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O. PROFMBECHEOYUKO. "Mbeche, O. O., "Accessibility Modelling for a Developing Economy: The Case of Inter-regional Traffic Flows in the Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya" Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice, vol. 1. April 2004.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice, vol. 1. April 2004. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Taylor MM, Chohan B, Lavreys L, Hassan W, Huang ML, Corey L, Ashley Morrow R, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Kreiss J.Shedding of human herpesvirus 8 in oral and genital secretions from HIV-1-seropositive and -seronegative Kenyan wo.". In: J Infect Dis. 2004 Aug 1;190(3):484-8. Epub 2004 Jul 7. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract
Polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the prevalence and correlates of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) in saliva, mouth, cervical, vaginal, plasma, and peripheral-blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples from 174 HHV8-seropositive female prostitutes in Mombasa, Kenya. The prevalence of detection of HHV8 was 32% in saliva samples, 28% in mouth swabs, 4% in cervical swabs, 2.3% in vaginal swabs, 9% in plasma samples, and 18% in PBMC samples. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seropositivity was associated with detection of HHV8 from any mucosal surface (odds ratio, 2.1 [95% confidence interval, 1.1-4.0]). In HIV-1-seropositive women, there was no association between detection of HHV8 and either CD4 count or HIV-1 viral load.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "MacDonald KS, Embree J, Njenga S, Nagelkerke NJ, Ngatia I, Mohammed Z, Barber BH, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Plummer FA.Mother-child class I HLA concordance increases perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission.J Infect Dis. 1998 Mar;177(3):.". In: J Infect Dis. 1998 Mar;177(3):551-6. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene products are expressed on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cells and incorporated into the lipid envelope of HIV virions. Macaques immunized with human MHC gene products are protected from simian immunodeficiency virus challenge when the virus is grown in cells expressing the same MHC alleles. To relate these findings to mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, investigations of whether sharing HLA between mother and infant influenced the risk of transmission of HIV-1 to the child were carried out. Class I HLA concordance was independently associated with a stepwise increase in the risk of perinatal HIV-1 transmission for each additional concordant allele (odds ratio, 2.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.36-5.07; P = .003). Thus, discordant HLA may provide infants with a means of protection against HIV-1 as a result of allogeneic infant anti-maternal MHC immune responses.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "A static dynamic model for densification of geodetic networks.". In: Allgemeine Vermessungs Nachrichten, International Edition, 1. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; Submitted. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "Importance of the Principles of Management to Managers.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management.; 1989.
O. PROFMBECHEOYUKO. "Mbeche, O. O., and S. O. Omol, "A Health Service Distribution for Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi" African Urban Quarterly Journal, vol. 7, August 1993.". In: African Urban Quarterly Journal, vol. 7, August 1993. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 1993. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ma Luo, Joanne Embree, suzie Ramdahin, Jeckoniah Ndinya-Achola, Simon Njenga, Job b. Bwayo, Sha, Pan, Xiaojuan Mao, Tammy Stuart, Robert C. Brunham , and Francis A. Plummer 2002 HLA-A and HLA-B in.". In: Kenya, Africa: Allele frequencies and identification of HLA-B*1567 and HLA-B*4426. Tissue Antigens 59(5): 370-80. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
{ Observational studies have associated vitamin A deficiency with vaginal shedding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected cells and mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. To assess the effect of vitamin A supplementation on vaginal shedding of HIV-1, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 6 weeks of daily oral vitamin A (10,000 IU of retinyl palmitate) was conducted among 400 HIV-1-infected women in Mombasa, Kenya. At follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of HIV-1 DNA (18% vs. 21%
O. ABOKE, W. OM, N. KC, O. ALIWAB. "Microbiological quality and contamination level of water sources in Isiolo County in kenya." Journal of Environmental and Public Health . 2018:1-10.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Tyndal MW, Ronald AR, Agoki E, Malisa W, Bwayo JJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Moses S, Plummer FA Increased Risk of infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 among Uncircumcised Men Presenting with Genital Ulcer Disease in Kenya Clin. Inf. Dis 23: 449-53 .". In: Inf. Dis 23: 449-53 1996. IBIMA Publishing; 1996. Abstract
A ten-year retrospective review of laboratory detection of Cryptococcus neoformans in cerebrospinal fluid was undertaken using past laboratory and clinical records at Kenyatta National Hospital. A total of 1462 India-ink tests were carried out, 76 (5.2%) of these tested positive for C. neoformans. An increasing number of clinical requests for India-ink test mirrored by increasing number of patients with immunological disorders were noted over the study period although no obvious trend emerged in the detection pattern of C. neoformans. The use of a more sensitive test such as the latex agglutination technique is suggested.
O. DRABUODHASILVESTER. "Determination of stress characteristics at Connections of Welded Members using Finite Element Method. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practise, Volume 1, No. 1, April 2004.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Aug;73(8):538-40. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004. Abstract
Between June and December 1992 forty AIDS patients as defined by the CDC criteria, admitted to the medical wards of the Kenyatta National Hospital, were studied to determine the prevalence and pattern of peripheral neuropathy. Their mean age was 33 +/- 3 years with a range of 16 to 55 years. Clinical and laboratory assessment were carried out both to confirm peripheral neuropathy and exclude other causes of peripheral neuropathy apart from AIDS. All the patients had nerve conduction and electromyographic studies done. Eighteen patients were asymptomatic while fourteen had both signs and symptoms. The commonest symptom was painful paresthesiae of the limbs (35%) while the commonest sign was loss of vibration sense (60%). When symptoms, signs, and electrophysiological studies were combined, all the patients fitted the definition of peripheral neuropathy. The commonest type of peripheral neuropathy was distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (DSPN) (37.5%). PIP: In Kenya, physicians evaluated 40 AIDS patients admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital during June-December 1992 to determine the prevalence and types of peripheral neuropathy in AIDS patients. 75% were 21-40 years old. 18 (45%) of the 40 AIDS patients had symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms included increased sensitivity to stimulation (43%), hyperpathia (15%), and muscle or limb weakness (13%). 26 AIDS patients had signs of peripheral neuropathy, especially impaired sense of vibration (60%). 14 of these patients had both signs and symptoms. Electromyographic and nerve conduction velocity revealed peripheral neuropathy in 16 (40%) AIDS patients. The types of peripheral neuropathy included distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (37.5%), polyneuropathy, and mononeuritis multiplex. When the symptoms, signs, and electroneurophysiological test findings were considered, all 40 AIDS patients had evidence of peripheral neuropathy.
O. DROYATSIDONALDP, O. DROYATSIDONALDP, O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Incidence of rickets of prematurity at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 1999 Feb;76(2):63-6. PMID: 10442123 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Oyatsi DP, Musoke RN, Wasunna AO.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Feb;76(2):63-6. Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1999. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Reports of osteopaenia/rickets of prematurity are on the increase due to improved survival rates of low birthweight infants. OBJECTIVE: To establish the incidence of rickets of prematurity by the age of six months in premature infants born at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Newborn unit and paediatric outpatient follow up clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Successive surviving infants of birthweight less than 2000 g residents in Nairobi. RESULTS: Incidence of rickets of prematurity by six months of age was 58.8%. Rickets appeared more commonly in male infants compared to female infants. CONCLUSION: Rickets of prematurity is a common problem in the premature infants seen at Kenyatta National Hospital. Routine vitamin D supplements to premature infants in adequate doses of at least 400iu per day should be adopted in our centre.
O. NH, Nzuma. M.J. "Kenyan Agriculture’s Domestic Trade Regime and External Market Access Conditions 1980-2000.". In: New World Trade Order. Nairobi: African Economic Research Consortium; 2008.
O. DRBUKACHIFREDERICK. "Bukachi F. Ventricular long axis function: amplitudes and timings.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S43-7. UN-HABITAT; 2004.frederick_bukachi.pdf
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Temmerman M, Chomba EN, Ndinya-Achola JO, Plummer FA, Coppens M, Piot P.Maternal human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection and pregnancy outcome. Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 83:(4): 495 - 501, 1994.". In: Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 83:(4): 495 - 501, 1994. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract

{ Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are highly prevalent in pregnant women in many developing countries and have been associated with poor obstetric outcomes. Case detection and treatment of STDs in women is problematic and expensive, underscoring the need for other strategies. To explore the potential benefits of routine antimicrobial therapy on pregnancy outcome, we carried out a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial in one of the antenatal clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. Four hundred pregnant women between 28 and 32 weeks' gestation were given a single dose of 250 mg ceftriaxone intramuscularly or a placebo. There was a significant difference between ceftriaxone and placebo-treated women in infant birth weight (3,209 versus 3,056 g

O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Koesters SA, Matu L, Kiama P, ANZALA O, Embree j, Plummer FA, Kimani J, Fowke KR. Elevation of immune activation in Kenyan women is associated with alterations in immune function: implications for vaccine development. J Clin Immunol. 2004 Nov;24(6):702-9.". In: J Clin Immunol. 2004 Nov;24(6):702-9. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of HCV infection and HCV/HIV co-infection among voluntary blood donors at the National Blood Transfusion Centre and clients at the Kenyatta National Hospital HIV-Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) Centre. DESIGN: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary referral and teaching hospital and the National Blood Transfusion Services Centre, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Volunteer blood donors and VCT attendants. RESULTS: The prevalence of HCV/HIV co-infection among 6154 blood donors in the NBTSC was very low, at 0.02. The HIV prevalence among the 353 KNH HIV-VCT clients was 9.3%, none of the clients tested positive for HCV. The incidence of risk factors in the persons with HCV and/or HIV infection(s) was low. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HCV infection among pre-screened volunteer blood donors was low. However the current practice of screening all donated blood for HCV remains indispensable to prevent its transmission to blood recipients.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Charles Omondi and Elias .H.O. Ayiemba: 2005: .". In: In Maseno journal of Education, Arts and Science. Vol. 5 No. 1 Maseno University. January 2005 pp 61-76. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005.
O. PROFMAGOHAGEORGEA. "Prognosis in poorly differentiated carcinoma of the prostate. Nairobi Journal of Medicine, 16: 17-19, 1990.". In: Nairobi Journal of Medicine, 16: 17-19, 1990. EAMJ; 1990. Abstract

A study of 47 Nigerian patients with prostatic carcinoma at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital revealed that 17(36.17%) had poorly differentiated carcinoma, Gleason’s Grade VI. Fourteen patients (28.79%) had moderately differentiated carcinoma, Gleason’s Grade III, while two other patients (4.25%) had well differentiated glands but with more atypia and less well circumscribed boundaries, Gleason’s Grade II. The last twelve patients (25.53%) had very well differentiated carcinoma Gleason’s Grade I.

