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T E, M B, N.W P, S A, J A, G E, S H, C H, R H, O K, J N, D O, E O, N O, M.E.M S, M S, E.-J S, C.-F W, G Y, M Z, Q Z, M.S A-D, K A, G A, D B, D B-G, V B, L.K O,, J.N Kiiru, et al. "Drug discovery and biopiracy of natural products" ." Phytomedicine. 2016;Elsevier(23(2)):166-173.efferth_et_al._2016.pdf
T O, M E. "Religiosity and Hybrid Identity: Contradictions and Ambiguities in the Obama and Othello Persona." International Journal of Foreign Studies. 2017;9(1):1-17.
T A, L O, I O, I O, J O’o. "Anatomical Pattern of Dorsal Metatarsal Arteries in a black Kenyan Population." J Morphol Sci. 2019. Abstract

Introduction Knowledge of anatomical variations in the origin and in the course of the dorsal metatarsal arteries (DMTAs) is valuable for many procedures, including reconstructive surgeries and flap selection. However, there is a paucity of data on these arteries among black Africans. Materials and Methods The present study studied the origin and the location of DMTAs in 30 formalin-fixed cadaveric feet of adult black Kenyans at the Department of Human Anatomy of the University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. Results Dorsal metatarsal arteries were present in all of the cases. Of the right dorsalis pedis artery (DPA), in the majority of the cases, the 1st DMTA arose as the continuation of the DPA, while the 2nd to 4th DMTAs were given off as branches from the arcuate artery (AA). On the left feet, in the majority of the cases, the 1st DMTA arose as the continuation of the DPA, while the rest were given off as branches from the AA. In relation to the dorsal interossei muscles, all of the the arteries were either within the muscle fibers (53%) or beneath them (47%), on the right side. On the left side, the 1st DMTA was above the muscles in 40% of the cases; within the muscles in 53%; and beneath the muscles in 7%. The 2nd and 3rd DMTAs were above the muscles in 57% and in 53% of the cases, respectively. Conclusion These results reveal that the DMTAs show variation in their origin and position relative to the dorsal interossei muscles. These variations display bilateral asymmetry.

T D, I G, F P, A G, Mumo M, Holleran J, Duffy S, Fitzpatrick PA, Heydenreich M, G L, S D, Avery V, Rissanen K, Erdélyi M, A Y. "Rotenoids, Flavonoids, and Chalcones from the Root Bark of Millettia usaramensis." J Nat Prod. 2015;78(12):2932-9. Abstract

J Nat Prod. 2015 Dec 24;78(12):2932-9. doi: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.5b00581. Epub 2015 Dec 14.
Rotenoids, Flavonoids, and Chalcones from the Root Bark of Millettia usaramensis.
Deyou T1, Gumula I1, Pang F2, Gruhonjic A, Mumo M1, Holleran J3, Duffy S3, Fitzpatrick PA, Heydenreich M4, Landberg G, Derese S1, Avery V3, Rissanen K2, Erdélyi M, Yenesew A1.
Author information
Abstract
Five new compounds, 4-O-geranylisoliquiritigenin (1), 12-dihydrousararotenoid B (2), 12-dihydrousararotenoid C (3), 4'-O-geranyl-7-hydroxyflavanone (4), and 4'-O-geranyl-7-hydroxydihydroflavanol (5), along with 12 known natural products (6-17) were isolated from the CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the root bark of Millettia usaramensis ssp. usaramensis by chromatographic separation. The purified metabolites were identified by NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses, whereas their absolute configurations were established on the basis of chiroptical data and in some cases also by X-ray crystallography. The crude extract was moderately active (IC50 = 11.63 μg/mL) against the ER-negative MDB-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line, and accordingly compounds 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, and 16 also showed moderate to low cytotoxic activities (IC50 25.7-207.2 μM). The new natural product 1 exhibited antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 3.7 and 5.3 μM against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 and the chloroquine-resistant Dd2 Plasmodium falciparum strains, respectively, and was also cytotoxic to the HEK293 cell line.

T O, L M. "“Language Learning Catastrophe? Crisis and Impediments in the Free Primary Education (FPE) in Kenya” ." International Journal of Science Arts and Commerce.. 2017;2(10):38-48.
T O, A K. "“The Triplex Mundus as a Global Trope in Euphrase Kezilahabi’s Rosa Mistika.” .". In: Contemporary African Societies and Cultures. Seoul: Dahae Publishing Co.Ltd; 2017.
T L, C S-K, CF O, G W. "Glycated albumin and glycated haemoglobin levels as a measure of monitoring glycaemic control in diabetic patients attending out-patient clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital: a comparative study." East African Journal of Pathology. 2015;2(1):25-29. Abstractglycated_albumin_and_glycated_haemoglobin_levels_as_a_measure_of_monitoring_glycaemic_control_in_diabetic_patients_attending_out-patient_clinic_at_kenyatta_national_hospital.pdf

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disease that is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. Monitoring of glycaemic control ir individuals with DM is currently done by a combination of short term, that is daily monitoring of blood glucose and long term biochemical tests especially glycatec haemoglobin(HbA1c) which is done every 2-4 months. Glycated albumin (GA) is a new test for intermediate glycaemic control. It measures averaged plasma gluCOSE level over two to four weeks. This enables closer monitoring and evaluation ot treatment regimen faster than HbAlc.
Objectives: To compare glycated haemoglobin to glycated albumin levels as a measure of monitoring glycaemic control in diabetic patients.
Design: A prospective comparative study.
Methods: The study was carried out on diabetic patients attending the diabetic clinic
at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Results: A total of 260 patients were enrolled into the study. The mean age was 52 years with a standard deviation of 12.3. There was a female preponderance of 60.4%, Random blood sugar analysis showed that, the population with good glycaemic control constituted 156 (60%). Majority of the patients had good glycaemic control 170 (65.4%) based on the HbAlc assay, compared to 39.4% in GA.There was a good correlation between HbAlc and glycated albumin with R2value of 0.64.
Conclusion: More patients showed good glycaemic control based on HbAlc compared to glycated albumin. There was correlation between .HbAlc and glycated albumin with R2 value of 0.64. There is need to introduce glycated albumin as a method of intermediate glycaemic control in the hospital.

T-S F, M. DRGUANTAIERIC, M. N, et al. "Effects of highly active novel artemisinin–chloroquinoline hybrid compounds on β-hematin formation, parasite morphology and endocytosis in Plasmodium falciparum. ." Biochem. Pharmacol. . 2011;82 :236-247. Abstract

4-Aminoquinolines were hybridized with artemisinin and 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives via the Ugi four-component condensation reaction, and their biological activities investigated. The artemisinin-containing compounds 6a–c and its salt 6c-citrate were the most active target compounds in the antiplasmodial assays. However, despite the potent in vitro activities, they also displayed cytotoxicity against a mammalian cell-line, and had lower therapeutic indices than chloroquine. Morphological changes in parasites treated with these artemisinin-containing hybrid compounds were similar to those observed after addition of artemisinin. These hybrid compounds appeared to share mechanism(s) of action with both chloroquine and artemisinin: they exhibited potent b-hematin inhibitory activities; they caused an increase in accumulation of hemoglobin within the parasites that was intermediate between the increase observed with artesunate and chloroquine; and they also appeared to inhibit endocytosis as suggested by the decrease in the number of transport vesicles in the parasites. No cross-resistance with chloroquine was observed for these hybrid compounds, despite the fact that they contained the chloroquinoline moiety. The hybridization strategy therefore appeared to be borrowing the best from both classes of antimalarials.

T-S. F, M. DRGUANTAIERIC, M. N, et al. "Antiplasmodial and antitumor activity of dihydroartemisinin analogs derived via the aza-Michael addition reaction." Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.. 2011;21 :2882-2886. Abstract

A series of dihydroartemisinin derivatives were synthesized via an aza-Michael addition reaction to a dihydroartemisinin-based acrylate and were evaluated for antiplasmodial and antitumor activity. The target compounds showed excellent antiplasmodial activity, with dihydroartemisinin derivatives 5, 7, 9 and 13 exhibiting IC50 values of 610 nM against both D10 and Dd2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Derivative 4d was the most active against the HeLa cancer cell line, with an IC50 of 0.37 lM and the highest tumor specificity.

T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (1995). The need for auxiliaries in oral health care.Medicus 14:3-8.". In: Medicus 14:3-8. African Meteorological Society; 1995. Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitude of Nairobi University students towards dental health care in Kenya. A self administered questionnaire given to 400 students in person who responded and handed them over immediately. The students had a mean age of 22.4 years, 45.3% were males and 54.5% were females. Extractions, restorations and replacement of teeth were known to majority of the students. However, almost half of the students preferred extraction to restoration and 49.2% considered restoration of deciduous teeth unnecessary. 79% indicated that they would undergo scaling. It is therefore recommended that an effective mode of transmitting positive information about various dental treatment modalities be established.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (1993) Dental Scaling: Patients fears. Africa Health July issue PP.21-23.". In: Africa Health July issue PP.21-23. African Meteorological Society; 1993. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, College of Health Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya. Traditionally, diseases that affect the periodontium have over the years been referred to as periodontal disease. This implies that these diseases are a single disease entity or only one disease, "periodontal disease," affects the periodontium. To date, dental literature is replete with several diseases that affect the periodontium. Most of these diseases exhibit unique bacteriological, immunological, biochemical and clinical features. It is these characteristics that qualify them to be regarded as individual or different disease entities. Biased by these recent reports on distinct diseases that affect the periodontium, several dental authors have written articles where they have preferred the term "periodontal diseases" to "periodontal disease," when discussing and reporting on the diseases that affect the periodontium. This paper suggests and discusses the reasons why scientists have continued to use the term periodontal disease and presents arguments why this terminology is inappropriate. It is suggested that the term "periodontal disease" be replaced by the term "periodontal diseases".
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T (1988). Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis .". In: The Nairobi University Journal of Dentistry 4:7-4. African Meteorological Society; 1988. Abstract

Department of Peridontology & Preventive Dentistry, Guy's Hospital Dental School, UMDS, London, UK. Bone loss in chronic periodontitis was assessed from panoramic radiographs by direct measurement from the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) and by measuring the proportion of the tooth length supported by bone. Mesial and distal bone levels of all available teeth were assessed for 50 patients aged 30-39 years referred for periodontal treatment. 85% and 74% of surfaces were measurable by the proportional and direct techniques, respectively. 27% of surfaces had no bone loss according to the proportional score, whereas 22% had a CEJ to alveolar bone distance of less than 2 mm. In addition, over half the surfaces with a proportional bone loss score of zero had a CEJ to alveolar bone distance of 2 mm or more, and for each proportional bone loss score, there was considerable overlap in the CEJ to alveolar bone distances recorded. The validity of the CEJ to alveolar bone measurements was established by comparison with direct measurements at periodontal surgery. The results support the use of direct measurement from the CEJ to alveolar bone rather than the assessment of the proportion of the tooth length within the bone when investigating bone loss from panoramic radiographs. This population of 30-40-year-old periodontal patients had a mean of 50% of sites with a CEJ to alveolar bone distance of 3 mm or more, and at such sites, there was a mean additional bone loss of 2.1 mm.

