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MBURU DRJOHNIRUNGU. "B.". In: Forest Policy and Economics 11 (2009) 459. Ogutu J.O; 2009. Abstract
The vision of the Government of Kenya is to facilitate ICT as a universal tool for education and training. In order to achieve this vision every educational institution, teacher, learner and the respective community should be equipped with appropriate ICT infrastructure, competencies and policies for usage and progress. It calls for recognition of the fact that ICT provides capabilities and skills needed for a knowledge-based economy. It also calls for transforming teaching and learning to incorporate new pedagogies that are appropriate for the 21st  century. The Ministry of Education�s (MOE) mission is to facilitate effective use of ICT to improve access, learning and administration in delivery education programmes and services. The principal objective will be to integrate ICT in the delivery of education and training curricula. XML:NAMESPACE PREFIX = O />  Although not exhaustive, the range of ICT that have been used in the delivery of education to improve access, teaching, learning, and administration includes: Electric Board, Audio Cassette, Radio for Interactive Radio Instructions (IRI), Video/TV-Learning, Computer, Integrated ICT infrastructure and Support Application Systems (SAS).These systems are in use, at various degrees, in most parts of Africa (Charp, 1998). This plan envisages use ofthese digital components to improve access and quality in the delivery of education in Kenya.  The major challenge in respect to this component is limited digital equipment at virtually all levels of education. While the average access rate is one computer to 15 students in most of the developed countries, the access rate in Kenya is approximately one computer to 150 students (EMIS, 2005). Whereas most secondary schools in Kenya have some computer equipment, only a small fraction is equipped with basic ICT infrastructure. In most cases equipment of schools with ICT infrastructure has been through initiatives supported by the parents, government, development agencies and the private sector, including the NEPAD E-Schools programme. Attempts to set up basic ICT infrastructure in primary schools are almost negligible.  According to ICTs in Education Options Paper, one of the main problems is limited penetration of the physical telecommunication infrastructure into rural and low-income areas. Specifically, the main challenge is limited access to dedicated phone lines and high-speed systems or connectivity to access e-mail and Internet resources. The EMIS Survey (2003/2004) indicated that over 70% of secondary schools and a much larger proportion of primary schools require functional telephones. Indeed, many parts of Kenya cannot easily get Internet services because of the poor telephone networks. About 90% of secondary schools need to establish standard Local Area Networks (LANs) in order to improve sharing of learning resources.  Alternative and appropriate technologies for access to Internet resources, including wireless systems remain quite expensive. Indeed, a small proportion of schools have direct access, through Internet Service Providers (ISPs), to high-speed data and communication systems. Furthermore, very few schools in the rural areas use wireless technology such as VSAT to access e-mail and Internet resources. Nearly all of the 6 NEPAD e-Schools are in rural areas and are expected to enjoy internet connectivity through VSAT technology.  While other countries have reported up to 41% of integration of ICT to teaching and learning, the proportion remains substantially low in Africa, Kenya included. Integration aims at the use ICT to support teaching and learning in the delivery of the various curricula to achieve improved education outcomes. Because ICT is interactive media, it facilitates students to develop diversified skills needed for industrialization and a knowledge-based economy. It also allows teachers and learners to proceed at different paces depending on the prevailing circumstances. As a first step, the Ministry of Education has initiated a major ICT project in Secondary schools meant to equip over 200 secondary schools with ICT infrastructure for integration of ICT in teaching/learning process ( KESSP, 2004). Three schools have been chosen in every district of Kenya.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "B Nganda, J Wang.". In: The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 7(9), 2003, pp 14 - 20. SITE; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
Rading GO. "B O Odera, L A Cornish, M B Shongwe, G O Rading and M J Papo: As Cast and Heat Treated Alloys of the Pt-Al-V System at the Pt-Rich Corner." Journal of the Southern Africa Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. 2012;7A:505-515.
ucci E, Onnis A CDFIGCCMMGFA, Cantisani R, Nyagol J MIOSBLLWRMK. "B-cell differentiation in EBV-positive Burkitt lymphoma is impaired at posttranscriptional level by miRNA-altered expression." International Journal of cancer. 2010;126(6):1316-1326.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "B. Alkaline active maltohexaose forming α-amylase from Bacillus halodurans LBK 34.". In: Enzyme and Microbial Technology 36: 139-146. Springerlink; 2005.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "B. E. Cracknell, et al. Kenyan/Nordic Co-operative Development programme: An Indepth Review, Report to DANIDA, KNCDP and MOCD, Nairobi, February 1992.". In: The Development of the National Economy Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, 1993. International Union of Crystallography; 1992. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "B. Ochieng and E. Kituyi (eds) Adapting to Climate Change: Challenges and Options for Africa.". In: Innovation Vol.7 No.2, November 2000. 36p. African Centre for Technology Studies, Nairobi. BEP Electronic Press; 2000. Abstract
Kituyi, E. and Kirubi, C. ()
Njoroge BN, Ochieng B, Ngari SK. B. Ochieng, S.K. Ngari, B.N.K.Njoroge (no title provided).; 2013. Abstract

Performance and effectiveness of anaerobic process with biomass recycle, analogous to activated sludge process, in the treatment of high-strength brewery wastewater was investigated. This was achieved by using laboratory bench scale anaerobic digester, at organic loading rate in the range of 0.29 to 10kg Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) m-3d-1 which was much higher than the theoretical values in the conventional anaerobic process (continuous stirred tank reactor), that ranges between 0.25 to 3.00 kg COD m-3d-1. The study was undertaken using brewery wastewater collected from Thika Brewery Limited in Kenya. The experimental results showered that the recycled process achieved a percentage COD removal of between 86% and 95% while the conventional anaerobic process achieved between 66% and 84% for the same range of volumetric loading rate at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days. The recycled process had a shorter start-up time and responded much better to changes in both hydraulic and organic loading rates. Gas production was higher in the recycled process than in the conventional process. The methane yield at standard temperature (20 C) ranged between 0.25 and 0.32 m3/kg COD removed foe the recycled process while it was between 0.19 and 0.30m-3kg COD for conventional process. The experimental result showed that most of the COD removed was converted to methane as opposed to biomass synthesis. This has an added advantage in that there is less sludge production for the recycled process. The results of the study show that anaerobic process with biomass recycle holds potential for treatment of high-strength industrial wastewater, like brewery effluent. Such a process could result in savings, in reduced sludge to be disposed and better effluent than is possible with the conventional anaerobic digestion process.

Njoroge BN, Ochieng B, Ngari SK. B. Ochieng, S.K. Ngari, B.N.K.Njoroge (no title provided).; 2013.
N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "B. Ochieng, S.K. Ngari, B.N.K.Njoroge, .". In: University of Nairobi. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 2001. Abstract
Performance and effectiveness of anaerobic process with biomass recycle, analogous to activated sludge process, in the treatment of high-strength brewery wastewater was investigated. This was achieved by using laboratory bench scale anaerobic digester, at organic loading rate in the range of 0.29 to 10kg Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) m-3d-1 which was much higher than the theoretical values in the conventional anaerobic process (continuous stirred tank reactor), that ranges between 0.25 to 3.00 kg COD m-3d-1. The study was undertaken using brewery wastewater collected from Thika Brewery Limited in Kenya. The experimental results showered that the recycled process achieved a percentage COD removal of between 86% and 95% while the conventional anaerobic process achieved between 66% and 84% for the same range of volumetric loading rate at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days. The recycled process had a shorter start-up time and responded much better to changes in both hydraulic and organic loading rates. Gas production was higher in the recycled process than in the conventional process. The methane yield at standard temperature (20 C) ranged between 0.25 and 0.32 m3/kg COD removed foe the recycled process while it was between 0.19 and 0.30m-3kg COD for conventional process. The experimental result showed that most of the COD removed was converted to methane as opposed to biomass synthesis. This has an added advantage in that there is less sludge production for the recycled process. The results of the study show that anaerobic process with biomass recycle holds potential for treatment of high-strength industrial wastewater, like brewery effluent. Such a process could result in savings, in reduced sludge to be disposed and better effluent than is possible with the conventional anaerobic digestion process.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "B. Syuto., I.Ohishi., M.Naiki and S. Kubo: Binding of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin to gangliosides, J. Biochem. 100, 27-33.". In: Proceedings of the 11th Annual Medical Scientific Conference, Nairobi, Kenya. East African Medical Journal; 1986. Abstract
Lipophorin was isolated from the haemolymph of adult tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans, by ultracentrifugation in a potassium bromide density gradient. 2. The tsetse fly lipophorin (Mr congruent to 600,000) has a density of congruent to 1.11 g/ml and consists of two apoproteins, apolipophorin-I (apoLp-I, Mr congruent to 250,000) and apolipophorin-II (apoLp-II, Mr congruent to 80,000), both of which are glycosylated as shown by staining with periodate-Schiff reagent. The protein complex is composed of 49% protein and 51% lipids. 3. The finding of lipophorin in tsetse fly haemolymph suggests that, although these flies primarily utilize proline for their energy needs, there is an active transport mechanism for the supply of lipid requirements.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "B. Syuto., K. Oguma., H. Iida and S. Kubo. Compariosn of antigenicity of toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum type C and D strains. Appl. Environ. Microbial. 47, 1319-1322.". In: Infect Immun. 1985 May;48(2):312-7. East African Medical Journal; 1984. Abstract
The toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum type C 6813 (C-6813) was purified 1,009-fold from the culture supernatant in an overall yield of 30%. The specific toxicity was 1.1 X 10(7) mouse minimum lethal doses per mg of protein. The toxin had a molecular weight of 144,000, composed of the light and heavy chains with molecular weights of 52,000 and 92,000, respectively, linked by one or two disulfide bond(s). The purified C-6813 toxin heavy and light chains reacted strongly with anti-type D heavy chain immunoglobulin G and anti-type C1 light chain immunoglobulin G, respectively. The amino acid compositions of C-6813 toxin heavy and light chains were more similar to those of type D heavy chain and type C1 light chain than to those of type C1 heavy chain and type D light chain, respectively. These results suggest that in the toxin produced by the type C strain at least two subtypes exist.
"B.Hagos, I.O Kibwage, M. Mwongera, J.N. Muthotho, I.M. Githiga and G.G. Mukindia. (1997). The microbial and physical quality of recycled gloves.E.Afr.Med.J.74(4):224-226." East Cent. Afr. J Pharm.Sci 2(3): 63-71; 1997. Abstract

Plastic surgical gloves reprocessed at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) were tested for microbiological and physical quality, using standard, disposable, factory sterilised surgical gloves as reference. The microbiological tests were carried out using slightly modified British Pharmacopoeia method. The tests to check on the physical integrity of the gloves were designed in our laboratories. A total of 48 pairs of each group were tested. 41.67% of the reprocessed gloves and 12.5% of the reference glove failed sterility test, whereas 47.9% of the former and 0% of the latter had physical defects. These results show significant difference in the microbiological and physical quality of the reprocessed and reference gloves. The reprocessing of plastic surgical gloves is therefore, potentially dangerous and it is strongly recommended that it is discontinued at all levels of health-care institutions.

"B.K. Amugune, G.N. Thoithi, I.O. Kibwage. Chromatographic analysis of phenobarbitone, ethosuximide, phenytoin and carbamazepine on a polystyrene-divinyl benzene." East Cent. Afr. J.Pharm. Sci. 2006;9(1):19-25. Abstract

This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care

"B.K. AMUGUNE, G.N. THOITIDAND, I.0. KIBWAGE. Liquid chromatographic analysis of phenobarbitone, ethosuximide, phenytoin and carbamazepine on a polystyrene-divinyl benzene column.". 2006. Abstract

A liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous assay of four anticonvulsant
drugs, phenobarbitone, ethosuximide, phenytoin and carbamazepine on a
polystyrene-divinyl benzene column is described. The method was developed by the
systematic study of different types of co-polymer materials, type and concentration
of organic modifiers, buffer pH and concentration and column temperature. A
PLRP-S 100A 8 11mcolumn maintained at 60°C and a mobile phase consisting of
acetonitrile-tert-butanol-phosphate buffer (pH 7.6, 0.2 M)-water (25:5:10:60, v/v)
were used. The flow rate was 1 ml/min with ultraviolet detection at 220 nm. The
method has been validated and used for the analysis of raw materials, finished
products and dissolution studies of the drugs.

MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and J.M. Khalagai, A note on Similarity, Almost-Similarity and Equivalence of Operators, Far East Mathematics Journal, Vol 28, Issue 2(February 2008), 305-317.". In: Far East Mathematics Journal, Vol 28, Issue 2(February 2008), 305-317. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear; 2008. Abstract
The almost-similar and similar relations between operators on finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces are investigated. It is shown that almost-similar operators share some properties with some other classes of operators. Various results on almost-similarity and similarity are proved. An attempt is made to classify those operators where almost-similarity implies similarity. We investigate some properties of corresponding parts of operators which enjoy these equivalence relations.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and J.M. Khalagai, A note on Similarity, Almost-Similarity and Equivalence of Operators, Far East Mathematics Journal, Vol 28, Issue 2(February 2008), 305-317.". In: Far East Mathematics Journal, Vol 28, Issue 2(February 2008), 305-317. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 2008. Abstract
The almost-similar and similar relations between operators on finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces are investigated. It is shown that almost-similar operators share some properties with some other classes of operators. Various results on almost-similarity and similarity are proved. An attempt is made to classify those operators where almost-similarity implies similarity. We investigate some properties of corresponding parts of operators which enjoy these equivalence relations.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and J.M. Khalagai, Characterization of C_00 Contractions and their invariant subspaces, corrected manuscript re-submitted to Opuscula Mathematica, paper under review.". In: Nairobi, Kenya. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1981. Abstract
J. M. Khalagai,  held in Nairobi, Kenya in
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and J.M. Khalagai, Characterization of C_00 Contractions and their invariant subspaces, corrected manuscript re-submitted to Opuscula Mathematica, paper under review.". In: God Conference at Mara (Kenya). Proc. pp. 165-171 (New Era book). Opuscula Mathematica,; Submitted. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and J.M. Khalagai, Linear operators for which T* and T^2 commute, Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM),2012, to appear. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear; Submitted. Abstract
Recent publications have demonstrated that the protease caspase-1 is responsible for the processing of pro-interleukin 18 (IL-18) into the active form. Studies on cell lines and murine macrophages have shown that the bacterial invasion factor SipB activates caspase-1, triggering cell death. Thus, we investigated the role of SipB in the activation and release of IL-18 in human alveolar macrophages (AM), which are the first line of defense against inhaled pathogens. Under steady-state conditions, AM are a more important source of IL-18 than are dendritic cells (DC) and monocytes. Cytokine production by AM and DC was compared after both types of cells had been infected with a virulent strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and an isogenic sipB mutant, which were used as an infection model. Infection with virulent Salmonella led to marked cell death with features of apoptosis while both intracellular activation and release of IL-18 were demonstrated. In contrast, the sipB mutant did not induce such cell death or the release of active IL-18. The specific caspase-1 inhibitor Ac-YVAD-CMK blocked the early IL-18 release in AM infected with the virulent strain. However, the type of Salmonella infection did not differentially regulate IL-18 gene expression. We concluded that the bacterial virulence factor SipB plays an essential posttranslational role in the intracellular activation of IL-18 and the release of the cytokine in human AM.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and J.M. Khalagai, Linear operators for which T* and T^2 commute, Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM),2012, to appear. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear; Submitted.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on A-self-adjoint and A-skew-adjoint operators and their extensions, Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences, accepted January, 2012, to appear.". In: Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS). Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences; Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on A-self-adjoint and A-skew-adjoint operators and their extensions, Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences, accepted January, 2012, to appear.". In: Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS). Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences; Submitted.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on metric equivalence of operators, Far East Math Jourmal (FMJS), accepted March 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS). Far East Math Science Journal; Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on metric equivalence of operators, Far East Math Jourmal (FMJS), accepted March 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM),2012, to appear. Far East Math Science Journal; Submitted.
N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "B.N.K. Njoroge and J. K. Wairuri .". In: University of Nairobi. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and basal cells, and a lamina propria containing bundles of olfactory cell axons, Bowman’s glands and vascular elements. The olfactory cells terminated apically with an expanded knob, from which cilia projected in a radial fashion from its base and in form of a tuft from its apex in the dog and the sheep respectively. Olfactory cilia per knob weremorenumerous in the dog (19±3) compared to the sheep (7±2) (p < 0.05). In the dog, axonal bundles exhibited one to two centrally located capillaries and the bundles were of greater diameters (73.3±10.3_m) than those of the sheep (50.6±6.8_m), which had no capillaries. From suckling to adulthood in the dog, the packing density of the olfactory and supporting cells increased by 22.5% and 12.6% respectively. Surprisingly in the sheep, the density of the olfactory cells decreased by 26.2% while that of the supportive cells showed no change. Overall epithelial thickness reached 72.5±2.9_m in the dog and 56.8±3.1_m in the sheep. These observations suggest that the mucosa is better structurally refined during maturation in the dog than in the sheep.
N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "B.N.K.Njoroge and Githere P.G. .". In: University of Nairobi. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and basal cells, and a lamina propria containing bundles of olfactory cell axons, Bowman’s glands and vascular elements. The olfactory cells terminated apically with an expanded knob, from which cilia projected in a radial fashion from its base and in form of a tuft from its apex in the dog and the sheep respectively. Olfactory cilia per knob weremorenumerous in the dog (19±3) compared to the sheep (7±2) (p < 0.05). In the dog, axonal bundles exhibited one to two centrally located capillaries and the bundles were of greater diameters (73.3±10.3_m) than those of the sheep (50.6±6.8_m), which had no capillaries. From suckling to adulthood in the dog, the packing density of the olfactory and supporting cells increased by 22.5% and 12.6% respectively. Surprisingly in the sheep, the density of the olfactory cells decreased by 26.2% while that of the supportive cells showed no change. Overall epithelial thickness reached 72.5±2.9_m in the dog and 56.8±3.1_m in the sheep. These observations suggest that the mucosa is better structurally refined during maturation in the dog than in the sheep.
N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "B.N.K.Njoroge and S.G. Mwamachi .". In: University of Nairobi. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and basal cells, and a lamina propria containing bundles of olfactory cell axons, Bowman’s glands and vascular elements. The olfactory cells terminated apically with an expanded knob, from which cilia projected in a radial fashion from its base and in form of a tuft from its apex in the dog and the sheep respectively. Olfactory cilia per knob weremorenumerous in the dog (19±3) compared to the sheep (7±2) (p < 0.05). In the dog, axonal bundles exhibited one to two centrally located capillaries and the bundles were of greater diameters (73.3±10.3_m) than those of the sheep (50.6±6.8_m), which had no capillaries. From suckling to adulthood in the dog, the packing density of the olfactory and supporting cells increased by 22.5% and 12.6% respectively. Surprisingly in the sheep, the density of the olfactory cells decreased by 26.2% while that of the supportive cells showed no change. Overall epithelial thickness reached 72.5±2.9_m in the dog and 56.8±3.1_m in the sheep. These observations suggest that the mucosa is better structurally refined during maturation in the dog than in the sheep.
KIMANI DRMURUNGARU. "B.O K'Oyugi and Kimani M. 2001Breastfeeding, Nutrition, Immunization and Childhood Mortality in Rural Kenya.". In: Health Line Vol. 5 No. 1 March. 2.3:. James Murimi; 2001. Abstract
According to the millennium assessment report, during the last century, global drylands have experienced anthropogenic induced climate changes that are predicted to continue and even to accelerate during the present century. The traditional pastoralist spatial domains are facing unprecedented changes due to population growth, urban sprawl and an appetite for land not anticipated by the planners who designated such lands as trust lands. A case in point is Kajiado district which has seen most community owned land blocks subdivided and tenure changed to private especially in areas surrounding It is therefore not only the pastoralists that are finding their roaming area constricted but also the wild animals. A recent court case to protect the migratory corridors of wild animals is a good example. In fact there are more wild animals among these communities than are confined in parks in Kenya. With the inevitable land use changes, and their impacts on livelihoods and environment, this paper explores the literature on the interaction of environmental conservation amid global warming and the potential role of biogas in mitigating the livelihood and vulnerability associated with it. Further, the technology helps manage green house gases and has potential for using the clean development mechanism to raise carbon credits which could be ploughed back in propping the livelihoods of rural communities. The paper highlights the preconditions of successful biogas interventions which include partial or complete confinement of animals in zero grazing units alongside improvement/change of animal breeds to more economically viable ones. However, this raises the greater question whether the radical change of livelihood approaches is at all viable? Key words: Global warming, livelihoods, conservation, biogas, carbon markets
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "The B.Sc. Agricultural Engineering Course. Paper presented at the Agricultural Inter-University subject Meeting. September 5-10 Arusha, Tanzania.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1983. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "B.Syuto., M.Naiki., I.Ohishi and S.Kubo: Binding of 125 Ibotulinum neurotoxin to synatopsomal membrane receptor : Jpn. Med. Sci. Biol. 38,100.". In: Proceedings of the 11th Annual Medical Scientific Conference, Nairobi, Kenya. East African Medical Journal; 1986. Abstract
Lipophorin was isolated from the haemolymph of adult tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans, by ultracentrifugation in a potassium bromide density gradient. 2. The tsetse fly lipophorin (Mr congruent to 600,000) has a density of congruent to 1.11 g/ml and consists of two apoproteins, apolipophorin-I (apoLp-I, Mr congruent to 250,000) and apolipophorin-II (apoLp-II, Mr congruent to 80,000), both of which are glycosylated as shown by staining with periodate-Schiff reagent. The protein complex is composed of 49% protein and 51% lipids. 3. The finding of lipophorin in tsetse fly haemolymph suggests that, although these flies primarily utilize proline for their energy needs, there is an active transport mechanism for the supply of lipid requirements.
Hall PJ, Levin AG, Entwistle CC, Knight SC, Wasunna A, Brubaker G. "B15 heterogeneity in East African Blacks." Tissue Antigens. 1980;16(4):326-32. Abstract

One-hundred-forty-one Blacks (135 unrelated) from Kenya and Tanzania have been tissue-typed (HLA-A, B and C loci) as part of a study of host factors involved in Burkitt's lymphoma and naso-pharyngeal carcinoma. Evidence is presented for the existence in this population of several B15-related antigens which together occur with a relatively high frequency of 30% in unrelated individuals. It is likely that these variants may include the antigens SV and perhaps Bu recently defined with population frequencies of under 1% in Caucasians. In the absence of monospecific typing sera, identification of these variants may be helped by their apparently strong association with C-locus antigens in Blacks. Recognition of these B15 variants has been largely responsible for reducing the proportion of unidentified or "blank" B-locus antigens in this population to only 6%. These findings substantiate and amplify previous reports suspecting the presence of such antigens in Blacks, and should facilitate studies of possible associations of disease with HLA in these populations.

Varma S. "Babesiosis Infection in Horses." Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal. 1989;20:169-170.
Nyachieo A, Spiessens C, Chai DC, Kiulia NM, Mwenda JM, D'Hooghe TM. Baboon spermatology: basic assessment and reproducibility in olive baboons (Papio anubis).. Vol. 41.; 2012. J. Med. Primatol. 41(5). Abstract

Development of a reproducible baboon in vitro fertilization (IVF) system require optimized and reproducible sperm parameters. The objective of this study was to document basic spermatology values and investigate the reproducibility of these variables in the same baboons 1 or 3 months later in a larger number of baboons.

Obiero JA, Waititu KK, Mulei I, Omar FI, Jaoko W, Mwethera PG. "Baboon vaginal microbial flora." J. Med. Primatol.. 2016;45(3):147-55. Abstractbaboon_vaginal_microbial_flora.pdfPUBMED

Knowledge of the composition of vaginal microbial ecosystem is essential for understanding the etiology, prevention, and treatment of vaginal diseases. A baboon model has been used to provide detailed understanding of reproductive physiology and immunology applicable to women. However, little is known about the composition of its vaginal microbial ecosystem.

NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS. "Bacillus cereus may produce two or more diarrhoeal enterotoxins.". In: journal. FARA; 1997. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS. "Bacillus cereus may produce two or more diarrhoeal enterotoxins.". In: journal. University of Nairobi Press; 1997. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
Joseph O, Otele O. "The Background and Practice of China-African Cooperation on Resources Development.". In: The Emerging Dominance of Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Kenya’s Mineral Resources Windfalls. Yunnan University Press; 2017.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Background Economic Issues in the Re-Introduction of Multiparty Politics in Kenya.". In: ASPA WORKING PAPER, ILO, East Arican Educational Publishers Ltd., Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1993. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The Background of Some Juvenile Delinquents in Kenya, Journal of Eastern African Research and Development, Volume 1, No. 2, 1971, East African Literature Bureau.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1971. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The Background of Some juvenile delinquents in Kenya, Journal of Eastern african research and development, Volume 1, No.2, 1971, East African bereau.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1971. Abstract
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ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Background to Environmental Law and Institutions in Burkina Faso and Sao Tome & Principe.". In: ISBN 92-807-2203-7. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2001.
FLORENCE DRMURILA, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "Bacteraemia, urinary tract infection and malaria in hospitalised febrile children in Nairobi: is there an association? East Afr Med J . 2004 Jan; 81 ( 1 ): 47-51 . PMID: 15080516 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Okwara FN, Obimbo EM, Wafula EM, Murila FV.". In: East Afr Med J . 2004 Jan; 81 ( 1 ): 47-51 . UN-HABITAT; 2004. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: There is laboratory evidence of altered immune function in children with malaria. Bacterial infections have been documented to complicate severe forms of malaria. However, it remains unclear whether such infections are attributable to the malaria, other risk factors, or are coincidental. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacteraemia and urinary tract infections (UTI) in febrile hospitalised children with and without malaria. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: General paediatric wards, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Children aged between three months and 12 years admitted with an acute febrile illness, with no obvious focus of bacterial infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a standardised questionnaire, information on socio-demography, symptomatology, and nutritional status was obtained. Malaria slides, blood and urine cultures were performed on each child. RESULTS: Malaria parasitaemia was present in 158 (60%) of 264 children presenting with acute febrile illness with no obvious focus of bacterial infection. Bacteria were isolated from blood and/or urine of 62 (23%) of all enrolled children. Bacteraemia was prevalent among 11.4% of 158 children with malaria and among 13.2% of 106 without malaria. Gram-positive organisms comprised 28.1% of blood isolates, gram-negative 62.5%, and atypical bacteria 9.4%. UTI was prevalent among 13.3% of 158 children with malaria and 16.0% of 106 children without malaria. Gram-positive organisms comprised 18.4%, gram-negative 78.9%, and atypical bacteria 2.6% of the urine isolates. Presence of malaria parasitaemia was not associated with an increased risk of bacteraemia (OR 0.9, 95% CI [0.4-0.7], or UTI (OR 0.8 95% CI [0.4-1.6] in this study population. CONCLUSION: Among children hospitalised in Nairobi with fever and no obvious bacterial infective focus, there should be a high index of suspicion for malaria, followed by bacteraemia and UTI. Malaria parasitaemia does not appear to be associated with increased risk of bacterial co-infection. PMID: 15080516 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FLORENCE DRMURILA, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "Bacteraemia, urinary tract infection and malaria in hospitalised febrile children in Nairobi: is there an association? East Afr Med J . 2004 Jan; 81 ( 1 ): 47-51 . PMID: 15080516 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Okwara FN, Obimbo EM, Wafula EM, Murila FV.". In: East Afr Med J . 2004 Jan; 81 ( 1 ): 47-51 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2004. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: There is laboratory evidence of altered immune function in children with malaria. Bacterial infections have been documented to complicate severe forms of malaria. However, it remains unclear whether such infections are attributable to the malaria, other risk factors, or are coincidental. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacteraemia and urinary tract infections (UTI) in febrile hospitalised children with and without malaria. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: General paediatric wards, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Children aged between three months and 12 years admitted with an acute febrile illness, with no obvious focus of bacterial infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a standardised questionnaire, information on socio-demography, symptomatology, and nutritional status was obtained. Malaria slides, blood and urine cultures were performed on each child. RESULTS: Malaria parasitaemia was present in 158 (60%) of 264 children presenting with acute febrile illness with no obvious focus of bacterial infection. Bacteria were isolated from blood and/or urine of 62 (23%) of all enrolled children. Bacteraemia was prevalent among 11.4% of 158 children with malaria and among 13.2% of 106 without malaria. Gram-positive organisms comprised 28.1% of blood isolates, gram-negative 62.5%, and atypical bacteria 9.4%. UTI was prevalent among 13.3% of 158 children with malaria and 16.0% of 106 children without malaria. Gram-positive organisms comprised 18.4%, gram-negative 78.9%, and atypical bacteria 2.6% of the urine isolates. Presence of malaria parasitaemia was not associated with an increased risk of bacteraemia (OR 0.9, 95% CI [0.4-0.7], or UTI (OR 0.8 95% CI [0.4-1.6] in this study population. CONCLUSION: Among children hospitalised in Nairobi with fever and no obvious bacterial infective focus, there should be a high index of suspicion for malaria, followed by bacteraemia and UTI. Malaria parasitaemia does not appear to be associated with increased risk of bacterial co-infection. PMID: 15080516 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Murila DF, Wafula PEM, Obimbo DE. "Bacteraemia, urinary tract infection and malaria in hospitalised febrile children in Nairobi: is there an association? East Afr Med J . 2004 Jan; 81 ( 1 ): 47-51 . PMID: 15080516 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Okwara FN, Obimbo EM, Wafula EM, Murila FV.". In: East Afr Med J . 2004 Jan; 81 ( 1 ): 47-51 . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya.
BACKGROUND: There is laboratory evidence of altered immune function in children with malaria. Bacterial infections have been documented to complicate severe forms of malaria. However, it remains unclear whether such infections are attributable to the malaria, other risk factors, or are coincidental. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacteraemia and urinary tract infections (UTI) in febrile hospitalised children with and without malaria. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: General paediatric wards, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Children aged between three months and 12 years admitted with an acute febrile illness, with no obvious focus of bacterial infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a standardised questionnaire, information on socio-demography, symptomatology, and nutritional status was obtained. Malaria slides, blood and urine cultures were performed on each child. RESULTS: Malaria parasitaemia was present in 158 (60%) of 264 children presenting with acute febrile illness with no obvious focus of bacterial infection. Bacteria were isolated from blood and/or urine of 62 (23%) of all enrolled children. Bacteraemia was prevalent among 11.4% of 158 children with malaria and among 13.2% of 106 without malaria. Gram-positive organisms comprised 28.1% of blood isolates, gram-negative 62.5%, and atypical bacteria 9.4%. UTI was prevalent among 13.3% of 158 children with malaria and 16.0% of 106 children without malaria. Gram-positive organisms comprised 18.4%, gram-negative 78.9%, and atypical bacteria 2.6% of the urine isolates. Presence of malaria parasitaemia was not associated with an increased risk of bacteraemia (OR 0.9, 95% CI [0.4-0.7], or UTI (OR 0.8 95% CI [0.4-1.6] in this study population. CONCLUSION: Among children hospitalised in Nairobi with fever and no obvious bacterial infective focus, there should be a high index of suspicion for malaria, followed by bacteraemia and UTI. Malaria parasitaemia does not appear to be associated with increased risk of bacterial co-infection.
PMID: 15080516 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Keter L, Too R, Mutai C, Mwikwabe N, Ndwigah S, Orwa J, Mwamburi E. "Bacteria contaminants and their antibiotic sensitivity from selected herbal medicinal products from Eldoret and Mombasa, Kenya." American Journal of Microbiology. 2016;7(1):18-28.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Bacteria contamination of Kale (Brassica Oleracea Acephala) along the value chain in Nairobi and its environs.". In: Eastern Africa Medical Journal. The Kenya Medical Association; 2012. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
Buruchara RA;, Mukunya DM;, Gathuru EM. "Bacterial black spot of mangoes in Kenya."; 1990.
Mukunya DM;, Muthangya PM;, Esele JPE. "Bacterial Blights Of Beans (phaseolus Vulgaris) In Kenya.".; 1981.
Otieno D. Bacterial colonization profile in endo-tracheally intubated patients in the intensive-care unit,Kenyatta National Hospital, and the rationale for antibiotic therapy.; 1994. Abstract

A prospective study on the bacterial colonization profile
of the respiratory tract was carried out on fifty-six (56)
patients admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital, Intensive-
Care unit, and intubated for at least two days. between
January 1992 and March 1993.
During this period, a total number of four hundred and
fifty-eight (458) patients were admitted to the Intensive-
Care Unit. Out of these 25.7% (118) fell within the study
criteria, but only 47.4% of the eligible patients were
actually studied. •
Twenty-nine (29) were male and twenty-seven (27) were
female. The male to female ratio was 1.07:1. The patients'
ages ranged from eight (8) months to eighty (80) years, with
a peak in the 11-20year and another in the 31-40 year age
groups.
There were eight (8) different species of organisms
isolated during the study, most of which were gram-negative
bacilli. The most frequently isolated organism was proteus
29.1% (30) and the least common was enterococcus 3.9% (4).
Out of the fifty-six (56) patients, the colonization
rate was 30.4% (17). trache9-bronch~t~s 33.9% (19), and
pneumonia 35.7% (20). The severity of infection was found to
depend on the severitj .of illness. Of the eleven (11)
patients without organ fail~re, none developed pneumonia,
while 27% (3) had colonization and 73% (8) had tracheo-
bronchitis. There was a total of thirteen (11) uatients with
organ failure invoJving two or more systems; 69.2~ of t~ese
(9) had pneumonia, 30.7~ (4) had tracheo-bronchitis ann none
had colonization.
The duration of intubation varied from ~ to 9~ days in
this study. There was no clear relationship he tween the
duration of intubation and the severity of respiratory
infection. Duration of intubation of less than thirty davs
was associated wit~ 25~ (4) cases of colonization. 100% (19)
of tracheo-bronchitis and 90~ (lA) of uneumonia. Intuhation
for thirty days or more was associated with 75~ (13) cases
of colonization. 10% (2) of pneumonia and no case of
tracheo-bronchitis.
Ceftazidime (Fortum) was found to he the most effective
of the antihiotics tested against the isolated organisms;
100% effective in five (5) out of the eight (8) species
isolated.
Patients with either colonization or tracheo-bronchitis
were found to have a favourable outcome without antibiotics.
Of the 36 patients with either colonization or tracheobronchitis,
83% (30) made good recovery on conservative
management: regular 'chest phvsiotherapy and tracheo-bronchial
suctioning. One developed septicaemia and died despite
antibiotics. The other five died from multiple complications.
Twenty (20) patients diagnosed to have pneumonia were
put on specific antibiotic therapy. Only 16.6% (6) recovered.

Kutto EK, MW N, Njagi L W. "Bacterial contamination of kale (Brassica oleracea acephala) along the supply chains in Nairobi and its environment." East African Medical Journal. 2011;88:46-53. Abstract

46 East African Medical Journal February 2011
East Africa Medical Journal Vol. 88 No. 2 February 2011
BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF KALE (Brassica oleracea Acephala) ALONG THE SUPPLY CHAIN IN
NAIROBI AND ITS ENVIRONMENT
E. Kutto, BSc, MSc, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, M. W. Ngigi, MSc, Department of Agricultural economics, N. Karanja, BSc, MSc, PhD, Department of Land Resource Management and Agricultural Technology, E. Kange’the, Bvm, MSc, PhD, Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, L. C. Bebora, Bvm, MSc, PhD, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi P. O. Box 29052-00625, Kabete Campus, Nairobi, Kenya, C. J. Lagerkvist, BAECON, MAECON, PhD, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences P.O. Box 7013-75007, Uppsala, Sweden, P. G. Mbuthia, Bvm, MSc, FRVCS(Dip. Path), PhD, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, L. W. Njagi, Bvm, MSc, PhD, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology and J. J. Okello, PhD, Department of Agricultural economics, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 29052-00625, Kabete Campus, Nairobi, Kenya Request for reprints to: K. E. Kutto, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Kabete Campus, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 29057-00625, Nairobi, Kenya

BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF KALE (Brassica oleracea Acephala)
ALONG THE SUPPLY CHAIN IN NAIROBI AND ITS ENVIRONMENT
E. K. KUTTO, M. W. NGIGI, N. KARANJA, E. KANGE’THE, L. C. BEBORA, C. J. LAGERKVIST, P. G. MBUTHIA, L. W. NJAGI and J. J. OKELLO
ABSTRACT
Objective: To assess the microbiological safety of kale (Brassica oleracea Acephala)
produced from farms and those sold at the markets with special focus on coliforms,
E.coli and Salmonella.
Design: A cross sectional study.
Setting: Peri-Urban farms (in Athi River, Ngong and Wangige), wet markets (in
Kawangware, Kangemi and Githurai), supermarkets and high-end specialty store
both within Nairobi city.
Results: Mean coliform count on vegetables from farms were 2.6x105 ±5.0x105 cfu/g
while those from the wet markets were 4.6x106 ±9.1x106 cfu/g, supermarkets, 2.6x106
±2.7x106 and high-end specialty store 4.7x105 ±8.9x105. Coliform numbers obtained
on kales from the wet markets and supermarkets were significantly higher (p<0.05)
compared to those from farms, while kale samples purchased from high- end specialty
store had similar levels of coliform loads as those from the farms. E. coli prevalence
in the wet markets, supermarkets and high-end specialty store were: 40, 20 and 20%,
respectively. Salmonella was detected on 4.5 and 6.3% of samples collected from the
farms in Wangige and wet market in Kawangware, respectively. Fecal coliforms in
water used on farms (for irrigation) and in the markets (for washing the vegetables)
exceeded levels recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) of 103 organisms
per 100 milliliter while Salmonella was detected in 12.5% of washing water samples
collected from Kangemi market.
Conclusion: Poor cultivation practices and poor handling of vegetables along the
supply chain could increase the risk of pathogen contamination thus puting the health
of the public at risk, therefore good agricultural and handling practices should be
observed.