Nine of the eleven patients (81.81%) who died during the study period had poorly differentiated and undifferentiated prostatic carcinoma, Gleason’s Grade V. The other two deaths were from moderately differentiated tumours, Gleason’s Grade II and I.

These findings show poor prognosis for poorly differentiated and undifferentiated carcinoma of the prostrate in Nigerian Africans similar to previous reports in Caucasians by other authors (6,7,6,11).

O. OW, G. N, S.A. A, O. ON. "Determination of carnivore prey base in Samburu community group ranches byscat analysis.". In: 6th Biennial Scientific Conference. University of Nairobi; 2008.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Jessamine PG, Plummer FA, Ndinya-Achola JO, Wainberg MA, Wamola I, D'Costa LJ, Cameron DW, Simonsen NJ, Plourde P, Ronald AR. Human immunodeficiency virus, genital ulcers and the male foreskin synergism in HIV 1 transmission. Scand. J. Infect Dis. 69(supp.". In: J. Infect Dis. 69(suppl.):181 - 186, 1990. IBIMA Publishing; 1990. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Kreiss JK, Ngugi E, Holmes K, Ndinya-Achola J, Waiyaki P, Roberts PL, Ruminjo I, Sajabi R, Kimata J, Flemming TR, ANZALA AO, Holton D, Plummer F. Efficacy of nonoxnol-9 contraceptive sponge use in preventing heterosexual acquisition of HIV in Nairobi pros.". In: J Amer Med Assoc 1992; 268(4): 477-82. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1992. Abstract

BACKGROUND: There is indirect evidence that HIV-1 exposure does not inevitably lead to persistent infection. Heterogeneity in susceptibility to infection could be due to protective immunity. The objective of this study was to find out whether in highly HIV-1-exposed populations some individuals are resistant to infection. METHODS: We did an observational cohort study of incident HIV-1 infection-among 424 initially HIV-1-seronegative prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya, between 1985 and 1994. 239 women seroconverted to HIV-1 during the study period. Exponential, Weibull, and mixture survival models were used to examine the effect of the duration of follow-up on incidence of HIV-1 infection. The influence of the duration of exposure to HIV-1 through prostitution on seroconversion risk was examined by Cox proportional hazards modelling, with control for other known or suspected risk factors for incident HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 PCR with env, nef, and vif gene primers was done on 43 persistently seronegative prostitutes who remained seronegative after 3 or more years of follow-up. FINDINGS: Modelling of the time to HIV-1 seroconversion showed that the incidence of HIV-1 seroconversion decreased with increasing duration of exposure, which indicates that there is heterogeneity in HIV-1 susceptibility or acquired immunity to HIV-1. Each weighted year of exposure through prostitution resulted in a 1.2-fold reduction in HIV-1 seroconversion risk (hazard ratio 0.83 [95% CI 0.79-0.88], p < 0.0001). Analyses of epidemiological and laboratory data, show that persistent seronegativity is not explained by seronegative HIV-1 infection or by differences in risk factors for HIV-1 infection such as safer sexual behaviours or the incidence of other sexually transmitted infections. Interpretation: We conclude that a small proportion of highly exposed individuals, who may have natural protective immunity to HIV-1, are resistant to HIV-1. PIP: A cohort study conducted in 1985-94 among 424 prostitutes from Nairobi, Kenya, who were initially human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 seronegative, tended to provide support for the observation that some individuals in highly exposed populations may be resistant to infection. During the 10-year study period, 239 of these women seroconverted. The overall HIV-1 incidence was 42/100 person-years. After the first 2 years of follow up, in which the majority of seroconversions occurred, HIV-1 prevalence reached a plateau and then began a steep decline. To determine whether the risk of HIV-1 infection declined over time as a result of the selection of resistance, incidence rates among women with less than 3 years' versus more than 3 years' duration of prostitution were compared for 1989-93. An increasing protective effect for each seronegative year of exposure was observed. The estimated cumulative protective effect for women practicing prostitution from 1984-93 and remaining seronegative, compared to women who entered prostitution in 1994, was over 100-fold. To rule out the possibility that the decrease in seroconversion with duration of exposure reflected differences in sexual behavior or immunity to sexually transmitted diseases that facilitate HIV transmission, Cox proportional hazards modelling was performed. The weighted duration of prostitution was independently associated with a decreased risk of seroconversion. Each weighted year of exposure resulted in a 1.2-fold decrease in risk. Women who seroconverted were more likely to report 1 or more regular partners and to use condoms with these partners than their counterparts who remained seronegative. Elucidation of the protective mechanisms and the factors mediating the development of immunity against HIV-1 could be important to HIV-1 vaccine research.

O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, Elias H.O. (2000): ''Effective Family Planning Programmes for Africa: Lessons from Kenya's Experience'. In Population and Development in Kenya (eds) J.O. Oucho et al. Population Studies and Research Institute.". In: published and printed by School of Journalism Press, University of Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. OUMAG, N MUTHAMAJ, O. OPEREA. "Validation of Satellite-Derived Rainfall Estimates: The Ethiopian Case Study.". In: Proc. 7th Kenya Meteorological Society Workshop on Meteorological Research, Applications and Services, Nairobi, 17-21 0ctober 2005. Eastern and South African Journal; 2005. Abstract

The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Gaillard P, Mwanyumba F, Verhofstede C, Claeys P, Chohan V, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Temmerman M. Vaginal lavage with chlorhexidine during labour to reduce mother to child HIV transmission: clinical trial in Mombasa, Kenya. AIDS 2001; 15(3): 389-96.". In: AIDS 2001; 15(3): 389-96. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between use of oral contraceptive pills or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and sexually transmitted disease acquisition. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort included 948 Kenyan prostitutes. Multivariate Andersen-Gill proportional hazards models were constructed, adjusting for sexual behavioral and demographic variables. RESULTS: When compared with women who were using no contraception, users of oral contraceptive pills were at increased risk for acquisition of chlamydia (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.9) and vaginal candidiasis (hazard ratio, 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.9) and at decreased risk for bacterial vaginosis (hazard ratio, 0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.0). Women using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate had significantly increased risk of chlamydia infection (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.4) and significantly decreased risk of bacterial vaginosis (hazard ratio, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.5-0.8), trichomoniasis (hazard ratio, 0.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.0), and pelvic inflammatory disease (hazard ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.7). Consistent condom use was associated with significantly decreased risk of gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital ulcer disease, bacterial vaginosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. CONCLUSIONS: The use of oral or injectable hormonal contraception altered susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases, which may in turn influence transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Consistent condom use was protective with regards to sexually transmitted disease and should be encouraged for the prevention of sexually transmitted disease and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 among women who use hormonal contraception.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ronald AR, Ndinya-Achola JO, Plummer FA, Cameron DW, Ngugi EN,Pamba HO A review of HIV-1 in Africa. Bulletin of The New York Academy of Medicine 64: 480 - 490, 1988.". In: Bulletin of The New York Academy of Medicine 64: 480 - 490, 1988. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Oucho, J.O., A.B.C. Ocholla-Ayayo: Elias H.O. Ayiemba and J. Odhiambo (200): Population and Development in Kenya.". In: Published and Printed by School of Journalism Press, University of Nairobi, Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 1964. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Osano A.A., Siboe, G.M.,Ochanda,J.O. and Kokwaro, J.O. Biodegradation of DDT: The Role of Pleurotus sp., a lignicolous fungus. In Bioremediation of Nitroaromatic and Haloaromatic Compounds:.". In: Proceedings of the fifth international in situ and on . East African Medical Journal; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Screening and biochemical characterisation of trypanosome-lysing factor (trypanolysin) from non-vector insect, Schistocerca gregaria. DESIGN: Laboratory based experiment. SETTING: Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. RESULTS: Lysis of isolated trypanosomes was demonstrated with midgut homogenates of natural vector Glossina morsitans centralis as well in non-vector insects. The highest trypanolytic activity was observed in midgut homogenate of the desert locust. Schistocerca gregaria followed by the cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L). Further studies on the S. gregaria trypanolytic factor showed its proteinaceous nature due to its sensitivity to temperatures above 40 degrees C and to proteases. Additionally, the factor showed lectin-like properties since the activity was blocked by D-glucosamine. CONCLUSION: The trypanolytic factor has the potential of being used to modulate tsetse fly vectorial capacity.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Christine L. Mattson, Robert C. Bailey, Kawango Agot, Jeckoniah O. Ndinya-Achola and Stephen Moses. A Nested Case-Control Study of Sexual Practices and Risk Factors for Prevalent HIV-1 Infection Among Young Men in Kisumu, Kenya.". In: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, May 2007, Vol. 34, No. 5. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstracta_nested_case-control_study_of_sexual_practices_and_risk_factors.doca_nested_case-control_study_of_sexual_practices_and_risk_factors.pdf