T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (1984). The prognostic value of pus exudation from periodontal pockets. East African Medical Journal 61:791-792.". In: East African Medical Journal 61:791-792. African Meteorological Society; 1984. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 4042945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (1996). Prevention of cross-infection in dental surgeries in East Africa and a review of literature. West Indian Dental Journal 3:46-48.". In: West Indian Dental Journal 3:46-48. African Meteorological Society; 1996. Abstract
A survey of 272 University of Nairobi undergraduate students was undertaken to assess their dental chairside experience and what reasons they gave for failing to seek dental treatment. Most respondents considered dental treatment uncomfortable and painful. The cost of treatment and fear arising from information given by other dental patients were important reasons that kept the respondents from visiting a dental clinic. This paper reveals the need for the dental profession to play a greater role in reducing costs of treatment and odontophobia.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (1993). Inappropriateness of the term .". In: Indian Journal of Dental Research 4:81-89. African Meteorological Society; 1993. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, College of Health Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya. Traditionally, diseases that affect the periodontium have over the years been referred to as periodontal disease. This implies that these diseases are a single disease entity or only one disease, "periodontal disease," affects the periodontium. To date, dental literature is replete with several diseases that affect the periodontium. Most of these diseases exhibit unique bacteriological, immunological, biochemical and clinical features. It is these characteristics that qualify them to be regarded as individual or different disease entities. Biased by these recent reports on distinct diseases that affect the periodontium, several dental authors have written articles where they have preferred the term "periodontal diseases" to "periodontal disease," when discussing and reporting on the diseases that affect the periodontium. This paper suggests and discusses the reasons why scientists have continued to use the term periodontal disease and presents arguments why this terminology is inappropriate. It is suggested that the term "periodontal disease" be replaced by the term "periodontal diseases".
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T., Sachdeva, P. and Patel, S. (1988) Causes of tooth mortality at the Dental Unit of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.Odontostomatol Trop. 1988 Mar;11(1):17-20.". In: Odontostomatol Trop. 1988 Mar;11(1):17-20. African Meteorological Society; 1988. Abstract

Department of Peridontology & Preventive Dentistry, Guy's Hospital Dental School, UMDS, London, UK. Bone loss in chronic periodontitis was assessed from panoramic radiographs by direct measurement from the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) and by measuring the proportion of the tooth length supported by bone. Mesial and distal bone levels of all available teeth were assessed for 50 patients aged 30-39 years referred for periodontal treatment. 85% and 74% of surfaces were measurable by the proportional and direct techniques, respectively. 27% of surfaces had no bone loss according to the proportional score, whereas 22% had a CEJ to alveolar bone distance of less than 2 mm. In addition, over half the surfaces with a proportional bone loss score of zero had a CEJ to alveolar bone distance of 2 mm or more, and for each proportional bone loss score, there was considerable overlap in the CEJ to alveolar bone distances recorded. The validity of the CEJ to alveolar bone measurements was established by comparison with direct measurements at periodontal surgery. The results support the use of direct measurement from the CEJ to alveolar bone rather than the assessment of the proportion of the tooth length within the bone when investigating bone loss from panoramic radiographs. This population of 30-40-year-old periodontal patients had a mean of 50% of sites with a CEJ to alveolar bone distance of 3 mm or more, and at such sites, there was a mean additional bone loss of 2.1 mm.

T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (1985). Motivation, a must for all dental patients. Medicus 4:2-5.". In: Medicus 4:2-5. African Meteorological Society; 1985. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 3333346 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (1996). The need for a thorough intra-oral examination of all patients. Afya 30:9-11.". In: Afya 30:9-11. African Meteorological Society; 1996. Abstract
A survey of 272 University of Nairobi undergraduate students was undertaken to assess their dental chairside experience and what reasons they gave for failing to seek dental treatment. Most respondents considered dental treatment uncomfortable and painful. The cost of treatment and fear arising from information given by other dental patients were important reasons that kept the respondents from visiting a dental clinic. This paper reveals the need for the dental profession to play a greater role in reducing costs of treatment and odontophobia.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. Karongo, P. and Ocholla T.J. (1993). Radiological findings in edentulous Kenyan Patients. East African Medical Journal 70:179-181.". In: East African Medical Journal 70:179-181. African Meteorological Society; 1993. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, Dental School, College of Health Sciences, Nairobi. Seven hundred and seventy five files of edentulous patients seen at the Department of Dental Surgery, University of Nairobi were scrutinized for the presence or absence of routine radiographs prior to treatment. 180 (23.2%) had radiographs. 26% of the radiographs had 51 positive radiological findings. 17.3% were roots, 3.9% were unerupted teeth, 6.7% were radiopacities and 0.6% were radiolucencies. 52.9% of the radiological findings were in the mandible and 47.1% were in the maxilla. In the mandible, 44.4% of the radiological findings were in the anterior region and 55.6% were found posteriorly. 66.7% of the maxillary radiological findings were in the anterior region and 33.3% were found posteriorly. Since some of the positive radiological findings such as the retained roots and unerupted teeth might lead to infection, cysts or poor dentures fit, it is recommended that whenever possible, all edentulous patients be examined radiographically prior to treatment.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T (1989). Diet, Nutrition and Oral Health. East African Medical Journal 66:565 .". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Sep;66(9):565-6. African Meteorological Society; 1989. Abstract
Two hundred and thirty one miraa chewers and 199 non miraa chewers were assessed for gingivitis, loss of attachment and oral hygiene status. The mean gingivitis score among miraa chewers was 1.6 and 1.7 among non miraa chewers (P less than 0.05). The mean facial gingivitis score among miraa chewers was 1.5 and 1.6 among non miraa chewers (P greater than 0.05). The mean distal gingivitis score among miraa chewers was 1.5 and 1.7 among non miraa chewers (P less than 0.05). The mean lingual gingivitis score among miraa chewers was lower than that of non miraa chewers (P less than 0.05). The means of loss of attachment of the teeth of miraa chewers were equal to those of non miraa chewers. Although the mean surface plaque scores of miraa chewers were generally lower than those of non miraa chewers, only the mean lingual plaque score of miraa chewers was found to be significantly lower than that of non miraa chewers (P less than 0.05). It is concluded that the oral hygiene status of miraa chewers was generally better than that of non miraa chewers and there was no evidence to show that chewing miraa is detrimental to periodontal health.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (1985). The origins of bad breathe (fetor oris) from the oral cavity and its management. East African Medical Journal 62:360-362.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 May;62(5):360-2. African Meteorological Society; 1985. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 3333346 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Ngakinya N.M., Ngotho, B.N., Kariuki, H.N., and Kaimenyi, J.T. (1997). Periodontal health status of patients attending diabetic clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Indian Journal of Dental Research 8:105-114.". In: Indian Journal of Dental Research 8:105-114. African Meteorological Society; 1997. Abstract
The periodontal health status of diabetic patients and the association between periodontal disease and treatment mode, age and duration of diabetes were investigated in 86 dentulous men and women aged between 20 years and 69 years. 43 were diabetics regularly controlled at Kenyatta National Hospital Diabetic Clinic and 43 were non-diabetics attending medical outpatient clinic at the same hospital for minor ailments. Diabetic patients were found to have significant severer levels of periodontal disease than the non-diabetics. The difference persisted with increasing age. No correlation was found between treatment mode and duration of diabetes on one hand and the severity of periodontal disease on the other.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi JT, Guthua SW, Wakiaga J, Kisumbi B.Utilization of dental auxiliaries in private dental surgeries in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1994 Dec;71(12):811-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Dec;71(12):811-5. African Meteorological Society; 1994. Abstract
This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Ndung.". In: East African Medical Journal 67:907-911. African Meteorological Society; 1990. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, College of Health Sciences, Nairobi. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of a chewing stick and a tooth brush in plaque control. The study composed of two groups of 11 and 8 children aged 13 to 16 years who were randomly selected from a peri-urban school near Nairobi. Results showed that, except for the participants with moderate amounts of plaque, the net changes in the mean number of surfaces with a given plaque score were more when the participants were using a toothbrush than when they were using a chewing stick. For the group of participants who started using a chewing stick before they changed to the toothbrush, there were no significant net changes in the mean number of surfaces with a given plaque score except for those surfaces which had mild plaque deposits. It is concluded that for the patients with severe plaque deposits, the toothbrush is more efficacious than the chewing stick in plaque control. However, for those patients with moderate plaque deposits, the chewing stick is as efficacious as the toothbrush in plaque control.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T., and Ashley, F.P. (1986). Assessment of bone loss in chronic periodontitis from panoramic radiographs. Abstract. Journal of Dental Research 65: 501.". In: Journal of Dental Research 65: 501. African Meteorological Society; 1986. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 3333346 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (1983). Oral hygiene practices and attitudes to dental health care in Kenya. Medicus 3:11,12,16 and 22.". In: Medicus 3:11,12,16 and 22. African Meteorological Society; 1983. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. M, J.M. N. "Strategy for Water Resources Management in Relation to Climate Change Impacts and Adaptations." presentation in the Hydropredict 2010 20-23 September 2010, Prague, Czech Republic.; 2010. Abstract
n/a
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T., Guthua, S.W, Wakiaga, J. and Kisumbi, B. (1994). Utilization of dental auxiliaries in private and dental surgeries in Kenya. East African Medical Journal 71:811-815.". In: East African Medical Journal 71:811-815. African Meteorological Society; 1994. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Jorgensen, E, and Kaimenyi, J.T. (1991). The effects of chewing miraa (Catha Edulis) on teeth. Pharmaceutical Journal of Kenya 3:115-117.". In: Pharmaceutical Journal of Kenya 3:115-117. African Meteorological Society; 1991. Abstract
The oral hygiene habits and dental health awareness of 541 Kenyan children from a peri-urban and urban school and aged 9-15 years, were investigated. 80.2% of the urban children and 43.1% of the peri-urban children had visited a dentist before. 12.4% of the urban children and 9.2% of the peri-urban children knew that bacteria cause dental caries. Over 87% of the children from either school knew that dental caries and periodontitis can be prevented. The main reason for visiting a dentist was to have tooth extraction. Failure to brush teeth was believed to be the cause of gingival bleeding by 38.9% of the peri-urban children and 37.6% of the urban children. 67.2% of the peri-urban children and 39.5% of the urban children brushed their teeth thrice daily. 21.1% of the peri-urban children and 2% of the urban children used a chewing stick to brush their teeth. More urban children (96.5%) used a toothbrush than peri-urban children (64.8%). None of the children from either school admitted using traditional cleaning aids such as the finger and charcoal. It is concluded that there were no consistent differences in oral hygiene habits and dental health awareness between peri-urban and urban children.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T and Wagaiyu, E.G. and Ndung.". In: East African Medical Journal 64:624-627. African Meteorological Society; 1987. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 3249689 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (1983). The role of fluoride in the prevention of periodontal disease. Proceedings of the International Conference on Fluorides and Dental Health. PP:67-74. 22nd .". In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Fluorides and Dental Health. PP:67-74. 22nd . African Meteorological Society; 1983. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (1988). Occurrence of midline diastema and frenum attachments amongst school children in Nairobi, Kenya. Indian Journal of Dental Research 9:67-71.". In: Indian Journal of Dental Research 9:67-71. African Meteorological Society; 1999. Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of midline diastema, tongue tie and frenum attachments amongst school children in Nairobi. A total of 1802 children aged between 4 and 16 years were selected randomly using multistage sampling technique. To avoid oversampling in either sex, a proportionate sampling procedure was used. Thereafter, a thorough intra-oral examination was carried out using a mouth mirror under artificial or natural light with the children lying on a supine position. Presence or absence of midline interdental spaces unusually bigger than other interdental spaces were noted and recorded on a prepared dateacollection form. Accurate location of the origin of the frenum was done using Placek et al Morphological-functional classification of the labial frenum attachments. Data was analyzed manually by tally method. Results showed that 35% had upper and lower midline diastema. 55% were females and 45% were males. Their mean age was 7.6 years. 0.2% had a high lingual frenum. The commonest location of frenum attachment amongst children with lower midline diastema was the mucogingival junction (86%) whereas amongst those with upper midline diastema it was attached gingiva (50%). None of the children had frenum attachment on the interdental papilla. It was concluded that the maxilla had a higher prevalence of midline diastema than the mandible and that papillary penetrating frenum attachments amongst these patients were higher in the maxilla than the mandible.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (1995). Prerequisites for formulating an oral health policy. Medicus 14:10-15.". In: Medicus 14:10-15. African Meteorological Society; 1995. Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitude of Nairobi University students towards dental health care in Kenya. A self administered questionnaire given to 400 students in person who responded and handed them over immediately. The students had a mean age of 22.4 years, 45.3% were males and 54.5% were females. Extractions, restorations and replacement of teeth were known to majority of the students. However, almost half of the students preferred extraction to restoration and 49.2% considered restoration of deciduous teeth unnecessary. 79% indicated that they would undergo scaling. It is therefore recommended that an effective mode of transmitting positive information about various dental treatment modalities be established.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi JT.Inappropriateness of the term "periodontal disease". Indian J Dent Res. 1993 Jul-Dec;4(3-4):81-9.". In: Indian J Dent Res. 1993 Jul-Dec;4(3-4):81-9. African Meteorological Society; 1993. Abstract
Traditionally, diseases that affect the periodontium have over the years been referred to as periodontal disease. This implies that these diseases are a single disease entity or only one disease, "periodontal disease," affects the periodontium. To date, dental literature is replete with several diseases that affect the periodontium. Most of these diseases exhibit unique bacteriological, immunological, biochemical and clinical features. It is these characteristics that qualify them to be regarded as individual or different disease entities. Biased by these recent reports on distinct diseases that affect the periodontium, several dental authors have written articles where they have preferred the term "periodontal diseases" to "periodontal disease," when discussing and reporting on the diseases that affect the periodontium. This paper suggests and discusses the reasons why scientists have continued to use the term periodontal disease and presents arguments why this terminology is inappropriate. It is suggested that the term "periodontal disease" be replaced by the term "periodontal diseases".
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Opinya G.N., Kaimenyi, J.T and Meme J.S. (1988). Oral findings in Fanconi.". In: J Periodontol. 1988 Jul;59(7):461-3. African Meteorological Society; 1988. Abstract

Dental School, College of Health Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya, Africa. A case of fanconi's anemia was referred to the Dental School from the Department of Pediatrics. The patient was a 24-year-old male and a product of a consanguineous marriage. His chief complaint was loose and falling teeth, which has started at the age of 16 years. The first teeth to fall out were the first permanent molars followed by mandibular and maxillary anteriors. General examination showed that the patient was of normal intelligence and small for his age. He had no palmar plantar hyperkeratosis and was not diabetic. A total of 19 teeth remained in the mouth, most of them with grade three mobility. The remaining molars and first maxillary premolars had grade three furcation involvement. Most of the teeth had periodontal pockets more than 10 mm deep. Full mouth intraoral periapical radiographs and orthopantomographic views showed severe horizontal bone loss uncommensurate with the patient's age. In view of the patient's history and severe bone loss at an early age, the diagnosis was juvenile periodontitis associated with Fanconi's anemia.

