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O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Ngugi N, Mcligeyo S.O., Kayima J.K.:The emergency treatment of hyperkalaemia by altering the transcellular gradient in patients with renal failure - effects of various therapeutic approaches. East African Medical Journal. 74(8):, 1997.". In: East African Medical Journal. 74(8):, 1997. University of Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract

Four hundred and three teenage secondary school students (50.6% males) from two girls' and two boys' Nairobi City Schools, selected by stratified sampling, were screened to determine the prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, nitrituria and hypertension. Nine students (2.2%) had significant proteinuria while 14 (3.5%) had microscopic haematuria. Two students had combined proteinuria and haematuria. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of proteinuria and/or haematuria between the sexes. Other urinary abnormalities detected were leucocyturia in 14(3.5%) and nitrites in four (1%). Leucocyturia was commonner in females (p = 0.001). Cloudy urinary appearance was significantly associated with the presence of leucocyturia (p = 0.0028) and proteinuria (p = 0.0276). Neither personal history of recurrent sore throat and skin infections nor family history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus or kidney disease was significantly associated with proteinuria or haematuria. Blood pressure tended to increase with age. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in boys than girls in the age group 15-18 years (P < 0.001). Of the 397 students whose blood pressures were measured, four (1%) were found to be hypertensive. Weight and body mass index were strong positive correlates of blood pressure. The prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, other urinary abnormalities and hypertension ranges between 1% and 3.5% among teenage secondary school children. The majority are asymptomatic and have no significant associations. It is recommended that routine urinalysis and blood pressure measurements should be part of the school health service so as to identify asymptomatic students who require close monitoring and/or intervention.

O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J. O., 2003. SGL 104 : Geostatistics,.". In: Lecture Notes for 1st Year Bed. (Science) by Distance Learning, 155 pp. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2003. Abstract
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O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Implementation of a structured paediatric admission record for district hospitals in Kenya–results of a pilot study. BMC Int Health Hum Rights . 2006 Jul 20; 6 : 9 . PMID: 16857044 [PubMed] Mwakyusa S, Wamae A, Wasunna A, Were F, Esamai F, Ogutu B, Muriit.". In: BMC Int Health Hum Rights . 2006 Jul 20; 6 : 9 . John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2006. Abstract
KEMRI Centre for Geographic Medicine Research-Coast, P,O, Box 43640, Nairobi, Kenya. sekela_mwakyusa@yahoo.com BACKGROUND: The structured admission form is an apparently simple measure to improve data quality. Poor motivation, lack of supervision, lack of resources and other factors are conceivably major barriers to their successful use in a Kenyan public hospital setting. Here we have examined the feasibility and acceptability of a structured paediatric admission record (PAR) for district hospitals as a means of improving documentation of illness. METHODS: The PAR was primarily based on symptoms and signs included in the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) diagnostic algorithms. It was introduced with a three-hour training session, repeated subsequently for those absent, aiming for complete coverage of admitting clinical staff. Data from consecutive records before (n = 163) and from a 60% random sample of dates after intervention (n = 705) were then collected to evaluate record quality. The post-intervention period was further divided into four 2-month blocks by open, feedback meetings for hospital staff on the uptake and completeness of the PAR. RESULTS: The frequency of use of the PAR increased from 50% in the first 2 months to 84% in the final 2 months, although there was significant variation in use among clinicians. The quality of documentation also improved considerably over time. For example documentation of skin turgor in cases of diarrhoea improved from 2% pre-intervention to 83% in the final 2 months of observation. Even in the area of preventive care documentation of immunization status improved from 1% of children before intervention to 21% in the final 2 months. CONCLUSION: The PAR was well accepted by most clinicians and greatly improved documentation of features recommended by IMCI for identifying and classifying severity of common diseases. The PAR could provide a useful platform for implementing standard referral care treatment guidelines. PMID: 16857044 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC1555611
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "The structure of the Kenya Rift from wide-angle seismic measurements.". In: In: Nyambok, I.O. and Ichang'i, D.W. (Editors). Geology for Development in a Sustainable Environment. GSA 95 International Conference Proceedings. 287-304. Wiley Interscience; 1996. Abstract
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O MRAKELOERNEST, ONSERIO MRNYAMWANGESTEPHEN. "Inventory Management by Simulation Analysis .". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . IBIMA Publishing; 2008. Abstract
This paper presents the findings of a study that explored the use of Monte Carlo simulation method to optimally manage inventory in the water equipment industry. The study treated both demand and lead time as stochastic. It proposes an inventory model that will minimize the total inventory costs through simulation analysis while demonstrating how simulation technique can be effectively used to solve inventory management problems
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Koech DK. Outcome of intervention with or without low dose oral interferon alpha in thirty-two HIV-1 seropositive patients in a referral hospital. East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl 2):SS71-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl 2):SS71-6. E Afr Med J; 1990. Abstract

Thirty two critically ill patients were admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital with a diagnosis of HIV-1 seropositivity on both ELISA and Western Blot between October 1989 and January 1990. Sixteen of the patients received low dose oral interferon alpha while the other 16 patients received intensive supportive management alone. Of the 16 patients who received low dose interferon alpha, 14 were discharged from the Hospital within 2 to 4 weeks of admission in a reasonable state of health while two of the patients died after 18 and 42 days from the time of admission. All the 16 patients who received intensive supportive management alone were dead within 4 weeks of entering the Hospital, their mean (+/- SD) stay after admission being 8.6 +/- 6.8 days. These results suggest that low dose oral interferon alpha may be of value in the care of critically ill HIV-1 seropositive patients.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Medical curriculum in a developing country. East Afr Med J . 1987 Oct; 64 ( 10 ): 697-709 . No abstract available. PMID: 3507316 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J . 1987 Oct; 64 ( 10 ): 697-709 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1987. Abstract

No abstract available

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Community- And Road-Kill Rabies Surveillance In Kibwezi, Kenya.". In: Conference. Journal of Commonwealth Veterinary Association (JCVA); Submitted. Abstract
JG Kamau1, WO Ogara1, JJ McDermott2, PM Kitala*   1 Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, PO Box 29053 00625, Nairobi, Kenya 2 International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), PO Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya * Corresponding Author   Summary   We investigate the possibility of cross-infection by rabies between domestic animals and wild mammalian carnivores at a wild-domestic animal interface. The area was known to have a domestic-dog rabies but the involvement of wildlife was unknown. Four sublocations within a transect of approximately 20 km along the Nairobi-Mombasa highway were selected as the study area. A total of 202 households within the area were randomly selected and visited to collect information on wildlife abundance and habits, and for wild-life-domestic dog interactions. Forty of the 202 households were randomly selected for wildlife trapping. An eight-month long community-and road-kill-based rabies surveillance was implemented in the 4 sublocations. The white-tailed mongoose (Ischeumia albicauda), the genet cat (Genetta genetta), the common mongoose (Herpestes spp), the civet cat (Viverra civetta) and the bush squirrel (Paraxerus spp), were identified as the most prevalent species of wildlife in the area. Seventy-one percent (143/202) of the households reported having heard or witnessed their dogs fighting with unspecified wild animal species. White-tailed mongooses (11) and genet cats (11) were the species of wild carnivores trapped within the precincts of the households. The domestic dog accounted for 91% (20/22) of the rabies positive animal brain specimens collected in the community-based rabies surveillance. Only 6.2% (5/81) of the specimens from road-kills were positive for rabies including a domestic cat, a goat, a common mongoose (Herpestes spp), a genet cat, and an unidentified wildlife species.   This study has revealed that small wild carnivores are frequent in Kibwezi and interact with dogs. Dogs are currently the main species for transmission of rabies but there is some rabies in wildlife. The potential for wildlife to act as a reservoir for rabies as in other areas where dog rabies has been controlled needs further investigation.   Keywords: Rabies; Surveillance; Community-based; road-kills; Kenya  
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. A comparison of timolol plus hydrochlorothiazide plus amiloride and methyldopa in essential hypertension in Black Africans. Trop Geogr Med. 1983 Sep;35(3):285-91.". In: Trop Geogr Med. 1983 Sep;35(3):285-91. E Afr Med J; 1983. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O MROUKOKENNEDY. "March 2002: Healthy Futures: An Evaluation. A report on the "Healthy Futures" project. Published on behalf of "Maendeleo ya Wanawake" organization by Pritman, 2003.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; 2003. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O., Cameron J.S., Sacks S.: Improved survival inlupus nephritis in the modern era (1979-1989) using only oral corcosteroids and azethiprine as maitenance therapy. African Journal of Health Sciences 2(1): 211-219 1995.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences 2(1): 211-219 1995. University of Nairobi.; 1995. Abstract
A 30 year old female with an unexpected right adrenal phaechromacytoma invading the renal vein, the inferior vena cava and extending into the right atrium is presented. She also had BuddChiari syndrome due to invasion of the hepatic veins by the tumour. Additionally, the tumour had metastasised to the liver and the lungs. Despite elevated 24 hour urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) the patient was normotensive pre-operatively. The patient underwent right adrenalectomy and extended nephrectomy with milking of the tumaur from the inferior vena cava. Unfortunately, the patient developed multiple hypotensive episodes and adult respiratory distress syndrome post-operatively and died three weeks after surgery.
O PROFMOSIREUBEN. "Mosi, R.O. and Musau Munuve (2003). An assessment of the efficiency of dairy cow evaluation methods.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. 51(4), 198-203. Elsevier; 2003. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Does the "Baby Cloche" heat shield keep low birth-weight infants warm? East Afr Med J . 1992 Jan; 69 ( 1 ): 37-9 . PMID: 1628548 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Brady JP, Wasunna AO, Bowker MH, Musoke RN.". In: East Afr Med J . 1992 Jan; 69 ( 1 ): 37-9 . John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1992. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics, University of Nairobi. To determine whether the "Baby Cloche" heat shield improves temperature control in low birth-weight infants we compared serial temperatures in 11 preterm infants nursed with or without the Cloche. Mean birth weights were 1490 and 1510 gm, mean weights at time of study 1680 and 1710 gm and mean postnatal age 20 and 27 days for study and control infants respectively. Serial measurements of rectal, abdominal skin, dorsum of the foot, Cloche wall and room temperature were recorded once or twice daily for 2 to 5 days. Mean rectal temperatures increased with increasing age from 35.3 in the first week of life to 37.0 degrees C by the third week (P less than 0.001). In infants nursed under the Cloche who were over 2 weeks of age mean rectal, abdominal and foot temperatures were 0.5, 0.6 and 1.6 degrees C higher (P less than 0.001); in younger infants there was no significant difference in any of the temperatures. Our findings suggest that the "Baby Cloche" improves temperature control in preterm infants over 1600 gm who are more than 2 weeks of age. PMID: 1628548 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Oluka MO, Mitema ES, Kibwage IO, Kwasa TO, Kokwaro GO. A comparative bioavailability of four Carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market. East Afr Med J. 1996 May;73(5):323-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 May;73(5):323-6. uon; 1996. Abstract
The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Lake Turkana area: Tectonics and geology.". In: In Kenya from Space. CREDU, France. East African Educational Publishers. 96-99. Nairobi. Wiley Interscience; 1992. Abstract
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O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Elisha T. O. Opiyo, Multi-Agent Systems Scheduler in a Dynamic Environment Using a Load Optimizing Strategy. A PhD Thesis, University of Nairobi, June 2012.". In: Proceedings of the Unesco-Hp Brain Gain Workshop on Distributed Systems, 29th August 2012, at Kenya School of Monetary Studies in Nairobi, Kenya. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2012.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: the role of diuretics in current medicine. East Afr Med J. 1983 Sep;60(9):656-8. Review. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1983 Sep;60(9):656-8. E Afr Med J; 1983. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "N. O Bwibo Haematological Diseases in Tropics In: Paediatrics Practice in Developing countries. Editor: G.J Ebrahim, MacMilla Press Ltd 1981 London pp 239-256.". In: MacMilla Press Ltd. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1981. Abstract

This paper reviews clinicopathological and hematological manifestations of sickle cell anemia as seen in Kenyan children in the first decade of life. The information is based on a study of 447 patients. The findings are similar to those that are well documented from America, West Africa, and other parts of Africa. However, local variations and complications such as malnutrition and topical infections that may affect prognosis are high-lighted.