Introduction. Male circumcision is being promoted for HIV prevention in high-risk heterosexual populations. However, there is a concern that circumcision may impair sexual function. Aim. To assess adult male circumcision's effect on men's sexual function and pleasure. Methods. Participants in a controlled trial of circumcision to reduce HIV incidence in Kisumu, Kenya were uncircumcised, HIV negative, sexually active men, aged 18-24 years, with a hemoglobin >/=9.0 mmol/L. Exclusion criteria included foreskin covering less than half the glans, a condition that might unduly increase surgical risks, or a medical indication for circumcision. Participants were randomized 1:1 to either immediate circumcision or delayed circumcision after 2 years (control group). Detailed evaluations occurred at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Main Outcome Measures. (i) Sexual function between circumcised and uncircumcised men; and (ii) sexual satisfaction and pleasure over time following circumcision. Results. Between February 2002 and September 2005, 2,784 participants were randomized, including the 100 excluded from this analysis because they crossed over, were not circumcised within 30 days of randomization, did not complete baseline interviews, or were outside the age range. For the circumcision and control groups, respectively, rates of any reported sexual dysfunction decreased from 23.6% and 25.9% at baseline to 6.2% and 5.8% at month 24. Changes over time were not associated with circumcision status. Compared to before they were circumcised, 64.0% of circumcised men reported their penis was "much more sensitive," and 54.5% rated their ease of reaching orgasm as "much more" at month 24. Conclusions. Adult male circumcision was not associated with sexual dysfunction. Circumcised men reported increased penile sensitivity and enhanced ease of reaching orgasm. These data indicate that integration of male circumcision into programs to reduce HIV risk is unlikely to adversely effect male sexual function.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Fonk K, Kidula N, Kirui P, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, claeys P, Temmerman M. Pattern of sexually transmitted diseases and risk factors among women attending a major STD referral clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. Sex Transm Dis 2000;27:7:417-23.". In: Sex Transm Dis 2000;27:7:417-23. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract
To determine the effects of plasma, genital, and breast milk human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and breast infections on perinatal HIV-1 transmission, a nested case-control study was conducted within a randomized clinical trial of breast-feeding and formula feeding among HIV-1-seropositive mothers in Nairobi, Kenya. In analyses comparing 92 infected infants with 187 infants who were uninfected at 2 years, maternal viral RNA levels >43,000 copies/mL (cohort median) were associated with a 4-fold increase in risk of transmission (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-7.2). Maternal cervical HIV-1 DNA (odds ratio [OR], 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.4), vaginal HIV-1 DNA (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1-4.7), and cervical or vaginal ulcers (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2-5.8) were significantly associated with infant infection, independent of plasma virus load. Breast-feeding (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.9) and mastitis (relative risk [RR], 3.9; 95% CI, 1.2-12.7) were associated with increased transmission overall, and mastitis (RR, 21.8; 95% CI, 2.3-211.0) and breast abscess (RR, 51.6; 95% CI, 4.7-571.0) were associated with late transmission (occurring >2 months postpartum). Use of methods that decrease infant exposure to HIV-1 in maternal genital secretions or breast milk may enhance currently recommended perinatal HIV-1 interventions.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Wafula E.M. Tukei PM, Bell TM, Nsanze H, Ndinya-Achola JO, Hazlett DTG, Ademba G, Pamba M.Diagnosis of acute respiratory infections (ARI) among under fives in the Paediatric Observation Ward (POW) Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. E.A.M.J. 64: 263 - 26.". In: E.A.M.J. 64: 263 - 269, 1987. IBIMA Publishing; 1987. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Osano A.A., Siboe, G.M.,Ochanda,J.O. and Kokwaro, J.O., Biodegradation properties of white rot-fungi in Karura, Forest, Kenya- workshop on fungal diversity in Subsaharan ecosystems and their role in rural development. Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, 29th Novembe.". In: Skin Research, January 19, Bellinson Hospital, Petach Tikva. Israel J. of Med. Science Vol 31,pp 66. East African Medical Journal; 1995. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "R. Scott McClelland, Jared M. Baeten, Barbra A. Richardson, Ludo Lavreys, Sandra Emery, Kishorchandra Mandaliya, Jeckoniah O. Ndinya-Achola and Julie Overbaugh. A Comparison of Genital HIV-1 Shedding and Sexual Risk Behaviour Among Kenyan Women Based on E.". In: J. Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, April 2006, Vol. 41, No. 5. IBIMA Publishing; 2006. Abstract
We conducted a prospective study among women in Mombasa, Kenya, to determine whether Trichomonas vaginalis infection was associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. At monthly follow-up visits, laboratory screening for HIV-1 and genital tract infections was conducted. Among 1335 HIV-1-seronegative women monitored for a median of 566 days, there were 806 incident T. vaginalis infections (23.6/100 person-years), and 265 women seroconverted to HIV-1 (7.7/100 person-years). Trichomoniasis was associated with a 1.52-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.24-fold) increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Treatment and prevention of T. vaginalis infection could reduce HIV-1 risk in women.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Nielson JR, John GC, Carr JK, Lewis P, Kreiss JK, Jackson S, Nduati RW, Mbori-Ngacha D, Panteleef D, Bodrug S, Giachetti C, Bott MA, Richardson BA, Bwayo J, Ndinya-Achola JO, Overbaught Journ. Virol. 73: 4393-4403, 1999.". In: Overbaught Journ. Virol. 73: 4393-4403, 1999. IBIMA Publishing; 1999. Abstract
Untreated maternal syphilis during pregnancy will cause adverse pregnancy outcomes in more than 60% of the infected women. In Nairobi, Kenya, the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women of 2.9% in 1989, showed a rise to 6.5% in 1993, parallel to an increase of HIV-1 prevalence rates. Since the early 1990s, decentralized STD/HIV prevention and control programmes, including a specific syphilis control programme, were developed in the public health facilities of Nairobi. Since 1992 the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women has been monitored. This paper reports the findings of 81,311 pregnant women between 1994 and 1997. A total of 4244 women (5.3%) tested positive with prevalence rates of 7.2% (95% CI: 6.7-7.7) in 1994, 7.3% (95% CI: 6.9-7.7) in 1995, 4.5% (95% CI: 4.3-4.8) in 1996 and 3.8% (95% CI: 3.6-4.0) in 1997. In conclusion, a marked decline in syphilis seroprevalence in pregnant women in Nairobi was observed since 1995-96 (P<0.0001, Chi-square test for trend) in contrast to upward trends reported between 1990 and 1994-95 in the same population. PIP: This study presents the trend in syphilis prevalence among 81,311 pregnant women in Nairobi, Kenya, from 1994 to 1997. Clinic nurses performed syphilis serology using a rapid plasma reagin (RPR) card test in 10 NCC clinics and Chi square; these were used to study trends over time. Results showed that a total of 4244 women (5.3%) tested positive with prevalence rates of 7.2% (95% CI: 6.7-7.7) in 1994, 7.3% (95% CI: 6.9-7.7) in 1995, 4.5% (95% CI: 4.3-4.8) in 1996, and 3.8% (95% CI: 3.6-4.0) in 1997. Thus, a significant decrease in syphilis seroprevalence among pregnant women in Nairobi was observed since 1995-96, by contrast with the rising trend in syphilis prevalence reported in 1990 and 1994-95 in the same population. This decline was attributable in large part to the syphilis control program initiated in Nairobi in June 1992, which focused on sexual behavior modifications, changes in health care seeking behavior and improved health care services.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "A model for the establishment of an integrated regional geodetic datum.". In: Survey Review, Vol. 32, No 250,. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; Submitted. Abstract
A model for the establishment of an integrated geodetic datum covering a region is treated. The integrated geodetic datum is understood here to comprise the geoid, the reference ellipsoid, and the positional coordinates. A comprehensive unified solution model including the three parameters comprising the datum is considered. The estimation model adopted rigorously incorporates determined prior information in the estimation of the datum parameters. Mathematical models together with the pertinent observation equations are presented, followed by a description of the procedure for the aetual setting up of the datum. The observational scheme is based on a system of modular traverses anchored on a trilateration of GPS baselines.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "K'Obonyo, P.O. (2001) "Overview of Human Resource Situation in Kenya.".". In: Business Investment Insight, Vol. 1.3, 18.; 2001.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ndinya-Achola JO. Typing methods for the genus Klebsiella for use in clinical bacteriology. Thesis MSc. Medical Microbiology, University of London. 1981.". In: Thesis MSc. Medical Microbiology, University of London. 1981. IBIMA Publishing; 1981. Abstract
Routine procedures used to isolate Haemophilus ducreyi in a busy laboratory are reported. Identification was based on colony morphology and nutritional and biochemical properties of 120 fresh isolates of H. ducreyi. These isolates grew very well on Gonococcal Agar and Mueller-Hinton Agar incubated at 34 degrees C in candle extinction jars containing moistened filter paper. Colonies varied in size, giving a polymorphic appearance. They were smooth, dome-shaped, and buff-yellow to grey in colour, and measured 2 mm in diameter. They could be pushed intact across the agar surface. By microscopic examination of gram-stained smears the isolates were gram-negative coccobacilli arranged in short chains, clumps or whorls and occasionally in typical "rail track" arrangements. Individual bacteria showed bipolar staining. Colonies autoagglutinated in saline. All strains were catalase-negative and did not produce indole or H2S. They were oxidase- and beta-lactamase positive and required X but not V factor for growth. Now that reliable techniques have been developed and characteristics established it is possible for most clinical laboratories to isolate and identify this organism from most patients with chancroid.
O. PROFWEKEPATRICKGUGE. "Common Nearly Best Linear Estimates of Location and Scale Parameters: Normal and Logistic Distributions." Far East J. of Theo. Stat. 18 (2), pp. 161 . 2006;18(2):161-178. AbstractWebsite