T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (1984).Gingivitis during pregnancy and its management. Kenya Dental Association Newsletter 1:9-11.". In: Kenya Dental Association Newsletter 1:9-11. African Meteorological Society; 1984. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 4042945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, JT. (2004) Oral Health in Kenya. International Dental Journal 54: 378-382.". In: International Dental Journal 54: 378-382. African Meteorological Society; 2004. Abstract
This paper gives general information on the location of Kenya, its demography, economy, organisation of health services, general health policy, health financing, oral health infrastructure, problems that hamper health financing and proposals on how to solve these problems. Further, a summary of health status of the Kenyan people is given based on the results of studies. The mean DMFT for the rural and urban populations is low and there is no evidence of an increase or decrease. Similarly, the prevalence of periodontitis is low (1-10%), with no increase. Ulcerative lesions are rare (0.12%). The most common birth defects are cleft lip and palate. Oral cancer is very low, accounting for 2% of all malignancies. Comparative studies have not demonstrated any dramatic change in the frequency of oral cancer for the last 25 years. Oral candidiasis is the most prevalent oral lesion amongst HIV/AIDS patients. In June 2003, Kenya formulated a National Oral Health Policy, which gives direction on how to improve the oral health status of the citizens.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kisumbi, B.K., Kaimenyi, J.T. and Wakiaga, J.M. (1995). Knowledge on treatment modalities and attitude of Nairobi University Students towards dental care. Indian Journal of Dental Research 6:133-136.". In: Indian Journal of Dental Research 6:133-136. African Meteorological Society; 1995. Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitude of Nairobi University students towards dental health care in Kenya. A self administered questionnaire given to 400 students in person who responded and handed them over immediately. The students had a mean age of 22.4 years, 45.3% were males and 54.5% were females. Extractions, restorations and replacement of teeth were known to majority of the students. However, almost half of the students preferred extraction to restoration and 49.2% considered restoration of deciduous teeth unnecessary. 79% indicated that they would undergo scaling. It is therefore recommended that an effective mode of transmitting positive information about various dental treatment modalities be established.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (1993). Oral Hygiene and dental health. East African Medical Journal 70:65.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Feb;70(2):65-6. African Meteorological Society; 1993. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, College of Health Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya. Traditionally, diseases that affect the periodontium have over the years been referred to as periodontal disease. This implies that these diseases are a single disease entity or only one disease, "periodontal disease," affects the periodontium. To date, dental literature is replete with several diseases that affect the periodontium. Most of these diseases exhibit unique bacteriological, immunological, biochemical and clinical features. It is these characteristics that qualify them to be regarded as individual or different disease entities. Biased by these recent reports on distinct diseases that affect the periodontium, several dental authors have written articles where they have preferred the term "periodontal diseases" to "periodontal disease," when discussing and reporting on the diseases that affect the periodontium. This paper suggests and discusses the reasons why scientists have continued to use the term periodontal disease and presents arguments why this terminology is inappropriate. It is suggested that the term "periodontal disease" be replaced by the term "periodontal diseases".
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T and Muthami L.N. (1988) Dentists view on the use of tropical forms of fluorides in Kenya. Pharmaceutical Journal of Kenya 1:82 .". In: Pharmaceutical Journal of Kenya 1:82 . African Meteorological Society; 1988. Abstract

Department of Peridontology & Preventive Dentistry, Guy's Hospital Dental School, UMDS, London, UK. Bone loss in chronic periodontitis was assessed from panoramic radiographs by direct measurement from the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) and by measuring the proportion of the tooth length supported by bone. Mesial and distal bone levels of all available teeth were assessed for 50 patients aged 30-39 years referred for periodontal treatment. 85% and 74% of surfaces were measurable by the proportional and direct techniques, respectively. 27% of surfaces had no bone loss according to the proportional score, whereas 22% had a CEJ to alveolar bone distance of less than 2 mm. In addition, over half the surfaces with a proportional bone loss score of zero had a CEJ to alveolar bone distance of 2 mm or more, and for each proportional bone loss score, there was considerable overlap in the CEJ to alveolar bone distances recorded. The validity of the CEJ to alveolar bone measurements was established by comparison with direct measurements at periodontal surgery. The results support the use of direct measurement from the CEJ to alveolar bone rather than the assessment of the proportion of the tooth length within the bone when investigating bone loss from panoramic radiographs. This population of 30-40-year-old periodontal patients had a mean of 50% of sites with a CEJ to alveolar bone distance of 3 mm or more, and at such sites, there was a mean additional bone loss of 2.1 mm.

T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi JT.The origins of bad breath (fetor oris) from the oral cavity and its management.East Afr Med J. 1985 May;62(5):360-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 May;62(5):360-2. African Meteorological Society; 1985. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 4042945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (1996). Use of antibiotics in the management of periodontal disease. Afya 30:2-4.". In: Afya 30:2-4. African Meteorological Society; 1996. Abstract
A survey of 272 University of Nairobi undergraduate students was undertaken to assess their dental chairside experience and what reasons they gave for failing to seek dental treatment. Most respondents considered dental treatment uncomfortable and painful. The cost of treatment and fear arising from information given by other dental patients were important reasons that kept the respondents from visiting a dental clinic. This paper reveals the need for the dental profession to play a greater role in reducing costs of treatment and odontophobia.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (1993). Periodontal health status in Africa after decades of development. East African Medical Journal 70:369:371.". In: East African Medical Journal 70:369:371. African Meteorological Society; 1993. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, Dental School, College of Health Sciences, Nairobi. Seven hundred and seventy five files of edentulous patients seen at the Department of Dental Surgery, University of Nairobi were scrutinized for the presence or absence of routine radiographs prior to treatment. 180 (23.2%) had radiographs. 26% of the radiographs had 51 positive radiological findings. 17.3% were roots, 3.9% were unerupted teeth, 6.7% were radiopacities and 0.6% were radiolucencies. 52.9% of the radiological findings were in the mandible and 47.1% were in the maxilla. In the mandible, 44.4% of the radiological findings were in the anterior region and 55.6% were found posteriorly. 66.7% of the maxillary radiological findings were in the anterior region and 33.3% were found posteriorly. Since some of the positive radiological findings such as the retained roots and unerupted teeth might lead to infection, cysts or poor dentures fit, it is recommended that whenever possible, all edentulous patients be examined radiographically prior to treatment.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Wagaiyu EG, Kaimenyi JT.Frequency of alveolar osteitis (dry socket) at Kenyatta National Hospital Dental Outpatient Clinic–a retrospective study.East Afr Med J. 1989 Oct;66(10):658-62.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Oct;66(10):658-62. African Meteorological Society; 1989. Abstract
The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of alveolar osteitis at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), most affected age group and the reasons for underlying extractions. Out of 8,393 extractions 273 (3.3%) developed alveolar osteitis. 98.5% of the teeth that developed alveolar osteitis were molars and premolars. 52% of the patients that developed alveolar osteitis were females and 48% were males. The mandible was more affected than the maxilla. The percentage distribution of alveolar osteitis according to age groups 10-19 year, 30-39 years, 40-49 years, 50-59 years and 60-69 years were 6.2%, 53.1%, 23.8%, 5.5%, 4.8% and 2.9% respectively. On the average, patients reported with alveolar osteitis 5.7 days following extraction. Out of 8,393 extractions, 72.5% were due to dental caries, 18% were due to periodontitis and the rest were due to other causes. It was concluded that the frequency and average, patients reported with alveolar osteitis 5.7 days following extraction. Out of 8,393 extractions, 72.5% were due to dental caries, 18% were due to periodontitis and the rest were due to other causes. It was concluded that the frequency and pattern of development of a alveolar osteitis at KNH was similar to that reported in developed countries.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (1985). Is every paper presented on oral health research worth reading? Nairobi University Journal of Dentistry 2:42-46.". In: Nairobi University Journal of Dentistry 2:42-46. African Meteorological Society; 1985. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 3333346 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Wakiaga, J.M., Kaimenyi, J.T. and Kisumbi, B.K (1996). Reasons underlying failure to seek dental treatment among Nairobi University students.East African Medical Journal 73:320-322.". In: East African Medical Journal 73:320-322. African Meteorological Society; 1996. Abstract
A survey of 272 University of Nairobi undergraduate students was undertaken to assess their dental chairside experience and what reasons they gave for failing to seek dental treatment. Most respondents considered dental treatment uncomfortable and painful. The cost of treatment and fear arising from information given by other dental patients were important reasons that kept the respondents from visiting a dental clinic. This paper reveals the need for the dental profession to play a greater role in reducing costs of treatment and odontophobia.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi JT, Ndungu FL.Knowledge, attitudes and practices towards HIV positive and AIDS patients among public service dentists in Nairobi.Afr J Health Sci. 1994 Aug;1(3):116-121.". In: Afr J Health Sci. 1994 Aug;1(3):116-121. African Meteorological Society; 1994. Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, practices and attitudes towards HIV Positive/AIDS patients among 112 dentists from public institutions in Nairobi using a self-administered questionnaire. 94(83.9%) responded. Over 74% had managed HIV positive/AIDS patients. In general, respondents' knowledge and preventive measures against HIV infection were satisfactory. 8.5% did not find use of protective eye wear absolutely necessary. 33% used protective covers routinely. 52.1% advocated for the screening of all suspected cases of AIDS before treatment. 27.7% felt that HIV positive health workers and those with AIDS should not be allowed to treat patients. 53.2% felt that they should be given the right to decide on treating HIV Positive/AIDS patients. 10.6% supported the idea that AIDS patients be isolated from uninfected individuals. It is concluded that a substantial number of dentists were wanting in their attitudes towards HIV positive/AIDS patients.

T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. and Jorgensen, E. (1990). Oral hygiene status of qat (Catha Edulis) chewers. Journal of Dental Research 69: 1019.". In: Journal of Dental Research 69: 1019. African Meteorological Society; 1990. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, College of Health Sciences, Nairobi. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of a chewing stick and a tooth brush in plaque control. The study composed of two groups of 11 and 8 children aged 13 to 16 years who were randomly selected from a peri-urban school near Nairobi. Results showed that, except for the participants with moderate amounts of plaque, the net changes in the mean number of surfaces with a given plaque score were more when the participants were using a toothbrush than when they were using a chewing stick. For the group of participants who started using a chewing stick before they changed to the toothbrush, there were no significant net changes in the mean number of surfaces with a given plaque score except for those surfaces which had mild plaque deposits. It is concluded that for the patients with severe plaque deposits, the toothbrush is more efficacious than the chewing stick in plaque control. However, for those patients with moderate plaque deposits, the chewing stick is as efficacious as the toothbrush in plaque control.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. Job satisfaction among dentists in the public and private sectors in Kenya. Medicus 5:4-5.". In: Medicus 5:4-5. African Meteorological Society; 1986. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 3333346 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (1984). Find out if you are a victim of chronic periodontitis. Medicus 10:14 and 28.". In: Medicus 10:14 and 28. African Meteorological Society; 1983. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. and Guthua, S.W. (1994). Occurrence of ulcerative oral lesions at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. African Journal of Health Sciences 1:179-181.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences 1:179-181. African Meteorological Society; 1994. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. This study was done as part of a WHO international survey of orofacial mutilations and NOMA cases referred to out-patient clinic and care centers in 1992. Files of 16,000 patients who were treated at the Dental Unit of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) were scrutinized for the occurrence of NOMA and other ulcerative oral lesions. Of these, 30% had acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis with a male to female ratio of 5:1. 25% had aphthous ulcers with a male to female ratio of 3:2. Equal numbers of patients (10%) had angular cheilitis, aspirin burn and oral candidiasis. Similarly, equal numbers of patients (5%) had NOMA, atypical ulceration and radiotherapy induced ulceration. It was concluded that NOMA and other ulcerative oral lesions were rare among the patients who were treated at the Dental Unit of KNH.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. and Gururaja Rao, T.R. (1991). A comparative study on the periodontal health status of adult populations of Kenya and India. Ind. J. Dent. Research 2:29-34.". In: Indian J Dent Res. 1991 Jul-Dec;2(3-4):29-34. African Meteorological Society; 1991. Abstract

Dental School, College of Health Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose of this study was to compare the oral hygiene and periodontal health status of 497 randomly selected Kenyan and Indian adult populations aged between 20 and 35 years. Oral hygiene and periodontal health status were assessed using Silness and Loe plaque Index and Russel's Periodontal Index respectively. Results revealed that the overall mean plaque and periodontal index scores of Kenyan participants were significantly lower than those of Indians. Increase of mean Periodontal index with age was found to be significant among Kenyan participants and insignificant among Indian participants Kenyan female participants were found to have significant lower mean plaque and periodontal index scores than males. However, the mean periodontal index score of Indian male participants was found to be lower than that of female participants. It is concluded that Kenyan participants had better periodontal and oral hygiene status than Indian participants and that Indian females unlike Kenyan females had poorer periodontal health status than male.