Bebora L.C, E K, M N, N K, E K’ethe, C.J L, P.G M, L. N, J.J O. "Bacterial contamination of kale (Brassica oleracea acephala) along the value chain in Nairobi and its environs.". In: 10th African Crop Science Society Conference. Maputo, Mozambique; 2011.2011_-_bacterial_contamination_of_kale_from_farm_and_market.pdf
and Otieno Nicholas, Culhane John CSMCBDRDGKDDJN. Bacterial Endophytes for Improving sustainability of Bioenergy . Hasselt University, Belgium September 11th to 14th, 2012.; 2012.bacterial_endophytes_for_improving_sustainability_of_bioenergy.pdf
O. DROYATSIDONALDP, M. PROFMACHARIAW. "Bacterial isolates in severely malnourished children at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi .". In: East Afr Med J 82:343-48. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2005. Abstract
Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To identify bacterial isolates and determine antibiotic sensitivity pattern in children with severe Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) presenting at the Paediatric Filter Clinic (PFC) of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). DESIGN: Hospital based cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Paediatric Filter Clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), a tertiary level teaching institution for the University of Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Children between two and sixty months presenting at the hospital outpatient filter clinic with severe malnutrition. RESULTS: Ninety-one children, forty six female and forty five males, were recruited for the study. Of these, sixty had Marasmus, twenty Kwashiorkor and eleven Marasmic-Kwashiorkor. HIV serology was positive in 43% of study subjects. There were 30 bacterial isolates from 26 subjects. Ten bacterial isolates were gram positive and twenty gram negative. Isolation rates did not vary by HIV serological status. Twenty one out of the 30 isolates were from blood culture. About 1/3 of the gram positive isolates were coagulase negative staphylococci, largely resistant to commonly used antibiotics such as Erythromycin, Ampicillin, Cotrimoxazole, Chloramphenicol and even Oxacillin. More than half demonstrated resistance to commonly used oral antibiotics while 80% of all gram positive and negative isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin. Aminoglycosides, Gentamicin and Amikacin, and third generation Cephalosporins, Ceftriaxone and Ceftazidime, were found to be effective against most gram-negative isolates. CONCLUSION: Nearly a third (28.9%) of children admitted with severe malnutrition at KNH have concomitant severe bacterial infections; primarily manifesting as bacteraemia. Gram-negative agents are responsible for most severe bacterial infections in children admitted at the KNH, regardless of their HIV serological status. Whenever possible, blood culture should be included in the initial septic screening of severely malnourished children at KNH. In the absence of culture and sensitivity information, ciprofloxacin should be considered among the first line options in the empirical treatment of severe bacterial infections among these children. Clinical trials to further evaluate in-vivo effectiveness of various single or combination antibiotics are recommended. PMID: 16167706 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
KIGERA DRJENIFFERNJERI. "Bacterial vaginosis: risk factors among Kenyan women and their male partners.Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Meier AS, Waiyaki PG, Nguti R, Njeri JN, Holmes KK. Sex Transm Dis. 2006 Jun;33(6):361-7.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2006 Jun;33(6):361-7.; 2006. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To simultaneously examine associations of bacterial vaginosis (BV) with potential risk factors in both the female and her male partner. STUDY DESIGN: We recruited women 18-45 years of age and their male partners from clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. All underwent face-to-face standardized interview physical examination, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and syphilis serologic testing, endocervical cultures for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and vaginal swabs for diagnosis of BV by Gram stain and trichomoniasis by culture. RESULTS: Of 219 women, 97 (44%) had BV. BV was significantly associated by univariate analyses with women's own risk factors (young age, being unmarried, early sexual debut, more than 1 sexual partner, lifetime, rectal sex, trichomoniasis, HIV infection, and by principal components analysis, with low socioeconomic status [SES]) and also with male partners' characteristics (HIV infection, and by principal components analysis, low SES, and poor hygiene). In multivariate analysis including risk factors from both genders, the odds of having BV was 5.7 times higher if either partner was HIV seropositive, 13.2 times higher if the female had trichomoniasis, 2.5 times higher if the female had more than 1 sex partner ever, and decreased with increasing age of the female. CONCLUSION: In this population, characteristics of males and of females were independently associated with BV. Close association of male hygiene and male HIV status precluded distinguishing the influence of male hygiene on partner's BV.

OdongoMahacla, AmbaniAIA. "Bacteriological analysis of bovine milk samples submitted to the Veterinary Research laboratory, Kabete, Kenya between 1981 and 1985." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 1989;37:195-196.
BAARO DRGATHURAPETER. "Bacteriological qualitiendoor and outdoor drinking water in Kibera sublocation of Nairobi, Kenya. East African Medical Journal 79: 271-273.". In: journal. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2002. Abstract
The microbiological quality of ground water (boreholes) and domestic tanks in five locations of Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, was determined. Two boreholes and twelve domestic tanks were sampled from each location. Seven (70%) out of 10 boreholes were contaminated with faecal coliforms. Total bacterial counts ranged from 1 to 6280 per ml of water while the coliform counts ranged from 0 to 161. Out of 70 water samples screened for faecal coliforms, 63 (90%) were positive. Faecal Streptococci were isolated in 71% of the samples.
OBIMBO DRLAMUKAPETER. "Bacteriological Quality of Freshly Processed broiler Chicken as Affected by Carcass Pretreatment and Gamma Irradiation. J. Food Sc. 57:330.". In: Eur J. Biochem. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1992. Abstract
Thymidine kinase is an enzyme involved in DNA precursor metabolism and DNA replication. The synthesis of this enzyme is highly regulated during the cell cycle and the activity of the enzyme is also regulated by feedback inhibition. Genes encoding thymidine kinase have been extremely useful as selectable markers for introducing DNA into a number of cells. In order to study cell cycle regulation of thymidine kinase, the gene which encodes this enzyme, as well as aspects of DNA replication in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila, we have purified thymidine kinase from Tetrahymena. Two forms of thymidine kinase with native molecular masses of 59 kDa and 80 kDa have been identified and purified 6800- and 4600-fold, respectively. The 59-kDa enzyme, a homodimer of 30-kDa subunits, has been purified to near homogeneity and polyclonal antibodies have been raised against the 30-kDa subunit. Serological studies indicate that the two enzymes are antigenically distinct. The antibody against the Tetrahymena protein cross-reacts with a polypeptide in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell extracts of 26 kDa which corresponds to the reported size of Chinese hamster thymidine kinase protein.
OdongoMahacla, BeboraLillyCaroline, KagunyaDavid, KarabaW, MbuthisPG. Bacteriology and Mycology Handbook for Veterinary students.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; In Press.
MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Bacteriology and sensitivity patterns of pyogenic meningitis at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya Wanyoike MN, Waiyaki PG, McLiegeyo SO, Wafula EM.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Oct;72(10):658-60. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1995. Abstract
A descriptive cross sectional study on bacteriology and sensitivity patterns of laboratory-proven pyogenic meningitis was carried out over a six month period. A total of 92 patients (52 adults, 40 children) were studied. In 75 (82%) of the cases, the cerebrospinal fluid cultures were bacteriologically positive. Common isolates included Streptococcus pneumoniae (45%), Neisseria meningitidis (14%) and Haemophilus influenzae (12%). Other isolates included Cryptococcus neoformans from four (4.3%) adults who were also HIV-l positive. Sensitivity to antibiotics was determined using the disk diffusion method. There was no resistance to chloramphenicol among the three most common bacterial isolates. However, 7% and 15% of Streptococcus pneumoniae and N. meningitidis isolates, respectively, were resistant to crystalline penicillin. Twenty seven percent of Haemophilus influenzae was resistant to ampicillin. Sensitivity of the three organisms to the third generation cephalosporin (ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone) a second generation cephalosporin (cefuroxime) and augmentin was almost 100%. We recommend that chloramphenicol and crystalline penicillin or ampicillin be initial blind therapy for adults and older children with pyogenic meningitis and ampicillin and chloramphenicol for pre-school children. The above cephalosporins and augmentin are alternative therapy but their use will be limited by cost.
W. PROFNDUATIRUTH. "Bacteriology of acute septic arthritis. J Trop Pediatr. 1991 Aug;37(4):172-5. Nduati RW, Wamola IA.". In: J Trop Pediatr. 1991 Aug;37(4):172-5. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1991. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of growth and development of institutionalised infants and to compare the outcome with that of infants living with their biological mothers. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Seven children's homes; Kenyatta National Hospital's New Born Unit and Well Baby Clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-two abandoned babies who fulfilled the selection criteria were recruited and for each abandoned baby two mothered babies matched for age and sex were selected from the well baby clinics. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anthropometric measures of weight, length, head circumference and left mid arm circumference (LUMAC) were taken and the mean values and Z scores determined to demonstrate growth pattern and nutritional status of the babies. The Revised Denver Development Screening Test (RDDST) was used to assess the development pattern of infants. RESULTS: Seventy per cent of infants were below six months old and 73% were abandoned within the first week of life. Abandoned babies were significantly thinner with the mean LUMAC of 10.8 cm versus 12.3 cm (p = 0.02) Institutionalised babies were significantly wasted (p = 0.00001) and stunted (p = 0.00001). Abandoned babies were significantly delayed in development (p < 0.0001). In all the four sectors tested for, institutionalised babies showed significant delay, p < 0.0001 in each sector. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that infants under institutional care have poorer growth and development compared to mothered infants. PIP: This cross-sectional study examined the pattern of growth and development of infants in some of the baby institutions in Nairobi and compared the outcome with that of infants living with their biological mothers. The participating institutions included the Kenyatta National Hospital and 7 children's homes within the city. The study recruited 82 abandoned babies aged 1-18 months who had been abandoned for at least 2 weeks. Each abandoned baby was paired with 2 mothered babies matched for age and sex. Anthropometric measures of weight, length, head circumference, and left mid arm circumference (LUMAC) were taken. The mean values and Z scores were determined to assess growth pattern and nutritional status of the babies. The results showed that abandoned babies were significantly thinner, with a mean LUMAC of 10.8 cm vs. 12.3 cm. Moreover, abandoned babies were significantly wasted (p = 0.00001), stunted (p = 0.00001), and delayed in development (p 0.0001). These findings indicate that institutionalized infants have poorer growth and development compared to mothered infants.

MULIMBA JAO. "Bacteriology of Tonsils of Keynyatta National Hospital. E.A.M. J. 57 (4): 252, 1980.". In: E.A.M. J. 57 (4): 252, 1980. Springerlink; 1980. Abstract

It has been the view of the Association of Surgeons of East Africa (ASEA) that, like primary health care, there is primary surgery. The unit of provision of primary surgery is the district hospital. The training of surgeons for district hospitals starts at the undergraduate level, leading to the attainment of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (M.B. Ch.B.) degree. After internship the doctor works in a district or provincial hospital for 2-3 years, then trains for the degree of Master of Medicine (M. Med. (Surg.)) for a period of 3 years. The training involves rotation through all branches of surgery, so that the surgeon should be able to handle all aspects of routine surgery in a district hospital. To equip the surgeon further, a period in an outside setting is considered advisable. There are arrangements for regional surgical colleges to standardise the form of surgical training in the ASEA region. To keep surgeons in touch with the outside world, specialist training is done outside the region, but arrangements are being made for localised specialised units to offer this training.