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O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Rowe, A., Richman, J.M., Ochanda, J.O. and Brickell, P.M : Retinoic acid treatment alters the pattern of retinoic acid receptor beta expression in the embryonic chick limb : Dev. Pattern of Vert. Limb (pp 97-100).". In: Scand J Immunol Suppl. 1992;11:41-7. East African Medical Journal; 1991. Abstract
The haemolymph of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans, contains a high (lipophorin) and a low molecular weight protein of high densities, 1.11 and 1.29 g/ml, respectively. The purification of the proteins was achieved by a combination of density gradient ultracentrifugation and reported gel permeation chromatography. The lipophorin is of high molecular weight (M(r) integral of 600,000) and consists of two apoproteins, apolipophorin I (M(r) integral of 250,000) and apolipophorin II (M(r) integral of 80,000) both of which are glycosylated. Lipophorin also has a pI of 6.1. However, electrophoresis under non-denaturing and denaturing conditions showed the low molecular weight protein to be a single polypeptide chain (M(r) integral of 23,000). Amino acid analysis revealed a relatively high content of the acidic amino acids as well as serine and glycine. The protein contained lipids as shown by Sudan Black staining but was unglycosylated. Using rabbit antiserum against the isolated protein in immunodiffusion and immunoblotting experiments, no cross-reactivity was detected with haemolymph samples from insects representing six orders. In conclusion, the finding of lipophorin suggests that, although flies primarily utilize proline for their energy needs, there is an active transport mechanism for the supply of lipid requirements. However, the results for the low molecular weight protein indicate that the protein is unique to Glossina, suggesting that it may have an important role in the physiology of this insect and is therefore a significant target for vector management.
O. PROFMBECHEOYUKO. "Mbeche, O. O., "Energy Use in Kenya", Proceedings: International Workshop on Energy Survey Methodologies for Developing Countries, US AID/National Academy of Sciences, Jerkyll Island, Georgia, USA, January 1980.". In: International Workshop on Energy Survey Methodologies for Developing Countries, US AID/National Academy of Sciences, Jerkyll Island, Georgia, USA, January 1980. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; Submitted. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Baeten JM, Kreiss JK, Richardson BA, Chohan BH, Hassan W, Panteleeff DD, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Overbaugh J.Injectable contraceptive use and genital ulcer disease during the early phase of HIV-1 infection increase plasma virus load in w.". In: J Infect Dis. 2004 Jan 15;189(2):303-11. Epub 2004 Jan 9. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstractinjectable_contraceptive_use_and_genital_ulcer_disease.docinjectable_contraceptive_use_and_genital_ulcer_disease.pdf

We examined the association between host factors present near the time of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition and subsequent virus loads, in a prospective cohort study of women in Mombasa, Kenya. Women were prospectively followed monthly before HIV-1 infection. One hundred sixty-one commercial sex workers who became infected with HIV-1 were followed for a median of 34 months, and 991 plasma samples collected > or =4 months after infection were tested for HIV-1 RNA. The median virus set point at 4 months after infection was 4.46 log10 copies/mL, and the average virus load increase during subsequent follow-up was 0.0094 log10 copies/mL/month. In a multivariate analysis that controlled for sexual behavior, the use of the injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) at the time of HIV-1 infection was associated with a higher virus set point, and the presence of genital ulcer disease (GUD) during the early phase of HIV-1 infection was associated with greater change in virus load during follow-up. These findings suggest that, in women, the use of DMPA and the presence of GUD during the early phase of HIV-1 infection may influence the natural course of infection.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Richardson BA, Martin HL Jr, Stevens CE, Hillier SL, Mwatha AK, Chohan BH, Nyange PM, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Kreiss JK.Use of nonoxynol-9 and changes in vaginal lactobacilli.J Infect Dis. 1998 Aug;178(2):441-5.". In: J Infect Dis. 1998 Aug;178(2):441-5. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
Several in vitro studies have shown nonoxynol-9 (N-9) to be toxic to lactobacilli, especially to strains that produce H2O2. Data from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial that investigated the safety and toxicity of 2 weeks of daily vaginal application of an N-9 gel were analyzed, to examine the effect of N-9 use on vaginal lactobacilli and bacterial vaginosis. In vivo, N-9 promoted sustained colonization by H2O2-producing lactobacilli among women already colonized (relative risk [RR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.7). In addition, use of N-9 for 2 weeks reduced the likelihood of bacterial vaginosis (RR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-1.0). In contrast, N-9 use by women initially colonized only by non-H2O2-producing lactobacilli resulted in loss of vaginal lactobacilli (RR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.3). These data suggest that daily use of N-9 does not adversely affect vaginal colonization by H2O2-producing lactobacilli but that such use may promote loss of non-H2O2-producing strains.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW, CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO, CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "The surveying profession into the 21st century.". In: The Kenya Surveyor, Vol. 3 No 4 Nov/Dec 1994 and Vol. 4 No 1 June 1995, Nairobi. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1995. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "The Entrepreneurial Context of Strategic Management.". In: Students Finance. Vol.1 pp.10-12.; 1995.
O. DROUMAGILBERT. "The role of remote sensing in natural resource management.". In: Proc. Workshop on Sustainable Environmental Management for Poverty Alleviation in the Lake Victoria Basin, 27-29 March, 2000, Maseno University College, Kisumu.; 2000. Abstract
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O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Kihurani, D.O., Nantulya, V.M., Mbiuki, S.M. and Masake, R. (1993): Diagnosis and treatment of Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivax and T. brucei infections in horses on a farm in Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Geneva Congress of Equine Medicine and Surgery, and 3rd Congress of the World Equine Veterinary Association (WEVA), Geneva, 7-11 December, 1993, Swiss Vet 11-S/ 1993, p. 184. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1993. Abstract
Equines are particularly susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma evansi and T. brucei, but rarely is natural T. congolense and T. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya, initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay ( antigen ELISA ).
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Terajima J., B. Syuto and S. Kubo: Purification and characterization of neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum type C 6813. Infect. Immun. 48, 312-317.". In: First, Pan-African Conference on Bichemistry and Molecular Biology, September, 2-6, Nairobi, Kenya. Book of Abstract P. (181). East African Medical Journal; 1985. Abstract
C1 neurotoxin of Clostridium botulinum strains C-Stockholm (C-ST), C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 and type D toxin of strains D-1873 and D-CB16 were purified by gel filtration, ion exchange, and affinity chromatographies. The purified toxins had di-chain structure made of heavy and light chains. The toxins of C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 reacted with anti-C-ST heavy chain and anti-C-ST light chain in immunodiffusion tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas D-CB16 toxin reacted with anti-D-1873 heavy chain and anti-D-1873 light chain. However, C-6813 toxin reacted with anti-D-1873 heavy chain and anti-C-ST light chain but not with anti-C-ST heavy chain or anti-D-1873 light chain immunoglobulin G. These results indicate common antigens in the heavy chains of C-6813 and D-1873 toxins and in the light chains of C-6813 and C-ST toxins. Further, they provide evidence for heterogeneity within type C1 toxin subunits.
O. PROFMBECHEOYUKO. "Mbeche, O. O.,"Patterns of Transportation Household Energy Use of a Secondary City in East Africa: The Case of Kisumu", Eastern and Southern Africa Geographical Journal vol. 8, 1997.". In: The Case of Kisumu", Eastern and Southern Africa Geographical Journal vol. 8,. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Baeten J, Overbaugh J, Patelleef DD, Chohan B, Richardson B, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Kreiss J. Acute HIV-1 infection illness in Kenyan women is associated with higher viral loads. Clin Infect Dis 2002;35:77-81.". In: Clin Infect Dis 2002;35:77-81. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
{ Observational studies have associated vitamin A deficiency with vaginal shedding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected cells and mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. To assess the effect of vitamin A supplementation on vaginal shedding of HIV-1, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 6 weeks of daily oral vitamin A (10,000 IU of retinyl palmitate) was conducted among 400 HIV-1-infected women in Mombasa, Kenya. At follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of HIV-1 DNA (18% vs. 21%
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Poss M, Gosink J, Thomas E, Kreiss JK, Ndinya-Achola J, Mandaliya K, Bwayo J, Overbaugh J.Phylogenetic evaluation of Kenyan HIV type 1 isolates.AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1997 Apr 10;13(6):493-9.". In: AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1997 Apr 10;13(6):493-9. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
Diversity among global isolates of HIV-1 presents a formidable challenge for vaccine development. As distinct clades of the virus are recognized, it will be important to monitor their geographic distribution and divergence. In this study, we characterized HIV-1 subtypes from 17 seropositive individuals in Nairobi and Mombasa, Kenya. Seventy-one percent of viruses were clade A and 29% were clade D. The most divergent clade A isolate in our survey, Q45-CxA, grouped closely with two other taxa that were previously reported as having no distinct clade affiliation. Thus, these data may suggest the emergence of an outlier group of clade A variants or a new subtype of HIV-1. Phylogenetic relatedness of the 17 Kenyan isolates was determined separately for C2-V3 and V2 sequences of envelope and subtype designation for these isolates was independent of the region analyzed. However, evaluation of transitions, transversions, and specific character state changes indicated that mutations characterizing V2 differed from those in V3 for clade A and clade D isolates. Comparison of secondary structural characteristics of the V1-V3 region between a clade A and a clade D virus revealed conservation of motifs. PIP: The authors characterized HIV-1 subtypes from 17 seropositive individuals in Nairobi and Mombasa, Kenya. 71% of the viruses were clade A and 29% were clade D. The most divergent clade A isolate identified in the study, Q45-CxA, grouped closely with two other taxa previously reported as having no distinct clade affiliation. These findings may therefore signal the emergence of an outlier group of clade A variants or a new subtype of HIV-1. The evaluation of transitions, transversions, and specific character state changes indicated that mutations characterizing V2 differed from those in V3 for clade A and clade D isolates. Comparison of the secondary structural characteristics of the V1-V3 region between a clade A and a clade D virus revealed conservation of motifs.
O. DRBUKACHIFREDERICK. "Bukachi F, Pakenham-Walsh N. Information technology for health in developing countries. Chest. 2007 Nov;132(5):1624-30.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S43-7. UN-HABITAT; 2007. Abstract
Poverty has deepened the crisis in health-care delivery in developing countries, particularly sub-Saharan Africa, which is a region facing a disease burden that is unmatched in the world. Whether access to proven and powerful information and communication technologies (ICTs) can improve health indicators is an ongoing debate. However, this brief review shows that in the last decade there has been significant growth in Internet access in urban areas; health-care workers now use it for communication, access to relevant health-care information, and international collaboration. The central message learned during this period about the application of ICTs is that infrastructural and cultural contexts vary and require different models and approaches. Thus, to harness the full potential of ICTs to the benefit of health systems, health workers, and patients will demand an intricate mix of old and new technologies. PMID: 17998362 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Mwanyumba F, claeys P, Gaillard P, Verhofstede C, Chohan v, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Temmerman M. Correlation between maternal and infant HIV infection and low birth weight: a study in Mombasa, Kenya. Journal of Obstet Gynaecol 2001; 21:1:27.". In: Journal of Obstet Gynaecol 2001; 21:1:27-31. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between use of oral contraceptive pills or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and sexually transmitted disease acquisition. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort included 948 Kenyan prostitutes. Multivariate Andersen-Gill proportional hazards models were constructed, adjusting for sexual behavioral and demographic variables. RESULTS: When compared with women who were using no contraception, users of oral contraceptive pills were at increased risk for acquisition of chlamydia (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.9) and vaginal candidiasis (hazard ratio, 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.9) and at decreased risk for bacterial vaginosis (hazard ratio, 0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.0). Women using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate had significantly increased risk of chlamydia infection (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.4) and significantly decreased risk of bacterial vaginosis (hazard ratio, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.5-0.8), trichomoniasis (hazard ratio, 0.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.0), and pelvic inflammatory disease (hazard ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.7). Consistent condom use was associated with significantly decreased risk of gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital ulcer disease, bacterial vaginosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. CONCLUSIONS: The use of oral or injectable hormonal contraception altered susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases, which may in turn influence transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Consistent condom use was protective with regards to sexually transmitted disease and should be encouraged for the prevention of sexually transmitted disease and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 among women who use hormonal contraception.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ndinya-Achola JO. AIDS research: Are we in the right direction? EAMJ 1994.". In: EAMJ 1994. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract

{ Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are highly prevalent in pregnant women in many developing countries and have been associated with poor obstetric outcomes. Case detection and treatment of STDs in women is problematic and expensive, underscoring the need for other strategies. To explore the potential benefits of routine antimicrobial therapy on pregnancy outcome, we carried out a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial in one of the antenatal clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. Four hundred pregnant women between 28 and 32 weeks' gestation were given a single dose of 250 mg ceftriaxone intramuscularly or a placebo. There was a significant difference between ceftriaxone and placebo-treated women in infant birth weight (3,209 versus 3,056 g

O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Fang G, Weiser B, Kuken C, Philpott SM, Rowland-Jones S, Plummer F, Kimani J, Shi B, Kaul R, Bwayo J, ANZALA O, Burger H. Recombination following superinfection by HIV-1. AIDS.2004 Jan 23;18(2):153-9.". In: AIDS.2004 Jan 23;18(2):153-9. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of HCV infection and HCV/HIV co-infection among voluntary blood donors at the National Blood Transfusion Centre and clients at the Kenyatta National Hospital HIV-Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) Centre. DESIGN: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary referral and teaching hospital and the National Blood Transfusion Services Centre, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Volunteer blood donors and VCT attendants. RESULTS: The prevalence of HCV/HIV co-infection among 6154 blood donors in the NBTSC was very low, at 0.02. The HIV prevalence among the 353 KNH HIV-VCT clients was 9.3%, none of the clients tested positive for HCV. The incidence of risk factors in the persons with HCV and/or HIV infection(s) was low. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HCV infection among pre-screened volunteer blood donors was low. However the current practice of screening all donated blood for HCV remains indispensable to prevent its transmission to blood recipients.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES, KINYUA DRNGUUEDWARD. "Olembo NK, Nguu EK, Ochanda JO, Ochieng VO.Inhibition of bloodmeal digestion in glossina morsitans fed on rabbits immunized with tsetse midgut homogenate.East Afr Med J. 1994 Oct;71(10):651-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Oct;71(10):651-5. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract
The efficacy of bloodmeal digestion in teneral Glossina morsitans centralis fed on rabbits immunized with tsetse fly midgut extracts was progressively monitored over a period of 96 hours. Flies fed on immunized rabbits showed reduced rate of bloodmeal digestion as compared to the controls. Although there was insignificant difference in the rate of bloodmeal digestion upto 24 hours post-feeding in later stages of digestion there was quite a significant difference. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic patterns of bloodmeal drawn from the posterior sections of the midgut demonstrated that, bloodmeal is completely degraded in the midgut after 96 hours in the control flies, while substantial amount is still undigested in the experimental flies. However, not much difference in the rates of digestion was observed with bloodmeal drawn from the anterior section of the midgut. These results suggests that when flies are fed on rabbits immunized with tsetse fly midgut extract, there is an impairment on the efficiency of digestion. The anti-midgut antibodies could be interfering with either the induction or proteolytic activity of the midgut enzymes.
O. PROFMAGOHAGEORGEA. "Epidemiological and clinical aspects of carcinoma of the penis at Kenyatta National Hospital. East African Medical Journal, 72: 360-364, 1995.". In: East African Medical Journal, 72: 360-364, 1995. EAMJ; 1995. Abstract

Thirty one patients with carcinoma of penis were studied retrospectively at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, over a 20-year period (1971-1990). The majority of patients presented late with symptomatology of over one year duration. 88% of patients with carcinoma were uncircumcised, while the three (12%) patients who were circumcised but developed carcinoma were all circumcised late in adolescence and adulthood, confirming that late circumcision may not protect one from developing penile carcinoma as reported in literature. These findings also indicate that carcinoma of penis may be rare in this locality but is still common among the uncircumcised African tribes.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Van Hall AM, Petit PLC,Van Hall HN, Mouton RP, Ndinya-Achola JO. Prevalence of resistance of N. gonorrhoeae to penicillin and three other antibiotics in a rural area in Kenya E.A. MJ 1991.". In: E.A.M.J 1991. IBIMA Publishing; 1991. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Bwayo JJ, Nagelkerke NJD, Moses S, Embree J, Ngugi EN, Mwatha A, Kimani J, ANZALA AO, Choundhri S, Ndinya-Achola JO, Plummer FA. Comparison of the declines in CD4 counts in HIV-1-seropositive female sex workers and women from the general population in Nai.". In: J. AIDS Human Retrovirol 1995; 10:457-61. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1995. Abstract

BACKGROUND: There is indirect evidence that HIV-1 exposure does not inevitably lead to persistent infection. Heterogeneity in susceptibility to infection could be due to protective immunity. The objective of this study was to find out whether in highly HIV-1-exposed populations some individuals are resistant to infection. METHODS: We did an observational cohort study of incident HIV-1 infection-among 424 initially HIV-1-seronegative prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya, between 1985 and 1994. 239 women seroconverted to HIV-1 during the study period. Exponential, Weibull, and mixture survival models were used to examine the effect of the duration of follow-up on incidence of HIV-1 infection. The influence of the duration of exposure to HIV-1 through prostitution on seroconversion risk was examined by Cox proportional hazards modelling, with control for other known or suspected risk factors for incident HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 PCR with env, nef, and vif gene primers was done on 43 persistently seronegative prostitutes who remained seronegative after 3 or more years of follow-up. FINDINGS: Modelling of the time to HIV-1 seroconversion showed that the incidence of HIV-1 seroconversion decreased with increasing duration of exposure, which indicates that there is heterogeneity in HIV-1 susceptibility or acquired immunity to HIV-1. Each weighted year of exposure through prostitution resulted in a 1.2-fold reduction in HIV-1 seroconversion risk (hazard ratio 0.83 [95% CI 0.79-0.88], p < 0.0001). Analyses of epidemiological and laboratory data, show that persistent seronegativity is not explained by seronegative HIV-1 infection or by differences in risk factors for HIV-1 infection such as safer sexual behaviours or the incidence of other sexually transmitted infections. Interpretation: We conclude that a small proportion of highly exposed individuals, who may have natural protective immunity to HIV-1, are resistant to HIV-1. PIP: A cohort study conducted in 1985-94 among 424 prostitutes from Nairobi, Kenya, who were initially human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 seronegative, tended to provide support for the observation that some individuals in highly exposed populations may be resistant to infection. During the 10-year study period, 239 of these women seroconverted. The overall HIV-1 incidence was 42/100 person-years. After the first 2 years of follow up, in which the majority of seroconversions occurred, HIV-1 prevalence reached a plateau and then began a steep decline. To determine whether the risk of HIV-1 infection declined over time as a result of the selection of resistance, incidence rates among women with less than 3 years' versus more than 3 years' duration of prostitution were compared for 1989-93. An increasing protective effect for each seronegative year of exposure was observed. The estimated cumulative protective effect for women practicing prostitution from 1984-93 and remaining seronegative, compared to women who entered prostitution in 1994, was over 100-fold. To rule out the possibility that the decrease in seroconversion with duration of exposure reflected differences in sexual behavior or immunity to sexually transmitted diseases that facilitate HIV transmission, Cox proportional hazards modelling was performed. The weighted duration of prostitution was independently associated with a decreased risk of seroconversion. Each weighted year of exposure resulted in a 1.2-fold decrease in risk. Women who seroconverted were more likely to report 1 or more regular partners and to use condoms with these partners than their counterparts who remained seronegative. Elucidation of the protective mechanisms and the factors mediating the development of immunity against HIV-1 could be important to HIV-1 vaccine research.