T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi JT, Hassan SR, Mutema AM. Managing dental caries at the dental unit of Kenyatta National Hospital Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1987 Dec;64(12):860-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Dec;64(12):860-3. African Meteorological Society; 1987. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 3505209 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (1984). Integrated oral health into primary health care in Kenya. Africa Health 6:57-58.". In: Africa Health 6:57-58. African Meteorological Society; 1983. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi JT.Demography and seasonal variation of acute necrotising gingivitis in Nairobi, Kenya. Int Dent J. 1999 Dec;49(6):347-51.". In: Int Dent J. 1999 Dec;49(6):347-51. African Meteorological Society; 1999. Abstract
The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of Acute Necrotising Gingivitis (ANG), its sex and age distribution, ethnicity and seasonal variation amongst patients at the Dental Unit of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) in Nairobi, Kenya. Cards of patients who were seen in the Dental Unit of KNH in 1992/1993, were scrutinised for positive diagnosis of ANG, age, sex, presenting signs and symptoms and treatment that was given. Of the 53,572 patients who were treated, (0.15 per cent) had ANG. Their age range was 1.5-46 years (Mean = 14.5 years), with 58.5 per cent being below 11 years and 32.9 per cent being between 21 and 40 years. The most affected ethnic groups were the Luos and Kikuyus, while 72 per cent of the patients were seen in March and April, and between September and December. It is concluded that the frequency of ANG was low, ANG affected children and adults, and that ANG varied seasonally. PMID: 10907433 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. and Ndung.". In: East African Medical Journal 71:304-310. African Meteorological Society; 1994. Abstract

Department of Dental Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. The purpose of this study was to assess knowledge, practices and attitudes towards HIV positive and AIDS patients amongst 71 dental auxiliaries using on a self administered questionnaire. 65 (91.5%) returned the questionnaire. In general, respondents' knowledge was fair. 87.7% felt that dentistry as practised in Kenya today carries a high risk of transmission of HIV primarily because of improper sterilization of instruments. 72.3% had changed their sex habits since they became aware of the dangers posed by indiscriminate sex. Over 67% used gloves and masks routinely when assisting in the management of AIDS patients. Over 33% did not use protective eye wear and protective covers on operatories routinely because they were not provided by the employer. 27.7% felt that AIDS and HIV positive health workers should stop treating patients. 64.6% advocated that the cost of buying materials and equipment to prevent cross infection be met by the patient and the employer or dentist. 23.1% supported the idea that HIV positive and AIDS patients be isolated from uninfected individuals. In conclusion, a substantial number of dental auxiliaries were wanting in their knowledge, practices and attitudes towards HIV positive/AIDS patients.

T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi JT, Ndungu FL, Maina SW, Chindia M.Oral hygiene habits and dental health awareness of Kenyan children aged 9-15 years in a peri-urban and urban school.East Afr Med J. 1993 Feb;70(2):67-70.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Feb;70(2):67-70. African Meteorological Society; 1993. Abstract
The oral hygiene habits and dental health awareness of 541 Kenyan children from a peri-urban and urban school and aged 9-15 years, were investigated. 80.2% of the urban children and 43.1% of the peri-urban children had visited a dentist before. 12.4% of the urban children and 9.2% of the peri-urban children knew that bacteria cause dental caries. Over 87% of the children from either school knew that dental caries and periodontitis can be prevented. The main reason for visiting a dentist was to have tooth extraction. Failure to brush teeth was believed to be the cause of gingival bleeding by 38.9% of the peri-urban children and 37.6% of the urban children. 67.2% of the peri-urban children and 39.5% of the urban children brushed their teeth thrice daily. 21.1% of the peri-urban children and 2% of the urban children used a chewing stick to brush their teeth. More urban children (96.5%) used a toothbrush than peri-urban children (64.8%). None of the children from either school admitted using traditional cleaning aids such as the finger and charcoal. It is concluded that there were no consistent differences in oral hygiene habits and dental health awareness between peri-urban and urban children.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Opinya GN, Kaimenyi JT, Meme JS.Oral findings in Fanconi's anemia. A case report.J Periodontol. 1988 Jul;59(7):461-3.". In: J Periodontol. 1988 Jul;59(7):461-3. African Meteorological Society; 1988. Abstract

A case of fanconi's anemia was referred to the Dental School from the Department of Pediatrics. The patient was a 24-year-old male and a product of a consanguineous marriage. His chief complaint was loose and falling teeth, which has started at the age of 16 years. The first teeth to fall out were the first permanent molars followed by mandibular and maxillary anteriors. General examination showed that the patient was of normal intelligence and small for his age. He had no palmar plantar hyperkeratosis and was not diabetic. A total of 19 teeth remained in the mouth, most of them with grade three mobility. The remaining molars and first maxillary premolars had grade three furcation involvement. Most of the teeth had periodontal pockets more than 10 mm deep. Full mouth intraoral periapical radiographs and orthopantomographic views showed severe horizontal bone loss uncommensurate with the patient's age. In view of the patient's history and severe bone loss at an early age, the diagnosis was juvenile periodontitis associated with Fanconi's anemia.

T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Indigenous dental practitioners in Western/Nyanza provinces of Kenya.Odontostomatol Trop. 1984 Dec;7(4):217-23.". In: Odontostomatol Trop. 1984 Dec;7(4):217-23. African Meteorological Society; 1984. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6597936 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. M, Omwenga EI, W PW. A Framework for Distributed Learning Objects Repository.. Berlin: Lambert Academic Publishing; 2010.Amazon
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis. In Textbook of Periodontology Pg 94. 2nd Edition. T.R. Gururaja Rao. All India Publishers and DistributorsCHENNAI (MADRAS) 2001.". In: Book Chapter. African Meteorological Society; 2001. Abstract
This paper gives general information on the location of Kenya, its demography, economy, organisation of health services, general health policy, health financing, oral health infrastructure, problems that hamper health financing and proposals on how to solve these problems. Further, a summary of health status of the Kenyan people is given based on the results of studies. The mean DMFT for the rural and urban populations is low and there is no evidence of an increase or decrease. Similarly, the prevalence of periodontitis is low (1-10%), with no increase. Ulcerative lesions are rare (0.12%). The most common birth defects are cleft lip and palate. Oral cancer is very low, accounting for 2% of all malignancies. Comparative studies have not demonstrated any dramatic change in the frequency of oral cancer for the last 25 years. Oral candidiasis is the most prevalent oral lesion amongst HIV/AIDS patients. In June 2003, Kenya formulated a National Oral Health Policy, which gives direction on how to improve the oral health status of the citizens.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. and Guthua, S.W (1995). Dental students compliance with University Examinations Instructions. Medicus 14:26-30.". In: Medicus 14:26-30. African Meteorological Society; 1995. Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitude of Nairobi University students towards dental health care in Kenya. A self administered questionnaire given to 400 students in person who responded and handed them over immediately. The students had a mean age of 22.4 years, 45.3% were males and 54.5% were females. Extractions, restorations and replacement of teeth were known to majority of the students. However, almost half of the students preferred extraction to restoration and 49.2% considered restoration of deciduous teeth unnecessary. 79% indicated that they would undergo scaling. It is therefore recommended that an effective mode of transmitting positive information about various dental treatment modalities be established.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (1993) The need for dental auxiliaries. Proceedings for the 3rd continuing education course for all categories of oral health personnel. Pages 147-163. 19th .". In: Proceedings for the 3rd continuing education course for all categories of oral health personnel. Pages 147-163. 19th . African Meteorological Society; 1993. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, College of Health Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya. Traditionally, diseases that affect the periodontium have over the years been referred to as periodontal disease. This implies that these diseases are a single disease entity or only one disease, "periodontal disease," affects the periodontium. To date, dental literature is replete with several diseases that affect the periodontium. Most of these diseases exhibit unique bacteriological, immunological, biochemical and clinical features. It is these characteristics that qualify them to be regarded as individual or different disease entities. Biased by these recent reports on distinct diseases that affect the periodontium, several dental authors have written articles where they have preferred the term "periodontal diseases" to "periodontal disease," when discussing and reporting on the diseases that affect the periodontium. This paper suggests and discusses the reasons why scientists have continued to use the term periodontal disease and presents arguments why this terminology is inappropriate. It is suggested that the term "periodontal disease" be replaced by the term "periodontal diseases".
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T and Muthami L.N. (1988) Oral hygiene practices among dentists and their families. Pharmaceutical Journal of Kenya 2:10-13 and 16.". In: Pharmaceutical Journal of Kenya 2:10-13 and 16. African Meteorological Society; 1988. Abstract

Department of Peridontology & Preventive Dentistry, Guy's Hospital Dental School, UMDS, London, UK. Bone loss in chronic periodontitis was assessed from panoramic radiographs by direct measurement from the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) and by measuring the proportion of the tooth length supported by bone. Mesial and distal bone levels of all available teeth were assessed for 50 patients aged 30-39 years referred for periodontal treatment. 85% and 74% of surfaces were measurable by the proportional and direct techniques, respectively. 27% of surfaces had no bone loss according to the proportional score, whereas 22% had a CEJ to alveolar bone distance of less than 2 mm. In addition, over half the surfaces with a proportional bone loss score of zero had a CEJ to alveolar bone distance of 2 mm or more, and for each proportional bone loss score, there was considerable overlap in the CEJ to alveolar bone distances recorded. The validity of the CEJ to alveolar bone measurements was established by comparison with direct measurements at periodontal surgery. The results support the use of direct measurement from the CEJ to alveolar bone rather than the assessment of the proportion of the tooth length within the bone when investigating bone loss from panoramic radiographs. This population of 30-40-year-old periodontal patients had a mean of 50% of sites with a CEJ to alveolar bone distance of 3 mm or more, and at such sites, there was a mean additional bone loss of 2.1 mm.

T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. and Ko.". In: Odontostomatol Trop. 1984 Dec;7(4):217-23. African Meteorological Society; 1984. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 4042945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB, GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Kaimenyi JT, Wagaiyu EG, Ndungu FL.Efficacy of traditional chewing sticks in plaque control.East Afr Med J. 1987 Sep;64(9):624-7. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Sep;64(9):624-7. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1987. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 3333346 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (1996). Acute necrotizing gingivitis: Literature review on clinical features, aetiology and treatment. Afya 30:15-17.". In: Afya 30:15-17. African Meteorological Society; 1996. Abstract
A survey of 272 University of Nairobi undergraduate students was undertaken to assess their dental chairside experience and what reasons they gave for failing to seek dental treatment. Most respondents considered dental treatment uncomfortable and painful. The cost of treatment and fear arising from information given by other dental patients were important reasons that kept the respondents from visiting a dental clinic. This paper reveals the need for the dental profession to play a greater role in reducing costs of treatment and odontophobia.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (1993). Is periodontal disease on the increase in Kenya? A review. East African Medical Journal 70:519-522.". In: East African Medical Journal 70:519-522. African Meteorological Society; 1993. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. During a recent scientific meeting held in Botswana (16th-19th October 1991), it was reported that the oral health situation in developing countries was typified by an increase in the prevalence of dental diseases. Kenya was cited as one of the typical examples of this worrying trend. For there to be an increase in dental diseases, there must be a concomitant increase or an upward shift in the main aetiological factor(s) or factors associated with dental diseases. This paper looks at these factors in relation to periodontal disease and reviews some of the major prevalence studies of periodontal disease that have been carried out in Kenya. It also presents some arguments to show that there is no unequivocal evidence that periodontal disease is on the increase in Kenya.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T and Ashley F.P (1988) Assessment of bone loss in periodontitis from panoramic radiographs. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 15:170-174.". In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology 15:170-174. African Meteorological Society; 1988. Abstract

Department of Peridontology & Preventive Dentistry, Guy's Hospital Dental School, UMDS, London, UK. Bone loss in chronic periodontitis was assessed from panoramic radiographs by direct measurement from the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) and by measuring the proportion of the tooth length supported by bone. Mesial and distal bone levels of all available teeth were assessed for 50 patients aged 30-39 years referred for periodontal treatment. 85% and 74% of surfaces were measurable by the proportional and direct techniques, respectively. 27% of surfaces had no bone loss according to the proportional score, whereas 22% had a CEJ to alveolar bone distance of less than 2 mm. In addition, over half the surfaces with a proportional bone loss score of zero had a CEJ to alveolar bone distance of 2 mm or more, and for each proportional bone loss score, there was considerable overlap in the CEJ to alveolar bone distances recorded. The validity of the CEJ to alveolar bone measurements was established by comparison with direct measurements at periodontal surgery. The results support the use of direct measurement from the CEJ to alveolar bone rather than the assessment of the proportion of the tooth length within the bone when investigating bone loss from panoramic radiographs. This population of 30-40-year-old periodontal patients had a mean of 50% of sites with a CEJ to alveolar bone distance of 3 mm or more, and at such sites, there was a mean additional bone loss of 2.1 mm.