PMID: 6180653 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Mugivane F I, and W O Ogara, 2004. Livestock and Livestock-products marketing in Kenya under the current economic and market realities: policy concerns. (International Journal of sustainable Development).". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2004. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Current trends in the use of oral hypoglycaemic agents in diabetes mellitus-practical therapeutics. East Afr Med J. 1981 Apr;58(4):244-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Apr;58(4):244-8. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO.Nitric oxide–sources, evolution and potential biological and clinical relevance. East Afr Med J. 1994 Feb;71(2):73-4. No abstract available.". In: African Journal of Medical Practice 1(5):129-132, 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1994. Abstract
Autonomic nervous function was assessed in twenty two patients (16 males and 6 females) with chronic renal failure on conservative management. The presenting symptoms were postural dizziness in 10(45%), impotence in 4(18%) patients and 1 patient each with diplopia, urinary urgency and nocturnal diarrhoea. The following autonomic function tests were performed; valsalva manoeuvre, heart rate response to deep breathing, heart rate response to posture and postural change in blood pressure. Fifteen (68%) patients had abnormal autonomic function tests. Out of these patients, 14(93%) had abnormalities of the parasympathetic system and only one had abnormalities in the sympathetic system. There was a negative correlation between the creatinine levels and the following; valsalva ratio (r = -0.72 p < 0.001), heart rate response to standing (r = -0.56 p < 0.01) and heart rate response to deep breathing (r = -0.45 p < 0.05).
O PROFOWINOJOHN. "Owino, J. O. & Bodo, E. O.(2005): Maintainability in a Mannpower System:.". In: East African J. of Stats. Vol.1, No.1, pp 41-48. 1999; 2005. Abstract
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O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Geological structure of the Rift Valley in Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the Regional Seminar on Geothermal Energy in Eastern and Southern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya (1982). 57-60. Wiley Interscience; 1983. Abstract
Nyambok, I.O.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Eric Ayienga, Elisha Opiyo, Bernard Manderick, Okello-Odongo, Ann Nowe (2006). Multiagent Systems for Bandwidth Optimization in Wireless Grids.". In: Second Annual International conference on sustainable capacity in developing countries - SREC06, AUGUST 6-9, 2006, MAKERERE UNIVERSITY, KAMPALA, UGANDA. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2006.
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT, PETER DRMUGWE. "Smith AW, Hatcher J, Mackenzie IJ, Thompson S, Bal I, Macharia I, Mugwe P, Okoth-Olende C, Oburra H, Wanjohi Z.Randomised controlled trial of treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media in Kenyan schoolchildren.Lancet. 1996 Oct 26;348(9035):1128-33.". In: Lancet. 1996 Oct 26;348(9035):1128-33. MEDICOM; 1996. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The outcomes of treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) are disappointing and uncertain, especially in developing countries. Because CSOM is the commonest cause of hearing impairment in children in these countries, an effective method of management that can be implemented on a wide scale is needed. We report a randomised, controlled trial of treatment of CSOM among children in Kenya; unaffected schoolchildren were taught to administer the interventions. METHODS: We enrolled 524 children with CSOM, aged 5-15 years, from 145 primary schools in Kiambu district of Kenya. The schools were randomly assigned treatments in clusters of five in a ratio of two to dry mopping alone (201 children), two to dry mopping with topical and systemic antibiotics and topical steroids (221 children), and one to no specific treatment (102 children). Schools were matched on factors thought to be related to their socioeconomic status. The primary outcome measures were resolution of otorrhoea and healing of tympanic membranes on otoscopy by 8, 12, and 16 weeks after induction. Absence of perforation was confirmed by tympanometry, and hearing levels were assessed by audiometry. 29 children were withdrawn from the trial because they took non-trial antibiotics. There was no evidence of differences in timing of withdrawals between the groups. FINDINGS: By the 16-week follow-up visit, otorrhoea had resolved in a weighted mean proportion of 51% (95% CI 42-59) of children who received dry mopping with antibiotics, compared with 22% (14-31) of those who received dry mopping alone and 22% (9-35) of controls. Similar differences were recorded by the 8-week and 12-week visits. The weighted mean proportions of children with healing of the tympanic membranes by 16 weeks were 15% (10-21) in the dry-mopping plus antibiotics group, 13% (5-20) in the dry-mopping alone group, and 13% (3-23) in the control group. The proportion with resolution in the dry-mopping alone group did not differ significantly from that in the control group at any time. Hearing thresholds were significantly better for children with no otorrhoea at 16 weeks than for those who had otorrhoea, and were also significantly better for those whose ears had healed than for those with otorrhoea at all times. INTERPRETATION: Our finding that dry mopping plus topical and systemic antibiotics is superior to dry mopping alone contrasts with that of the only previous community-based trial in a developing country, though it accords with findings of most other trials in developed countries. The potential role of antibiotics needs further investigation. Further, similar trials are needed to identify the most cost-effective and appropriate treatment regimen for CSOM in children in developing countries. PIP: 524 children aged 5-15 years with chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) were enrolled in a study to determine the effectiveness of different treatment regimens. The subjects were from 145 primary schools in Kenya's Kiambu district. 201 children received dry mopping treatment, 221 received dry mopping with topical and systemic antibiotics and topical steroids, and 102 received no treatment. Participating schools were matched on factors thought to be related to their socioeconomic status. 29 children were withdrawn from the trial for taking non-trial antibiotics, with no evidence observed of differences in the timing of withdrawals between the two groups. At 16 weeks of follow-up, otorrhoea had resolved in a weighted mean proportion of 51% of children who received dry mopping with antibiotics, 22% of children who received dry mopping alone, and 22% of untreated children. Similar differences were observed at 8 and 12 weeks of follow-up. The weighted mean proportions of children with healing of the tympanic membranes by 16 weeks were 15% in the dry-mopping plus antibiotics group, 13% in the dry-mopping alone group, and 13% in the control group. Hearing thresholds were significantly better for children with no otorrhoea at 16 weeks than for those who had otorrhoea, and were also significantly better for those whose ears had healed than for those with otorrhoea at all times.

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics treatment of gout. East Afr Med J. 1981 Mar;58(3):151-5. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Mar;58(3):151-5. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading, J. Li and J.T. Berry "Fatigue Crack Growth in Cast Al-Cu Alloy A206 With Different Levels of Porosity" AFS Trans. 45 (1994) p 57-61.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1994. Abstract

The fatigue crack growth (FCG) characteristics of a cast Al-Cu alloy A206 in the T7 temper condition were studied in laboratory air at a frequency of 30 Hz and an R-ratio of 0.2. Two different (as cast) thicknesses and two different casting conditions (casting with and without a chill) were investigated with the aim of characterizing the effect of porosity on the FCG behavior. The level of porosity in each sample was determined by the point-counting method and varied from 2.4 to 4.0% before hot isostatic pressing (HIP).<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

 

The study covered both near-threshold and mid-range regimes of FCG. The results indicate that for this limited range of porosity, there exists no systematic relationship between casting conditions (i.e., chilled or non-chilled) or the as-cast thickness and the average level of porosity. However, in the near-threshold regime, the FCG resistance decreased as the level of porosity increased, while in the mid-range of FCG, the FCG rate was fairly independent of the amount of porosity.

Application of HIP led to a reduction in the porosity level from about 4% to less than 0.4%, but this was accompanied by improvement in the FCG resistance only, close to the threshold. The results are rationalized in terms of the effect of porosity on the micro-mechanisms of fatigue crack growth and the initiation of secondary cracks caused by the size, distribution and morphology, of the pores.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "The role of neonatal infection in neonatal and childhood mortality. J Trop Pediatr Environ Child Health . 1971 Sep; 17 ( 3 ): 89-90 . No abstract available. PMID: 5210143 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Bwibo NO.". In: J Trop Pediatr Environ Child Health . 1971 Sep; 17 ( 3 ): 89-90 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1971. Abstract

No abstract available.

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Mbaka M, and W O Ogara 2000. Where is food production in Africa headed in a liberalized global economy. Food Security in Rural Development. Ban Seminar, Nairobi, Kenya. November 2000.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2000. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo, S.O.: Initial experience with continuous Ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Viru infection in a developing country. Peritoneal dialysis International 12(2): 267-268, 1992.". In: Bri. Med. J. 307: 802-803, 1993. University of Nairobi.; 1992. Abstract
In a one year period (March 1990 to March 1991) the pattern of diseases in geriatric patients (over 60 years of age) admitted to the medical wards at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) was studied. In all, there were 1296 patients (M:F = 1.7:1) in this age group forming 11.5% of all admissions during the study period. 1008 (77.8%) of the geriatric patients were between 60 and 79 years of age. Most of the admissions (86.4%) were first admissions. The mean number of diseases per geriatric patient was 1.4. Hypertension and Cardiomyopathy were the commonest single diseases recorded, making up 43.9% of all diseases in this patient population. The commonest neurological diagnosis was stroke, which occurred in a setting of hypertension or cardiomyopathy in all the patients in whom it was diagnosed. The mean duration (+/- 2SD) of stay in the hospital in this patient population was 43 (+/- 19) days. Eighty eight (6.8%) of the patients died, the commonest cause of death being heart failure due to cardiomyopathy or hypertensive heart disease. It is concluded that geriatric patients form a sizeable proportion of our medical admissions and that a large proportion suffer from diseases of the cardiovascular system. It is thus recommended that further studies be carried out on the pattern of diseases in such patients and optimal management strategies for their ailments be outlined.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Water Resources Vulnerability to Environmental Change in Eastern Africa sub-region: Workshop on Africa.". In: University of Nairobi. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2007. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Mineralogy and paragenesis of the fluorite deposits in Musgut-Kimwarer area, Keri Valley, Kenya.". In: M.Sc. thesis. Wiley Interscience; 1973. Abstract
n/a
O DRLUMUMBAPATRICK. "AN OUTLINE OF JUDICIAL REVIEW IN KENYA.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 1. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1999.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Okeyo A MA, R O Mosi, W O Ogara and H M Okemo, 1996. Characterization of Zebu cattle of Kenya: Physical and morphological characteristics. In Proc. IV KARI Sci. Conf., Nairobi, Kenya, October 1996.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1996. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO, Otieno LS, Kinuthia DM, Mwongera FK, Ongeri SK.Ascites in patients undergoing intermittent haemodialysis at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1991 Oct;68(10):789-94.". In: East African Medical Journal (68(11): 841-843, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
In a two-year-period (August 1984 to August 1986), 77 patients were admitted into the maintenance haemodialysis programme at Kenyatta National Hospital. 24 (31.5%) of these had ascites during haemodialysis. Nine (37.5%) of the patients who had ascites had prior peritoneal dialysis, while 15 (62.5%) had congestive cardiac failure at the time of development of the ascites. In 21 (87.5%), the ascites responded to therapy with diuretics, salt and fluid restriction, antibiotics when indicated and to ultrafiltration during dialysis. In 3 (12.5%) of the patients, the ascites developed in the absence of any predisposing cause. The ascites progressively increased in amount and was associated with marked wasting. These patients were considered to have refractory ascites of haemodialysis.
O DROPEREALFRED. "J. Muthama, A. O. Opere and C. B. Lukorito (2003): Utilization of Meteorological products in Agriculture and Water sectors in Central and Eastern Kenya. Journal of African Meteorological Society, vol.6.no1, (2003), p7-1.". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, vol.6.no1, (2003). A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2003. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Politicized Ethnic Conflict in Kenya: A Periodic Phenomenon," in Abadalla Bujra and Abdel Ahmed (eds.), African Conflicts: Their Management, Resolution, and Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Addis Ababa DPMF/OSSREA.". In: Siriba Teachers Colege, Maseno, Kenya. IPPNW; 2001. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFORINDADA, O PROFORINDADA. "Conversion from cyclosporin to azathioprine in renal allograft recipients. East Afr Med J. 1991 Sep;68(9):720-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 Sep;68(9):720-6. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1991. Abstract
Renal function in five patients who were on a combination of Cyclosporin A (CyA) and Prednisone for 2-6 years following renal transplantation, were evaluated, in order to consider change from CyA-prednisone combination to conventional therapy. (Azathioprine-prednisone combination). This was necessitated by CyA nephrotoxicity, its high cost and unreliable monitoring. The maintenance dose of CyA ranged between 200 and 400 mg per day. The BUN levels during CyA treatment ranged from 6 to 15 mmol/l (normal 3.7-6.7 mmol/l), and plasma creatinine from 200 to 300 Umol/l (normal 67-107 Umol/l). The serum electrolytes were normal. The urine outputs were normal. Rejections were treated by pulses of one gram of methyl-prednisolone daily for 3 days. Maintenance prednisolone ranged from 10-15 mg per day. After tapering off the CyA and eventually stopping it, Azathioprine 100-150 mg daily with prednisolone 10-15 mg per day were instituted. There were significant drops in creatinine and BUN levels after the change over, with general well being and good urinary outputs. The patients refused consent for renal biopsy to prove CyA histologic toxicity.
O OL, W KL, W MR, S BB. "Diet composition and nutritional contribution of food scavenged by indigenous chickens in Western Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2009;21.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Decentralisation for Good Governance and Development: The Unending Debate," in Regional Development Dialogue, (UNCRD, Nagoya) Vol. 21, No. 1. Spring 2000, pp. iii-xix.". In: Walter B. Stohr, J.S. Edralin and Medyani Mani, (eds.), Decentralisation, Governance, and New Planning for Local Level Development (Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group). IPPNW; 2000. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga High-Frequency Sum-Rules for Relativistic Classical Plasmas in a Magnetic Field; International Journal of Theoretical Physics 28 893 (1989).". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1989.
O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "A new flavonol tetraglycoside from Myrsina africana leaves.". In: Natural Products letters, 9, 121-126.; 1997. Abstract
n/a
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O., Otieno L.S., Kinuthia D.M.W. Ongeri S.K., Mwongera F.K., Wairagu S.G.: Problems with a Renal Replacement Programme in a Developing Country. Postgraduate Medical Journal 648 (56): 783-786, 1988.". In: Postgraduate Medical Journal 648 (56): 783-786, 1988. University of Nairobi.; 1988. Abstract
We have reviewed the literature relating to the use of monoclonal antibodies in acute renal allograft rejection. More emphasis has been placed on Orthoclone OKT3 which has been more commonly used and summarise our experience with its use as rescue therapy in renal allograft rejection.
O PROFORINDADA. "O'Malley JA, Ho YK, Chakrabarti P, DiBerardino L, Chandra P, Orinda DA, Byrd DM, Bardos TJ, Carter WA.Antiviral activity of partially thiolated polynucleotides. Mol Pharmacol. 1975 Jan;11(1):61-9. No abstract available. PMID: 163952 [PubMed - indexed for .". In: Molecular Pharmacology II, 61-69, (1975). Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1975. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 163952 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Methodological Issues in Administrative Research in Africa," in Bashir O. M. Fadlalla and Fassil Kiros, (eds.), Research Methods in the Social Sciences (Khartoum: University of Khartoum Press).". In: Walter O. Oyugi and A. Gitonga, (eds.), Democratic Theory and Practice in Africa (Nairobi: Heinemann Publishers Ltd., 1987), pp. 99-110. IPPNW; 1986. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O DROPEREALFRED, M PROFMUTUAFRANCIS. "The need for a flood forecasting system in Kenya (revised).". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, March 2002. International Journal of Climatology; 2002. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Munyua, S.J.M. Agumbah, G.J.O., Njenga, M.J., Kuria, K.J.N. and Kamau, J.A. (1991). Preweaning mortality in small scale and medium scale) intensive piggeries in central Kenya (including Nairobi).Ind. J. Agric. Sciences. 61, (2) 126 - 126.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1991. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Designing snacks to address micronutrient deficiencies in rural Kenyan schoolchildren. J Nutr . 2007 Apr; 137 ( 4 ): 1093-6 . Review. PMID: 17374685 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Murphy SP, Gewa C, Grillenberger M, Bwibo NO, Neumann CG.". In: J Nutr . 2007 Apr; 137 ( 4 ): 1093-6 . Review. PMID: 17374685 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2007. Abstractdesigning_snacks_to_address_micronutrient.pdf

University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA. suzanne@crch.hawaii.edu

Three snacks were designed to improve nutrient intakes among school-age children living in rural Kenya. Snacks containing animal-source foods (milk and meat) provided more nutrients than an equicaloric vegetarian snack. The vegetarian snack provided extra vitamin A (primarily from fortified cooking fat; the milk snack was rich in calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin B-12; and the meat snack supplied vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc. When changes in intakes from baseline to the feeding period were compared across the 4 groups, total energy intake increased the most for children in the meat group and the least for children in the control group. Differences in energy intakes across the 3 feeding groups were primarily caused by decreases in home intake for the vegetarian and milk snack groups. It is important to evaluate the change in home intakes as well as intakes from the foods provided by the study when evaluating the effect of feeding programs on nutrient adequacy.