O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O.: Chapter 8:"Strengthering the Labour Market Information Sytem in Kenya". In Meeting the Employment Challenges of the 21st Centry ILO/EAMAT. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.". In: East African Educational Publishers, Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Embree JE, Braddick M, Datta P, Muriithi J, Hoff C, Kreiss J, Roberts PL, Law BJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Plummer FA.Lack of correlation of maternal human immunodeficiency virus infection with neonatal malformations. J. Paediatr. Infect. Dis. 8(10): 700 - 704, .". In: J. Paediatr. Infect. Dis. 8(10): 700 - 704, 1989. IBIMA Publishing; 1989. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O. (1975): .". In: Published by the Kenya Literature Bureau. Kisipan, M.L.; 1975. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES, KINYUA DRNGUUEDWARD. "Ogoyi DO, Achieng D, Nguu EK, Ochanda JO.Partial characterisation of a trypanosome-lysing factor from the midgut of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria.East Afr Med J. 2003 Nov;80(11):575-80.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Nov;80(11):575-80. East African Medical Journal; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Screening and biochemical characterisation of trypanosome-lysing factor (trypanolysin) from non-vector insect, Schistocerca gregaria. DESIGN: Laboratory based experiment. SETTING: Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. RESULTS: Lysis of isolated trypanosomes was demonstrated with midgut homogenates of natural vector Glossina morsitans centralis as well in non-vector insects. The highest trypanolytic activity was observed in midgut homogenate of the desert locust. Schistocerca gregaria followed by the cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L). Further studies on the S. gregaria trypanolytic factor showed its proteinaceous nature due to its sensitivity to temperatures above 40 degrees C and to proteases. Additionally, the factor showed lectin-like properties since the activity was blocked by D-glucosamine. CONCLUSION: The trypanolytic factor has the potential of being used to modulate tsetse fly vectorial capacity.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "McClelland RS, Richardson BA, Graham SM, Masese LN, Gitau R, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Jaoko W, Baeten JM, Ndinya-Achola JO.A prospective study of risk factors for bacterial vaginosis in HIV-1-seronegative African women.Sex Transm Dis. 2008 Jun;35(6):617-23.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2008 Jun;35(6):617-23. IBIMA Publishing; 2008. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is common and has been associated with increased HIV-1 susceptibility. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for BV in African women at high risk for acquiring HIV-1. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study among 151 HIV-1-seronegative Kenyan female sex workers. Nonpregnant women were eligible if they did not have symptoms of abnormal vaginal itching or discharge at the time of enrollment. At monthly follow-up, a vaginal examination and laboratory testing for genital tract infections were performed. Multivariate Andersen-Gill proportional hazards analysis was used to identify correlates of BV. RESULTS: Participants completed a median of 378 (interquartile range 350-412) days of follow-up. Compared with women reporting no vaginal washing, those who reported vaginal washing 1 to 14 [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.89], 15 to 28 (aHR 1.60, 95% CI 0.98-2.61), and >28 times/wk (aHR 2.39, 95% CI 1.35-4.23) were at increased risk of BV. Higher BV incidence was also associated with the use of cloth for intravaginal cleansing (aHR 1.48, 95% CI 1.06-2.08) and with recent unprotected intercourse (aHR 1.75, 95% CI 1.47-2.08). Women using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate contraception were at lower risk for BV (aHR 0.59, 95% CI 0.48-0.73). CONCLUSIONS: Vaginal washing and unprotected intercourse were associated with increased risk of BV. These findings could help to inform the development of novel vaginal health approaches for HIV-1 risk reduction in women.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "O'Hara HB, Voeten HA, Kuperus AG, Otido JM, Kusimba J, Habbema JD, Bwayo JJ, Ndinya-Achola JO.Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi, Kenya.Int J STD AIDS. 2001 May;12(5):315-23.". In: Int J STD AIDS. 2001 May;12(5):315-23. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Namaara W, Plummer FA, Greenblatt R, D'Costa LJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ronald AR.Treatment of chancroid with ciprofloxacin: A prospective randomised clinical trial. Am. J. Med.82 (Suppl. 4A): 317 - 320, 1987.". In: Am. J. Med.82 (Suppl. 4A): 317 - 320, 1987. IBIMA Publishing; 1987. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Mumcuoglu KY, Rahamim E, Ben-Yakir D, Ochanda JO, Galun R.Localization of immunogenic antigens on midgut of the human body louse Pediculus humanus humanus (Anoplura: Pediculidae). J Med Entomol. 1996 Jan;33(1):74-7.". In: J Med Entomol. 1996 Jan;33(1):74-7. East African Medical Journal; 1996. Abstract
Immunogenic midgut antigens of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus L., were localized using rabbit antisera against a louse-midgut extract followed by a 2nd antibody conjugated to either fluorescein or colloidal gold. Strong fluorescence was observed on the outer membrane of the epithelial cell of the midgut. The immunogold technique revealed that most of the antigens were localized on the microvilli of the midgut cells. Small numbers of gold particles were also seen in the gut lumen and within the cell cytoplasm. Only a few gold particles were seen in the lumen of the gut sections incubated with control sera.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Graham SM, Holte SE, Peshu NM, Richardson BA, Panteleeff DD, Jaoko WG, Ndinya-Achola JO, Mandaliya KN, Overbaugh JM, McClelland RS.Initiation of antiretroviral therapy leads to a rapid decline in cervical and vaginal HIV-1 shedding.AIDS. 2007 Feb 19;21(4).". In: AIDS. 2007 Feb 19;21(4):501-7. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstractinitiation_of_antiretroviral_therapy.docinitiation_of_antiretroviral_therapy.pdf