T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (1985). Pregnancy gingivitis .". In: Africa Health 7:13-14. African Meteorological Society; 1985. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 3333346 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. and Guthua, S.W (1996). Cancrum oris. Surgery 14:244-247.". In: Surgery 14:244-247. African Meteorological Society; 1996. Abstract
A survey of 272 University of Nairobi undergraduate students was undertaken to assess their dental chairside experience and what reasons they gave for failing to seek dental treatment. Most respondents considered dental treatment uncomfortable and painful. The cost of treatment and fear arising from information given by other dental patients were important reasons that kept the respondents from visiting a dental clinic. This paper reveals the need for the dental profession to play a greater role in reducing costs of treatment and odontophobia.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi JT, Guthua SW.Residual facial deformity resulting from cancrum oris: a case report.East Afr Med J. 1994 Jul;71(7):476-8. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Jul;71(7):476-8. Review. African Meteorological Society; 1994. Abstract
Cancrum oris cases are occasionally treated in various hospitals in Kenya. Despite this, only one case has been reported in literature. Besides, no epidemiological or treatment studies of cancrum oris has been carried out in Kenya. We report an unusual case of a 17 year old Kenyan female with oral cutaneous fistula and tissue atrophy on the left cheek following cancrum oris infection in childhood. Since most cancrum oris cases are a sequela of acute necrotizing gingivitis (ANG), prevention of cancrum oris can be achieved by early and prompt remedial measures once a diagnosis of ANG is established. Failure to do this might lead to cancrum oris with its attendant disfiguring complications some of which might be impossible to treat in developing countries where the requisite personnel is lacking or inadequate.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Jorgensen E, Kaimenyi JT.The status of periodontal health and oral hygiene of Miraa (catha edulis) chewers.East Afr Med J. 1990 Aug;67(8):585-90.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Aug;67(8):585-90. African Meteorological Society; 1990. Abstract
Two hundred and thirty one miraa chewers and 199 non miraa chewers were assessed for gingivitis, loss of attachment and oral hygiene status. The mean gingivitis score among miraa chewers was 1.6 and 1.7 among non miraa chewers (P less than 0.05). The mean facial gingivitis score among miraa chewers was 1.5 and 1.6 among non miraa chewers (P greater than 0.05). The mean distal gingivitis score among miraa chewers was 1.5 and 1.7 among non miraa chewers (P less than 0.05). The mean lingual gingivitis score among miraa chewers was lower than that of non miraa chewers (P less than 0.05). The means of loss of attachment of the teeth of miraa chewers were equal to those of non miraa chewers. Although the mean surface plaque scores of miraa chewers were generally lower than those of non miraa chewers, only the mean lingual plaque score of miraa chewers was found to be significantly lower than that of non miraa chewers (P less than 0.05). It is concluded that the oral hygiene status of miraa chewers was generally better than that of non miraa chewers and there was no evidence to show that chewing miraa is detrimental to periodontal health.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (1986). Periodontal abscess .". In: Medicus 6:24-25. African Meteorological Society; 1986. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 3333346 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T (1986). Filling the gaps in services. Africa Health 8:24-25.". In: Africa Health 8:24-25. African Meteorological Society; 1986. Abstract

No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (1998). Oral Manifestations in HIV infection. Afya 31:9-11.". In: Afya 31:9-11. African Meteorological Society; 1998. Abstract
The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of Acute Necrotising Gingivitis (ANG), its sex and age distribution, ethnicity and seasonal variation amongst patients at the Dental Unit of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) in Nairobi, Kenya. Cards of patients who were seen in the Dental Unit of KNH in 1992/1993, were scrutinised for positive diagnosis of ANG, age, sex, presenting signs and symptoms and treatment that was given. Of the 53,572 patients who were treated, (0.15 per cent) had ANG. Their age range was 1.5-46 years (Mean = 14.5 years), with 58.5 per cent being below 11 years and 32.9 per cent being between 21 and 40 years. The most affected ethnic groups were the Luos and Kikuyus, while 72 per cent of the patients were seen in March and April, and between September and December. It is concluded that the frequency of ANG was low, ANG affected children and adults, and that ANG varied seasonally. PMID: 10907433 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. and Guthua, S.W. (1994). Residual facial deformity resulting from cancrum oris-a case report.East African Medical Journal 71:476:478.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Jul;71(7):476-8. African Meteorological Society; 1994. Abstract
Dental School, College of Health Sciences, Nairobi. Cancrum oris cases are occasionally treated in various hospitals in Kenya. Despite this, only one case has been reported in literature. Besides, no epidemiological or treatment studies of cancrum oris has been carried out in Kenya. We report an unusual case of a 17 year old Kenyan female with oral cutaneous fistula and tissue atrophy on the left cheek following cancrum oris infection in childhood. Since most cancrum oris cases are a sequela of acute necrotizing gingivitis (ANG), prevention of cancrum oris can be achieved by early and prompt remedial measures once a diagnosis of ANG is established. Failure to do this might lead to cancrum oris with its attendant disfiguring complications some of which might be impossible to treat in developing countries where the requisite personnel is lacking or inadequate.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. and Muthami L.N. (1990) Dentists.". In: Pharmaceutical Journal of Kenya 2:82-85. African Meteorological Society; 1990. Abstract

Dental School, College of Health Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose of this study was to compare the oral hygiene and periodontal health status of 497 randomly selected Kenyan and Indian adult populations aged between 20 and 35 years. Oral hygiene and periodontal health status were assessed using Silness and Loe plaque Index and Russel's Periodontal Index respectively. Results revealed that the overall mean plaque and periodontal index scores of Kenyan participants were significantly lower than those of Indians. Increase of mean Periodontal index with age was found to be significant among Kenyan participants and insignificant among Indian participants Kenyan female participants were found to have significant lower mean plaque and periodontal index scores than males. However, the mean periodontal index score of Indian male participants was found to be lower than that of female participants. It is concluded that Kenyan participants had better periodontal and oral hygiene status than Indian participants and that Indian females unlike Kenyan females had poorer periodontal health status than male.

T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB, GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Kaimenyi JT, Wagaiyu EG, Ndungu FL.Efficacy of traditional chewing sticks in plaque control.East Afr Med J. 1987 Sep;64(9):624-7. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Sep;64(9):624-7. African Meteorological Society; 1987. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 3333346 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. and Muturo, N. (1983). Trends in the Delivery of dental health care in Kenya. (A historical background). Medicus 2:30,31 and 34.". In: Medicus 2:30,31 and 34. African Meteorological Society; 1983. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. and Ndung.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences. 1:116-121. African Meteorological Society; 1994. Abstract

Department of Dental Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. The purpose of this study was to assess knowledge, practices and attitudes towards HIV positive and AIDS patients amongst 71 dental auxiliaries using on a self administered questionnaire. 65 (91.5%) returned the questionnaire. In general, respondents' knowledge was fair. 87.7% felt that dentistry as practised in Kenya today carries a high risk of transmission of HIV primarily because of improper sterilization of instruments. 72.3% had changed their sex habits since they became aware of the dangers posed by indiscriminate sex. Over 67% used gloves and masks routinely when assisting in the management of AIDS patients. Over 33% did not use protective eye wear and protective covers on operatories routinely because they were not provided by the employer. 27.7% felt that AIDS and HIV positive health workers should stop treating patients. 64.6% advocated that the cost of buying materials and equipment to prevent cross infection be met by the patient and the employer or dentist. 23.1% supported the idea that HIV positive and AIDS patients be isolated from uninfected individuals. In conclusion, a substantial number of dental auxiliaries were wanting in their knowledge, practices and attitudes towards HIV positive/AIDS patients.