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Bacteriuria in a cohort of predominantly HIV-1 seropositive female commercial sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya. Ojoo J; Paul J; Batchelor B; Amir M; Kimari J Mwachari C; Bwayo JJ; Plummer F; Gachihi G; Waiyaki P; Gilks C. J Infect. 1996 Jul;33(1):33-7.". In: J Infect. 1996 Jul;33(1):33-7. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1996. Abstract
The factors responsible for the explosive spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be identified and debated. One of the most controversial factors has been male circumcision. This cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the association between circumcision status and infection with HIV-1 among men with genital ulcer disease. Eight hundred and ten men participated in the study, of whom 190 (23%) were HIV-1-positive. A logistic regression model adjusted for behavioral and historical showed that HIV-1 positivity was independently associated with being uncircumcised (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3-7.2) and with a history of urethral discharge (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8). This association could not be explained by measures of sexual exposure to HIV-1 among this population. Male circumcision should be considered as an intervention strategy for AIDS control.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Bacteruria in a cohort of predominantly HIV-1 seropositive female commercial sex workers in Nairobi , Kenya. Ojoo J, Paul J, Batchelor B, Amir M, Kimari J, Mwachari C, Bwayo J.J, Plummer., FA Gachihi G, Waiyaki P, Gilks C. J-Infect. 1996 Jul; 33(1): 33-7.". In: J-Infect. 1996 Jul; 33(1): 33-7. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1996. Abstract
The factors responsible for the explosive spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be identified and debated. One of the most controversial factors has been male circumcision. This cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the association between circumcision status and infection with HIV-1 among men with genital ulcer disease. Eight hundred and ten men participated in the study, of whom 190 (23%) were HIV-1-positive. A logistic regression model adjusted for behavioral and historical showed that HIV-1 positivity was independently associated with being uncircumcised (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3-7.2) and with a history of urethral discharge (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8). This association could not be explained by measures of sexual exposure to HIV-1 among this population. Male circumcision should be considered as an intervention strategy for AIDS control.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana .M.S, J.W. Wakhungu (2002). The development of dairy cattle industry in the medium potential Agro-climatic zones of Kenya.". In: A paper presented at the faculty of vetrinary medicine. Biannual scientific conference at Kabete, Kenya, 7-9/8/2002. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2002.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana .M.S, J.W. Wakhungu (2002). The role of dairy goats in small scale farming areas in Kenya.". In: A paper presented at the faculty of vetrinary medicine. Biannual scientific conference at Kabete, Kenya, 7-9/8/2002. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2002.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M. S., J. D. Sutton, J. D. Oldman and A. Mowlem, (1990). The effect of amount of protein in the concentrates on hay intake and rate of passage, diet digestibility and milk production in British Saanen goats. J. Brit. Soc. Anim. Prod. 51: 333-342.". In: Proceedings of the First Biannual Conference of the African Small Ruminant Network, ILRAD, Nairobi, Kenya; 10-14 December 1990. ILCA (International Livestock Centre for Africa), pp. 505-515. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1990.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S and J.W. Wakhungu (2002). The dairy potential in Rangelands of Kenya: (i) Indegenous cattle and sheep.". In: A paper presented at the scientific confrence of Kenya Veterinary Association, held at Kakamega, Kenya 24- 26/4/2002. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2002.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S and J.W. Wakhungu (2002). The dairy potential in Rangelands of Kenya: (ii) Indegenous camels and goats.". In: A paper presented at the scientific conference of Kenya Veterinary Association, held at Kakamega, Kenya 24- 26/4/2002. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2002.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S, J.W. Wakhungu, Okeyo .A.M, Shaabani .S. (2002). Drought monitoring systems checking the effect of livestock production in the northern region of Kenya: A case study of Isiolo and Wajir districts.". In: A paper presented at the scientific conference of Kenya Veterinary Association, held at Kakamega, Kenya 24-26/4/2002. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2002.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S, J.W. Wakhungu, Okeyo .A.M, Shaabani .S. (2002). Drought monitoring systems checking the effect of livestock production in the northern region of Kenya: A case study of Isiolo and Wajir districts.". In: A paper presented at the scientific conference of Kenya Veterinary Association, held at Kakamega, Kenya 24-26/4/2002. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2002.
OKEYO DRMWAIALFAYO. "Badamana M.S, J.W. Wakhungu, Okeyo .A.M, Shaabani .S. (2002). Drought monitoring systems checking the effect of livestock production in the northern region of Kenya: A case study of Isiolo and Wajir districts.". In: A paper presented at the scientific conference of Kenya Veterinary Association, held at Kakamega,Kenya 24-26/4/2002. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2002. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S. & J.W. Wakhungu (2006): Stratified goat production in the Kenyan rangelands of the proceedings of the FVM 5th Biennial Scientific Conference and distribution, 2006.". In: proceedings of the FVM 5th Biennial Scientific Conference and distribution, 2006. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2006.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S. (1989). Feeding lactating dairy goats. Paper presented to Animal Production Society of Kenya (APSK) symposium held at the Wildlife and Fisheries Training Institute, Naivasha, Nov. 30th to December 1st 1989.". In: Paper presented to Animal Production Society of Kenya (APSK) symposium held at the Wildlife and Fisheries Training Institute, Naivasha, Nov. 30th to December 1st 1989. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1989.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S. (1990). The effect of level of protein in the concentrate on the performance of dairy goats. In: Proceedings of the Eighth SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya 7-8/3/90 pp. 232-236.". In: In: Proceedings of the Eighth SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya 7-8/3/90 pp. 232-236. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1990.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S. (1991) Dairy cattle industry in Kenya. A paper presented in a seminar on vitamin nutrition in livestock, sponsored by H. Oldman La Roche Limited held on 14th .". In: A paper presented in a seminar on vitamin nutrition in livestock, sponsored by H. Oldman La Roche Limited held on 14th . Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1991.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S. (1992). Some factors affecting diet digestibility in goats, Bulls, Anim. Prod. Afr. (1992), 40,267-274.". In: A paper presented to the All African Conference on Animal Agriculture, Nov. 23 . Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1992.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S. and K. Kiugu (1989). The problems associated with feeding experimental animals. Paper presented in the First East African Conference on Laboratory Animals held on 7-10th November, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Paper presented in the First East African Conference on Laboratory Animals held on 7-10th November, Nairobi, Kenya. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1989.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S. and M.M. Wanyoike (1989). The potential of noncommercial feeds in dairy animals. Paper presented at Kenya Vet. Association Annual Conference on 19-21/4/1989, at Kenya Trypanosomiasis Research Institute Muguga.". In: Paper presented at Kenya Vet. Association Annual Conference on 19-21/4/1989, at Kenya Trypanosomiasis Research Institute Muguga. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1989.
W. DRWAKHUNGUJACOB. "Badamana M.S. and Wakhungu J.W. Stratified Goat Production in the Kenyan Rangelands.". In: Proceedings of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine 5th Biennual scientific conference and exhibition 6-8th September, 2006. Department of Public Health. Pharmacology and Toxicology Auditorium, University of Nairobi, Upper Kabete Campus. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2006.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S., (1992). Forage utilization by dairy goats. Bull Anim. Prod. Afri. (1992). 40: 259-266.". In: A paper presented to the All African Conference on Animal Agriculture, Nov. 23 . Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1992.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S., A.N. Said, M.M. Wanyoike and A. Abate (1990). Improving Ruminant Livestock Production in Sedentary smallholder farming systems in Kenya. Paper presented to Pan Commonwealth Veterinary Conference Animal Health and Production 2001 Harare, Int.". In: Paper presented to Pan Commonwealth Veterinary Conference Animal Health and Production 2001 Harare, International Conference on Centre 10-14 September 1990. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1990.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S., J. W. Wakhungu and R.O. Mosi, (2001). Feed budgeting of dairy cattle in the high potential areas of Kenya. A paper presented at a scientific conference of Animal Production Society of Kenya, held at Egerton University, 7-8/3/2001.". In: A paper presented at a scientific conference of Animal Production Society of Kenya, held at Egerton University, 7-8/3/2001. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S., J.W. Wakhungu (2005). The Development of Dairy cattle industry in the medium potential agro-climatic zones of Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian (Submitted).". In: proceedings of the FVM 5th Biennial Scientific Conference and distribution, 2006. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2005.
OKEYO DRMWAIALFAYO. "Badamana M.S., Okeyo A. M. Mahboub M. and Shaban (2001). Drought monitoring systems, indicators, interventions and impacts on livestock production in the Kenya arid and semi-arid lands. A case for Baringo and Samburu districts.". In: A paper presented at the scientific conference of Animal Production society of Kenya, held at Egerton University 7-8/3/2001. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2001. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S., Okeyo A. M. Mahboub M. and Shaban (2001). Drought monitoring systems, indicators, interventions and impacts on livestock production in the Kenya arid and semi-arid lands. A case for Baringo and Samburu districts. A paper presented at the sc.". In: A paper presented at the scientific conference of Animal Production society of Kenya, held at Egerton University 7-8/3/2001. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001.
OKEYO DRMWAIALFAYO. "Badamana S.M., Okeyo A.M., Mahboub M. and Shaabawi S. 2001. Drought monitoring systems: Indicators, Interventions and Impacts on livestock production and in the Kenya arid and semi arid lands: A case for Baringo and Samburu districts.". In: Proc. Annual Animal Production Society of Kenya (APSK Symposium 2001), Held atThe Egerton University, Njoro, Kenya, 7-8 March, 2001. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2001. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana, M. S. and J. D. Oldham, (1984). Factors affecting ration digestibility in goats. A paper presented at the FAO seminar on goat feeding and nutrition, Grangenenve, Switzerland. 16 .". In: A paper presented at the FAO seminar on goat feeding and nutrition, Grangenenve, Switzerland. 16 . Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1984.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana, M.S. (1988). The principle and practice of feeding diary cattle during gestation. A paper presented to Kenya Vet. Association, Annual Scientific Conference held on 21-22 April 1988 at ILRAD .". In: A paper presented to Kenya Vet. Association, Annual Scientific Conference held on 21-22 April 1988 at ILRAD . Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1988.
M. PROFWANYOIKEMARGARETM, GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Badamana, M.S., A.N. Said, M.M. Wanyoike and A. Abate (1990). Improving ruminant livestock production in sedentary smallholder farming systems in Kenya.". In: Paper presented at the 1st Pan-Commonwealth Veterinary Conference held in Harare, Zimbabwe 10th-14th September, 1990. J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 1990. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
M. PROFWANYOIKEMARGARETM, GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Badamana, M.S., A.N. Said, M.M. Wanyoike and A. Abate (1990). Improving ruminant livestock production in sedentary smallholder farming systems in Kenya.". In: Paper presented at the 1st Pan-Commonwealth Veterinary Conference held in Harare, Zimbabwe 10th-14th September, 1990. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1990.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana, M.S., J. W. Wakhungu and R. O. Mosi (2004). Enhanced productivity indexing of goats. Bull Anim. Hlth, Prod. Afr.(2004), 52,31-38.". In: proceedings of the FVM 5th Biennial Scientific Conference and distribution, 2006. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2004.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana, M.S., J.W. Wakhungu (2005). The Development of Dairy Goats in small scale farming areas in Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian (submitted).". In: proceedings of the FVM 5th Biennial Scientific Conference and distribution, 2006. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2005.
O PROFMOSIREUBEN. "Badamana, M.S., J.W.Wakhungu and R.O. Mosi, (2004). Enhanced productivity indexing of goats.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. 52(1), 31-38. Elsevier; 2004. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
W. DRWAKHUNGUJACOB. "Badamana, M.S; Wakhungu, J.W and R.O Mosi. (2004) Enhanced productivity indexing of goats. Bull. Anim. Hlth Prod Afr. 52(1): 31-38.". In: Proceedings of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine 5th Biennual scientific conference and exhibition 6- 8th September, 2006. Department of Public Health. Pharmacology and Toxicology Auditorium, University of Nairobi, Upper Kabete Campus. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2004.
Prof. Wamutiso K. "Bado." An Institute of Kiswahili Research Journal. 2006:38-39.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ, W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Baeten JM, Benki S, Chohan V, Lavreys L, McClelland RS, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Jaoko W, Overbaugh J.Hormonal contraceptive use, herpes simplex virus infection, and risk of HIV-1 acquisition among Kenyan women.AIDS. 2007 Aug 20;21(13):1771-7.". In: AIDS. 2007 Aug 20;21(13):1771-7. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2007. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Studies of the effect of hormonal contraceptive use on the risk of HIV-1 acquisition have generated conflicting results. A recent study from Uganda and Zimbabwe found that women using hormonal contraception were at increased risk for HIV-1 if they were seronegative for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), but not if they were HSV-2 seropositive. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of HSV-2 infection on the relationship between hormonal contraception and HIV-1 in a high-risk population. Hormonal contraception has previously been associated with increased HIV-1 risk in this population. METHODS: Data were from a prospective cohort study of 1206 HIV-1 seronegative sex workers from Mombasa, Kenya who were followed monthly. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to adjust for demographic and behavioral measures and incident sexually transmitted diseases. RESULTS:: Two hundred and thirty-three women acquired HIV-1 (8.7/100 person-years). HSV-2 prevalence (81%) and incidence (25.4/100 person-years) were high. In multivariate analysis, including adjustment for HSV-2, HIV-1 acquisition was associated with use of oral contraceptive pills [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.46; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00-2.13] and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (adjusted HR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.28-2.34). The effect of contraception on HIV-1 susceptibility did not differ significantly between HSV-2 seronegative versus seropositive women. HSV-2 infection was associated with elevated HIV-1 risk (adjusted HR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.64-7.82). CONCLUSIONS: In this group of high-risk African women, hormonal contraception and HSV-2 infection were both associated with increased risk for HIV-1 acquisition. HIV-1 risk associated with hormonal contraceptive use was not related to HSV-2 serostatus.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ, W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Baeten JM, Benki S, Chohan V, Lavreys L, McClelland RS, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Jaoko W, Overbaugh J.Hormonal contraceptive use, herpes simplex virus infection, and risk of HIV-1 acquisition among Kenyan women.AIDS. 2007 Aug 20;21(13):1771-7.". In: AIDS. 2007 Aug 20;21(13):1771-7. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstracthormonal_contraceptive_use.dochormonal_contraceptive_use.pdf

BACKGROUND: Studies of the effect of hormonal contraceptive use on the risk of HIV-1 acquisition have generated conflicting results. A recent study from Uganda and Zimbabwe found that women using hormonal contraception were at increased risk for HIV-1 if they were seronegative for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), but not if they were HSV-2 seropositive. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of HSV-2 infection on the relationship between hormonal contraception and HIV-1 in a high-risk population. Hormonal contraception has previously been associated with increased HIV-1 risk in this population. METHODS: Data were from a prospective cohort study of 1206 HIV-1 seronegative sex workers from Mombasa, Kenya who were followed monthly. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to adjust for demographic and behavioral measures and incident sexually transmitted diseases. RESULTS:: Two hundred and thirty-three women acquired HIV-1 (8.7/100 person-years). HSV-2 prevalence (81%) and incidence (25.4/100 person-years) were high. In multivariate analysis, including adjustment for HSV-2, HIV-1 acquisition was associated with use of oral contraceptive pills [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.46; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00-2.13] and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (adjusted HR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.28-2.34). The effect of contraception on HIV-1 susceptibility did not differ significantly between HSV-2 seronegative versus seropositive women. HSV-2 infection was associated with elevated HIV-1 risk (adjusted HR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.64-7.82). CONCLUSIONS: In this group of high-risk African women, hormonal contraception and HSV-2 infection were both associated with increased risk for HIV-1 acquisition. HIV-1 risk associated with hormonal contraceptive use was not related to HSV-2 serostatus.