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) may decrease HIV-1 infectivity in women by reducing genital HIV-1 shedding. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the time course and magnitude of decay in cervical and vaginal HIV-1 shedding as women initiate ART. METHODS: This prospective, observational study of 20 antiretroviral-naive women initiating ART with stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine measured HIV-1 RNA in plasma, cervical secretions, and vaginal secretions. Qualitative polymerase chain reaction estimated HIV-1 DNA in cervical and vaginal samples. Perelson's two-phase viral decay model and non-linear random effects were used to compare RNA decay rates. Decreases in proviral DNA were evaluated using logistic regression and generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Significant decreases in the quantity of HIV-1 RNA were observed by day 2 in plasma (P < 0.001), day 2 in cervical secretions (P = 0.001), and day 4 in vaginal secretions (P < 0.001). Modeled initial and subsequent RNA decay rates in plasma, cervical secretions, and vaginal secretions were 0.6, 0.8, and 1.2 log10 virions/day, and 0.04, 0.05, and 0.06 log10 virions/day, respectively. The initial decay rate for vaginal HIV-1 RNA was more rapid than for plasma RNA (P = 0.02). Detection of HIV-1 DNA decreased significantly in vaginal secretions during the first week (P < 0.001). At day 28, 10 women had detectable HIV-1 RNA or proviral DNA in genital secretions. CONCLUSIONS: Genital HIV-1 shedding decreased rapidly after ART initiation, consistent with a rapid decrease in infectivity. However, incomplete viral suppression in half of these women may indicate an ongoing risk of transmission.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Embree JE, Njenga S, Datta P, Nagelkerke NJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Mohammed Z, Ramdahin S, Bwayo JJ, Plummer FA.Risk factors for postnatal mother-child transmission of HIV-1.AIDS. 2000 Nov 10;14(16):2535-41.". In: AIDS. 2000 Nov 10;14(16):2535-41. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors affecting HIV-1 breastfeeding transmission. DESIGN: Longitudinal observational cohort study. METHODS: HIV-1 seropositive pregnant women and seronegative controls were enrolled at a maternity hospital in Nairobi. Women and their children were followed from birth, and data on HIV-1 transmission, breastfeeding, clinical illness, and growth were collected. Specimens for HIV-1 serology and/or polymerase chain reaction were obtained at birth, 2, 6, and 14 weeks, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months, and every 6 months thereafter. Children were classified as HIV-1 uninfected, perinatally, or postnatally infected. Potentially breastfeeding transmission related risk factors were compared between postnatally infected and uninfected children. RESULTS: Among children born to seropositive or seroconverting mothers, 317 were uninfected, 51 infected perinatally and 42 infected postnatally. Identified risk factors for postnatal transmission were maternal nipple lesions (OR = 2.3, CI 95% 1.1-5.0), mastitis (OR = 2.7, CI 95% 1.1-6.7), maternal CD4 cell count < 400 mm3 (OR = 4.4, CI 95% 1.9-9.9), maternal seroconversion while breastfeeding (OR = 6.0, CI 95% 1.8-19.8), infant oral thrush at < 6 months of age (OR = 2.8, CI 95% 1.3-6.2) and breastfeeding longer than 15 months (OR = 2.4, CI 95% 1.2-5.1). All factors, except maternal seroconversion due to its rarity, were independently associated with an increased postnatal transmission risk by multivariate logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: In addition perinatal antiretroviral therapies, public health strategies should address: (i) prevention of maternal nipple lesions, mastitis and infant thrush; (ii) reduction of breastfeeding duration by all HIV-1-infected mothers; (iii) absolute avoidance of breastfeeding by those at high risk, and (iv) prevention of HIV-1 transmission to breastfeeding mothers.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ndinya-Achola JO, Nsanze H, Mnjalla JJ.Role of bacterial superinfection during an outbreak of viral conjunctivitis. E.A. Med. J. Vol. 61: 184 - 189, 1984.". In: E.A. Med. J. Vol. 61: 184 - 189, 1984. IBIMA Publishing; 1984. Abstract
Routine procedures used to isolate Haemophilus ducreyi in a busy laboratory are reported. Identification was based on colony morphology and nutritional and biochemical properties of 120 fresh isolates of H. ducreyi. These isolates grew very well on Gonococcal Agar and Mueller-Hinton Agar incubated at 34 degrees C in candle extinction jars containing moistened filter paper. Colonies varied in size, giving a polymorphic appearance. They were smooth, dome-shaped, and buff-yellow to grey in colour, and measured 2 mm in diameter. They could be pushed intact across the agar surface. By microscopic examination of gram-stained smears the isolates were gram-negative coccobacilli arranged in short chains, clumps or whorls and occasionally in typical "rail track" arrangements. Individual bacteria showed bipolar staining. Colonies autoagglutinated in saline. All strains were catalase-negative and did not produce indole or H2S. They were oxidase- and beta-lactamase positive and required X but not V factor for growth. Now that reliable techniques have been developed and characteristics established it is possible for most clinical laboratories to isolate and identify this organism from most patients with chancroid.
O. PROFWEKEPATRICKGUGE. "Linear Estimation of Scale Parameter for Logistic Distribution Based on Consecutive Order Statistics.". In: Sankhya: The Indian Journal of Statistics Vol. 69 Part 4, pages 870 . Sankhya: The Indian Journal of Statistics; 2007. Abstract
Historia ya maisha binafsi kutoka kwale
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES, O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Nguu, E.K., Ochanda , J.O., Osir, E.O and Olembo, N.K: Isolation and properties of a 23 KD haemolymph protein from tsetsefly G.M morsitan. Sci. Applic.Vol. 13, No 2: pp 189-197.". In: Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1993 Jun;105(2):309-16. East African Medical Journal; 1992. Abstract
1. Larval development in Glossina species occurs in utero with the mature third instar larva being deposited after a developmental period of 7 days. 2. In this study, the patterns of cuticular protein synthesis during larval development were analysed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. 3. From the results, four types of cuticle proteins were identified: those specific to larval, pupal and adult cuticles, and others common to all the stages. 4. Few cuticular proteins were synthesized between the first and second larval instars. By the third larval instar (two days before larviposition), a large number of proteins (Mr < or = 30 kDa) were induced. These proteins persisted up to the brown pupal stage and showed a rapid decline thereafter. Most of the proteins with molecular weights Mr < or = 30 kDa were undetectable at apolysis (5 days after larviposition). 5. By day 15 of the pupal stage, the number of cuticle proteins was very small. The protein profile during the pupal stages remained relatively constant. This was probably due to the fact that the pupal cuticle does not provide any protection since it is itself enclosed at all times within the protective puparium.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "McClelland RS, Lavreys L, Katingima C, Overbaugh J, Chohan V, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Baeten JM.Contribution of HIV-1 infection to acquisition of sexually transmitted disease: a 10-year prospective study.J Infect Dis. 2005 Feb 1;191(3):333-8. Epub 2.". In: J Infect Dis. 2005 Feb 1;191(3):333-8. Epub 2004 Dec 22. IBIMA Publishing; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) enhance human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 susceptibility, but few studies have examined the reciprocal effect of HIV-1 on STD acquisition. METHODS: Data from a prospective cohort study conducted among female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya between 1993 and 2003 were used to determine the effect of HIV-1 infection on STD susceptibility. The cohort included 1215 HIV-1-seronegative women who underwent monthly HIV-1 and STD screening, of whom 238 experienced seroconversion to HIV-1 during follow-up. Andersen-Gill proportional-hazards models were used to compare the incidence rates for genital-tract infections (syphilis, genital ulcer disease [GUD], Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection, Chlamydia trachomatis infection, Trichomonas vaginalis infection, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and bacterial vaginosis) in HIV-1-seropositive versus HIV-1-seronegative women, after controlling for sexual behavior and other potential confounding factors. RESULTS: HIV-1 infection was associated with a significantly higher incidence of GUD (hazard ratio [HR], 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0-3.9), gonorrhea (HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.2), and vulvovaginal candidiasis (HR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.8). The risks of GUD and vulvovaginal candidiasis increased with progressive levels of immunosuppression. CONCLUSIONS: The increased incidence of genital-tract infections among HIV-1-seropositive women could promote the spread of both HIV-1 and other STDs, particularly in areas where these conditions are highly prevalent.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Martin Jr. HL, Nyange PM, Richardson BA, Lavreys L, Mandalya K, Kackson DJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss JK Hormonal Contraception, Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Risk of Heterosexual Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency virus Type-1 J. Inf. Dis. 178: 10.". In: Inf. Dis. 178: 1053-9, 1998. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
To examine associations between method of contraception, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and incident human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, a prospective observational cohort study was done among female sex workers attending a municipal STD clinic in Mombasa, Kenya. Demographic and behavioral factors significantly associated with HIV-1 infection included type of workplace, condom use, and parity. In multivariate models, vulvitis, genital ulcer disease, vaginal discharge, and Candida vaginitis were significantly associated with HIV-1 seroconversion. Women who used depo medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) had an increased incidence of HIV-1 infection (hazard ratio [HR], 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.4). In a multivariate model controlling for demographic and exposure variables and biologic covariates, the adjusted HR for HIV-1 infection among DMPA users was 2.0 (CI, 1.3-3.1). There was a trend for an association between use of high-dose oral contraceptive pills and HIV-1 acquisition (HR, 2.6; CI, 0.8-8.5).
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "The Kenya geodetic reference system project.". In: United Nations / European Space Agency Symposium on Space Industry Cooperation with the Developing World. Graz, Austria,. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1997. Abstract
A model for the establishment of an integrated geodetic datum covering a region is treated. The integrated geodetic datum is understood here to comprise the geoid, the reference ellipsoid, and the positional coordinates. A comprehensive unified solution model including the three parameters comprising the datum is considered. The estimation model adopted rigorously incorporates determined prior information in the estimation of the datum parameters. Mathematical models together with the pertinent observation equations are presented, followed by a description of the procedure for the aetual setting up of the datum. The observational scheme is based on a system of modular traverses anchored on a trilateration of GPS baselines.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "Kenyan Business Environment. In Introduction to Business.". In: Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi. (Edited by Professor Kibera).; 1996.
O. DROUMAGILBERT. "Comparison of climatological regions of Kenya derived from dekadal rain gauge and satellite-derived total precipitable water data.". In: Submitted to the Journal of Meteorology and Applied Physics.; 2004. Abstract
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O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Kihurani, D.O., Masake, R., Nantulya, V.M. and Mbiuki, S.M. (1994): Characterization of Trypanosoma congolense, parasites isolated from horses on the Del Monte Farm in Thika. ILRAD 1993: Annual Scientific Report of the International Laboratory for Researc.". In: Proceedings of the 6th Kenya Camel Forum, Maralal, Samburu District, 7th-11th March, 2000, p. 43-45. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1994.
O. WS. "Concentration of Heavy Metals in Water, Sediments and Plants of Kenya Lakes.". In: Kenya J. of Science and Technology. Series (A) (1983) (2): 89-94. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1983. Abstract