PMID: 17374685 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "McLigeyo S.O., Kungu A., Kayima J.K., Sitati S.M., Were A.j.: Glomerular disease in KEnya - Another look at the disease characterised by Nephrotic Proteinuria. African Journal of Health Sciences 1(4): 185-191, 1994.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences 1(4): 185-191, 1994. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 1994. Abstract
Persistent microcytosis was noted among a number of post renal transplant patients attending the transplant clinic at the Western General Hospital Edinburgh. We retrospectively looked at the pattern of recovery of the anaemia of chronic renal failure following successful renal transplantation with good graft function (Creatinine less than 250 (mol/l). Comparisons were made between those patients with persistent microcytosis and those with normal mean cell volume (MCV). Patients with microcytosis tended to have a slower recovery compared to those with normal MCV especially from week 12 to 21 after transplantation with corresponding Hb changes of 108+ 20 to 126+/-20 g/l vs 128+ 17 to 144+/-19 g/l ([P < 0.05], 95% confidence limits). The microcytic groups also tended to have had poorer graft function with serum creatinines significantly higher than those with normal MCV from week 8 to 21, 182+/- 62 to 173+/- 51 (mol/1 vs 139+/- 40 to 149+/- 38 (mo1/L ([P < 0.05] 95% confidence limits). In both groups haemoglobin concentration was negatively correlated to serum creatinine. (r=-0.54, [P < 0.05]). Body iron status studies had not been done in these patients. Persistent microcytosis though a non sensitive marker of iron deficiency may be a marker of disordered iron metabolism in patients with poorer graft functions.
O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "November 8, 2006 .". In: The 1st Korea .; 2006. Abstract
n/a
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O.; Einarsson S.; Rodriguez-Martinez H.Cryopreservation of boar semen: II. Effect of cooling rate and duration of freezing point plateau in boar semen frozen in mini -, maxi-straws and plastic bags. Acta Vet. Scand. 32, 455-461.". In: 12th International Congress on Animal Reproduction, the Hague, 1992.Workshop on sperm preservation in swine. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1991.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""The Ndhiwa By-election," in East African Journal Vol. No. 10 October 1970.". In: East African Journal of Rural Development, Vol. 9, 9 June 1976. IPPNW; 1970. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O MW. "Mwanda W. O. Geographical, demographical and some clinical characteristics of Burkitt's Lymphoma in Kenya . Doctor of Medicine (M.D) thesis of the University of Nairobi , 2001." (Medicom) 2001:16, 6;100-102.. 2001. AbstractWebsite

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Mutiga, E. R., Ogaa, J.S. and Agumbah, G.J.O. (1980). Early pregnancy diagnosis in cattle. E. Afr. Forest. J. 42, 431 - 434.". In: Proceedings of the Association of veterinary teachers and research workers of Great Britain Annual Scientific Conference, April 1981, Scarbororough, England. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1980. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Child battering in Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr Med J . 1993 Nov; 70 ( 11 ): 688-92 . PMID: 8033769 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Sumba RO, Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J . 1993 Nov; 70 ( 11 ): 688-92 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1993. Abstract

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

A survey of battered children was carried out at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi between 1st May 1989 and 30th April 1990. Twenty eight cases were identified and compared with twenty six controls, matched for age and sex. The battered children were likely to be aged between three and four years, with slight male predominance. The abusing parents tended to live in crowded environments, were younger in age, less educated and were less likely to be practising contraception. They were relatively new migrants to Nairobi and were socially isolated. The socio-economic and cultural issues are discussed.

PMID: 8033769 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

O DRMUSANDUJOYCE. "Omoni, G.M, Musandu J.O Control of Infection During Surgery on a Patient with HIV Infection. Pharm DI Vol 11 No 4 April/May 2000.". In: Pharm DI Vol 11 No 4 April/May 2000. James Murimi; 2000. Abstract

Warenius LU, Faxelid EA, Chishimba PN, Musandu JO, Ong'any AA, Nissen EB.

Division of International Health, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. Linnea.Warenius@ki.se

Adolescent sexuality is a highly charged moral issue in Kenya and Zambia. Nurse-midwives are the core health care providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health services but public health facilities are under-utilised by adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes among Kenyan and Zambian nurse-midwives (n=820) toward adolescent sexual and reproductive health problems, in order to improve services for adolescents. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Findings revealed that nurse-midwives disapproved of adolescent sexual activity, including masturbation, contraceptive use and abortion, but also had a pragmatic attitude to handling these issues. Those with more education and those who had received continuing education on adolescent sexuality and reproduction showed a tendency towards more youth-friendly attitudes. We suggest that critical thinking around the cultural and moral dimensions of adolescent sexuality should be emphasised in undergraduate training and continuing education, to help nurse-midwives to deal more empathetically with the reality of adolescent sexuality. Those in nursing and other leadership positions could also play an important role in encouraging wider social discussion of these matters. This would create an environment that is more tolerant of adolescent sexuality and that recognises the beneficial public health effect for adolescents of greater access to youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services.

PMID: 16713886 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Koech DK, Obel AO. Efficacy of Kemron (low dose oral natural human interferon alpha) in the management of HIV-1 infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl 2):SS64-70.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl 2):SS64-70. E Afr Med J; 1990. Abstract
One hundred and ninety nine symptomatic and 5 asymptomatic patients seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) were treated with KEMRON, a natural human interferon alpha (nHIF alpha) stabilized in a complex polysacchariche carrier. Treatment was given for at least 10 weeks at a daily oral dose of approximately 2.0 IU of nHIF alpha per kg body weight. Karnofsky performance score increased from an average of 60.5 on entry into the study to 100 by the 10th week after treatment. Similarly, common clinical complaints associated with HIV-1 infection rapidly reduced per patient from an average of 3.8 to 0.05 and 0 by week 8 and 10 of treatment. Eighteen of the patients serodeconverted by both ELISA and western blot assays during the study period. These observations suggest that KEMRON used as recommended is beneficial in HIV-1 seropositive individuals.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Antimicrobial susceptibility of non-sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli isolated from cattle feaces and milk samples.". In: Journal. African Journal of Microbiology Research; Submitted.
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Diress, T. A., D. M. Nyariki, and K. O. Farah. 2000. Changing land use systems and socio-economic roles of vegetation in semi-arid Africa: The case of the Afar and Tigrai of Ethiopia. J. Soc. Sci. 4:199 .". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Impact of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions on the environment.". In: In Wandiga S.O. and Abuodha N.L. (Editors) Environment and Development. Wiley Interscience; 1996. Abstract
n/a
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Koech DK. Potassium supplementation versus bendrofluazide in mildly to moderately hypertensive Kenyans. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1991 Mar;17(3):504-7.". In: J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1991 Mar;17(3):504-7. E Afr Med J; 1991. Abstract

Eighty-four consecutive black patients who had confirmed but untreated hypertension participated in a double-blind randomized clinical trial involving potassium supplement (64 mmol/day) versus bendrofluazide (10 mg/day). Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of the 42 patients receiving potassium supplementation (group A) decreased from a mean (+/- SD) of 108 +/- 3 to 88 +/- 4 mm Hg (p less than 0.001; paired t test) after 28 weeks of medication. DBP of the 42 patients receiving bendrofluazide (group B) decreased from a mean of 108 +/- 2 to 84 +/- 4 mm Hg (p less than 0.001; paired t test). There was no statistically significant difference between the magnitude of decrease in DBP in group A and B patients (unpaired t test). No clinical, biochemical, or ECG abnormalities occurred in group A patients. Eight group B patients showed hyperuricemia; 4 patients in the same group had hyperglycemia and 3 other patients had hypokalemia. The results support the notion that potassium supplementation may be an effective therapeutic approach to mildly hypertensive blacks.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Analysis of false positive HIV-1 serologic testing in Kenya. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis . 1988 Mar; 9 ( 3 ): 179-85 . PMID: 2840237 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Kuhls TL, Nishanian PG, Cherry JD, Shen JP, Neumann CG, Stiehm ER, Ettenger RB, Bwibo NO, Ko.". In: Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis . 1988 Mar; 9 ( 3 ): 179-85 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1988. Abstract

Department of Pediatrics, UCLA School of Medicine.

Sera of 95 mothers and 129 children from Nairobi, Kenya, collected in 1976, and of 466 adults and 193 children of Embu District, Kenya, collected in 1984 and 1985, were analyzed for the presence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibodies. Although no HIV-1 seropositivity was demonstrated by western blot analysis in both study groups, 7% of Nairobi mothers and 10% of adult females from Embu District had false positive results by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) compared with less than 1% seroreactivity rates observed in adult males and children. False positive results were not due to simian T lymphotropic virus type III (STLV-IIIAGM)/human T lymphotropic virus type IV (HTLV-IV) seropositivity. Sixty-one percent of the HIV-1 EIA reactive sera could not be explained by cytotoxic activity to lymphocytes bearing the HLA-DR4 or HLA-DQw3 phenotype. We conclude that false positive HIV EIA tests are frequently encountered in East Africa. Seroprevalence rates in rural Africa must be interpreted with caution due to the decreased specificity of HIV EIAs.

PMID: 2840237 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "TACIT KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER - THE IMPERATIVES AND PRACTICES.". In: Journal. Journal of the Association of Professional Societies in East Africa; Submitted. Abstract
Wycliffe Omanya, Development Communication Consultant womanya@gmail.com & Dr. William O. Ogara, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi wogara@uonbi.ac.ke Abstract:   This paper seeks to explore tacit knowledge in the light of knowledge transfer. Specifically it looks at the technique of mentoring as a process through which this highly personalized knowledge can be replicated in any organisation. It also introduces knowledge acquisition process as innate and broadly presents various existing models of tacit knowledge transfer. In addition, it explores the significance of mentoring to all key actors in the process of knowledge transfer while also providing some case scenarios in which this strategy has been successfully used to ensure competitive advantage based on developed long standing knowledge.   Key words: Knowledge management, Tacit Knowledge, explicit knowledge, knowledge transfer, mentoring, transfer models.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: approach to the therapy of diarrhoeal diseases. East Afr Med J. 1984 Jun;61(6):493-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Jun;61(6):493-8. E Afr Med J; 1984. Abstract
Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Farah, K.O., A. F. Tanaka, and N. E. West. 1988. Autecology and population biology of dyers woad (Isatis tinctoria) . Weed Science 36:186-193.". In: In: Proceedings of First symposium of University of Nairobi ASAL thrust and ICRAF held at Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi, December, 1989. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1988.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in a patient with end-stage renal disease following radiotherapy and surgery for transitional cell carcinoma. Nephron. 1996;74(2):495-6. No abstract available.". In: East African Medical Journal 73(9):607-610, 1996. University of Nairobi.; 1996. Abstract
A 30 year old female with an unexpected right adrenal phaechromacytoma invading the renal vein, the inferior vena cava and extending into the right atrium is presented. She also had BuddChiari syndrome due to invasion of the hepatic veins by the tumour. Additionally, the tumour had metastasised to the liver and the lungs. Despite elevated 24 hour urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) the patient was normotensive pre-operatively. The patient underwent right adrenalectomy and extended nephrectomy with milking of the tumaur from the inferior vena cava. Unfortunately, the patient developed multiple hypotensive episodes and adult respiratory distress syndrome post-operatively and died three weeks after surgery.
O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O., 1977. Magnetic model theory in the analysis of vertical gradient anomalies, M.Sc. thesis,.". In: Queen. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1977. Abstract
n/a
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Growth and development of abandoned babies in institutional care in Nairobi. Otieno PA, Nduati RW, Musoke RN, Wasunna AO.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Aug;76(8):430-5. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1999. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of growth and development of institutionalised infants and to compare the outcome with that of infants living with their biological mothers. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Seven children's homes; Kenyatta National Hospital's New Born Unit and Well Baby Clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-two abandoned babies who fulfilled the selection criteria were recruited and for each abandoned baby two mothered babies matched for age and sex were selected from the well baby clinics. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anthropometric measures of weight, length, head circumference and left mid arm circumference (LUMAC) were taken and the mean values and Z scores determined to demonstrate growth pattern and nutritional status of the babies. The Revised Denver Development Screening Test (RDDST) was used to assess the development pattern of infants. RESULTS: Seventy per cent of infants were below six months old and 73% were abandoned within the first week of life. Abandoned babies were significantly thinner with the mean LUMAC of 10.8 cm versus 12.3 cm (p = 0.02) Institutionalised babies were significantly wasted (p = 0.00001) and stunted (p = 0.00001). Abandoned babies were significantly delayed in development (p < 0.0001). In all the four sectors tested for, institutionalised babies showed significant delay, p < 0.0001 in each sector. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that infants under institutional care have poorer growth and development compared to mothered infants. PIP: This cross-sectional study examined the pattern of growth and development of infants in some of the baby institutions in Nairobi and compared the outcome with that of infants living with their biological mothers. The participating institutions included the Kenyatta National Hospital and 7 children's homes within the city. The study recruited 82 abandoned babies aged 1-18 months who had been abandoned for at least 2 weeks. Each abandoned baby was paired with 2 mothered babies matched for age and sex. Anthropometric measures of weight, length, head circumference, and left mid arm circumference (LUMAC) were taken. The mean values and Z scores were determined to assess growth pattern and nutritional status of the babies. The results showed that abandoned babies were significantly thinner, with a mean LUMAC of 10.8 cm vs. 12.3 cm. Moreover, abandoned babies were significantly wasted (p = 0.00001), stunted (p = 0.00001), and delayed in development (p 0.0001). These findings indicate that institutionalized infants have poorer growth and development compared to mothered infants.