W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Baeten JM, Chohan B, Lavreys L, Chohan V, McClelland RS, Certain L, Mandaliya K, Jaoko W, Overbaugh J.HIV-1 subtype D infection is associated with faster disease progression than subtype A in spite of similar plasma HIV-1 loads.J Infect Dis. 2007 Apr 15;1.". In: J Infect Dis. 2007 Apr 15;195(8):1177-80. Epub 2007 Mar 2. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2007. Abstract
We investigated the effect of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype on disease progression among 145 Kenyan women followed from the time of HIV-1 acquisition. Compared with those infected with subtype A, women infected with subtype D had higher mortality (hazard ratio, 2.3 [95% confidence interval, 1.0-5.6]) and a faster rate of CD4 cell count decline (P=.003). The mortality risk persisted after adjustment for plasma HIV-1 load. There were no differences in plasma viral load by HIV-1 subtype during follow-up. HIV-1 subtype D infection is associated with a >2-fold higher risk of death than subtype A infection, in spite of similar plasma HIV-1 loads.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Baeten JM, Chohan B, Lavreys L, Chohan V, McClelland RS, Certain L, Mandaliya K, Jaoko W, Overbaugh J.HIV-1 subtype D infection is associated with faster disease progression than subtype A in spite of similar plasma HIV-1 loads.J Infect Dis. 2007 Apr 15;1.". In: J Infect Dis. 2007 Apr 15;195(8):1177-80. Epub 2007 Mar 2. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2007. Abstract
We investigated the effect of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype on disease progression among 145 Kenyan women followed from the time of HIV-1 acquisition. Compared with those infected with subtype A, women infected with subtype D had higher mortality (hazard ratio, 2.3 [95% confidence interval, 1.0-5.6]) and a faster rate of CD4 cell count decline (P=.003). The mortality risk persisted after adjustment for plasma HIV-1 load. There were no differences in plasma viral load by HIV-1 subtype during follow-up. HIV-1 subtype D infection is associated with a >2-fold higher risk of death than subtype A infection, in spite of similar plasma HIV-1 loads.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Baeten JM, Hassan WM, Chohan V, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Jaoko W & McClelland RS (2009) Prospective study of correlates of vaginal Lactobacillus colonization among high-risk HIV-1 seronegative women. Sexually Transmitted Infections 85.". In: UoN research meeting. Sexually Transmitted Infections 85(5): 348-53; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Baeten JM, Hassan WM, Chohan V, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Jaoko W & McClelland RS (2009) Prospective study of correlates of vaginal Lactobacillus colonization among high-risk HIV-1 seronegative women. Sexually Transmitted Infections 85.". In: Beverage among the Abagusii of Western Kenya. Sexually Transmitted Infections 85(5): 348-53; 2009. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Baeten JM, Lavreys L, Sagar M, Kreiss JK, Richardson BA, Chohan B, Panteleeff D, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Overbaugh J, Farley T, Mwachari C, Cohen C, Chipato T, Jaisamrarn U, Kiriwat O, Duerr A.Effect of contraceptive methods on natural history of H.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Mar;38 Suppl 1:S18-21. IBIMA Publishing; 2005. Abstracteffect_of_contraceptive_methods_on_natural_history_of_h.doceffect_of_contraceptive_methods_on_natural_history_of_h.pdf

OBJECTIVE: To develop a standard procedure for male circumcision in a resource-poor medical setting and prospectively evaluate the outcome in a randomized, controlled trial with the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the main outcome, as studies suggest that circumcision is associated with a lower incidence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in high-risk populations. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Healthy, uncircumcised, HIV-seronegative men aged 18-24 years from Kisumu District, Kenya, were offered participation in a clinical trial using a standard circumcision procedure based on "usual" medical procedures in Western Kenya. The follow-up included visits at 3, 8 and 30 days after circumcision, with additional visits if necessary. Healing, satisfaction and resumption of activities were assessed at these visits and 3 months from randomization. RESULTS: Overall, 17 (3.5%) of the 479 circumcisions were associated with adverse events judged definitely, probably or possibly related to the procedure. The most common adverse events were wound infections (1.3%), bleeding (0.8%), and delayed wound healing or suture line disruption (0.8%). After 30 days, 99% of participants reported being very satisfied with the procedure; approximately 23% reported having had sex and 15% reported that their partners had expressed an opinion, all of whom were very satisfied with the outcome. About 96% of the men resumed normal general activities within the first week after the procedure. CONCLUSION: Safe and acceptable adult male circumcision services can be delivered in developing countries should male circumcision ultimately be advocated as a public-health measure.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Baeten JM, McClelland RS, Richardson BA, Bankson DD, Lavreys L, Wener MH, Overbaugh J, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK.Vitamin A deficiency and the acute phase response among HIV-1-infected and -uninfected women in Kenya.J Acquir Immune.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002 Oct 1;31(2):243-9. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
Among HIV-1-infected individuals, vitamin A deficiency has been associated with faster disease progression and greater infectivity in observational studies, but randomized clinical trials have shown no effect of vitamin A supplementation. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 400 HIV-1-infected and 200 HIV-1-uninfected women in Mombasa, Kenya to examine the relations between vitamin A deficiency (serum retinol <30 microg/dL) and HIV-1 status, HIV-1 disease stage, and the acute phase response (serum C-reactive protein >or=10 mg/L and/or alpha1-acid glycoprotein >or=1.2 g/L). Among the HIV-1-infected women, the effect of vitamin A supplementation was examined in a randomized trial. Vitamin A deficiency was independently associated with HIV-1 infection (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.9-4.0) and the acute phase response (OR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.9-4.1). Among HIV-1-infected women, vitamin A deficiency and the acute phase response were associated with each other and were both independently associated with higher HIV-1 plasma viral load and lower CD4 count. HIV-1-infected women having an acute phase response had no increase in serum vitamin A levels after supplementation. Serum levels increased significantly among women without an acute phase response, although not to normal levels among women who were deficient at baseline. Among HIV-1-infected individuals, it is likely that low serum vitamin A concentrations reflect more active infection and the acute phase response. These results provide possible explanations for the disparity between observational studies and randomized trials of vitamin A for HIV-1 infection.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Baeten JM, Mostad SB, Hughes MP, Overbaugh J, Bankson DD, Mandaliya K, Ndinya- Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK. Selenium deficiency is associated with shedding of HIV-1 infected cells in the female genital tract. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2001;26:360-4.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2001;26:360-4. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between selenium deficiency and vaginal or cervical shedding of HIV-1-infected cells. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 318 HIV-1 seropositive women in Mombasa, Kenya. METHODS: Vaginal and cervical swab specimens were tested for the presence of HIV-1 DNA by polymerase chain reaction. Multivariate logistic regression models, adjusting for CD4 count and vitamin A deficiency, were used. RESULTS: Selenium deficiency (defined as levels <85 microg/L) was observed in 11% of the study population. In unstratified multivariate analyses, there was no significant association between selenium deficiency and vaginal or cervical shedding. In stratified analyses, however, significant associations became apparent after excluding women with predictors of shedding with strong local effects on the genital tract mucosa. Among women who did not use oral contraceptives and who did not have vaginal candidiasis, selenium deficiency was significantly associated with vaginal shedding (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0–8.8
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Baeten JM, Nyange PM, Richardson BA, Lavreys L, ChohanB, Martin HL Jr, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK. Hormonal contraception and risk of sexually transmitted disease acquisition: results from a prospective study. Am J obstet Gynecol 2001.". In: Am J obstet Gynecol 2001; 185:380-5. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between use of oral contraceptive pills or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and sexually transmitted disease acquisition. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort included 948 Kenyan prostitutes. Multivariate Andersen-Gill proportional hazards models were constructed, adjusting for sexual behavioral and demographic variables. RESULTS: When compared with women who were using no contraception, users of oral contraceptive pills were at increased risk for acquisition of chlamydia (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.9) and vaginal candidiasis (hazard ratio, 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.9) and at decreased risk for bacterial vaginosis (hazard ratio, 0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.0). Women using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate had significantly increased risk of chlamydia infection (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.4) and significantly decreased risk of bacterial vaginosis (hazard ratio, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.5-0.8), trichomoniasis (hazard ratio, 0.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.0), and pelvic inflammatory disease (hazard ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.7). Consistent condom use was associated with significantly decreased risk of gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital ulcer disease, bacterial vaginosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. CONCLUSIONS: The use of oral or injectable hormonal contraception altered susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases, which may in turn influence transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Consistent condom use was protective with regards to sexually transmitted disease and should be encouraged for the prevention of sexually transmitted disease and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 among women who use hormonal contraception.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Baeten JM, Richardson BA, Martin HL Jr, Nyange PM, Lavreys L, Ngugi EN, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK.Trends in HIV-1 incidence in a cohort of prostitutes in Kenya: implications for HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials.J Acquir Immune Defic .". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000 Aug 15;24(5):458-64. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Accurate predictions of HIV-1 incidence in potential study populations are essential for designing HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials. Little information is available on the estimated incidence of HIV-1 in such populations, especially information on incidence over time and incidence while participating in risk-reduction programs. OBJECTIVES: To examine time trends in HIV-1 incidence in a vaccine preparedness cohort. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of female prostitutes in Mombasa, Kenya. METHODS: HIV-1 incidence was determined using open and closed cohort designs. Generalized estimating equations were used to model HIV-1 and sexually transmitted disease (STD) incidence and sexual risk behaviors over time. RESULTS: When analyzed as a closed cohort, HIV-1 incidence declined 10-fold during 3 years of follow-up (from 17.4 to 1.7 cases/100 person-years; p <.001). More than 50% of the cases of HIV-1 occurred during the first 6 months after enrollment, and 73% during the first 12 months. When analyzed as an open cohort, HIV-1 incidence density fell during the first 4 calendar years, influenced by accumulation of lower risk participants and variations in study recruitment. Significant declines occurred in both STD incidence and high-risk sexual behaviors during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This study documents a dramatic decline in the risk of HIV-1 infection while participating in a prospective cohort, with most seroconversions occurring within 1 year of enrollment. Variations in HIV-1 incidence within high-risk populations should be anticipated during the design of vaccine trials.
Williams N, Bulstrode C, O'Connell RP. Bailey 's {Short} {Practice} of {Surgery}. London; 2004. Abstract
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O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Bailey RC, Moses S, Parker CB, Agot K, Maclean I, Krieger JN, Williams CF, Campbell RT, Ndinya-Achola JO.Male circumcision for HIV prevention in young men in Kisumu, Kenya: a randomised controlled trial.Lancet. 2007 Feb 24;369(9562):643-56.". In: Lancet. 2007 Feb 24;369(9562):643-56. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstractmale_circumcision_for_hiv_prevention_in_young_men_in_kisumu_kenya_a_randomised_controlled_trial.docmale_circumcision_for_hiv_prevention_in_young_men_in_kisumu_kenya_a_randomised_controlled_trial.pdf

