June 30, 2020.
Iraki XN. "Despite great wealth, the rich also cry." The Standard, January 13, 2015.
Onjala J. "Deepening China - Africa Cooperation: Implementation Mechanisms and Financing Options for three Networks and Industrialization in Kenya.". In: China-Africa Cooperation on Three Networks of Africa’s Infrastructure and Industrialization - AERC. Intercontinental Hotel Nairobi; 2015.
Elly D, Kaijage ES. "DEMAND SIDE FACTORS AND ACCESS TO EXTERNAL FINANCE BY SMALL AND MEDIUM MANUFACTURING ENTERPRISES IN NAIROBI, KENYA.". In: 15TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AFRICAN ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SMALL BUSINESSES DEVELOPMENT. WHITE SANDS HOTEL, DAR ES SALAAM, TANZANIA.; 2015. Abstractdemand_side_factors_and_access_to_external_finance_by_small_and_medium_manufacturing_enterprises_in_nairobi_kenya-2.pdf

This study investigates how demand-side factors affect access to external finance by small and medium manufacturing enterprises (SMMEs) in Nairobi, Kenya. The demand-side factors considered in the study are firm characteristics, financial management practices and entrepreneur characteristics. The study employs an exploratory survey design utilizing quantitative methods in data collection and analysis. Data is analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Logistic regression is used to test the relationship between demand-side factors and access to external finance because of the dichotomous nature of the dependent variable. The findings of the study show that some of the demand-side factors significantly influence access to external finance. These factors include entrepreneur’s networks, ethnic orientation, firm growth and earnings volatility. The study recommends further probing of the role of good financial management practices such as preparation and usage of financial information on access to external finance in diverse settings and industries. It is also important for entrepreneurs and providers of the finances to establish and support sustainable networks that guarantee enterprise growth. Though ethnic orientation influence access to external finance, policy efforts should be put in place to ensure there is efficiency in the market for external financing and certain entrepreneurs are not disenfranchised on the basis of their ethnic background. As firm growth also influences access to finance, managers of the SMMEs should endeavor to attain steady and predictable earnings growth with minimal deviations. Such efforts would help minimize financial constraints caused when external funds are inaccessible.

Key Words: Demand side factors, Small and medium manufacturing enterprises

Elly D, Kaijage ES. "DEMAND SIDE FACTORS AND ACCESS TO EXTERNAL FINANCE BY SMALL AND MEDIUM MANUFACTURING ENTERPRISES IN NAIROBI, KENYA.". In: 15TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AFRICAN ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SMALL BUSINESSES DEVELOPMENT. WHITE SANDS HOTEL, DAR ES SALAAM, TANZANIA.; 2015. Abstractdemand_side_factors_and_access_to_external_finance_by_small_and_medium_manufacturing_enterprises_in_nairobi_kenya-2.pdf

This study investigates how demand-side factors affect access to external finance by small and medium manufacturing enterprises (SMMEs) in Nairobi, Kenya. The demand-side factors considered in the study are firm characteristics, financial management practices and entrepreneur characteristics. The study employs an exploratory survey design utilizing quantitative methods in data collection and analysis. Data is analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Logistic regression is used to test the relationship between demand-side factors and access to external finance because of the dichotomous nature of the dependent variable. The findings of the study show that some of the demand-side factors significantly influence access to external finance. These factors include entrepreneur’s networks, ethnic orientation, firm growth and earnings volatility. The study recommends further probing of the role of good financial management practices such as preparation and usage of financial information on access to external finance in diverse settings and industries. It is also important for entrepreneurs and providers of the finances to establish and support sustainable networks that guarantee enterprise growth. Though ethnic orientation influence access to external finance, policy efforts should be put in place to ensure there is efficiency in the market for external financing and certain entrepreneurs are not disenfranchised on the basis of their ethnic background. As firm growth also influences access to finance, managers of the SMMEs should endeavor to attain steady and predictable earnings growth with minimal deviations. Such efforts would help minimize financial constraints caused when external funds are inaccessible.

Key Words: Demand side factors, Small and medium manufacturing enterprises

Kanyinga K. "Days when education was a status symbol long gone." Daily Nation, September 27, 2015.
Marangu D, Devine B, John-Stewart G. "Diagnostic accuracy of nucleic acid amplification tests in urine for pulmonary tuberculosis: a meta-analysis." Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis.. 2015;19(11):1339-47. Abstract

To determine the diagnostic accuracy of tuberculosis (TB) nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) in urine samples for individuals with active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB).