O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Amayo EO, Kwasa TO, Otieno CF. Herpes zoster myelitis: report of two cases. East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):279-80.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):279-80. uon; 2002. Abstract
Two male patients aged 40 and 45 years with HIV infection and paraplegia are presented. The two had sub-acute onset paraplegia with a sensory level, which developed 10 days after herpes zoster dermatomal rash. They both had asymmetrically involvement of the lower limbs. Investigation including imaging of the spinal cord did not reveal any other cause of the neurological deficit. The two responded very well to treatment with acyclovir. Herpes zoster myelitis is a condition likely to rise with the upsurge of HIV infection and there is a need to identify the condition early. We also review the literature on the subject.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Magadi: Geology of the Kedong Valley.". In: In Kenya from Space. CREDU, France. East African Educational Publisher. 140-143, Nairobi. Wiley Interscience; 1992. Abstract
n/a
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: first aid and therapy of poisoning from agricultural insecticides and herbicides. East Afr Med J. 1984 Apr;61(4):335-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Apr;61(4):335-8. E Afr Med J; 1984. Abstract

Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "The effect of chronic childhood malnutrition on pubertal growth and development. Am J Clin Nutr . 1982 Sep; 36 ( 3 ): 527-36 . PMID: 7113957 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Kulin HE, Bwibo N, Mutie D, Santner SJ.". In: Am J Clin Nutr . 1982 Sep; 36 ( 3 ): 527-36. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1982. Abstract

Pubertal growth and development were compared in 342 privileged, urban children and 347 impoverished rural adolescents from Kenya. Measurements of height, weight, upper arm circumference, and triceps skinfolds revealed marked differences between the two study groups just before the onset of sexual maturation. These differences were also found in the early stages of puberty but notable catch-up was evident throughout the later period of the maturational process. Early stages of sexual maturity were delayed by 3 yr in malnourished boys with a 2.1-yr lag in the age of onset of menarche in rural girls. Derived estimates of body fat as well as direct anthropometry revealed that the onset of puberty is not size related under the circumstances of chronic childhood malnutrition.

PMID: 7113957 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Strategic Management of Technology in Public Health Sector in Kenya and South Africa. East African Medical Journal. Vol. 81 No. 6: 279-286.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2004. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Related Articles, Links Clinical trials in medicine. East Afr Med J. 1981 Nov;58(11):809-13. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Nov;58(11):809-13. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO.Gromerular diseases in Kenya-another look at diseases characterised by nephrotic proteinura. Afr J Health Sci. 1994 Nov;1(4):185-190.". In: African Journal of Medical Practice 1(5):129-132, 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1994. Abstract
Renal biopsies were evaluated in 422 patients with nephrotic syndrome at the Kenyatta National Hospital between 1982 and 1993. Three hundred and fifty five (84.1%) of the patients were less than 30 years old (range: 7 months to 66 years; mean=SD: 28.4 - 9.2 years). The commonest histological lesions were mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (25.1%), minimal change nephropathy (17.5%) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (15.2%). Poststreptococcal aetiology was implicated in diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis while use of skin lightening cosmetics appeared to play a role in the aetiology of minimal change nephrophathy in females. No aetiological role was apparent for hepatitis B virus, human immunodeficiency virus, malarial or schistosomal infection. All patients with minimal change nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis were treated with steroids and/or cytotoxics with a variable response.
O PROFMOSIREUBEN. "Mosi, R.O. (1978). An assessment of the efficiency of the Kenya Beef Records.". In: Bull. Int. Dairy Fed. 221:32-46. Elsevier; 1978. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Gatei DG, Odhiambo PA, Orinda DA, Muruka FJ, Wasunna A. Retrospective study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya. Cancer Res. 1978 Feb;38(2):303-7.". In: Cancer Res. 1978 Feb;38(2):303-7. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1978. Abstract
A clinical, radiological, histological, and geographical study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya is reported. It was found that this cancer is diagnosed more often in males than in females, with a ration of 8:1 (Kenya Cancer Registry). The most common age in males and females is 50 to 59 years. The regions of the esophagus most commonly involved are the middle and lower thirds, in almost equal proportions. An unexplained tendency for the tumor to be poorly differentiated towards the lower third is noted. In addition a review on the possible etiological factors is presented.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Geological manpower training in Kenya.". In: Proceedings of lst Annual Conference on the Geology of Kenya. 1984. Wiley Interscience; 1985. Abstract
Nyambok, I.O.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Opiyo Elisha T. O., Erick Ayienga, Katherine Getao, Bernard Manderick, Okello-Odongo, Ann Now.". In: In Proceedings of the 4th International Operations Research Society of East Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 23rd-24th Oct 2008, Nairobi, Kenya. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2008.
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT. "Oburra H. Otolaryngology/Head and neck surgical services in developing countries: Challenges and future perspectives.". In: Editorial. East African Medical Journal 75: 321, 1998. MEDICOM; 1998. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of adenotonsillectomy in a sample of Kenyan hospitals and to review indications, timing and complications in 97 cases of adenotonsillectomy done by the authors. DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National, Nairobi, Aga Khan, Gertrude and Mater Hospitals. RESULTS: Adenotonsillectomy is the most frequent otolaryngologic surgical operation. Indications for surgery were upper airway obstruction in 61.3%, recurrent tonsillitis in 28.7% and both in 7.5%. Surgery was indicated during the acute stage in 6.8% of cases. There was one case of post-operative acute airway obstruction. Post operative bleeding from the tonsillar bed was encountered in 2.1% of cases. CONCLUSION: Adenotonsillectomy is the most common otolaryngologic surgical operation in our set-up. The low frequency of complications and a short hospital stay puts up a case for routine adenotonsillectomy as a day surgery procedure.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Gitau W. Comparison of the antihypertensive effect of metipranolol, butizide and torrat in Kenyan Africans. East Afr Med J. 1981 Nov;58(11):867-71. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Nov;58(11):867-71. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Bwibo NO.Congenital syphilis. East Afr Med J. 1971 Apr;48(4):185-91.". In: East Afr Med J. 1971 Apr;48(4):185-91. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1971. Abstract

No abstract available.

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 2001.Knowledge Base in Quality Asssuarance: A tool in poverty eradication and food insecurity strategy. (Workshop on quality control fisheries industry). Berlin Alumni Network Website. 15.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2001. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Otieno MR, McLigeyo SO, Kigondu CS, Rogo KO.Menstrual disorders in patients with chronic renal failure. East Afr Med J. 1993 Jan;70(1):6-9.". In: Bri. Med. J. 307: 802-803, 1993. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract
Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
O DROPEREALFRED. "UNEP 2008. Beekman H.E., Abu-Zeid K., Afouda A., Hughes S., Kane A., Kulindwa K.A., Odada E.O., Opere Alfred., Oyebande L. and Saayman, I.C. : .". In: University of Nairobi. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2008. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Bibliography of Kenya:Geosciences.". In: The Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, Uppsala. 29p. Wiley Interscience; 1977. Abstract
n/a
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Gatikia J K, W O Ogara, J McDermott, P Kitala. Rabies Surveillance in wildlife Populations at the Wildlife/ Domestic Animal Interface; a case study in Kibwezi, Kenya. In proceedings of Southern and Eastern African Rabies Group (SEARG) Nairobi, Kenya; 4-6 .". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1997. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo, S.O.: Treatment of Urinary Tract Infection. East African Medical Journal (68(11): 841-843, 1991.". In: East African Medical Journal (68(11): 841-843, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. Characteristics of 14 patients above 12 years of age with congenital polycystic liver disease attending liver clinic at KNH were analysed. The diagnosis was mainly based on ultrasonographic findings. The disease was found predominantly among the Kikuyu ethnic group with a female/male ratio of 6:1 and the peak age at presentation was in the 5th decade. The liver function tests were essentially normal in all cases with no complication directly relating to liver disease. Hypertension was found in 78.6% of cases and chronic renal failure in 35.7% of cases. There was an associated polycystic disease in at least one other abdominal organ in all cases.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Rainfall characteristics as an indicator of drought in semi-arid Kitui district of Kenya (revised).". In: Discovery and Innovations, African Academy Science publishers. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2004. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""The Search for an Appropriate Decentralization Design in Kenya: Historical and Comparative Perspectives," in Kindiki, K., and Ambani, O., (eds.), The Anatomy of Bomas: Selected Analyses of the 2004 Draft Constitution of Kenya, Nairobi: Claripress.". In: Siriba Teachers Colege, Maseno, Kenya. IPPNW; 2005. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFORINDADA, O PROFORINDADA. "Mbiti MJ, Ojwang PJ, Orinda DA. External quality control performance in clinical chemistry: experience in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1993 Apr;70(4 Suppl):16-20.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Apr;70(4 Suppl):16-20. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1993. Abstract
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Analysis of eleven biochemical laboratory tests was done during an International External Quality Assessment Scheme (IEQAS) in which the clinical chemistry laboratory at Kenyatta National Hospital participated. Technicon SMA II continuous flow system was used in the biochemical analyses apart from glucose which was assayed manually by the glucose oxidase method. Using the standard deviation index (SDI), twenty six percent of the results were found to be outside the two standard deviation (2SD) limit. However, when variance index score (VIS) was used, 42% of the results were found to be outliers. Overall, our laboratory performed poorly compared to other laboratories in both the IEQAS and the United Kingdom External Quality Assurance Scheme (UKEQAS). This poor performance is attributed to the use of improper equipment which is not regularly maintained, lack of diagnostic reagents, lack of quality control (QC) materials and inadequate staff training in the field of quality control.
O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga Strongly coupled quantum Magnetic Polarizability Tensor; Discovery Innovation 2 (4), 21.". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1991.
O PROFMIDIWOJACOB, O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Two prenylated flavonones from stem bark of Erythrinna burtii.". In: Phytochemistry, 48, 8 1439-1443).; 1998. Abstract
n/a
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Mcligeyo, S.O. and Otieno, L.S.: Complication seen in patients undergoing intermittent haemodialysis at the Kenyatta National Hospital in the period 1984 - 1986. East African Medical Journal 658(3): 147-154, 1988.". In: East African Medical Journal 658(3): 147-154, 1988. University of Nairobi.; 1988. Abstract
We have reviewed the literature relating to the use of monoclonal antibodies in acute renal allograft rejection. More emphasis has been placed on Orthoclone OKT3 which has been more commonly used and summarise our experience with its use as rescue therapy in renal allograft rejection.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Opere, A.O., Mutua, F.M. and L.A. Ogallo (1993): Catchment spatial characteristics derived from principal component analysis (PCA). Proceedings of the First International workshop for the African Meteorological Society, 8-12 February 1993, KICC, Nairobi, .". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, vol.15, 2001. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 1993. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFMUMMAALBERT. "Preservation of Public Security Through Executive Restraint o Personal Liberty: A Case Study of the Kenyan Position, Law & Politics in Africa, Asia and Latin America, 21 Jahrgang - 4, Quartal, at p. 444.". In: Journal of Environmental Law, vol. 5/2, (1993), at p. 191. Departmental seminar; 1988. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
O PROFORINDADA. "Orinda DA.Rate of tumour inhibition by activated macrophages in vitro.East Afr Med J. 1978 Apr;55(4):177-81. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1978 Apr;55(4):177-81. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1978. Abstract
PMID: 679868 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFBWIBONIMROD, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Composition of early human milk of Kenyan mothers of preterm and term infants. East Afr Med J . 1986 Nov; 63 ( 11 ): 693-8 . No abstract available. PMID: 3582225 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Jitta JN, Musoke RN, Bwibo NO, Kioni J.". In: East Afr Med J . 1986 Nov; 63 ( 11 ): 693-8 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1986. Abstract
No abstract available
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""The Unification of the Local Government System in Kenya," in Peter deValk and Wekwete, (eds.), Decentralisation for Participatory Planning (Aldershot: Gower Publishing Co.).". In: Walter O. Oyugi, (ed.), Politics and Administration in East Africa (Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers). IPPNW; 1989. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O OET, Ayienga E, Getao K, Manderick B, Okello-Odongo W, Nowé A. "Dynamic Resource Allocation: A comparison of First Price Sealed Bid and Vickrey Auction Mechanisms in non pre-emptive, no failure situations." International Journal of Computing and ICT Research. 2008;Vol. 1(Special Issue):28-34.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Ngeranwa, J.J.N., Gathumbi, P.K., Mutiga, E.R. and Agumbah G.J.O. (1993). Pathogenesis of Trypanosoma Brucei evansi in small East African goats. Res. Vet. Sci. 54 283 - 89.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1993. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Neonatal nutrition and later outcomes of very low birth weight infants at Kenyatta national hospital Afr Health Sci. 2007 June; 7 (2) : 108.". In: Afr Health Sci. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2007. Abstractneonatal_nutrition.pdf

Extensive research in developed countries has established that very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are particularly vulnerable to the effects of early nutritional deficiencies. There is, however, little information from poor countries on the long-term effects of these deficiencies in such infants.