BACKGROUND: Male circumcision could provide substantial protection against acquisition of HIV-1 infection. Our aim was to determine whether male circumcision had a protective effect against HIV infection, and to assess safety and changes in sexual behaviour related to this intervention. METHODS: We did a randomised controlled trial of 2784 men aged 18-24 years in Kisumu, Kenya. Men were randomly assigned to an intervention group (circumcision; n=1391) or a control group (delayed circumcision, 1393), and assessed by HIV testing, medical examinations, and behavioural interviews during follow-ups at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. HIV seroincidence was estimated in an intention-to-treat analysis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, with the number NCT00059371. FINDINGS: The trial was stopped early on December 12, 2006, after a third interim analysis reviewed by the data and safety monitoring board. The median length of follow-up was 24 months. Follow-up for HIV status was incomplete for 240 (8.6%) participants. 22 men in the intervention group and 47 in the control group had tested positive for HIV when the study was stopped. The 2-year HIV incidence was 2.1% (95% CI 1.2-3.0) in the circumcision group and 4.2% (3.0-5.4) in the control group (p=0.0065); the relative risk of HIV infection in circumcised men was 0.47 (0.28-0.78), which corresponds to a reduction in the risk of acquiring an HIV infection of 53% (22-72). Adjusting for non-adherence to treatment and excluding four men found to be seropositive at enrollment, the protective effect of circumcision was 60% (32-77). Adverse events related to the intervention (21 events in 1.5% of those circumcised) resolved quickly. No behavioural risk compensation after circumcision was observed. INTERPRETATION: Male circumcision significantly reduces the risk of HIV acquisition in young men in Africa. Where appropriate, voluntary, safe, and affordable circumcision services should be integrated with other HIV preventive interventions and provided as expeditiously as possible.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Bal C, Longkumer T, Patel C, Gupta SD, Acharya SK.Renal function and structure in subacute hepatic failure.J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000 Nov;15(11):1318-24.". In: J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000 Nov;15(11):1318-24. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2000. Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Subacute hepatic failure (SHF) is a fatal complicaton of acute viral hepatitis. Renal failure has been implicated as the main cause of death in this disease. However, renal functional and structural evaluation in such patients have not been performed. The present prospective study evaluated the renal functional and structural abnormalities in patients with subacute hepatic failure. METHODS: Fourteen consecutive patients with SHF, 11 with acute liver failure (ALF) and 15 with cirrhosis of the liver (Child's B or C) were included in the present study. All 40 patients had liver disease caused by hepatitis viruses. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) estimations were measured in all patients by the use of technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and [131I]-labeled ortho-iodohippuric acid, respectively. Ante-mortem or post-mortem liver biopsies were performed in all patients. In three patients with SHF, post-mortem kidney biopsies were also performed. RESULTS: Thirty six percent (5/14) of patients with SHF, 18% (2/11) of patients with ALF and 20% (3/15) of patients with cirrhosis had renal failure. Seven patients with SHF, seven with ALF and nine with cirrhosis died. All the patients with renal failure in each of the three groups were among the deceased patients. Glomerular function was markedly affected among patients with SHF, which was shown by significantly higher (P < 0.05) proteinuria levels (0.367 +/- 0.38 g/24 h) compared to levels in patients with ALF (0.178 +/- 0.11 g/24 h) and cirrhosis (0.212 +/- 0.133 g/24 h). The GFR in SHF (56 +/- 27 mL/min per 1.73 m2) and cirrhotic patients (58 +/- 36 mL/min per 1.73 m2) was significantly lower compared to those in ALF patients (102 +/- 51 mL/min per 1.73 m2; P < 0.05). A significantly higher proportion (P < 0.05) of patients with SHF and cirrhosis (64 and 73%, respectively) had a GFR below 80 mL/min per 1.73 m2 compared to patients with ALF (18%). The GFR value among the deceased SHF patients (46 +/- 26 mL/min per 1.73 m2) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those SHF patients who survived (65 +/- 25 mL/min per 1.73 m2). However, similar features could not be documented among patients with ALF or cirrhosis. Subtle structural changes in the glomerulus were also noted in patients with SHF. These included mesangial proliferation and thickening, basal membrane thickening and increased cellularity with interstitial edema. The ERPF was markedly reduced (P = 0.058) among patients with SHF (347 +/- 131 mL/min per 1.73 m2) and cirrhosis (395 +/- 137 mL/min per 1.73 m2) in comparison to ERPF documented among patients with ALF (436 +/- 217 mL/min per 1.73 m2). Such a reduction in renal tubular blood flow, along with histologic documentation of hyaline presence, bile and grannular cast in the tubule, indicated a possible tubular dysfunction in patients with SHF. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that glomerular and tubular dysfunction with subtle structural abnormalities does occur in patients with SHF. These are similar to renal changes in cirrhosis and may have similar pathogenetic mechanisms that require further evaluation.

IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The Balance of Payment Adjustment Process.". In: A Report for the UNDP/UNCTAD. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1974. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
Asingo PO. "Balancing Political and Religious Allegiances: The Impact of Political Cross-pressures of Kenya's 2010 Constitutional Referendum." Hekima: Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences. 2014;VI(1):6-25.
Ndiritu A, Chandi R, RUGENDO CAROLINE. "Balancing work and study: A necessity for successful Distance Learning.". In: 2nd AFRICE International Conference .; 2015. Abstract

ABSTRACT
As the country re- evaluates the achievement of Millennium goals, it becomes important for Kenya to take its toll. One of the intentions was to increase gross enrolment rate in higher education. The projection was to increase the number of students joining the universities to 450,000 by end of 2015 from 130,000 in 2008. This number was to be increased through expansion of courses done through distance education. The targeted population was of those already in employment. This group has to be able to balance the demands of their workplace and their social demands for the back to school agenda to be achieved. The university of Nairobi school of continuing and distance education runs a course in distance education. However It has been noted that among the students who sit for university exams, many do not score 40% which is a minimum score for students to progress to the next level. The failure rate goes up to 63% with 27% out of 38% cases scoring below 40%, which is a very high failure rate. This failure rate prohibits students from graduating. it is worth finding out the cause of this failure rate. This study was carried out to find out if distance learners had a problem managing their time given the demands of the same among competing ends. An effort was also made to find out if this problem had an effect on their academic performance. From a total number of 4500 of students from the University of Nairobi in different levels of their B.Ed degrees, a sample of 650 students were selected using stratified random sampling technique .Data was collected using a mixed mode method and analyzed using Pearson correlations. The findings indicated a strong relationship between time management and academic performance (r=0.569)
Key words : work study balance, distance education, time management, Academic performance

J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Baliraine FN, Bonizzoni M, Guglielmino CR, Osir EO, Lux SA, Mulaa FJ, Gomulski LM, Zheng L, Quilici S, Gasperi G, Malacrida AR.Population genetics of the potentially invasive African fruit fly species, Ceratitis rosa and Ceratitis fasciventris (Diptera: T.". In: Mol Ecol. 2004 Mar;13(3):683-95. Springerlink; 2004. Abstract
A set of 10 microsatellite markers was used to survey the levels of genetic variability and to analyse the genetic aspects of the population dynamics of two potentially invasive pest fruit fly species, Ceratitis rosa and C. fasciventris, in Africa. The loci were derived from the closely related species, C. capitata. The degree of microsatellite polymorphism in C. rosa and C. fasciventris was extensive and comparable to that of C. capitata. In C. rosa, the evolution of microsatellite polymorphism in its distribution area reflects the colonization history of this species. The mainland populations are more polymorphic than the island populations. Low levels of differentiation were found within the Africa mainland area, while greater levels of differentiation affect the islands. Ceratitis fasciventris is a central-east African species. The microsatellite data over the Uganda/Kenya spatial scale suggest a recent expansion and possibly continuing gene flow within this area. The microsatellite variability data from C. rosa and C. fasciventris, together with those of C. capitata, support the hypothesis of an east African origin of the Ceratitis spp.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Baliraine FN, Bonizzoni M, Osir EO, Lux SA, Mulaa FJ, Zheng L, Gomulski LM, Gasperi G, Malacrida AR.Comparative analysis of microsatellite loci in four fruit fly species 6 of the genus Ceratitis (Diptera: Tephritidae). Bull Entomol Res. 2003 Feb;93(1):1-1.". In: Bull Entomol Res. 2003 Feb;93(1):1-10. Springerlink; 2003. Abstract
The possibility to cross-species amplify microsatellites in fruit flies of the genus Ceratitis was tested with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by analysing 23 Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) microsatellite markers on the genomic DNA of three other economically important, congeneric species: C. rosa (Karsch), C. fasciventris (Bezzi) and C. cosyra (Walker). Twenty-two primer pairs produced amplification products in at least one of the three species tested. The majority of the products were similar, if not identical in size to those expected in C. capitata. The structures of the repeat motifs and their flanking sequences were examined for a total of 79 alleles from the three species. Sequence analysis revealed the same repeat type as the homologous C. capitata microsatellites in the majority of the loci, suggesting their utility for population analysis across the species range. A total of seven loci were differentially present/absent in C. capitata, C. rosa, C. fasciventris and C. cosyra, suggesting that it may be possible to differentiate these four species using a simple sequence repeat-based PCR assay. It is proposed that medfly-based microsatellite markers could be utilized in the identification and tracing of the geographical origins of colonist pest populations of the four tested species and in the assessment of their risk and invasive potentials; thereby assisting regulatory authorities in implementing quarantine restrictions and other pest control measures.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Baltzer H, Chege D, Rebbapragada A, Wachihi C, Shin LYY, Kimani J, Ball TB, Jaoko W, Plummer FA & Kaul R (2009) Relative HIV resistance Kenyan sex workers is not due to an altered prevalence or mucosal immune impact of herpes simplex virus type 2 infectio.". In: UoN research meeting. Current HIV Research 7(5):504-7; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Baltzer H, Chege D, Rebbapragada A, Wachihi C, Shin LYY, Kimani J, Ball TB, Jaoko W, Plummer FA & Kaul R (2009) Relative HIV resistance Kenyan sex workers is not due to an altered prevalence or mucosal immune impact of herpes simplex virus type 2 infectio.". In: Beverage among the Abagusii of Western Kenya. Current HIV Research 7(5):504-7; 2009. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "BAMFORD, O.S. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1980) Energy metabolism and heart rate during treadmill exercise in the marabou stork. Journal of Applied Physiology 49, 491-496.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1980. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
WINFRED DR MWANGI. "Ban on Transfer of Land: The Genesis, Good and the Bad." Land and Property Digest. Vol. 3, July 2004 (2004).
Kakoi, Kaluli NT’o. "Banana pith as a natural coagulant for polluted river wate." Ecological Engineering. 2016;95:699-705.
Kanyinga K. "Bananas and Oranges: Ethnicity and Failed Constitutional Reform in Kenya.". In: Debating Form and Substance in Africa's New Governance Models . Kampala: Fountain Publishers ; 2007.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Bancroftian filariasis in Kwale District of Kenya: I clinical and parasitological survey in an endemic community. Estambale BBA, Simonsen PE, Knight R, Bwayo JJ. Annals of Tropical Medicine 1994,88:145-151.". In: Annals of Tropical Medicine 1994,88:145-151. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1994. Abstract
The factors responsible for the explosive spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be identified and debated. One of the most controversial factors has been male circumcision. This cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the association between circumcision status and infection with HIV-1 among men with genital ulcer disease. Eight hundred and ten men participated in the study, of whom 190 (23%) were HIV-1-positive. A logistic regression model adjusted for behavioral and historical showed that HIV-1 positivity was independently associated with being uncircumcised (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3-7.2) and with a history of urethral discharge (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8). This association could not be explained by measures of sexual exposure to HIV-1 among this population. Male circumcision should be considered as an intervention strategy for AIDS control.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Bancroftian filariasis in Kwale district of Kenya: II Humoral immune responses to filarial antigens in selected individuals from endemic community. Estambale BBA, Simonsen Vennervald BJ, Knight R, Bwayo JJ. Annals of Tropical Medicine 1994;88:153-161.". In: Annals of Tropical Medicine 1994;88:153-161. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1994. Abstract
The factors responsible for the explosive spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be identified and debated. One of the most controversial factors has been male circumcision. This cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the association between circumcision status and infection with HIV-1 among men with genital ulcer disease. Eight hundred and ten men participated in the study, of whom 190 (23%) were HIV-1-positive. A logistic regression model adjusted for behavioral and historical showed that HIV-1 positivity was independently associated with being uncircumcised (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3-7.2) and with a history of urethral discharge (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8). This association could not be explained by measures of sexual exposure to HIV-1 among this population. Male circumcision should be considered as an intervention strategy for AIDS control.
and S. J. Ndombi, S. M. Njenga MKMMFAMGIY. "Bancroftian filariasis in Kwale district, Kenya. ." East African Medical Journal. 2000;77(5):245-249.
Connerley E;, Nathan I;, Schroeder L. Bangladesh Rural and Feeder Roads Sector Assessment.; 1989.
M MRSKITHINJIANGELA. "Bank Loan Recovery Agency: Kenya Case-Critical Issues for Consideration,.". In: The Professional Journal of KASNEB, Issue No.4,. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 2003. Abstract
Fourteen patients received oral premedication of temazepam in soft gelatin capsules before minor surgery. The plasma concentrations of temazepam and its sedative, anxiolytic and amnesic effects were measured for 24 hours. Absorption was rapid and peak concentrations occurred 49 minutes after administration. Clinical effects were evident at 30 minutes and persisted for about 4 hours. The decline in plasma concentration was biexponential with a distribution half-life of 1.24 hours. The end of the distribution phase coincided approximately with the termination of its clinical effects. A relationship between plasma concentration and effect was observed; concentrations above 300 ng/ml produced measurable changes in tests of mental function. Patients had recovered fully from the effects of temazepam after 24 hours. This dose of temazepam is reliable and effective as premedication before surgery
Iminza NW, L GW, Kiragu ND. "BANK SIZE AND OCCUPATIONAL FRAUD RISK: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM COMMERCIAL BANKS IN KENYA.". 2015;1(1):1-10. Abstract