T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (1992). Accepting our own limitations. Africa Health 14:47.". In: Africa Health 14:47. African Meteorological Society; 1992. Abstract
The oral hygiene habits and dental health awareness of 541 Kenyan children from a peri-urban and urban school and aged 9-15 years, were investigated. 80.2% of the urban children and 43.1% of the peri-urban children had visited a dentist before. 12.4% of the urban children and 9.2% of the peri-urban children knew that bacteria cause dental caries. Over 87% of the children from either school knew that dental caries and periodontitis can be prevented. The main reason for visiting a dentist was to have tooth extraction. Failure to brush teeth was believed to be the cause of gingival bleeding by 38.9% of the peri-urban children and 37.6% of the urban children. 67.2% of the peri-urban children and 39.5% of the urban children brushed their teeth thrice daily. 21.1% of the peri-urban children and 2% of the urban children used a chewing stick to brush their teeth. More urban children (96.5%) used a toothbrush than peri-urban children (64.8%). None of the children from either school admitted using traditional cleaning aids such as the finger and charcoal. It is concluded that there were no consistent differences in oral hygiene habits and dental health awareness between peri-urban and urban children.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi JT, Sachdeva P, Patel S.Cause of tooth mortality at the dental unit of Kenyatta National Hospital of Nairobi, Kenya.Odontostomatol Trop. 1988 Mar;11(1):17-20. No abstract available.". In: Odontostomatol Trop. 1988 Mar;11(1):17-20. African Meteorological Society; 1988. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 3249689 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Current therapeutics: prognostic value of purulent discharge from periodontal pockets of a patient with chronic periodontitis.East Afr Med J. 1984 Oct;61(10):791-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Oct;61(10):791-2. African Meteorological Society; 1984. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (2000). Prevalence and clinical features of acute necrotizing gingivitis in Nairobi, Kenya. African Journal of Oral Health Sciences. 1:19-23.". In: African Journal of Oral Health Sciences. 1:19-23. African Meteorological Society; 2000. Abstract
This paper gives general information on the location of Kenya, its demography, economy, organisation of health services, general health policy, health financing, oral health infrastructure, problems that hamper health financing and proposals on how to solve these problems. Further, a summary of health status of the Kenyan people is given based on the results of studies. The mean DMFT for the rural and urban populations is low and there is no evidence of an increase or decrease. Similarly, the prevalence of periodontitis is low (1-10%), with no increase. Ulcerative lesions are rare (0.12%). The most common birth defects are cleft lip and palate. Oral cancer is very low, accounting for 2% of all malignancies. Comparative studies have not demonstrated any dramatic change in the frequency of oral cancer for the last 25 years. Oral candidiasis is the most prevalent oral lesion amongst HIV/AIDS patients. In June 2003, Kenya formulated a National Oral Health Policy, which gives direction on how to improve the oral health status of the citizens.
T. Aghová, K. Palupčíková, R. Šumbera, D. Frynta, L. A. Lavrenchenko, Y. Meheretu, Sádlová, J. VMMJJS, J. Sádlová, J. Votýpka, J. S. Mbau MD, Modrý D, Bryja J. "Multiple radiations of spiny mice (Rodentia: Acomys) in dry open habitats of Afro-Arabia: evidence from a multi-locus phylogeny." BMC evolutionary biology. 2019;19(1):61.
and T.A. GNJK. "An immunochemical survey of ochratoxin A in swine serum in central Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa . 2003;51:64-66.
T.J A, R.D N, E.E C, R.W N. "Etiology of soil pH and sweet potato varietal reaction to Alternaria leaf petiole and stem blight in Kenya." African Crop Science . 2001;9(1):287-292.
T.K M. "Genetics: The science of life." POST Magazine . 1980;5:11-13.
T.K. M, R.W.Mwangi. "Field studies of larval Anopheles arabiensis Patton of Mwea Irrigation Scheme,Kenya." Insect Sci.Applic.. 1989;10:55-62.
T.K. M. "Developing a national framework for medicinal and aromatic plants in Kenya.". In: Stakeholder workshop on the sustainable, safe and effective use of medicinal plants in Eastern Africa - IDRC & USAID/USDA. Arusha, Tanzania; 2003.
T.K. M, Narang S., J.A.Seawright. "A genetic sexing strain of Anopheles albimnus." Proc.XV Intl.Congr.Genet.Abstr. 1983;2:727.
T.K. M. Medicinal Plants of Kenya. IDRC-KARI-ISBN 9966-879-68-4; 2005.
T.K. M, Cockburn A.F., P.E. K, J.A.Seawright. "Cloned RNA-gene DNA probe for Anopheles bradleyi." Internl.J.BioChemPhysics . 1996;5:35-38.
T.K. M, J.K.Muraya. "Ceratitid fruitflies infesting agricultural crops in Kenya." Insect Sci.Applic.. 1994;15:155-159.
T.K. M. "Wild grains and neglected crops." Resources J. 1989;1:22-23.
T.M. D. "Management of Curved root Canal Systems: irrigation and preparation." Kenya Dental Association. 2014;6(1):248.
T.M. M, Ndaiga P, and Aywak AA. "Comparison of qualitative and semiquantitative strain elastography in breast lesions for diagnostic accuracy." Cancer Imaging Society. 2016; 16(1):, pp. 12. (DOI 10.1186/s40644-016-0070-8.
T.M. O, Guthua SW, Chindia ML. "Chondrosarcoma of the Temporomandibular joint.". 2007.
T.M.Munyao, J.J.Bwayo, D.M.Owili, J.O.Ndinya Achola, T.O.Kwasa, J.K.Kreiss. "HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS-1 (HIV-1) IN LEPROSY PATIENTS ATTENDING KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL (KNH) NAIROBI." EAMJ. 1994;71(8):8-10.
T.M.Munyao, N.A.O Abinya JKNPNKitili JMMENKHWW. "Exfoliative erythroderma at Kenyatta National Hospital." East African Medical Journal. 2007;84(12):566-570.
T.M.Munyao ANAO. "Cutaneous Basal Cell Carcinoma in Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 1999;76(2):97-100.
T.M.Munyao. ANTIMICROBIAL SENSITIVITY IN CHOLERA IN KENYA.. NAIROBI: NAIROBI; 1986.
T.N. O. "Foreign Capital in Africa in the period preceding World War II: quantitative assessment’ in: Izvestiya." St. Petersburg State University of Economics and Finance. 2003;No. 2(No. 2, 2003):134-152.
T.N. O. "The Role of Transnational Corporations in the development of economic globalization and foreign direct investments’ in: Problems of modern economics." Eurasian international scientific-analytical journal . 2006;No.3/4 (19/20)(St. Petersburg, 2006.).
T.N. O. "Some modern concepts of globalization in economics: a critical analysis’ in: Vestnik seria 5 economika vuipusk 2 ." Vestnik seria 5 economika vuipusk 2. 2004;No. 13(St. Petersburg State University, June 2004):78-85.
T.N. O. "Definition and Assessment of World Foreign Direct Investment Stock on the eve of the First World War’ In." Conference Proceedings. 2004;(Conference Proceedings. March-April 2004).
T.N. O. "“Globalization Theory” (Revised and updated) lecture no 26 in: History of economic doctrines. .". 2008;(Edited by Prof. Kruglov. V.V. “Peter”, St. Petersburg, 2008 ):215-230. (Course lectures - Handbook.
T.N. O. "Foreign Direct Investments in the economies of developing countries in the era of globalization (Theoretical and practical problems). .". 2006;(St. Petersburg State University of Economics and Finance. St. Petersburg, 2006).
T.N. O. "“Globalization Theory” in: History of economic doctrines. .". 2005;(St. Petersburg state University of economics and Finance, St. Petersburg 2005. ).
T.N. O. "International Economic Integration: Evolution and borders of the term’ in: Problems of modern economics." Eurasian international scientific-analytical journal . 2008;No.3 (27)(St. Petersburg, 2008. ).
T.N. O. ". Foreign Direct Investment in developing countries: Analytical experience of Western Theoretical research assessments and international statistics. .". 2006;(St .P Petersburg state university of Economics and Finance, St. Petersburg,):2006-176 pages. (Monograph).
T.N. O. "‘Foreign Direct Investments in African countries in the era of globalization and liberalization of trade-economic relations’ in: Problems of modern economics. ." Eurasian international scientific-analytical journal . 2005;No.1/2 (13/14)(St. Petersburg, 2005).
T.N. Mudimba. "Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activity of Carpobrotus edulis: A global perspective. ." The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2019;Volume 8 Issue 3, 2019 (pp. 33-40):pp. 33-40.
T.O. A, M.J. N, J.K W, V.T. T, Gitau G.K. "Incidence and risk factors of periparturient conditions in smallholder dairy cattle herds in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya.". 2012. Abstractabuom_et_al-eth_vet_journal-2012.pdf

A study was carried out on 117 smallholder dairy cattle herds in Kikuyu Division
of Kiambu District Kenya between April 2004 and December 2004 to determine
the incidence of periparturient conditions (downer cow syndrome, dystocia, milk
fever and retained placenta among others) in smallholder dairy cattle herds and
the associated factors (plausible predictor variables; age, parity and management
systems among others) from a total of 206 dairy cattle. Data were collected during
farm visits by observation, interviews using semi-structured questionnaires and
clinical examination of animals. The most common conditions encountered were
downer cow syndrome (12.6 %), dystocia (17.0 %), mastitis (9.5 %), metritis (7.3 %)
milk fever (13 %) and retained afterbirth (26.6 %). The overall cumulative incidence
of the periparturient conditions was 67 %. Animals with milk fever were 5 times
more likely to develop retained placenta (P=0.04) while those with a history of
having developed retained placenta in a previous parturition were at 2 times more
likely to develop retained afterbirth (P=0.05). Cows with milk fever were 9 times
more likely to develop owner cow syndrome (P <0.001) while those that were not
given supplemental feed in the last trimester were 4.8 times more likely to develop
downer cow syndrome (P=0.007). Animals that had dystocia were 3.9 times more
likely to develop metritis (P=0.02) and while those with retained placenta were 5.2
times more likely to develop metritis (P=0.03). In addition, animals with dystocia
were 10.55 times more likely to develop postpartum haemorrhage (P=0.01) and
58.9 times more likely to develop injuries to the birth canal (P<0.01). From this
study it can be concluded that downer cow syndrome, dystocia, mastitis, metritis,
milk fever and retained placenta were the most common periparturient conditions
in smallholder dairy cattle herds in Kikuyu division of Kiambu district

T.O.Abuom, Njenga MJ, J.K.Wabacha, Tsuma VT, G.K.Gitau. "Incidence and risk factors of periparturient conditions in smallholder dairy cattle herds in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya." Ethiop. Vet. J.. 2012;16:85-102.
T.W: G. "Overview of Mineral Processing and Beneficiation in Kenya.". In: Mineral Processing and Beneficiation. Daya publishers; 2015.
Tabitha KN, k Florence. "Human Capital and Economic Growth In Kenya.". 2010.Website
Taboada R, Ordonio GG, Ndakala AJ, Howell AR. "Directed Ring-Opening of 1,5-Dioxaspiro[3.2]hexanes: Selective Formation of 2,2-Disubstituted Oxetanes." Journal of Organic Chemistry. 2003;68:1480-1488. AbstractWebsite

In this retrospective study carried out covering the period, 1978-1991, 62 neonates were seen, diagnosed and treated for intestinal atresia which included: duodenal atresia and stenosis, small bowel atresia and atresia of large bowel. Locations of obstruction were duodenal in 17 patients, jejunal in 25 patients, jejuno-ileal in 5 and colon in two. Duodenal atresia was noted in 9 infants and duodenal stenosis due to annular pancreas, Ladd's bands with malrotation of bowel in 8. Associated anomalies which were observed were anorectal malformations in 2 and malrotation in 2 infants. Birth weights ranged from 1450 gm to 3000 gm. Prematurity was recorded in 11 infants. Diagnosis of intestinal atresia in our patients was made clinically and radiologically. Intestinal atresia in neonates was differentiated from other causes of obstruction such as Meconium Ileus, Hirschsprung's disease, neonatal volvulus, rectal atresia in anorectal malformations. Treatment of infants with intestinal atresia was surgical. Surgical techniques used depended on pathological findings. In 36 patients, complications such as functional obstructions with vomiting and failure to thrive, malabsorption, aspiration, bronchopneumonia, sepsis were observed. Overall mortality rate in our cases was 25 (41.9%) out of 62 patients.

Tabu C, Sharif S, Okoth P, Kioko J, Nzioka C, Muthoka P, Ope M, Makama S, Kalani R, Ochieng W, Simwa J, Schnabel D, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Onsongo J, Njenga K, Breiman R, Kearney A, Sick A, Harris R, Lebo E, Munyua P, Wakhule L, Waiboci-Muhia L, Gikundi S, Gikunju S, Omballa V, Nderitu L, Mayieka L, Kabura W, Omulo S, Odhiambo D, Wachira C, Kikwai G, Feikin D, Katz M. "Introduction and Transmission of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus — Kenya, June–July 2009." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2009;58:1144-1146. Abstract
n/a
Tacon C, M. DRGUANTAIERIC, Smith PJ, Chibale K. "Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Mechanistic Studies of Totarol Amino Alcohol Derivatives as Potential Antimalarial Agents." Bioorg. Med. Chem.. 2012;20:893-902. Abstract

Herein we report on the semisynthesis and biological evaluation of b-amino alcohol derivatives of the natural product totarol and other simple aromatic systems. All beta-amino alcohol derivatives of totarol exhibited higher antiplasmodial activity than totarol [IC50: 11.69 microM (K1, chloroquine and multi-drug resistant strain), and 11.78 microM (D10, chloroquine sensitive strain)]—12e was the most active [IC50: 0.63 microM (K1), and 0.61 microM (D10)]. The phenyl and naphthyl b-amino alcohol derivatives were much less active than their corresponding totarol equivalents. The majority of the b-amino alcohol derivatives of totarol were more active against K1 than the D10 strains of Plasmodium falciparum, a trend similar to the inverse relationship observed with the established aryl-amino alcohol antimalarial mefloquine. Selected compounds were shown to affect erythrocyte morphology, inhibit erythrocyte invasion and trigger CQ accumulation.

Tadelle, Dessie; Yetnayet M; OM. Information systems on domestic animal genetic resources.; 2011.
Tagawa Y, Kanold PO, Majdan M, Shatz CJ. "Multiple periods of functional ocular dominance plasticity in mouse visual cortex." Nature Neuroscience. 2005;8:380-388. AbstractWebsite

The precise period when experience shapes neural circuits in the mouse visual system is unknown. We used Arc induction to monitor the functional pattern of ipsilateral eye representation in cortex during normal development and after visual deprivation. After monocular deprivation during the critical period, Arc induction reflects ocular dominance (OD) shifts within the binocular zone. Arc induction also reports faithfully expected OD shifts in cat. Shifts towards the open eye and weakening of the deprived eye were seen in layer 4 after the critical period ends and also before it begins. These shifts include an unexpected spatial expansion of Arc induction into the monocular zone. However, this plasticity is not present in adult layer 6. Thus, functionally assessed OD can be altered in cortex by ocular imbalances substantially earlier and far later than expected.

Tagawa Y, Kanold PO, Majdan M, Shatz CJ. "Multiple periods of functional ocular dominance plasticity in mouse visual cortex." Nature neuroscience. 2005;8:380-388. Abstract

The precise period when experience shapes neural circuits in the mouse visual system is unknown. We used Arc induction to monitor the functional pattern of ipsilateral eye representation in cortex during normal development and after visual deprivation. After monocular deprivation during the critical period, Arc induction reflects ocular dominance (OD) shifts within the binocular zone. Arc induction also reports faithfully expected OD shifts in cat. Shifts towards the open eye and weakening of the deprived eye were seen in layer 4 after the critical period ends and also before it begins. These shifts include an unexpected spatial expansion of Arc induction into the monocular zone. However, this plasticity is not present in adult layer 6. Thus, functionally assessed OD can be altered in cortex by ocular imbalances substantially earlier and far later than expected.