Determine the association between neonatal feeding regimens and post-discharge morbidity/ mortality and neurological abnormalities at the age of two years for a cohort of VLBW infants.

One hundred and seventy five VLBW infants were recruited over a consecutive period of one year and followed up to the age of two years corrected for gestation. With neonatal feeding regimes as the exposure variable, post-discharge re-hospitalization, mortality and Saigal and Rosenbaum's functional disability assessment scores were compared as the outcome variables.

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Muraguri P., McLigeyo S.O., Kayima J.K. Proteinuria, other selected urinary abnormalities and Hypertension among teenage secondary school students in Nairobi, Kenya. East African Medical Journal, 74(8): 467 - 473; 1997.". In: East African Medical Journal, 74(8): 467 - 473; 1997. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 1997. Abstract

Four hundred and three teenage secondary school students (50.6% males) from two girls' and two boys' Nairobi City Schools, selected by stratified sampling, were screened to determine the prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, nitrituria and hypertension. Nine students (2.2%) had significant proteinuria while 14 (3.5%) had microscopic haematuria. Two students had combined proteinuria and haematuria. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of proteinuria and/or haematuria between the sexes. Other urinary abnormalities detected were leucocyturia in 14(3.5%) and nitrites in four (1%). Leucocyturia was commonner in females (p = 0.001). Cloudy urinary appearance was significantly associated with the presence of leucocyturia (p = 0.0028) and proteinuria (p = 0.0276). Neither personal history of recurrent sore throat and skin infections nor family history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus or kidney disease was significantly associated with proteinuria or haematuria. Blood pressure tended to increase with age. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in boys than girls in the age group 15-18 years (P < 0.001). Of the 397 students whose blood pressures were measured, four (1%) were found to be hypertensive. Weight and body mass index were strong positive correlates of blood pressure. The prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, other urinary abnormalities and hypertension ranges between 1% and 3.5% among teenage secondary school children. The majority are asymptomatic and have no significant associations. It is recommended that routine urinalysis and blood pressure measurements should be part of the school health service so as to identify asymptomatic students who require close monitoring and/or intervention.

O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Anti-feedant effects of surface accumulated flavonoids of Polygonum senegalense.". In: Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. (1990), 4(2), 123.; 1990. Abstract
n/a
O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "18th March, 2007 .". In: Sunday Standard.; 2007. Abstract
n/a
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O. Articial Insemination in Pigs.". In: A paper presented at . The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1993.
O DROUTAGEORGE. "7. .". In: Souvenir Journal of African Literature, No 1. Vol 1. Octawns: Nairobi, 1999. 1999; 1986. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 11957248 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Assessing Local Administrative Capacity for Development Purposes: A Kenyan Case," in The African Review, Vol. 5, No. 3.". In: East African Journal of Rural Development, Vol. 9, 9 June 1976. IPPNW; 1975. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. (1982. Companion of CIE and VMAT methods for the immunodiagnosis of C. fetus infection in cattle.". In: Wld. Congr. Dis. Cattle. Amsterdam, 7 - 10th Sept. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1982. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Bwibo N O Child Abuse and Neglect, Chapter 27 In: child Health .". In: AMREF. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1997. Abstract

Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. swhaley@mednet.ucla.edu

Previous observational studies in developing countries have suggested that diet quality, particularly increased animal source food (ASF) consumption, is positively associated with child cognitive development. This report presents findings from a study in rural Kenya, designed to test the impact of three different diets on the cognitive development of school children. Twelve schools with a total of 555 Standard 1 children (equivalent to U.S. Grade 1) were randomized to one of four feeding interventions: Meat, Milk, Energy or Control (no feeding). Feeding continued for seven school terms (21 mo), and cognitive tests were administered before the commencement of feeding and during every other term of feeding. Hierarchical linear random effects models and associated methods were used to examine the effects of treatment group on changes in cognitive performance over time. Analyses revealed that children receiving supplemental food with meat significantly outperformed all other children on the Raven's Progressive Matrices. Children supplemented with meat, and children supplemented with energy, outperformed children in the Control group on tests of arithmetic ability. There were no group differences on tests of verbal comprehension. Results suggest that supplementation with animal source food has positive effects on Kenyan children's cognitive performance. However, these effects are not equivalent across all domains of cognitive functioning, nor did different forms of animal source foods produce the same beneficial effects. Implications of these findings for supplementation programs in developing countries are discussed.

PMID: 14672297 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O DRMUSANDUJOYCE. "Wagoro M.C.A.,Othieno C.J.Musandu J & Karani A.,2008,: Structure and Process Factors that Influence Patient.". In: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 15, 246. James Murimi; 2008. Abstractstructure_and_process_factors_that_influence_patients_perception_of_inpatient_psychiatric_nursing_care_at_mathari_hospital__nairobi.pdf

To explore structure and process factors which influence patients' perception of quality inpatient psychiatric nursing care at Mathari hospital. This was a cross-sectional study of 236 inpatients selected by stratified random sampling. Competence to give consent was determined by a minimum score of 24 on Mini Mental State Examination. Patients were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Differences in proportions of variables were determined by calculating confidence interval and summary chi-squared statistics. P-values of < or =0.05 were considered significant. Majority of patients (87%) were aged 20-49 years with 43% having stayed in the ward for over a month. Structure factors related to patients' perception of care included physical environment, being happy with the way the ward looked was significantly related to satisfaction with care (chi(2) = 5.506, P = 0002). Process factors significantly related to patients' satisfaction with care included nurses providing patients with information on prescribed medicines (chi(2) = 10.50, P = 00012). Satisfaction with care was positively related to ability to recommend someone for admission in the same ward (chi(2) = 20.2, P = 00001). Structure and process factors identified as influencing patients' perception of care were physical environment and nurses' qualities that fit within the characteristics of Peplau's Interpersonal Relations Theory.

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Tombe M, Bhatt KM, Obel AO. Quinine loading dose in severe Falciparum malaria at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1992 Dec;69(12):670-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Dec;69(12):670-4. E Afr Med J; 1992. Abstract
From July 1989 to February 1990, 17 non-pregnant patients with severe falciparum malaria, aged 14 years and above received an initial intravenous quinine dihydrochloride loading dose of 20 mg/kg in 500 mls of normal saline or 5% dextrose infused over 4 hours followed by 100mg/kg infused 8 hourly for at least 24 hours. Sixteen comparable controls were similarly treated but without an initial loading dose. Oral quinine bisulfate 10mg/kg 8 hourly was substituted for a total of 7 days when patients were well enough. There was no significant difference in clinical and parasitological response between the two groups. Fever clearance time in hours was 44.00 +/- 13.92 (mean +/- SD) in the study group and 51.43 +/- 19.63 (mean +/- SD) in the control group (p > 0.05). Parasite clearance time in hours was 42.40 +/- 9.75 (mean +/- SD) in the study group and 47.05 +/- 7.69 (mean +/- SD) in the control group (p > 0.05). One patient from each group died. Mild toxic effects were common in both groups. Transient partial hearing loss occurred significantly more in the study than control group (p < 0.05). Hypoglycaemia during treatment occurred in 3 (18%) patients in the study group and 1 (6%) in the control group. The mean trough and peak plasma quinine levels in 3 patients per group was persistently higher than 9mg/L after first infusion. We conclude that though fairly well tolerated, quinine loading dose appears to have no advantage over the standard treatment for severe falciparum malaria at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Sindani I.S, McLigeyo S.O: Prevention and control of tuberculosis: a review. African Journal of Health Sciences, Vol 4 (1): 15-19, 1997.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences, Vol 4 (1): 15-19, 1997. University of Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract

Four hundred and three teenage secondary school students (50.6% males) from two girls' and two boys' Nairobi City Schools, selected by stratified sampling, were screened to determine the prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, nitrituria and hypertension. Nine students (2.2%) had significant proteinuria while 14 (3.5%) had microscopic haematuria. Two students had combined proteinuria and haematuria. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of proteinuria and/or haematuria between the sexes. Other urinary abnormalities detected were leucocyturia in 14(3.5%) and nitrites in four (1%). Leucocyturia was commonner in females (p = 0.001). Cloudy urinary appearance was significantly associated with the presence of leucocyturia (p = 0.0028) and proteinuria (p = 0.0276). Neither personal history of recurrent sore throat and skin infections nor family history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus or kidney disease was significantly associated with proteinuria or haematuria. Blood pressure tended to increase with age. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in boys than girls in the age group 15-18 years (P < 0.001). Of the 397 students whose blood pressures were measured, four (1%) were found to be hypertensive. Weight and body mass index were strong positive correlates of blood pressure. The prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, other urinary abnormalities and hypertension ranges between 1% and 3.5% among teenage secondary school children. The majority are asymptomatic and have no significant associations. It is recommended that routine urinalysis and blood pressure measurements should be part of the school health service so as to identify asymptomatic students who require close monitoring and/or intervention.

O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Effect of newborn resuscitation training on health worker practices in Pumwani Hospital, Kenya. Opiyo N, Were F, Govedi F, Fegan G, Wasunna A, English M.PLoS ONE. 2008 Feb 13;3(2):e1599.". In: PLoS ONE. 2008 Feb 13;3(2):e1599. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2008. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Birth asphyxia kills 0.7 to 1.6 million newborns a year globally with 99% of deaths in developing countries. Effective newborn resuscitation could reduce this burden of disease but the training of health-care providers in low income settings is often outdated. Our aim was to determine if a simple one day newborn resuscitation training (NRT) alters health worker resuscitation practices in a public hospital setting in Kenya. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a randomised, controlled trial with health workers receiving early training with NRT (n = 28) or late training (the control group
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Current state-of-the-art, problems and preliminary results of seismic hazard assessment in sub-Saharan Africa.". In: In: Bormann, P. (Editor). Regional International Training Course Volume (1997) on Seismology and Seismic Hazard Assessment. Scientific Technical Report STR 98/05. Potsdam. 262-271. Wiley Interscience; 1998. Abstract
n/a
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Pharmacology of beta adrenoreceptor blocking agents. East Afr Med J. 1993 Jul;70(7):401. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Jul;70(7):401. E Afr Med J; 1993. Abstract

Department of Cariology Endodontology Pedodontology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Louwesweg 1, 1066 EA Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The use of Chewing sticks (Miswaki) in the third world for control of dental plaque is very popular. Some of the studies that have been conducted on this subject have reported marked decrease in the incidences of dental caries and periodontal diseases in the users of Miswaki, when compared to the users of the conventional toothbrush living under similar conditions. Various mechanisms by which the Miswaki contributes to this phenomenon have been suggested. The purpose of the present study was to investigate in vitro, the anti-microbial action, the potential acid buffer capacity and fluoride content of crude aqueous extracts of eight commonly used chewing sticks from three regions in Kenya. The results obtained in the study, showed that one of the Miswaki had remarkable antibiotic activity against three stains of oral bacteria. Three of the Miswaki had significant acid buffer capacity. None of the eight Miswaki showed any significant fluoride release.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "A study of the efficacy and safety of albendazole (Zentel) in the treatment of intestinal helmenthiasis in Kenyan children less than 2 years of age. East Afr Med J . 1989 Mar; 66 ( 3 ): 197-202 . PMID: 2591328 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Pamba HO, Bwib.". In: East Afr Med J . 1989 Mar; 66 ( 3 ): 197-202 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1989. Abstract

One hundred children comprising of 57 males and 43 females aged between 8 and 24 months entered the study. 46 children had single and 54 children had multiple helminth infections. All children received albendazole 200 mg (10 ml) suspension as a single dose. Albendazole proved very effective and safe in the treatment of single and multiple helminth infections in children under 2 years of age, achieving cure rates of 100% in both Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus respectively, 83% in Trichuris trichiura and 66% in Hymenolepis nana. Treatment of polyparasitism appears to be of benefit in improving nutritional status using haemoglobin concentrations as an index.