Association of Certified Fraud Examiners report that a typical organization loses at least 5% its annual revenue loss through occupational fraud. Further statistics indicate In a list of 22 industry categories, occupational fraud risk is highest in commercial banks than any other industry globally. Occupational fraud risk is therefore a global problem. The problem is that Kenya has the highest incidences of fraud is East Africa and that this vice continue to erode investors and the overall financial intermediation role of commercial banks. In Kenya, fraud contributes to 31.5% of the deterrents of global competitiveness. The study set to determine the effect of bank size on occupational fraud risk in commercial banks in Kenya. A representative sample of 30 banks out of the 43 commercial banks licensed by Central Bank of Kenya by June 30, 2012 was used in this study. Bivariate linear regression was used to test the null hypothesis; there is no relationship between bank size and occupational fraud risk in commercial banks in Kenya. The findings from this study are, a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.97 for the stimulus variable, a positive correlation of r=0.518 between bank size and occupational fraud risk. In addition the study reports a significant 26.8% influence of bank size on occupational fraud risk in commercial banks in Kenya. These results provide insights into the deterrent and management of occupational frauds in Kenya and similar developing countries.

Kithinji AM. "BANK SIZE AS A MODERATING FACTOR ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BANK RESTRUCTURING AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN KENYA ." International Journal of Business Management and Economic Review. 2018;5(1):298-307. Abstractdr._angela_kithinji_publications_2018_to_2019_1.pdf

ABSTRACT
The main goal of this research was to examine how bank size moderates the relationship between
bank restructuring and financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya. This study
employed descriptive research design. The study was a census of all the 44 commercial banks in
Kenya which were in operation as at 31st December 2014. This research collected secondary
data gotten from banks annual report for the period of ranging from 2002 to 2014. The regression
analysis model was used to estimate the moderating effect of size on the relationship between
bank restructuring and profitability. The study established that moderation of the relationship
between bank restructuring and financial performance using bank size was not significantly
influenced by financial restructuring, operational restructuring and asset restructuring on
financial performance of commercial banks. However, when bank restructuring variables were
interacted with bank size the findings are that only capital restructuring had a significant
interaction. It was therefore, concluded that bank size therefore moderates the relationship
between bank restructuring and financial performance. The study recommends that there is need
to institute policy reforms geared towards increasing the size of banks either internally by
increasing their asset size or through mergers to expand their size. The regulator can also embark
on setting a minimum size threshold with a view to significantly reducing the number of banks
which would translate into the remaining ones becoming larger. Furthermore, there is need for
commercial banks to strike a balance between enhancing their operations through operational
restructuring or improving profits by focusing on aspects that have a direct positive effect on
profits.

Keyword: Bank Size, Bank Restructuring, Financial Performance, Commercial Banks

AOSA E. "'Banking in Kenya: An Industry at Crossroads?".". In: Banking Times. Volume 2. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract

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Gichuki N. Banking Law: Cases and Materials.; Forthcoming.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Baptist, R. and M.S. Badamana (1990). Productivity assessment with many interacting components traits. In: Proceedings of the Eighth SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi Kenya 7-8/3/90 pp. 207-215.". In: In: Proceedings of the Eighth SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi Kenya 7-8/3/90 pp. 207-215. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1990.
W. MK. "Bara Jingine (A Collection of Poems)." Marimba Publications Ltd., Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
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MBERIA PROFKITHAKAWA. ""Bara Jingine" (poem) In writers forum 1:58-60.". In: Proc.7th SR-CRSP workshop, ILRAD, Nairobi, Kenya. 27th to 28th Feb, 1989. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1992. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
Kanyinga K. "Barack Obama visit was not by accident; China is just but an illusion." Daily Nation, August 15, 2015.
W DRGACHUKIDAVID. "Bargaining for Technology: Some Kenyan Experience. Paper read at West Africa Technology Policy Meeting held at Njala University Campus, Sierra Lone, April 1-4.". In: J. Social Med. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1984. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
R. PROFMUSIMBANASHONK, M PROFNYARIKIDICKSON. "Bariagabre, S.A. R.K, Ngugi, N.R. Musimba and D.M Nyakiri (2004). Chemical composition and feed value of spiny and spineless Cacti (opuntia) to livestock. Bull Anim. Health production in Africa, 198-202.". In: Geology, Geochemistry and Economic Mineral Potential. Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal, 147 pp. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2004. Abstract
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MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD. "Barigira, B.G. and E.M. Mathu (1994).". In: Proceedings of the International Geological Field Conference held in the Mozambique Orogenic Belt in East Africa, Arusha, Tanzania (1994). IGCP Project 348 (ABSTRACT). Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract

Tala Quarrry in African Geoscience Review Vol. 9 Number 4 pp. 385-396.  

O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J. O., 2003. SGL 104 : Geostatistics,.". In: Lecture Notes for 1st Year Bed. (Science) by Distance Learning, 155 pp. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2003. Abstract
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O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O. and Nyambok, I.O., 1990. Earthquakes and their measurements,.". In: Geophysical 56, 133-138. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1990. Abstract
Science News 2, 125-132.
O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O., 1977. Magnetic model theory in the analysis of vertical gradient anomalies, M.Sc. thesis,.". In: Queen. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1977. Abstract
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O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O., 1983. Geophysical investigations for kimberlite pipes in the greenstone belt of western Kenya.". In: Journal of African Earth Sciences 1, 235-253. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1983. Abstract
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O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O., 1984. Euler.". In: Geophysics 49, 1549-1553. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1984. Abstract
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O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O., 1985. Spectral analysis of the vertical gradient of the total magnetic field anomalies due to two-dimensional dykes,.". In: Kenya Journal of Science and Technology Series A, 6(1), 49-58. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1985. Abstract
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O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O., 1987 Geophysical detection of mineral conductors in tropical terrains with target conductors partly embedded in the conductive overburden,.". In: Geophysical Prospecting 35, 568-589. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1987. Abstract
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O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O., 1989. Application of ground resistivity and airborne electromagnetic methods to geological mapping in tropical terrains,.". In: Ph.D. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, PQ, Canada. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1989. Abstract
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O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O., 1996. Studies of Geoelectric Structure Beneath Eburru Geothermal Region, Rift Valley.". In: Kenya, Research Report for National Council of Science and Technology, Project No. NCST/SEC/4400.343, 55p. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1996. Abstract
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O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O., 1999. Selection of a appropriate model for the interpretation of time-domain airborne electromagnetic data for geological mapping,.". In: Exploration Geophysics 29, 107-110. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1999. Abstract
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O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O., Method for depth estimation on aeromagnetic vertical gradient anomalies.". In: Geophysics 50, 963-968. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1985. Abstract
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M. PROFKYAMBIJ. "Barrack SM, Kyambi JM, Ndungu J, Wachira N, Anangwe G, Safwat S.Intestinal atresia and stenosis as seen and treated at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 1993 Sep;70(9):558-64.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Sep;70(9):558-64. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1993. Abstract

In this retrospective study carried out covering the period, 1978-1991, 62 neonates were seen, diagnosed and treated for intestinal atresia which included: duodenal atresia and stenosis, small bowel atresia and atresia of large bowel. Locations of obstruction were duodenal in 17 patients, jejunal in 25 patients, jejuno-ileal in 5 and colon in two. Duodenal atresia was noted in 9 infants and duodenal stenosis due to annular pancreas, Ladd's bands with malrotation of bowel in 8. Associated anomalies which were observed were anorectal malformations in 2 and malrotation in 2 infants. Birth weights ranged from 1450 gm to 3000 gm. Prematurity was recorded in 11 infants. Diagnosis of intestinal atresia in our patients was made clinically and radiologically. Intestinal atresia in neonates was differentiated from other causes of obstruction such as Meconium Ileus, Hirschsprung's disease, neonatal volvulus, rectal atresia in anorectal malformations. Treatment of infants with intestinal atresia was surgical. Surgical techniques used depended on pathological findings. In 36 patients, complications such as functional obstructions with vomiting and failure to thrive, malabsorption, aspiration, bronchopneumonia, sepsis were observed. Overall mortality rate in our cases was 25 (41.9%) out of 62 patients.

MAGDALENE DROPONDOMARY. "Barrientos, S., Opondo, M. and Smith, S., (2005), .". In: The Journal of Corporate Citizenship - Special Issue of on Corporate Citizenship in Africa, Issue 18, Summer 2005, pp. 87-92. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract

Four hundred and forty-six children attending nursery schools in Nairobi were examined for caries and gingivitis. Assessment of social class was based on the occupation of the head of the child's household. Amongst 3-year-old children, 62% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.35. Amongst 5-year-olds 50% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.88. Thirty-seven per cent of the children had evidence of gingivitis, with the proportion changing little with age. There was no evidence of either caries or gingivitis being significantly related to social class, although children in the higher classes had more filled teeth.

MAGDALENE DROPONDOMARY. "Barrientos, S., Opondo, M. and Smith, S., (2005), .". In: The Journal of Corporate Citizenship - Special Issue of on Corporate Citizenship in Africa, Issue 18, Summer 2005, pp. 87-92. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract

Four hundred and forty-six children attending nursery schools in Nairobi were examined for caries and gingivitis. Assessment of social class was based on the occupation of the head of the child's household. Amongst 3-year-old children, 62% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.35. Amongst 5-year-olds 50% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.88. Thirty-seven per cent of the children had evidence of gingivitis, with the proportion changing little with age. There was no evidence of either caries or gingivitis being significantly related to social class, although children in the higher classes had more filled teeth.

MAGDALENE DROPONDOMARY. "Barrientos, S., Opondo, M. and Smith, S., (2005), .". In: Participation in the Kenya Cut Flower Industry. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract

Four hundred and forty-six children attending nursery schools in Nairobi were examined for caries and gingivitis. Assessment of social class was based on the occupation of the head of the child's household. Amongst 3-year-old children, 62% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.35. Amongst 5-year-olds 50% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.88. Thirty-seven per cent of the children had evidence of gingivitis, with the proportion changing little with age. There was no evidence of either caries or gingivitis being significantly related to social class, although children in the higher classes had more filled teeth.

Mbithi LM. "Barriers Faced by Women - Owned Businesses: Voices of East African women entrepreneurs." Journal of African Women Studies Centre. Vol. 1.. 2013.
Guthrie BL, Choi RY, Liu AY, Mackelprang RD, Rositch AF, Bosire R, Manyara L, Gatuguta A, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "Barriers to antiretroviral initiation in HIV-1-discordant couples." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2011;58(3):e87-93. Abstract

In Kenya and much of sub-Saharan Africa, nearly half of all couples affected by HIV are discordant. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) slows disease progression in HIV-1-infected individuals and reduces transmission to uninfected partners. We examined time to ART initiation and factors associated with delayed initiation in HIV-1-discordant couples in Nairobi.

Githui SN, Chege M, Wagoro MCA, Mwaura J. "Barriers to Screening Pregnant Women for Domestic Violence: A Cross- Sectional Study." Journal of Community and Public Health Nursing.Comm Pub Health Nurs 2018. 2018;4(10.4172/2471-9846.1000207).
Dorothy McCormick, Ongile G, Pedersen O. "Barriers to Small Firm Growth: Evidence from Nairobi's Garment Industry.". In: Flexibility and Networking in an African Context. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1996. Abstract

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