Taha SM, El-Nakhal MNS, Ishac YZ. "Acid-fermented vegetables.". 1983.Website
Taiwo BH, Wandiga SO, Mulugetta Y, undefined. "Improving knowledge and practices of mitigating green house gas emission through waste recycling in a community, Ibadan, Nigeria ." Journal Article of Waste Management. 2018;v: 81:22-32. Abstractscience direct

Throughout the world, waste sector has been implicated in significant contribution to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Involving communities in recycling their solid waste would ensure climate change effect mitigation and resilience. This study was carried out to improve waste management practices through a community-led intervention at Kube-Atenda community in Ibadan, Nigeria. The study adopted a quasi-experimental design, comprising mixed method of data collection such as semi- structured questionnaire and a life-cycle-based model for calculating greenhouse gas generation potentials of various waste management practices in the area. A systematic random sampling was used to select sixty (60) households for a survey on knowledge, attitude and practices of waste management through Recovery, Reduction, Reuse and Recycling (4Rs) before and after the training intervention. Data collected were summarized using descriptive statistics, chi-square test, t-test and ANOVA at p = 0.05. The mean age of the respondent was 49.7 ± 16.7 and 68.3% were females. Respondents’ knowledge scores before and after the intervention were significantly different: 7.07 ± 1.48 and 11.6 ± 1.6 while attitude scores were: 8.2 ± 2.3 and 13.5 ± 0.8. There were significant differences in the major waste disposal practices in the community before and after the intervention. All (100%) the participants were willing to participate in waste recycling business and the model predicted that adoption of 4Rs strategy had a great potential in saving greenhouse gas emissions in the community. The behavior of the community people has changed towards waste management that promote climate change mitigation and adaptation through waste reduction, reuse, and resource recovery.

Takahashi ES, Oyster CW. "Morphologies of rabbit retinal ganglion cells with complex receptive fields." The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 1989;280:97-121. AbstractWebsite

Ganglion cells that had complex receptive field properties, namely, On-Off and On direction-selective cells, orientation-selective cells, local edge detectors, and uniformity detectors (suppressed by contrast cells) were recorded in an isolated superfused rabbit eyecup preparation. Cells were first classified by their characteristic extracellular responses to manually controlled stimuli similar to those which have been used in previous in vivo studies. Ganglion cells were then impaled, confirmed in identity by intracellular recording, and iontophoretically injected with horseradish peroxidase for staining. Twenty-two ganglion cells, which included members of all the major classes mentioned above, were recovered from the visual streak or near periphery. All recovered cells were drawn in camera lucida from flatmounted retinas and entered into a computer as two-dimensional stick figures; nearly all were three-dimensionally reconstructed to determine the level and manner of dendritic ramification in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). The location of ganglion cell dendrites in sublaminar regions of the IPL was found to be consistent with the hypothesis of a division of the IPL into excitatory On (promixal) and Off (distal) sublaminae, with some qualifications for particular classes. Each of the complex receptive field ganglion cell classes exhibited a distinctive three-dimensional dendritic arborization pattern uniquely associated with that physiological class.

Takken W, AF Hiscox, R Smallegange, Mukabana WR, Collins Mweresa. "Synthetic odour blends for sampling of malaria mosquitoes." Antenna: Bulletin of the Royal Entomological Society. 2014;(Special Edition 2014):92-93.
Takken W, Loon JJAV, Zwiebel LJ, Pask GM, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana. "Insect repellent compositions and methods of use.". 2016.
Takla EM, Yumoto K, Cardinal MG, Abe S, Fujimoto A, Ikeda A, Tokunaga T, Yamazaki Y, Uo-zumi T, Mahrous A, Ghamry E, Mengistu G, Afullo T, Macamo JA, Joao L, Mweene H, Mwiinga N, Uiso C, Baki P, Kianji G, Badi K, Sutcliffe P, Palangio P. "A Study of Latitudinal Dependence of Pc 3-4 Amplitudes at 96o Magnetic Meridian Stations in Africa." Sun and Geosphere,. 2011;Vol. 6(2):67-72.
Tallam D, Migosi J. "Influence of Seismic Survey Activities on the Environment in Soy North Ward, Elgeyo Marakwet County, Kenya." The International Journal of Business & Management. 2019;7(8):70-74.
Tallontire A, Opondo M, Nelson V. "Contingent spaces for smallholder participation in GlobalGAP: insights from K enyan horticulture value chains." The Geographical Journal. 2014;180(4):353-364. Abstractrgs-ibg.onlinelibrary.wiley.com

Private standards initiatives (PSIs ) in agri‐food value chains raise questions of democratic governance and accountability relating to the voice and agency of those whom the standards are designed to benefit or whom they most affect. We employ the concept of ‘spaces for participation’ to analyze participation in a particular PSI, GlobalGAP, and assess how, and to what extent, it opens up a space for debate about what constitutes good practice in agri‐food chains and for whom. We draw on focus groups with smallholders, together with semi‐structured interviews and workshops held with actors at the national and international scales to examine PSIs operating in K enyan export horticulture to examine good agricultural practice (GAP ) standards. Our analysis suggests that despite public announcements that these initiatives promote the voice of the farmer, the direct participation of farmers is largely absent from these policy spaces at present. This is related to the way in which invitations to the spaces for participation are constructed, what is deemed to be appropriate subjects for discussion in PSIs as well as the practical challenges associated with the organization of farmers across spatial scales. The spaces for participation are located largely at the international and national scales with few connections to the local scale. This paper contributes to an extension of value chain analysis that re‐asserts the importance of institutional context and how value chains are embedded in particular socio‐economic and political systems.

Tallontire, A. M. ONMMVA. "Beyond the vertical? Using value chains and governance as a framework to analyse private standards initiatives in Agri-food chains." Agriculture and Human Values, Vol. 28, Issue 3, pp 427-441; 2009. Abstract
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Talwana HAL, Kimenju JW, Sibanda Z, Wanjohi WJ, Gowen SR, Hunt DJ, Kerry BR. "Sustainable management of nematodes in east and southern Africa requires capacity building in the region.". 2006.
Tambe E, Karimurio J, Masinde S. "Efficacy of topical prednisolone phosphate 1% eye drops in reducing recurrences after bare sclera pterygium surgery." East Afr J ophthalmol. 2007;13:31-35. Abstract

Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of topical prednisolone phosphate 1% eye drops in reducing recurrences after bare sclera pterygium surgery.
Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial.
Setting: Kenyatta, Nakuru, Embu, Murang’a, and Machakos eye clinics of Kenya.
Subjects: 51 eyes of 46 patients (17 males and 29 females) operated between May and November 1997 at the above eye units. The youngest was 22 years and the oldest 76 years.
Results: 24 out of 31 pterygia in the prednisolone group and 15 of 20 controls were evaluated. 16.7% of the eyes in the prednisolone group developed recurrences as compared to 53.3% in the control group (p=0.0017). All except one of the recurrences developed within 8 weeks. Recurrences were more common in younger patients. There was no statistically significant difference in the recurrence rate between males and females.
Conclusions: Topical prednisolone phosphate 1% eye drops; a cheap and easily available eye medication is an effective adjunctive treatment after bare sclera pterygium surgery.
Recommendations: Other adjunctive treatments and surgical techniques should also be explored preferably in a multi-centre setup.

Tamimi IFM, Patel NB. "Open field ethogram and olfactory preference in naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glabus). .". In: Society of Neuroscientists of Africa. Entebbe, Uganda; 2017.imaan_-_sona_poster__27_may_2017.pdf
Tan AW, Nuttall FQ. "Characteristics of the dephosphorylated form of phosphorylase purified from rat liver and measurement of its activity in crude liver preparations." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):45-60. Abstract

The phosphorylated form of liver glycogen phosphorylase (alpha-1,4-glucan : orthophosphate alpha-glucosyl-transferase, EC 2.4.1.1) (phosphorylase a) is active and easily measured while the dephosphorylated form (phosphorylase b), in contrast to the muscle enzyme, has been reported to be essentially inactive even in the presence of AMP. We have purified both forms of phosphorylase from rat liver and studied the characteristics of each. Phosphorylase b activity can be measured with our assay conditions. The phosphorylase b we obtained was stimulated by high concentrations of sulfate, and was a substrate for muscle phosphorylase kinase whereas phosphorylase a was inhibited by sulfate, and was a substrate for liver phosphorylase phosphatase. Substrate binding to phosphorylase b was poor (KM glycogen = 2.5 mM, glucose-1-P = 250 mM) compared to phosphorylase a (KM glycogen = 1.8 mM, KM glucose-1-P = 0.7 mM). Liver phosphorylase b was active in the absence of AMP. However, AMP lowered the KM for glucose-1-P to 80 mM for purified phosphorylase b and to 60 mM for the enzyme in crude extract (Ka = 0.5 mM). Using appropriate substrate, buffer and AMP concentrations, assay conditions have been developed which allow determination of phosphorylase a and 90% of the phosphorylase b activity in liver extracts. Interconversion of the two forms can be demonstrated in vivo (under acute stimulation) and in vitro with little change in total activity. A decrease in total phosphorylase activity has been observed after prolonged starvation and in diabetes.

Tanaka K, Nagata D, Hirata Y, Tabata Y, Nagai R, Sata M. "Augmented angiogenesis in adventitia promotes growth of atherosclerotic plaque in apolipoprotein {E}-deficient mice." Atherosclerosis. 2011;215:366-373. Abstract

{OBJECTIVE: Accumulating evidence suggests that exaggerated formation of vasa vasorum (VV) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. However, it remains unclear whether augmented angiogenesis in the adventitia could promote hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerotic lesion formation. METHODS AND RESULTS: First, we analyzed the time course of VV development in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice. VV proliferation was observed only after atherosclerotic lesion formation. Next, we investigated whether forced perivascular angiogenesis could promote plaque progression. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) (100 μg/body) incorporated in acid gelatin hydrogel microspheres (AGHM) (bFGF+AGHM group

Tang J, Li X, Price MA, Sanders EJ, Anzala O, Karita E, Kamali A, Lakhi S, Allen S, Hunter E, Kaslow RA, Gilmour J. "CD4:CD8 lymphocyte ratio as a quantitative measure of immunologic health in HIV-1 infection: findings from an African cohort with prospective data." Front Microbiol. 2015;6:670. Abstract

In individuals with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, CD4:CD8 lymphocyte ratio is often recognized as a quantitative outcome that reflects the critical role of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells in HIV-1 pathogenesis or disease progression. Our work aimed to first establish the dynamics and clinical relevance of CD4:CD8 ratio in a cohort of native Africans and then to examine its association with viral and host factors, including: (i) length of infection, (ii) demographics, (iii) HIV-1 viral load (VL), (iv) change in CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count (CD4 slope), (v) HIV-1 subtype, and (vi) host genetics, especially human leukocyte antigen (HLA) variants. Data from 499 HIV-1 seroconverters with frequent (monthly to quarterly) follow-up revealed that CD4:CD8 ratio was stable in the first 3 years of infection, with a modest correlation with VL and CD4 slope. A relatively normal CD4:CD8 ratio (>1.0) in early infection was associated with a substantial delay in disease progression to severe immunodeficiency (<350 CD4 cells/μl), regardless of other correlates of HIV-1 pathogenesis (adjusted hazards ratio (HR) = 0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.29-0.63, P < 0.0001). Low VL (<10,000 copies/ml) and HLA-A*74:01 were the main predictors of CD4:CD8 ratio >1.0, but HLA variants (e.g., HLA-B*57 and HLA-B*81) previously associated with VL and/or CD4 trajectories in eastern and southern Africans had no obvious impact on CD4:CD8 ratio. Collectively, these findings suggest that CD4:CD8 ratio is a robust measure of immunologic health with both clinical and epidemiological implications.