PMID: 2591328 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Knowledge Management & Institutional Framework: Kenyan Veterinary Services.". In: Journal. Journal of Knowledge Management Practice; Submitted.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. The development of beta adrenoceptors in medicine. East Afr Med J. 1984 Oct;61(10):733-5. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Oct;61(10):733-5. E Afr Med J; 1984. Abstract
Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "PEOPLE, LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE: EXISTING NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN NAIBUNG.". In: Journal. EcologicalSociety for Eastern Africa; Submitted.
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Farah, K. O. 1994. Vegetation, pp. 119-128; in: Tiffen, Mortimore, Gichuki (eds). More people, less erosion: environmental recovery in Machakos District, Kenya. John Wiley and Sons.". In: in: Tiffen, Mortimore, Gichuki (eds). More people, less erosion: environmental recovery in Machakos District, Kenya. John Wiley and Sons. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Kayima JK, McLigeyo SO, Were AJ, Luta M.Kidney transplantation: recent medical experiences from the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 1996 Sep;73(9):614-8.". In: East African Medical Journal 73(9):607-610, 1996. University of Nairobi.; 1996. Abstract
Renal transplantation is not readily available in the majority of countries in Africa. It is expensive and difficult to sustain on the meagre funds allocated to health. We report our short experience with fifteen living donor recipients followed in our unit for at least 24 months, range 26 - 48 (mean 35 months) post-transplantation. The donors and recipients were mostly young adults with mean ages of 36.7 years and 32.6 years respectively. The majority of the donors and recipients were males. The donors in most cases were siblings. Within this time, one graft has been lost at one year and the patient restarted on haemodialysis. Three patients died, two within the first year, the third at 23 months after transplantation, all with functioning grafts. The one year graft and patient survival rates were 93% and 86.6% respectively. The second year graft survival rates remained at 93% and the patients survival rate 80%. The nature and frequency of complications seen in these patients is comparable to those in other centres. Of all medical complications, bacterial infections contributed 69.4% of all infections. Cardiovascular complications comprised 31.25% of the complications. Hypertension seen in 85.5% of the patients accounted for 65% of the cardiovascular complications. Acute rejections were common and occurred in seven patients. Transplantation is a viable mode of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in our environment. The practice should be supported to make it more readily available to the many young end stage renal failure (ESRF) patients.
O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O., 1984. Euler.". In: Geophysics 49, 1549-1553. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1984. Abstract
n/a
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Wasunna A, Mohammed K. Low birthweight babies: socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics of adolescent mothers at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):543-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):543-6. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare some socio-demographic and obstetric factors between adolescent mothers (aged below 20 years) and older mothers of low birthweight (birthweight < 2000 gm) babies. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive study. SETTING: The Newborn Unit of the Kenyatta National Hospital. RESULTS: Sixty nine adolescent mothers and 73 older mothers were studied. Adolescent mothers were more likely to be unmarried (p = 0.0001) have less formal education (p < 0.0001) be unemployed and be primigravida (76.5% compared to 36% of older mothers). Although the obstetric factors of antenatal clinic attendance, premature rupture of the membranes, pre-eclamptic toxaemia, infections and interventronal delivery tended to be more frequent among the adolescent mothers, non of these differences were significant probably due to the small numbers of patients studied. CONCLUSION: This study does suggest mothers of very low birthweight babies tend to have unfavourable socio-demographic and obstetric factors like being single parents having less formal education, being unemployed and having obstetric risks for poor pregnancy outcome.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Seismology and Related Sciences in Africa.". In: Tectonophysics Special Issue, Vol. 209 Nos. 1-4, Elsevier. 337p.(editors). Wiley Interscience; 1992. Abstract
n/a
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Bernard O. Okuku, Elisha T. O. Opiyo. An efficient agent-based wireless communication model. In the proceedings of The 3rd International Conference on Internet Technology and Applications (iTAP 2012), August 18-20, 2012 in Wuhan, China. To appear in EEE X.". In: Proceedings of the Unesco-Hp Brain Gain Workshop on Distributed Systems, 29th August 2012, at Kenya School of Monetary Studies in Nairobi, Kenya. AJFAND; 2012.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Sharif SK, McLigeyo SO, Gitonga E, Shah MV, Gitau W. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in an African. East Afr Med J. 1984 Sep;61(9):724-6. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Sep;61(9):724-6. E Afr Med J; 1984. Abstract

Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Haemoglobin A1C in children with sickle cell disease. East Afr Med J . 1984 Jan; 61 ( 1 ): 32-4 . No abstract available. PMID: 6745138 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Juma FD, Gitau W, Bwibo NO, Gachoka C.". In: East Afr Med J . 1984 Jan; 61 ( 1 ): 32-4 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1984. Abstract

Despite the high frequency of sickle cell disease in Europe, the disease is poorly managed. Critical periods are the hospital stays during which the anaesthesiologist plays an important role. Understanding the molecular basis of polymerization processes of haemoglobin S can help to avoid triggering a crisis. Differentiation of the various haemoglobin phenotypes helps to estimate the individual perioperative risk. Knowledge of the patient's history and the actual haemoglobin S level facilitates general anaesthesia, surgery and postoperative care. Damage to liver, spleen, eyes, bones, lung and central nervous system increases the perioperative risk. Preoperative preparation includes early admission, intravenous volume substitution, continuing pain therapy and prophylactic antibiotic medication. General anaesthesia seems to be better for patients with a high-risk profile rather than regional anaesthesia. Careful perioperative and postoperative monitoring should allow hypoxaemia, hypovolaemia, hypothermia, acidosis and overtransfusion to be avoided. Effective pain therapy includes a combination of opioids with peripherally acting analgesia.

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Community perceptions of important camel diseases in Lapur Division of Turkana District, Kenya. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 37(2005), 187-204.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2005. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: the newer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):366-73. Review. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):366-73. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "McLigeyo S.O., Kungu A., Kayima J.K., Sitati S.M., Were A.j.: Glomerular disease in KEnya - Another look at the disease characterised by Nephrotic Proteinuria. African Journal of Health Sciences 1(4): 185-191, 1994.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences 1(4): 185-191, 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1994. Abstract
End stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy is a common complication of several renal diseases that are seen in the tropics. World over, the costs of the various modalities of therapy that constitute renal replacement therapy, including hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and renal transplantation, is prohibitive. All the above modes of therapy are provided in Kenya, unlike most countries with similar level of socioeconomic development. This article analyses the factors behind the limited success that renal replacement therapy enjoys in Kenya, which is faced with more pressing basic problems of malnutrition and infection.
O PROFMOSIREUBEN. "Mosi, R.O. and D.E. Mbogo (1987). Role of animal and institutional resources in dairy cattle improvement: A case study of the National Daily Cattle Breeding Programme for A.I. bulls in Kenya. Bull. Int. Dairy Fed. 221:32-46.". In: Bull. Int. Dairy Fed. 221:32-46. Elsevier; 1987. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Autrup H, Bradley KA, Shamsuddin AK, Wakhisi J, Wasunna A. Detection of putative adduct with fluorescence characteristics identical to 2,3-dihydro-2-(7'-guanyl)-3-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 in human urine collected in Murang'a district, Kenya. Carcinogenesis. 19.". In: Carcinogenesis. 1983 Sep;4(9):1193-5. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1983. Abstract

Food samples collected in Murang'a district, Kenya are known to be contaminated with a mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB), and a positive correlation exists between the dietary intake of AFB and the incidence of liver cancer. When urine samples collected in this district were analyzed for the presence of 2,3-dihydro-2-(7'-guanyl)-3-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 (AFB-GuaI) by h.p.l.c., 6 of 81 samples had a detectable level of a compound whose fluorescence spectrum was identical to chemically synthesized AFB-GuaI as confirmed by photoncounting fluorescence spectrophotometry. These results are an indication of interaction between the ultimate carcinogenic form of AFB and cellular nucleic acids in vivo and further support the hypothesis that AFB may play an important role in the etiology of human liver cancer.

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Proceedings of the 1st Regional Seminar in Earth Sciences,.". In: (Editor) Dakar, Senegal, 1986. ANSTI-UNESCO. 124p. Wiley Interscience; 1987. Abstract
Nyambok, I.O.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Elisha T. O. Opiyo (2009). Innovative applications in Healthcare. University of Nairobi College of Health Sciences, Institute of Tropical & Infectious Diseases, The UNITID Fellowship Programme, HIV Health Informatics Track.". In: Published by The University of Nairobi, Printed by College of Education and External Studies, 2009. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2009.
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT. "Oburra HO, Idenya M.Frequency of adenotonsillectomy in some Nairobi hospitals.East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7):338-42.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7):338-42. MEDICOM; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of adenotonsillectomy in a sample of Kenyan hospitals and to review indications, timing and complications in 97 cases of adenotonsillectomy done by the authors. DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National, Nairobi, Aga Khan, Gertrude and Mater Hospitals. RESULTS: Adenotonsillectomy is the most frequent otolaryngologic surgical operation. Indications for surgery were upper airway obstruction in 61.3%, recurrent tonsillitis in 28.7% and both in 7.5%. Surgery was indicated during the acute stage in 6.8% of cases. There was one case of post-operative acute airway obstruction. Post operative bleeding from the tonsillar bed was encountered in 2.1% of cases. CONCLUSION: Adenotonsillectomy is the most common otolaryngologic surgical operation in our set-up. The low frequency of complications and a short hospital stay puts up a case for routine adenotonsillectomy as a day surgery procedure.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Related Articles, Links Practical therapeutics: the use of insulin. East Afr Med J. 1982 May;59(5):301-5. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 May;59(5):301-5. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "J. M. Kihiu, S. M. Mutuli and G.O. Rading Stress Characterization in Autofrettaged Thick Walled Cylinders Int. J. Mechanical Engineering Education. 31(4) (2003) p 370-389.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 2003. Abstract

The inaccessibility of commercial software has necessitated the development of low-cost, general-purpose finite element method (FEM) computer programs for structural analysis. Using the FEM program, the elastic, elastic-plastic, residual and service stresses and displacements in a closed ended, thick-walled cylinder under internal pressure were established. The displacement formulation was implemented and eight-noded brick isoparametric elements chosen. The frontal solution technique and the incremental theory of plasticity were used, as only limited computing facilities were available. The results were found to be in very good agreement with the through-thickness analytical values. The benefits of autofrettage were demonstrated and an optimum overstrain of 16% established for a cylinder with a thickness ratio of 2. The material economy achieved through autofrettage and the limitations imposed are illustrated. The FEM program could therefore be reliably used for other complex geometries and load conditions.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Varieties of malnutrition. Kenya Nurs J . 1975 Dec; 4 ( 2 ): 38-40 . No abstract available. PMID: 1044874 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Bwibo NO.". In: Kenya Nurs J . 1975 Dec; 4 ( 2 ): 38-40 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1975. Abstract

No abstract available.

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W.O. 2001. Economic Benefits of Environmental Regulations and Standards. In Public Education and Awareness of Regulations and Standards of the Environmental Management and Coordination Act, 1999.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2001. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Recent advances in mechanism of causation of diabetes mellitus in man and Acomys cahirinus. East Afr Med J. 1974 May;51(5):425-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1974 May;51(5):425-8. E Afr Med J; 1974. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "McLigeyo S.O. and Kayima J.K.: Evaluation of Nephrology in East Africa in the last seventy years - Studies and practice. East African Medical Journal 70(16): 260-266, 1993.". In: East African Medical Journal 70(16): 260-266, 1993. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract
In a six month period at the Kenyatta National Hospital, 46 patients (30 males) with chronic renal failure (CRF) and 22 healthy subjects have had a clinical and echocardiographic study of their cardiovascular systems. The patients with CRF were further classified as stable or in end stage renal disease (ESRD), the latter group requiring dialysis. Hypertension and circulatory congestion were the commonest clinical cardiovascular findings in patients with CRF. The patients with ESRD had significantly higher blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine than the ones with stable CRF. Echocardiographically right ventricular size, left atrial size, aortic root diameter, left ventricular internal diameters, left ventricular end diastolic and systolic volumes, stroke volume, cardiac output, left ventricular posterior wall and interventricular septal thickness, ejection time and mitral and aortic peak flow rates were significantly higher in patients with CRF than in controls. In contrast, the circumferential fibre shortening and the ejection fraction were reduced in patients with CRF. Global left ventricular dysfunction was found in 47.8% of the patients. Using doppler flow studies, valvular incompetence was detected in a number of patients, mitral regurgitation being found in 84%.76% of the patients with CRF had varying degrees of pericardial effusion. The echocardiographic abnormalities and the pericardial effusions responded six weeks of haemodialysis in a variable manner.
O PROFOWINOJOHN. "OWINO, J & C. M. PHILIPS (1988): .". In: Kenya J. Sci. (A) Vol., 9, pp 5-10. 1999; 1988. Abstract
n/a
O DROGARAWILLIAM, ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS, KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "Risk of infection with Brucella abortus and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 associated with marketing of unpasteurized milk in Kenya.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Trace elements in fluorites from Kerio Valley, Kenya.". In: Neues Jb. Miner. Mh. H.7. 298-307. Wiley Interscience; 1978. Abstract
n/a
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Diphtheria in African children (report of 13 cases seen at Mulago Hospital). J Trop Pediatr. 1969 Mar;15(1):15-7. Bwibo NO.". In: J Trop Pediatr. 1969 Mar;15(1):15-7. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1969. Abstract