Kihu SM, Gitao GC, Bebora LC, Njenga MJ, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG, Oyugi JO, Lutomia E. "Detection of peste des petits ruminants virus in formalin-fixed tissues." Trop Anim Health Prod. 2015;47(1):247-9. Abstract

Peste des petits ruminants virus that causes a highly infectious and often fatal disease of sheep and goats is confirmed by various diagnostic techniques among them being isolation of the virus from cell culture systems, viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) detection by molecular assays, and viral antigen detection by immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC ELISA), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and AGAR gel test. Whereas most of the confirmatory diagnostic procedures require pathological samples to be stored frozen to preserve integrity of the peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus RNA, samples for IHC tests are preserved in 10% formalin. In this study, nine formalin-fixed pathological samples from three goats suspected of PPR were processed for extraction of PPR viral RNA and analyzed for detection with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay. The results showed that five out of the nine tested samples returned positive for presences PPR viral genome. This study has established that field pathological samples of PPR-suspected cases, collected and stored in 10% formalin for up 2 years, could be used for PPR virus RNA extraction for disease virus confirmation.

"Detection of peste des petits ruminants virus in formalin-fixed tissues." Trop Anim Health Prod. 2015;47(1):247-9. Abstract

Peste des petits ruminants virus that causes a highly infectious and often fatal disease of sheep and goats is confirmed by various diagnostic techniques among them being isolation of the virus from cell culture systems, viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) detection by molecular assays, and viral antigen detection by immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC ELISA), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and AGAR gel test. Whereas most of the confirmatory diagnostic procedures require pathological samples to be stored frozen to preserve integrity of the peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus RNA, samples for IHC tests are preserved in 10% formalin. In this study, nine formalin-fixed pathological samples from three goats suspected of PPR were processed for extraction of PPR viral RNA and analyzed for detection with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay. The results showed that five out of the nine tested samples returned positive for presences PPR viral genome. This study has established that field pathological samples of PPR-suspected cases, collected and stored in 10% formalin for up 2 years, could be used for PPR virus RNA extraction for disease virus confirmation.

Ondiba I, Oyieke F, Ong’amo G, Njaanake K, Estambale BB. "Diversity and distribution of mosquitoes transmitting malaria and rift valley fever in Baringo County, Kenya.". In: Nairobi Innovation week. UON, Nairobi; 2015.poster-moraa2_revised_gg.pdf
Kanyinga K. "Devolution dividend depends on how you chose your governor." Daily Nation, February 14, 2015.
Waweru B, Ndeti N. "Decision Making in Community Driven Development: Whose Opinions Count in What?" International Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research. 2015;Vol. 3(Issue 1):246-254.
Aluvaala J, Okello D, Murithi G, Wafula L, Wanjala L, Isika N, Wasunna A, Were F, Nyamai R, English M. "Delivery outcomes and patterns of morbidity and mortality for neonatal admissions in five Kenyan hospitals." Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 2015;(61):255-259. Abstractdelivery_outcomes_and_patterns_of_morbidity_and_mortality_for_neonatal_admissions_in_five_kenyan_hospitals.pdf

A cross-sectional survey was conducted in neonatal and maternity units of five Kenyan district public hospitals. Data for 1 year were obtained: 3999 maternal and 1836 neonatal records plus tallies of maternal deaths, deliveries and stillbirths. There were 40 maternal deaths [maternal mortality ratio: 276 per 100 000 live births, 95% confidence interval (CI): 197–376]. Fresh stillbirths ranged from 11 to 43 per 1000 births. A fifth (19%, 263 of 1384, 95% CI: 11–30%) of the admitted neonates died. Compared with normal birth weight, odds of death were significantly higher in all of the low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) categories, with the highest odds for the extremely LBW (<1000 g) category (odds ratio: 59, 95% CI: 21–158, p<0.01). The observed maternal mortality, stillbirths and neonatal mortality call for implementation of the continuum of care approach to intervention delivery with particular emphasis on LBW babies.

Margaret Maimbolwa, Omoni G, Enid Mwebaza, Angela Chimwaza, Rose Laisser, Christina Mudokwenyu-Rawdon, Carol Bedwell, Rebecc. "A Delphi survey to determine midwifery research priorities among midwives in sub-Saharan Africa." African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2015;9(1):6-11. AbstractWebsite

Objective:

In sub-Saharan Africa, midwifery input into the generation of important research questions is limited. The authors aimed to address this issue by enabling midwives to set their own research priorities with the intention of developing a research strategy to conduct studies relevant to clinical practice.
Methods:

A survey was carried out in six countries (Kenya, Malawi, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Tanzania). The Delphi method was used with six panels of midwives (n=118) to attain a convergence of opinion on midwifery research priorities. Consensus-building was achieved by using a series of questionnaires delivered using multiple iterations to collect data. Data were analysed using ranked means and proportions.
Findings:

Consensus was reached on 11 research questions which were considered regional priorities. These covered three key areas: midwifery training, clinical care and organisational issues. Conclusions: Midwives prioritised areas of research that had direct applicability to their own practice. All questions were at the applied end of the research spectrum. Priorities tended to cover broad areas within reproductive health, as opposed to being disease-focused. This is likely to reflect the desire to provide quality care that embraces the social aspects of health. Some of these research priorities are being taken forward by midwives in the group.
Keywords: Delphi method, Midwives, Research, sub-Sahara

joshua Kivuva. "Democratization in Kenya: Peoples' dissatisfaction with the benefit-less transition." Afrobarometer Briefing Paper. 2015;(152).
J A, K O,.N O. "Demographic Diversity in Top Management Team and Financial Reporting Quality in Commercial State Corporations in Kenya." Donnish Journal of Accounting and Taxation. 2015;1(1):001-016. Abstract

The purpose of the paper is to examine the effect of demographic diversity in Top Management Team (TMT) on financial
reporting quality in commercial state corporations. The study adopted correlational and longitudinal research design and
stepwise regression analysis of FRQ variables on a set of demographic diversity variables in TMT. The findings provide
considerable evidence to suggest that TMT demographic diversity are associated with financial reporting quality
measured by fundamental qualitative characteristics of accounting information, earnings management, timeliness in
reporting and disclosure quality. The research implication is that; in general, demographic diversity in TMT- gender, age,
education, tenure and functional background may have important implication for financial reporting quality under
different measures. The value of this paper is to extend Prior research by addressing the potential effects of TMT
demographic diversity on FRQ. The findings reported in this paper provide novel insight to empirical financial reporting
quality literature in commercial state corporations.

.N O, J A. "Demographic Diversity in Top Management Team and Financial Reporting Quality in Commercial State Corporations in Kenya." Donnish Journal of Accounting and Taxation. 2015;1(1):001-016. Abstractomoro.pdf

The purpose of the paper is to examine the effect of demographic diversity in Top Management Team (TMT) on financial
reporting quality in commercial state corporations. The study adopted correlational and longitudinal research design and
stepwise regression analysis of FRQ variables on a set of demographic diversity variables in TMT. The findings provide
considerable evidence to suggest that TMT demographic diversity are associated with financial reporting quality
measured by fundamental qualitative characteristics of accounting information, earnings management, timeliness in
reporting and disclosure quality. The research implication is that; in general, demographic diversity in TMT- gender, age,
education, tenure and functional background may have important implication for financial reporting quality under
different measures. The value of this paper is to extend Prior research by addressing the potential effects of TMT
demographic diversity on FRQ. The findings reported in this paper provide novel insight to empirical financial reporting
quality literature in commercial state corporations.

K O, J A, N O. "Demographic Diversity in Top Management Team and Financial Reporting Quality in Commercial State Corporations in Kenya." Donnish Journal of Accounting and Taxation. 2015;1(1):001-016. Abstract

The purpose of the paper is to examine the effect of demographic diversity in Top Management Team (TMT) on financial
reporting quality in commercial state corporations. The study adopted correlational and longitudinal research design and
stepwise regression analysis of FRQ variables on a set of demographic diversity variables in TMT. The findings provide
considerable evidence to suggest that TMT demographic diversity are associated with financial reporting quality
measured by fundamental qualitative characteristics of accounting information, earnings management, timeliness in
reporting and disclosure quality. The research implication is that; in general, demographic diversity in TMT- gender, age,
education, tenure and functional background may have important implication for financial reporting quality under
different measures. The value of this paper is to extend Prior research by addressing the potential effects of TMT
demographic diversity on FRQ. The findings reported in this paper provide novel insight to empirical financial reporting
quality literature in commercial state corporations.

Osiro OA, Simila HO, Kisumbi BK. "Dental Biomaterials Science (Module IV): Indirect Restorative and Prosthetic Materials.". In: Dental Biomaterials Science (Module IV): Indirect Restorative and Prosthetic Materials. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2015.
Amimo JO, Junga JO, W. O. Ogara, Vlasova AN, Njahira MN, Maina S, Okoth EA, Bishop RP, Saif LJ, Djikeng A. "Detection and genetic characterization of porcine group A rotaviruses in asymptomatic pigs in smallholder farms in East Africa: Predominance of P[8] genotype resembling human strains." Veterinary Microbiology. 2015;175(2-4):195-210.
DUNDON WG, Kihu SM, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, John NM, Oyugi JO, Loitsch A, Diallo A. "Detection and Genome Analysis of a Lineage III Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus in Kenya in 2011." Transboundary and Emerging diseases. 2015;DOI:10.1111/tbed.12374:1-7.onlinelibrarytps.pdf

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