Tanui F, Olago D, Dulo SI, Ouma G, Kuria Z. "Hydrogeochemistry of a strategic alluvial aquifer system in a semi-arid setting and its implications for potable urban water supply: The Lodwar Alluvial Aquifer System (LAAS)." Groundwater for Sustainable Development. 2020;11:100451. Abstractdio.org

Lodwar Municipality is one of the fastest-growing urban areas of Sub-Saharan Africa that depends mainly on groundwater for its municipal water supply. Most of the groundwater sources are located within the riparian zones of the Turkwel River. With limited understanding of its aquifers, the groundwater of Lodwar may be at risk of natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Statistical techniques and geochemical methods were applied to determine the aquifer hydrogeochemistry. Three distinct aquifers, which we collectively refer to as the Lodwar Alluvial Aquifer System, underlie Lodwar and its environs, the shallow alluvial, intermediate, and deep aquifers which are the main source of fresh water. A fourth, the shallow aquifer of the Turkana grit, is highly saline and with fluoride contamination. Just as the Turkwel River, the shallow alluvial aquifer (SAA) was dominated by Ca–HCO3 water type, while the TGSA was Na–Cl water type and became Na–HCO3 near the Holocene sediments. The intermediate aquifer (IA) was Na–HCO3water type. Pockets of Mg–HCO3 water occurred in the shallow alluvial and intermediate aquifers. The natural processes in the SAA include rock-water interaction, recharge by surface water, and oxidation reactions, while evaporation and dissolution are the major factors controlling the chemistry of the TGSA. Ion exchange, dilution, and dissolution are the major processes in the IA. Elevated levels of NO3− and SO42− during the wet season within the SAA and the IA reflects their vulnerability to pollution. Saline intrusion into the shallow and intermediate aquifers from the Turkana grit aquifers is likely to occur.

Tanui F, Olago D, Dulo SI, Ouma G, Kuria Z. "Hydrogeochemistry of a strategic alluvial aquifer system in a semi-arid setting and its implications for potable urban water supply: The Lodwar Alluvial Aquifer System (LAAS)." Groundwater for Sustainable Development. 2020;11:100451. Abstractdio.org

Lodwar Municipality is one of the fastest-growing urban areas of Sub-Saharan Africa that depends mainly on groundwater for its municipal water supply. Most of the groundwater sources are located within the riparian zones of the Turkwel River. With limited understanding of its aquifers, the groundwater of Lodwar may be at risk of natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Statistical techniques and geochemical methods were applied to determine the aquifer hydrogeochemistry. Three distinct aquifers, which we collectively refer to as the Lodwar Alluvial Aquifer System, underlie Lodwar and its environs, the shallow alluvial, intermediate, and deep aquifers which are the main source of fresh water. A fourth, the shallow aquifer of the Turkana grit, is highly saline and with fluoride contamination. Just as the Turkwel River, the shallow alluvial aquifer (SAA) was dominated by Ca–HCO3 water type, while the TGSA was Na–Cl water type and became Na–HCO3 near the Holocene sediments. The intermediate aquifer (IA) was Na–HCO3water type. Pockets of Mg–HCO3 water occurred in the shallow alluvial and intermediate aquifers. The natural processes in the SAA include rock-water interaction, recharge by surface water, and oxidation reactions, while evaporation and dissolution are the major factors controlling the chemistry of the TGSA. Ion exchange, dilution, and dissolution are the major processes in the IA. Elevated levels of NO3− and SO42− during the wet season within the SAA and the IA reflects their vulnerability to pollution. Saline intrusion into the shallow and intermediate aquifers from the Turkana grit aquifers is likely to occur.

Tara, Bartlett Leslie, W. A, Okoth U. , ICT in Education Impact Study 2012-2013 Report. The Earth Institute, Columbia University; 2015.
Tarkang PA, Guantai AN;, Tsabang N;, Agbor GA;, Okalebo FA;, Rukunga GM;. "Indigenous Knowledge and folk use of a polyherbal antimalarial by the Bayang Community, South West Region of Cameroon.". 2012. Abstract

Nefang is a polyherbal preparation constituted of the leavesof six plants and the bark of one of these,used traditionally for the treatment of malaria by the Bayang community, South West Region of Cameroon. Since no ethnopharmacological survey has been carried out on this preparation, this study aims at obtaining indigenous and folkloric information on the optimal methods for harvesting of constituent plants, preparation and administration of Nefang in the treatment of malaria. The study design was an exploratory survey.Semi-structured questionnaires were administered randomly to 20 respondents after obtaining their informed consent with the assistance of a medical practitioner. Review of literature of constituent plants was also undertaken. This study revealed that the respondents had a good knowledge of malaria and its causes. Various compositions for the preparation by decoction was obtained and administration was ascertained to be by oral route or by enema. The brief scientific review also validated the pharmacological actions of the constituent plants. The diverse indigenous knowledge and folk use of this preparation in the treatment of malaria are a pre-requisite for theoptimization of its compositionfor efficacy and pharmacological screening

Tarkang PA, Okalebo FA, Siminyu JD, Ngugi WN, Mwaura AM, Mugweru J, Agbor GA, Guantai AN. "Pharmacological evidence for the folk use of Nefang: antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of its constituent plants." BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2015;15:174. Abstract2015_-_pharmacological_evidence_for_the_folk_use_of_nefang.pdf

Background: Nefang is a polyherbal anti-malarial composed of Mangifera indica (MiB and MiL; bark and leaf),
Psidium guajava (Pg), Carica papaya (Cp), Cymbopogon citratus (Cc), Citrus sinensis (Cs) and Ocimum gratissimum (Og) (leaves). Previous studies have demonstrated its in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activities, antioxidant properties and safety profile. This study aimed at evaluating the antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the constituent plants of Nefang which are relevant to the symptomatic treatment of malaria fever.
Methods: Antipyretic activities were determined by the D-Amphetamine induced pyrexia and Brewer’s Yeast induced hyperpyrexia methods. Anti-inflammatory activities were investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema method. Antinociceptive activities were determined by mechanical nociception in the tail pressure and thermal nociception in the radiant heat tail flick and hot plate methods. Data was analysed using the one way ANOVA followed by Neuman-Keuls multiple comparison test.
Results: Best percentage inhibition of induced pyrexia (amphetamine/brewer’s yeast; p < 0.05) was exhibited by Cc (95/97) followed by Og (85/94), MiL (90/89), MiB (88/84) and Cs (82/89). Cc and Og exhibited comparable activities to paracetamol (100/95). Anti-inflammatory studies revealed paw edema inhibition (%) as follows (p < 0.05): Indomethacin (47), MiL (40), Cp (30), MiB (28) and Og (22), suggesting best activity by MiL. Antinociceptive studies revealed significant (p < 0.01) pain inhibition (%) as follows: Paracetamol (97), Og (113), MiL (108), Pg (84) and MiB (88). Og and MiL exhibited the best activities.
Conclusion: The results obtained suggest that the constituent plants possess biologically active compounds with antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. These activities are essential in the symptomatic treatment of malaria fever, thereby justifying the folk use of Nefang. This would be useful in its subsequent development for clinical application.
Keywords: Medicinal plants, Nefang, Pharmacological effects, Antipyretic, Anti-inflammatory, Antinociceptive
activities

Tarkang PA, Atchan APN, Kuiate J-R, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN, Agbor G. "Antioxidant Potential of a Polyherbal Antimalarial as an Indicator of Its Therapeutic Value." Adv. Pharmacol. Sci.. 2013;Article ID 678458.
Tarkang PA, Okalebo FA, Ayong LS, Agbor GA, Guantai AN. "Anti-malarial activity of a polyherbal product (Nefang) during early and established Plasmodium infection in rodent models." Malaria Journal. 2014;13:DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-13-456. Abstract2014_-_antimalarial_activity_of_polyherbal_nefang.pdf

Background: The emerging resistance of Plasmodium species to currently available anti-malarials remains a public health concern, hence the need for new effective, safe and affordable drugs. Natural products remain a reliable source of drugs. Nefang is a polyherbal anti-malarial of the Cameroonian folklore medicine with demonstrated in vitro antiplasmodial and antioxidant activities. It is composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf), Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, Ocimum gratissimum (leaves). This study aimed at investigating the suppressive, prophylactic and curative activities of Nefang in Plasmodium infected rodent models.

Methods: Systemic acute oral toxicity of Nefang aqueous and ethanol extracts was assessed in mice up to a
dose of 5,000 mgkg−1 body weight. BALB/c mice and Wistar rats were inoculated with Plasmodium chabaudi
chabaudi and Plasmodium berghei, respectively, and treated with Nefang, the Mangifera indica bark/Psidium
guajava combination and a Psidium guajava leaf aqueous extracts (75, 150, 300 and 600 mgkg−1 bwt). Their
schizonticidal activity was then evaluated using the Peter’s 4-day suppressive test). The prophylactic and curative (Rane’s Test) activity of Nefang was also evaluated by determining the parasitaemia, survival time, body weight and temperature in pre-treated rodents.

Results: Acute oral toxicity of the extract did not cause any observed adverse effects. Percent suppressions of
parasitaemia at 600 mgkg−1 bwt were as follows (P. berghei/P. chabaudi): Nefang – 82.9/86.3, Mangifera indica bark/Psidium guajava leaf combination extract – 79.5/81.2 and Psidium guajava leaf – 58.9/67.4. Nefang exhibited a prophylactic activity of 79.5% and its chemotherapeutic effects ranged from 61.2 – 86.1% with maximum effect observed at the highest experimental dose.

Conclusion: These results indicate that Nefang has excellent in vivo anti-malarial activities against P. berghei
and P. chabaudi, upholding earlier in vitro antiplasmodial activities against multi-drug resistant P. falciparum
parasites as well as its traditional use. Hence, Nefang represents a promising source of new anti-malarial
agents.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Nefang, Acute toxicity, Malaria, In vivo antiplasmodial activity, Suppressive
activity, Prophylactic activity, Curative activity, Combination phytotherapy

Tarkang PA, Franzoi KD, Lee S, Lee E, Vivarelli D, Freitas-Junior L, Luizzi M, Tsabang N, Ayong LS, Agbor G, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN. "In vitro Antiplasmodial Activities and Synergistic combinations of differential solvent extracts of the Polyherbal Product, Nefang." Biomed. Res. Int.. 2014;Article ID 835013.
Tarkang PA, Franzoi KD, Lee S, Lee E, Vivarelli D, Freitas-Junior L, Liuzzi M, Nolé T, Ayong LS, Agbor GA, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN. "In Vitro Antiplasmodial Activities and Synergistic Combinations of Differential Solvent Extracts of the Polyherbal Product, Nefang." BioMed Research International. 2014;Article ID 835013:DOI: /10.1155/2014/835013. Abstract2014_-_in_vitro_antiplasmodial_activities.pdf

Nefang, a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf), Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves), is a potential therapy against P. falciparum malaria. In vitro antiplasmodial activities of its constituent solvent extractswere analyzed onCQ-sensitive (3D7) andmultidrug resistant (Dd2) P. falciparum strains. The interactions involving the differential solvent extracts were further analyzed using a variable potency ratio drug combination approach. Effective concentration 50 (EC50) values were determined by nonlinear regression curve-fitting of the dose-response data and used in calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration 50 (FIC50) and combination indices (CI) for each pair. The derived EC50 values (3D7/Dd2,

Tarkang PA, Okalebo FA, Agbor GA, Tsabang N, Guantai AN, Rukunga GM. "Indigenous Knowledge and folk use of a polyherbal antimalarial by the Bayang Community, South West Region of Cameroon." J. Nat. Prod. Plant Resour.. 2012;2(3):372-380.
Tasokwa K;, Nyariki D;, Mkwambisi D;, Kogi-Makau W. "Gender vulnerability to climate variability and household food insecurity."; 2011. Abstract

Climate variability presents different challenges for men and for women in their efforts to ensure household food security. However, despite their central role, gender issues have received only cursory attention in adaptation studies. This article looks at causes of gender vulnerability to climate variability and household food insecurity in one sub-Saharan African country: Malawi. Data were collected through a household questionnaire survey, focus group discussions and key informants' interviews in Chikhwawa and Ntcheu districts, located in the southern and central areas of Malawi. Results revealed that exposure and sensitivity to climate risks vary between men and women; therefore, each gender responds differently to climate risks, with men having more opportunities than women. The results highlight the need for policies and interventions to empower women in the access to resources that can strengthen households' resilience to climate variability.

Tasokwa K;, Nyariki D;, Mkwambisi D;, Kogi-Makau W. "Gender vulnerability to climate variability and household food insecurity."; 2011. Abstract

Climate variability presents different challenges for men and for women in their efforts to ensure household food security. However, despite their central role, gender issues have received only cursory attention in adaptation studies. This article looks at causes of gender vulnerability to climate variability and household food insecurity in one sub-Saharan African country: Malawi. Data were collected through a household questionnaire survey, focus group discussions and key informants' interviews in Chikhwawa and Ntcheu districts, located in the southern and central areas of Malawi. Results revealed that exposure and sensitivity to climate risks vary between men and women; therefore, each gender responds differently to climate risks, with men having more opportunities than women. The results highlight the need for policies and interventions to empower women in the access to resources that can strengthen households' resilience to climate variability.

Taussky P, Widmer HR, Takala J, Fandino J. "Outcome after acute traumatic subdural and epidural haematoma in {Switzerland}: a single-centre experience." Swiss medical weekly. 2008;138:281-285. AbstractWebsite
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