No abstract available

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, V O Awour, 1997. Effect of climate change on wildlife and tourism. In: impacts of climate change in Kenya (Ogola J.S, M A Abira and V O Awour eds) Pages 73-91.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1997. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading "Fatigue Crack Propagation in a Structural Steel–Applications of Fracture Mechanics" M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi (1983).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1983. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Wachira, M.W., McLigeyo, S.O., Otieno L.S: Nutritional requirements in chronic renal failure and end stage renal disease. East African Medical Journal. 68(7): 567-575, 1991.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68(7): 567-575, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. Characteristics of 14 patients above 12 years of age with congenital polycystic liver disease attending liver clinic at KNH were analysed. The diagnosis was mainly based on ultrasonographic findings. The disease was found predominantly among the Kikuyu ethnic group with a female/male ratio of 6:1 and the peak age at presentation was in the 5th decade. The liver function tests were essentially normal in all cases with no complication directly relating to liver disease. Hypertension was found in 78.6% of cases and chronic renal failure in 35.7% of cases. There was an associated polycystic disease in at least one other abdominal organ in all cases.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Opere, A. (2005): Hazard Risk assessment in Mount Kenya headwaters: Sustainable Management of Headwater Resources; research from Africa and India, United Nations University, p165-177; Jansky L., Martin J. Haigh and H. Prasad (eds).". In: Proc. 7th Kenya Meteorological Society Workshop on Meteorological Research, Applications and Services, Nairobi, 17-21 0ctober 2005. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2005. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFORINDADA. "Johansen MV, Simonsen PE, Butterworth AE, Ouma JH, Mbugua GG, Sturrock RF, Orinda DA, Christensen NO. A survey of Schistosoma mansoni induced kidney disease in children in an endemic area of Machakos District, Kenya.Acta Trop. 1994 Oct;58(1):21-8.". In: Acta Trop. 1994 Oct;58(1):21-8. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1994. Abstract
Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory, Charlottenlund. The association between Schistosoma mansoni infection and kidney lesions was investigated in school children selected from three primary schools in Machakos District, Kenya, namely Miu (n = 159), Kitengei (n = 160) and Misuuni (n = 99) schools. The children were examined parasitologically for S. mansoni infection, clinically for enlargement of the liver and spleen, and biochemically for proteinuria and serum and urine creatinine. High prevalences of S. mansoni infection, ranging from 84-96%, were seen in all the schools, but the geometric mean intensity of egg excretion varied, being relatively low in Misuuni (31 eggs/g), medium in Miu (182 eggs/g) and high in Kitengei (413 eggs/g). The prevalence of pathological proteinuria (> or = 200 mg/l) in the schools ranged from 10.1% in Miu to 28.8% in Kitengei. No difference in the levels of proteinuria was noted between age or sex groups. No association between intensity of infection and pathological proteinuria was observed in any of the schools, nor was any correlation between organomegaly and proteinuria observed. However, significant correlations between malaria and organomegaly (p < 0.001) and between malaria and proteinuria (p < 0.05) were observed when pooling data from all schools. These findings suggest that S. mansoni induced nephrotic syndromes are not common in children from this highly endemic area of Kenya.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Serological determination of prevalence of congenital syphilis in two hospitals in Kenya. East Afr Med J . 1982 Nov; 59 ( 11 ): 750-3 . No abstract available. PMID: 6764198 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Wafula EM, Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J . 1982 Nov; 59 ( 11 ): 750-3 . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1982. Abstract
No abstract available.
O PROFORINDADA. "Nyakundi PM, Kinuthia DW, Orinda DA. Clinical aspects and causes of rickets in a Kenyan population. East Afr Med J. 1994 Aug;71(8):536-42.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Feb;71(2):84-7. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1994. Abstract
Twenty nine patients with rickets were studied in a one year period. The majority of patients (17/29) were below 2 years of age. Most of them had nutritional rickets resulting from a combination of factors. Premature delivery, nonexposure to sunlight, nutritional marasmus and inappropriate dietary intake. Some had familial hypophosphataemic rickets, others had renal tubular acidosis while the rest had rickets with a familial tendency. Both the previous hospital records and the present study indicate that rickets is a persistent problem in children in the community and should be suspected in children who present with features of failure to thrive, among other conditions.
O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga High-Frequency Sum-Rules for Relativistic Quantum Dielectric Tensor; African Journal of Science and Technology B.". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992.
O DRLUMUMBAPATRICK. "THE ROLE OF LAW IN SOCIETY.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 1. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1998.
O DRACHIATHOMASN. "Spatial Durbin model for poverty mapping and analysis.". In: European Journal of Social Science. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2008. Abstract
"
O PROFORINDADA, A DRRAJABJAMILLA, S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Rajab JA, Waithaka PM, Orinda DA, Scott CS. Analysis of cost and effectiveness of pre-transfusion screening of donor blood and anti-malarial prophylaxis for recipients. East Afr Med J. 2005 Nov;82(11):565-71.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Nov;82(11):565-71. uon press; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of malaria in donor units in a low and a high endemic region in Kenya and evaluate the cost effectiveness of recipient anti-malarial prophylaxis and pre-transfusion screening (using an automated method) as options to prevent post transfusion malaria. DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two regional blood banks, Nairobi and its environs (National Blood Transfusion Services, Nairobi) a low malaria endemic region and western region (National Blood Transfusion Services, Kisumu) high malaria endemic region. SUBJECTS: All the donated units were included in the study for analysis, during the duration of study, from the two study sites. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of malaria in donor units in low endemic area (Nairobi) and high endemic area (Kisumu). Cost per case prevented for the two options, Option I Prophylactic administration of anti-malarial (sulfadoxine pyrimethamine SP) drugs to recipients, and Option II pre-transfusion screening using an automated technique. RESULTS: A malaria prevalence of 0.67% was found in Nairobi and its environments (low endemic) and 8.63% for Kisumu and its environments (high endemic area). The cost analysis showed a cost per case prevented of Ksh.105 (US$1.4) adult, Ksh.52.5 (US$0. 69) and paediatric for the option of recipient prophylaxis using an SP based drug. The cost escalated to Ksh.592 (US$7.79) adult Ksh.444 (US$5.84) paediatric if the prophylaxis was upgraded to the recommended artemisinin derivative (ACT-artemisinin based combination) and for the option of pre-transfusion screening using an automated technique the cost was Ksh.2.08 (US$0.03). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of malaria in donors showed the expected regional variation in the low and high endemic areas and was comparable to data obtained elsewhere. If malaria positive donor units were to be excluded from the national blood supply, an estimated 5% (compared to 1.3% for human Immunodeficiency virus, 3.6% for hepatitis B virus and 1.3% for hepatitis C virus) would be wasted. The cost per case prevented of transfusion-associated malaria is considerably higher for recipient antimalarial prophylaxis than pre-transfusion screening using an automated technique. The cost escalates by five to seven times if the newer artemesinin based combination antimalarial drugs are adopted.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO, Notghi A, Anderton JL, Dick J.Acute renal allograft rejection: the role of monoclonal antibodies in treatment: experience with orthoclonal anti-T3 cell antibody. East Afr Med J. 1990 Sep;67(9):667-73. Review.". In: Nairobi Medical Journal 16(2): 28-32, 1990. University of Nairobi.; 1990. Abstract
We have reviewed the literature relating to the use of monoclonal antibodies in acute renal allograft rejection. More emphasis has been placed on Orthoclone OKT3 which has been more commonly used and summarise our experience with its use as rescue therapy in renal allograft rejection.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Opere, A.O. (2000): The need for a flood forecasting system (FFS) in Kenya Proceedings of the Fifth workshop of the Kenya Meteorological Society workshop on Meteorological Research, Applications and Services, 4-8 September 2000, Mombasa, Kenya.". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, vol.15, 2001. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2000. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFMUMMAALBERT. ""The Use of Compliance Monitoring in Water Pollution Prosecutions..". In: Journal of Environmental Law, vol. 5/2, (1993), at p. 191. Departmental seminar; 1993. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
O PROFORINDADA. "Odonga AM, Wambwa JR, Orinda DA.Acute intermittent porphyria in an East African female.East Afr Med J. 1980 Oct;57(10):716-9. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1980 Oct;57(10):716-9. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1980. Abstract
PMID: 7215256 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Growth and development of abandoned babies in institutional care in Nairobi. Otieno PA, Nduati RW, Musoke RN, Wasunna AO.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Aug;76(8):430-5. Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1999. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of growth and development of institutionalised infants and to compare the outcome with that of infants living with their biological mothers. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Seven children's homes; Kenyatta National Hospital's New Born Unit and Well Baby Clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-two abandoned babies who fulfilled the selection criteria were recruited and for each abandoned baby two mothered babies matched for age and sex were selected from the well baby clinics. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anthropometric measures of weight, length, head circumference and left mid arm circumference (LUMAC) were taken and the mean values and Z scores determined to demonstrate growth pattern and nutritional status of the babies. The Revised Denver Development Screening Test (RDDST) was used to assess the development pattern of infants. RESULTS: Seventy per cent of infants were below six months old and 73% were abandoned within the first week of life. Abandoned babies were significantly thinner with the mean LUMAC of 10.8 cm versus 12.3 cm (p = 0.02) Institutionalised babies were significantly wasted (p = 0.00001) and stunted (p = 0.00001). Abandoned babies were significantly delayed in development (p < 0.0001). In all the four sectors tested for, institutionalised babies showed significant delay, p < 0.0001 in each sector. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that infants under institutional care have poorer growth and development compared to mothered infants. PIP: This cross-sectional study examined the pattern of growth and development of infants in some of the baby institutions in Nairobi and compared the outcome with that of infants living with their biological mothers. The participating institutions included the Kenyatta National Hospital and 7 children's homes within the city. The study recruited 82 abandoned babies aged 1-18 months who had been abandoned for at least 2 weeks. Each abandoned baby was paired with 2 mothered babies matched for age and sex. Anthropometric measures of weight, length, head circumference, and left mid arm circumference (LUMAC) were taken. The mean values and Z scores were determined to assess growth pattern and nutritional status of the babies. The results showed that abandoned babies were significantly thinner, with a mean LUMAC of 10.8 cm vs. 12.3 cm. Moreover, abandoned babies were significantly wasted (p = 0.00001), stunted (p = 0.00001), and delayed in development (p 0.0001). These findings indicate that institutionalized infants have poorer growth and development compared to mothered infants.

O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Bureaucracy and the Management of Health Services in Kenya," in H.K. Asmeron, Robert Hoppe and R.B. Jain, (eds.), Public Bureaucracies in Developing Countries (Amsterdam: VU University Press).". In: Walter O. Oyugi, (ed.), Politics and Administration in East Africa (Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers). IPPNW; 1992. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O., Odiawo, G.O., Tyrrell, D. and Ogaa, J. S. (1995). Ultranography to diagnose testicular lesions in an infertile Angora buck. Irish Vet. Journal 48: 416 - 418.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1995. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFGENGARIEWA. "Otieno Malo, R. O. Genga Single Particle Motion in the Strongly Coupled One- & Component Plasma in a Uniform Magnetic Field; Fusion Energy and Plasma Physics, Edited by P.H. Sakanaka, pp 341 .". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1987.
O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Flavonoids of Polygonum senegalense (Meisn) Part II: More surface and Internal Tissue Flavonoid Aglycones.". In: Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethip. (1992, 6(2) 119-122.; 1992. Abstract
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O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "24th May, 2007 .". In: Taifa Hall, University of Nairobi.; 2007. Abstract
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O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O.: Management of fertility problems in village herds of cattle in Kenya.". In: A paper presented in the 3rd Commonwealth Veterinary Association Workshop on . The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1997.
O DROUTAGEORGE. "Fabricating Nationhood: Sigana (Narrative) as Theatre in Post-colonial Kenya,.". In: Getting Heard: Reclaiming Performance Space in Kenya. Twaweza Communications, Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 11957248 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Relearning Old Lessons: The Case of the Special Rural Development Programme (SRDP)," in African Association of Public Administration and Management (AAPAM) Managing Rural Development in Africa, Addis Ababa.". In: Indian Journal of Public Administration, Vol. XXVI, No.3. IPPNW; 1979. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. Mac-Laren, A.P.C. and Boyd, H. (1983). Development and Application of the Counterium Unoelectrophoresis (CIE) test for the immunodiagnosis of C. fetus infection in cattle Br. Vet. J. 139, 528 - 36.". In: Ken. Vet. Assoc. Scientific Seminars, April, 1987, Nyeri,Kenya. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1983. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Bwibo NO, Neumann CG.The need for animal source foods by Kenyan children. J Nutr. 2003 Nov;133(11 Suppl 2):3936S-3940S. Review.". In: J Nutr. 2003 Nov;133(11 Suppl 2):. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2003. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 20956-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Early growth in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants has been found predictive of their later outcomes. This has led to increased interest in establishing measures to optimise such growth. In facilities without the resources required to undertake long-term audits for all the high risk infants they graduate, these growth parameters may also be used as selection criteria for those meriting such follow up reducing costs. OBJECTIVES: To describe early growth patterns among a cohort of VLBW infants and determine some of the factors associated with poor growth among them. DESIGN: Cross section survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and seventy five neonatal survivors. RESULTS: Of the 175 infants recruited, the male/female ratio was 4:6, sixty four (36.6%) were intrauterine growth retarded while significant illnesses during the neonatal period were reported in 109 (62.3%). Forty seven percent of the infants had been fed on exclusive breast milk, 33% on mixed feeds while 20% received exclusive preterm formula. The mean neonatal weight gain for the whole cohort was 13.5 (3.9) g/kg/day, length of 0.34 (0.11) cm/week and head circumference of 0.32 (0.71) cm/week. By term only 33 (18.9%), 37 (21.1%) and 48 (28%) had reached the expected (the 3rd percentile) weight, length and head circumference respectively. Sixty percent of the infants gained weight at <15 g/kg/day while 70% and 78% grew in head circumference and length at < 0.5 cm/week respectively. At term weight, head and linear growth faultering were recorded in 81%, 72% and 79% respectively. The factors that were associated with better growth at this stage included feeding on preterm formula (P < 0.001) and absence of neonatal morbidity (P < 0.001). Infants who were appropriate for gestational age at birth also had better catch up growth at term compared to those born small for gestation (P < 0.001) but their neonatal growth itself was not significantly better. CONCLUSION: The mean neonatal growth in all anthropometric measures was less than expected and by the time of their expected delivery, less than 30% of these infants had reached the 3rd percentile of the expected measurement in all the three growth parameters. Choice of milk and neonatal morbidity influenced these growth patterns. RECOMMENDATIONS: Routine fortification of mother's milk or addition of preterm formula and reorganised care of sick newborns is recommended to improve early growth. PMID: 16771104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFOBURRAHERBERT, PETER DRMUGWE. "Macfadyen C, Gamble C, Garner P, Macharia I, Mackenzie I, Mugwe P, Oburra H, Otwombe K, Taylor S, Williamson P.Topical quinolone vs. antiseptic for treating chronic suppurative otitis media: a randomized controlled trial.Clin Otolaryngol. 2005 Apr;30(2):1.". In: Clin Otolaryngol. 2005 Apr;30(2):193-4. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare a topical quinolone antibiotic (ciprofloxacin) with a cheaper topical antiseptic (boric acid) for treating chronic suppurative otitis media in children. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 427 children with chronic suppurative otitis media enrolled from 141 schools following screening of 39 841 schoolchildren in Kenya. Intervention Topical ciprofloxacin (n = 216) or boric acid in alcohol (n = 211); child-to-child treatment twice daily for 2 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Resolution of discharge (at 2 weeks for primary outcome), healing of the tympanic membrane, and change in hearing threshold from baseline, all at 2 and 4 weeks. RESULTS: At 2 weeks, discharge was resolved in 123 of 207 (59%) children given ciprofloxacin, and in 65 of 204 (32%) given boric acid (relative risk 1.86; 95% CI 1.48-2.35; P < 0.0001). This effect was also significant at 4 weeks, and ciprofloxacin was associated with better hearing at both visits. No difference with respect to tympanic membrane healing was detected. There were significantly fewer adverse events of ear pain, irritation, and bleeding on mopping with ciprofloxacin than boric acid. CONCLUSIONS: Ciprofloxacin performed better than boric acid and alcohol for treating chronic suppurative otitis media in children in Kenya.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Ngugi N., McLigeyo S.O., Kayima J.K. Treatment of hyperkalaemia by altering the transcellur gradient in patients with renal failure: effect of various therapeutic approaches East African Medical Journal, 73(8): 503 -504; 1997.". In: East African Medical Journal, 73(8): 503 -504; 1997. University of Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract
Ten patients with acute and 60 with chronic renal failure (both groups having hyperkalaemia), were managed at Kenyatta National Hospital in the medical wards and Renal Unit between August, 1995 and January, 1996. They were divided into seven different treatment groups, each consisting of ten patients. Treatment A glucose 25g i.v. with insulin 10 units i.v., treatment B 50 mmol of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate infusion, treatment C 0.5mg of salbutamol i.v. in 50mls 5% dextrose, treatment D was a combination of treatments A and B, treatment E was a combination of treatment B and C, treatment F was a combination of treatments A and C while treatment G was a combination of treatments A and B and C. Serum potassium was measured, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 4 hours and 8 hours after treatment. Plasma glucose concentration was measured before treatment was given and 1 hour after in all patients. Electrocardiography was done before treatment on all patients and repeated 30 minutes and 1 hour after treatment for the patients with hyperkalaemic changes on the initial recording. All treatment modalities had satisfactory potassium lowering effects. Of the single therapeutic approaches, treatment A and C were equieffective, but better than treatment B (P < 0.001). Amongst the two regimen combinations, treatment D and F were more efficacious than treatment E and all the single therapeutic approaches (P < 0.001). Treatment G was the most efficacious in lowering serum potassium in this study. All treatment modalities had maximum serum potassium lowering effect at 1-2 hours. A fall in plasma glucose concentration was a notable feature of treatments A and D, but significant hypoglycaemia occurred in 20% of patients receiving treatment A and in none on treatment D. The ECG changes of hyperkalaemia did not correlate with serum potassium levels. The normalisation of hyperkalaemic ECG alteration occurred within the first 30 minutes after treatment. In conclusion, combination therapies for hyperkalaemia appear to be more efficacious than single therapeutic approaches. Inclusion of salbutamol seems to protect against insulin induced hypoglycaemia. The maximum potassium lowering effect is observed 1-2 hours of administration of either agents. The potassium reducing effect remains significant compared to baseline values even after 8 hours. If dialysis cannot be instituted early enough it seems reasonable to repeat treatment every 4-6 hours to sustain the effect. Repeated administration of glucose with insulin may not be safe because of the hypoglycaemic effect. Other single and combination therapies can theoretically be repeated regularly until dialysis is initiated although this requires further clinical evaluation.
O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "Book Review, "Public Enterprise in Kenya: What Works, What Doesn't Work? and Why?" by Barbara Grosh.". In: African Urban Quarterly, Vol.7, Nos. 1 and 2 February and May.; 1992. Abstract
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O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Implementation of a structured paediatric admission record for district hospitals in Kenya–results of a pilot study. BMC Int Health Hum Rights . 2006 Jul 20; 6 : 9 . PMID: 16857044 [PubMed] Mwakyusa S, Wamae A, Wasunna A, Were F, Esamai F, Ogutu B, Muriit.". In: BMC Int Health Hum Rights . 2006 Jul 20; 6 : 9 . F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2006. Abstract
KEMRI Centre for Geographic Medicine Research-Coast, P,O, Box 43640, Nairobi, Kenya. sekela_mwakyusa@yahoo.com BACKGROUND: The structured admission form is an apparently simple measure to improve data quality. Poor motivation, lack of supervision, lack of resources and other factors are conceivably major barriers to their successful use in a Kenyan public hospital setting. Here we have examined the feasibility and acceptability of a structured paediatric admission record (PAR) for district hospitals as a means of improving documentation of illness. METHODS: The PAR was primarily based on symptoms and signs included in the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) diagnostic algorithms. It was introduced with a three-hour training session, repeated subsequently for those absent, aiming for complete coverage of admitting clinical staff. Data from consecutive records before (n = 163) and from a 60% random sample of dates after intervention (n = 705) were then collected to evaluate record quality. The post-intervention period was further divided into four 2-month blocks by open, feedback meetings for hospital staff on the uptake and completeness of the PAR. RESULTS: The frequency of use of the PAR increased from 50% in the first 2 months to 84% in the final 2 months, although there was significant variation in use among clinicians. The quality of documentation also improved considerably over time. For example documentation of skin turgor in cases of diarrhoea improved from 2% pre-intervention to 83% in the final 2 months of observation. Even in the area of preventive care documentation of immunization status improved from 1% of children before intervention to 21% in the final 2 months. CONCLUSION: The PAR was well accepted by most clinicians and greatly improved documentation of features recommended by IMCI for identifying and classifying severity of common diseases. The PAR could provide a useful platform for implementing standard referral care treatment guidelines. PMID: 16857044 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC1555611
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. (1976): Control of infectious agents exclusively transmitted by the venereal route with particular reference to Vibrio fetus. Dissertation for Partial fulfilment of requirements for the award of D.P.V.M., Royal Veterinary and Agricultural .". In: Proceedings of the Association of veterinary teachers and research workers of Great Britain Annual Scientific Conference, April 1981, Scarbororough, England. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1976. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "N. O Bwibo Diarrhoea including Oral Dehydration Therapy. Chapter 28 In: Health care of women and Children in Developing countries.Editors: Helen Wallace and Kanti Girii third Party Publishing Company Oakland, California 1990. Pg. 327-333.". In: Helen Wallace and Kanti Girii third Party Publishing Company Oakland, California. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1990. Abstract

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, Los Angeles.

This study explored the extent to which cognitive competence in 5-yr old Kenyan children was associated with earlier nutritional factors, family conditions and toddler characteristics. Food intake during the 18th-30th mths and physical stature at 30 mths were associated with cognitive skills at 5 yrs. Measures of family background, abilities of the child as a toddler and current schooling were also associated with cognitive abilities at 5 yrs. These variables influenced development independently, so that later cognitive competence was best predicted by a combination of earlier nutritional, family and toddler characteristics.

PMID: 1903401 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O DRMUSANDUJOYCE. "Musandu, J. O. Staff Development for Improved Performance, Kenya Nursing Journal, September 1986.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, September 1986. James Murimi; 1986. Abstract
Naisho JN, Ongaya L, Musandu JO. PIP: In highlighting the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the implementation of primary health care (PHC) in Kenya, the following topics are discussed: characteristics of TBAs as reported in studies, the training program, program objectives, content, the training process, resources for training, the role of TBAs in PHC, and evaluation. The definition of midwife is given as midwives trained in a community setting to assist in delivery within the confines of accepted cultural beliefs. A study of 28 midwives from different regions in Kenya in 1980 found that most were illiterate women between 24 and 68 years olds received no monetary gain, had a variety of occupational backgrounds, and provided varying amounts of advice but little pre- or postnatal care. Almost all advised mothers to breast feed for at least 2 years. 80% of mother use TBAs for delivery. In order to minimize maternal (5-20/1000 live births on the average) and infant mortality, many countries have or are developing training programs for TBAs. Inadequacies in TBA care may be little prenatal care, too little postnatal care, and deficits in promoting child spacing; other unsafe practices may be improper washing of hands and severing the umbilical cord with unsterile objects. Other advantages of training TBAs involve less cost, less need for transportation, personalized setting in the home, source of health education in the community, and rapport with her clients. The training program goal is to reduce mortality by eliminating bad practices. The objectives are to reduce maternal deaths or illness from hemorrhage, infection, and toxemia; to encourage better nutrition; to reduce perineal or vaginal tears which may lead to longterm disability from urinary or rectal fistula; to reduce the number of pregnancies or exposure to risk; and to reduce neonatal tetanus asphyxia, infection, diarrhea, and malnutrition. Activities entail educating adolescent girls and pregnant women on menstruation and sexuality within cultural norms, prenatal care and delivery and postnatal care, maternal care, and educating mothers about personal hygiene, nutrition, child spacing, and immunization, and acknowledgement of the valuable service TBAs contribute to the community. Programs have operated for 10 years and evaluation is underway. PMID: 2630785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: the use of antithyroid drugs. East Afr Med J. 1985 Dec;62(12):905-10. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Dec;62(12):905-10. E Afr Med J; 1985. Abstract
Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Design and development of an electronic identification and traceability system for cattle under pastoral production systems: A case for Kenya.". In: Journal. Livestock Research for Rural Development; Submitted. Abstract
G O Matete, N Maingi*, G Muchemi, W Ogara and J M Gathuma Department of Veterinary Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi P.O Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com* Department of Veterinary Pathology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract Traceability systems offer strong incentives to livestock and meat exporting countries by altering their productive and industrial processes in order to access premium meat markets globally.  Kenya, whilst acknowledged as one of the countries within the horn of Africa with a reasonably credible veterinary service, has very limited access to beef and livestock markets in importing countries due to perceived risk or suspicions of presence of trans-boundary animal diseases (TADs) such as Rift Valley Fever (RVF) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), lack of capacity to prove the absence of TADs and absence of an effective traceability system that acts as proxy for quality assurance.  The objective of this study was to report on the processes through which a model traceability system was designed for pastoral production systems of Northeastern Kenya.   The study reports that industry-wide consultation is a critical ingredient in the design process that encompassed simple drop down menus, low price and phased process of implementation. The use of a single central database reduced considerably the cost of implementation and minimized response time for impact analysis. Key words: Design, electronic traceability systems
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Farah, K.O., A. F. Tanaka, and N. E. West. 1988. Autecology and population biology of dyers woad (Isatis tinctoria) . Weed Science 36:186-193.". In: Proceedings of a national workshop of the Pastoral Information Network Programme (PINEP) held at Machakos, Kenya, 14-15 October 1999. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Mheta Koy, McLigeyo S.O., Kayima J.K., Waiyaki P.G., Urinary tract Infection in patients with short-term indwelling urinary bladder catheters. African Journal of Health Sciences V ol. 3(3):84-90, 1996.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences V ol. 3(3):84-90, 1996. University of Nairobi.; 1996. Abstract
The currently available evidence suggest that diuretics and/or low dose dopamine increases renal blood flow (RBF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and natriuresis in experimental animals, and limits ATP utilisation and oxygen needs in nephron segments at high risk of ischaemic injury, actions that could potentially limit renal injury and accelerate recovery in acute renal failure (ARF). These effects have indeed been confirmed in most experimental animals while using mannitol or low dose dopanime. Frusemide, however, for unknown reasons, has been effective in some animal models, but not others. In humans, it can be said that diurectics have a limited value to prevent, reverse or speed recovery from acute renal failure. Most clinical studies have failed to demonstrate convincingly that low dose dopamine either prevents ARF in high risk patients or improves renal function or outcome in patients with established ARF. This confusing scenario is further complicated by the fact that both diuretics and low dose dopamine can result in severe metabolic and cardiovascular complications in critically ill patients.
O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O., 1987 Geophysical detection of mineral conductors in tropical terrains with target conductors partly embedded in the conductive overburden,.". In: Geophysical Prospecting 35, 568-589. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1987. Abstract
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O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Wasunna A. Effects of theophylline administration and intracranial abnormalities on protective head turning response in preterm infants. East Afr Med J. 2003 Apr;80(4):204-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Apr;80(4):204-6. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2003. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Meningitis occurs in up to one third of neonates with septicaemia. Diagnosis is difficult due to its non-specificity of signs and symptoms. While neonatal septicaemia is a common problem at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), there are no recent data on the incidence and clinical characteristics of neonatal meningitis at the hospital. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and the bacterial aetiology of meningitis in neonates at the Newborn Unit (NBU) of KNH. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Newborn Unit of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Lumbar punctures were performed on eighty-four neonates with suspected sepsis based on specified clinical criteria. Cases were defined as meningitis if the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for bacteria by Gram stain, aerobic bacterial culture or latex particle agglutination assay. RESULTS: The prevalence of meningitis amongst cases of suspected sepsis was 17.9%. The male:female ratio was 1.5:1 mean birth weight 2116.7 grams (1682.2-2551.2) mean gestational age 35.7 weeks (32.6-38.8) and the mean postnatal age was 4.1 days (2.7-5.4) with none of the parameters being significantly different from those without meningitis. Feed intolerance and lethargy were the most common clinical features, present in 73.3% and 60% of patients with meningitis respectively. Neonates with meningitis had a higher mean CSF protein value (2.67 g/L vs 1.97 g/L
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "A re-evaluation of the geology and tectonics of the granitoid plutons around Kakamega town, Western Kenya.". In: In Opiyo-Aketch (Editor):Proccedings of the 5th Conference of the Geology of Kenya. Geological Society of Kenya Publication. 63-68. Wiley Interscience; 1993. Abstract
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O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Kofi-Tsekpo, Ellison RH, Mugambi M. Dietary sodium/potassium ratio in salt substitute and its putative significance in essential hypertension. East Afr Med J. 1985 Jul;62(7):507-14. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Jul;62(7):507-14. E Afr Med J; 1985. Abstract

Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "N .O Bwibo Tuberculosis: Chapter 14 In: child Health in Tropics Editor: D B Jelliffee, fifth Edition pp 135-147. Edward Arnold Publishers, 1985.". In: Edward Arnold Publishers. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1985. Abstract

No abstract available

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Pesticide Residues in Beef and Camel Meat from slaughterhouses in 13 Districts in Kenya.". In: Journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2009.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: advances in antibiotic therapy. East Afr Med J. 1982 Sep;59(9):573-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Sep;59(9):573-8. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O.: The elderly patients in subsaharan Africa - The past, the present and the future.". In: East African Medical Journal 71(3):141, 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1994. Abstract
End stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy is a common complication of several renal diseases that are seen in the tropics. World over, the costs of the various modalities of therapy that constitute renal replacement therapy, including hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and renal transplantation, is prohibitive. All the above modes of therapy are provided in Kenya, unlike most countries with similar level of socioeconomic development. This article analyses the factors behind the limited success that renal replacement therapy enjoys in Kenya, which is faced with more pressing basic problems of malnutrition and infection.

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