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O. MRNYANGASIGEORGE. "G.O. Nyangasi and G.O. Rading "Establishment of a Design and Mechanical Engineering Laboratory at KIRDI" Consultancy report submitted to UNIDO/UNDP (1988).". In: August/September, New York, U.S.A. test; 1988. Abstract
A case of cryptococcal hepatitis is described in a patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. There has been no previous reports of this in the East African literature. A review of world literature showed that the entity of cryptococcal hepatitis is very rare.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Kusimba J, Voeten HA, O'Hara HB, Otido JM, Habbema JD, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ.Traditional healers and the management of sexually transmitted diseases in Nairobi, Kenya.Int J STD AIDS. 2003 Mar;14(3):197-201.". In: Int J STD AIDS. 2003 Mar;14(3):197-201. IBIMA Publishing; 2003. Abstract
To describe the role of traditional healers in STD case management, in-depth interviews were held with 16 healers (seven witchdoctors, five herbalists and four spiritual healers) in four slum areas in Nairobi, Kenya. All healers believed that STDs are sexually transmitted and recognized the main symptoms. The STD-caseload varied largely, with a median of one patient per week. Witchdoctors and herbalists dispensed herbal medication for an average of seven days, whereas spiritual healers prayed. Thirteen healers gave advice on sexual abstinence during treatment, 11 on contact treatment, four on faithfulness and three on condom use. All healers asked patients to return for review and 13 reported referring patients whose conditions persist to public or private health care facilities. Thus, traditional healers in Nairobi play a modest but significant role in STD management. Their contribution to STD health education could be strengthened, especially regarding the promotion of condoms and faithfulness.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Odhiambo FA, Murage EM, ngare W, Ndinya-Achola JODetection rate of Cryptococcus neoformans in Cerebrospinal fluid specimens at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi EAMJ 74: 576-78, 1997.". In: EAMJ 74: 576-78, 1997. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
Of 22,274 patients > or = 12 years old attending a Nairobi primary health care (PHC) clinic, 1076 (4.8%) had STD-related complaints, of whom 980 underwent assessment of risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and infrequent condom use. Gonorrhoea, chancroid, syphilis seroactivity, trichomoniasis, or objective signs of STD were found in 78%, and HIV seropositivity in 15% of men and 19% of women. Most women were married, living with a spouse; while most men were single, or married, but living separated from a spouse. Among married men, last sex was with a female sex worker (FSW) or casual partner for 60% not living with a spouse and 26% living with a spouse (P<0.005). Two or more partners during the past year were reported by 82% of men and 25% of women (P <0.001), and 55% of men and 11% of women reported the last partner was high risk. HIV seropositivity among both genders was associated with numbers of partners, and among women, with being widowed or divorced. Only 3% reported use of a condom with the last partner. Among men whose last sex was with a FSW, 74% said the reason for not using a condom was not having one. Thus, infrequent condom use, low condom availability, and gender differences in behaviour necessitate modifying development policies that separate families; and better coordination between family planning, PHC, and AIDS/STD programmes, with improved supply, social marketing and community-based distribution of condoms in high-risk settings for STD/HIV prevention.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "Organisational Environment and Performance Relationships: A Review of the Literature.". In: The Proceedings of the 1987 Convention of the South-Eastern Decision Sciences Institute, USA.; 1987.
O. A’G, T. M, W. OM, F. N’ang’a, G. O’P, M. MD, D. M, M. A, S G. "Phytochemicals in leaves and roots of selected Kenyan orange fleshed Sweet potato (OFSP) varieties. International Journal of Food Science." International Journal of Food Science . 2020;2020(1-2):1-11.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Mostad SB, Overbaugh J, DeVange DM, Welch MJ, Chohan B, Mandaliya K, Nyange P, Martin HL Jr, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK.Hormonal contraception, vitamin A deficiency, and other risk factors for shedding of HIV-1 infected cells from the cervix and.". In: Lancet. 1997 Sep 27;350(9082):922-7. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Factors that influence shedding of HIV-1 infected cells in cervical and vaginal secretions may be important determinants of sexual and vertical transmission of the virus. We investigated whether hormonal contraceptive use, vitamin A deficiency, and other variables were risk factors for cervical and vaginal shedding of HIV-infected cells. METHODS: Between December, 1994, and April, 1996, women who attended a municipal sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) clinic in Mombasa, Kenya, and had previously tested positive for HIV-1, were invited to take part in our cross-sectional study. Cervical and vaginal secretions from 318 women were evaluated for the presence of HIV-1 infected cells by PCR amplification of gag DNA sequences. FINDINGS: HIV-1 infected cells were detected in 51% of endocervical and 14% of vaginal-swab specimens. Both cervical and vaginal shedding of HIV-1 infected cells were highly associated with CD4 lymphocyte depletion (p = 0.00001 and p = 0.003, respectively). After adjustment for CD4 count, cervical proviral shedding was significantly associated with use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (odds ratio 2.9, 95% CI 1.5-5.7), and with use of low-dose and high-dose oral contraceptive pills (3.8, 1.4-9.9 and 12.3, 1.5-101, respectively). Vitamin A deficiency was highly predictive of vaginal HIV-1 DNA shedding. After adjustment for CD4 count, severe vitamin A deficiency, moderate deficiency, and low normal vitamin A status were associated with 12.9, 8.0, and 4.9-fold increased odds of vaginal shedding, respectively. Gonococcal cervicitis (3.1, 1.1-9.8) and vaginal candidiasis (2.6, 1.2-5.4) were also correlated with significant increases in HIV-1 DNA detection, but Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis were not. INTERPRETATION: Our study documents several novel correlates of HIV-1 shedding in cervical and vaginal secretions, most notably hormonal contraceptive use and vitamin A deficiency. These factors may be important determinants of sexual or vertical transmission of HIV-1 and are of public health importance because they are easily modified by simple interventions. PIP: Correlates of HIV-1 shedding in cervical and vaginal secretions were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 318 women previously diagnosed with HIV who presented to a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Mombasa, Kenya, during 1994-96. HIV-infected cells were detected in 51% of endocervical and 14% of vaginal swab specimens. Both cervical and vaginal shedding of HIV-1 infected cells were highly associated with CD4 lymphocyte depletion. After adjustment for CD4 count, cervical proviral shedding was significantly associated with use of depo medroxyprogesterone acetate (odds ratio [OR], 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-5.7) and of low- and high-dose oral contraceptives (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.4-9.9 and OR, 12.3; 95% CI, 1.5-101, respectively). After adjustment for CD4 count, severe vitamin A deficiency, moderate deficiency, and low-normal vitamin A status were associated with 12.9, 8.0, and 4.9-fold increased odds of vaginal shedding, respectively. Finally, gonococcal cervicitis (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.1-9.8) and vaginal candidiasis (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2-5.4), but not Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis, were correlated with significant increases in HIV-1 DNA detection. These risk factors, easily modifiable by simple interventions, may be important determinants of sexual or vertical HIV transmission.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Baeten JM, Mostad SB, Hughes MP, Overbaugh J, Bankson DD, Mandaliya K, Ndinya- Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK. Selenium deficiency is associated with shedding of HIV-1 infected cells in the female genital tract. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2001;26:360-4.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2001;26:360-4. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between selenium deficiency and vaginal or cervical shedding of HIV-1-infected cells. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 318 HIV-1 seropositive women in Mombasa, Kenya. METHODS: Vaginal and cervical swab specimens were tested for the presence of HIV-1 DNA by polymerase chain reaction. Multivariate logistic regression models, adjusting for CD4 count and vitamin A deficiency, were used. RESULTS: Selenium deficiency (defined as levels <85 microg/L) was observed in 11% of the study population. In unstratified multivariate analyses, there was no significant association between selenium deficiency and vaginal or cervical shedding. In stratified analyses, however, significant associations became apparent after excluding women with predictors of shedding with strong local effects on the genital tract mucosa. Among women who did not use oral contraceptives and who did not have vaginal candidiasis, selenium deficiency was significantly associated with vaginal shedding (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0–8.8
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Temmerman M, Ndinya-Achola J, Ambani J, Piot P.The right not to know HIV-test results. Lancet. 1995 Apr 15;345(8955):969-70.". In: Lancet. 1995 Apr 15;345(8955):969-70. IBIMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract
Large numbers of pregnant women in Africa have been invited to participate in studies on HIV infection. Study protocols adhere to guidelines on voluntary participation after pre-test and post-test counselling and informed consent; nevertheless, women may consent because they have been asked to do so without fully understanding the implications of being tested for HIV. Our studies in Nairobi, Kenya, show that most women tested after giving informed consent did not actively request their results, less than one third informed their partner, and violence against women because of a positive HIV-antibody test was common. It is important to have carefully designed protocols weighing the benefits against the potential harms for women participating in a study. Even after having consented to HIV testing, women should have the right not to be told their result. PIP: During January 1989-March 1992 in Kenya, health workers at two prenatal clinics in Nairobi tested 7893 pregnant women for HIV infection. They invited the HIV-positive women to participate in a study of HIV infection among pregnant women. The women gave informed consent to participate in the study, which included counseling before and after the test on HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). More than 80% were in a stable marriage. During the first 2 years of the study, more than 90% of the 5274 pregnant women returned to the clinic to learn their test result. 6.1% tested HIV positive. About 25% of the HIV-positive women dropped out of the study before counseling. Only 27.2% told their partner their HIV status. 8.6% returned to the clinic with their partner for HIV testing and counseling. 5.9% of all HIV-positive women suffered violence after HIV counseling. 13 of 19 of these women had communicated their test result to their partner. The high rate of violence forced the staff to change its counseling policy. During the next 2 years of the study, they continued to provide information on HIV and STDs, but they did not set up an appointment for the HIV test results. They informed the 2619 women that they could come any morning for their results or collect them at their next prenatal visit. 11.9% tested positive. Only 35% of the HIV- positive women inquired about their test result. Violence against HIV positive women happened in 1.9% of cases. HIV-positive women and HIV-negative women requested the results of the HIV test at the same rate, suggesting that they did not consider themselves at special risk. These findings show that, even after informed consent, participants in a study of perinatal HIV transmission and intervention should have the right to not be informed about the HIV test results, since the risk of increased violence and loss of security may outweigh the benefits of the study.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Maecker HT, Rinfret A, D'Souza P, Darden J, Roig E, Landry C, Hayes P, Birungi J, ANZALA O, Garcia M, Harari A, Frank I, Baydo R, Baker M, Holbrook J, Ottinger J, Lamoreaux L, Epling CL, Sinclair E, Suni MA, Punt K, Calarota S, El-Bahi S, Alter G, Maila H.". In: BMC Immunol. 2005 Jun 24; 6:13. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2005. Abstract
The Asp-derived amino acid pathway has been studied during the early stages of development in two maize genotypes, Io and F2, differing in germination efficiency and post-germination growth. In both genotypes expression of Ask2 (monofunctional Asp-kinase-2), Akh1 and Akh2 (bifunctional Asp-kinase-homo-Ser dehydrogenase-1 and 2), increased throughout germination and post-germination growth, suggesting a developmental regulation, whereas Ask1 (monofunctional Asp-kinase-1) was expressed constitutively. The major difference between Io and F2 concerned genes encoding bifunctional enzymes, particularly Akh2, the expression of which was dramatically low in F2. 15N-Asp labelling showed differences in in vivo Asp-kinase activities between the genotypes studied. Asp flux through the Met/Thr branches was higher in Io than in F2, while the latter exhibited a higher flux of Asp through the Lys branch. Physiological results, together with the higher Akh2 expression in Io, suggest that bifunctional enzyme activity, favourable to Met/Thr, was higher in Io than in F2 and that the monofunctional pathway was boosted in F2 because of the lower competition by the bifunctional pathway, thus allowing for higher flux of Asp through the Lys branch. In conclusion, it is suggested that F2 germination and post-germination growth might have been partially inhibited due to a limitation in Met and Thr availability. A negative physiological effect related to Lys accumulation in F2 is also discussed.
O. DROYATSIDONALDP, M. PROFMACHARIAW. "Bacterial isolates in severely malnourished children at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi .". In: East Afr Med J 82:343-48. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2005. Abstract
Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To identify bacterial isolates and determine antibiotic sensitivity pattern in children with severe Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) presenting at the Paediatric Filter Clinic (PFC) of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). DESIGN: Hospital based cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Paediatric Filter Clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), a tertiary level teaching institution for the University of Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Children between two and sixty months presenting at the hospital outpatient filter clinic with severe malnutrition. RESULTS: Ninety-one children, forty six female and forty five males, were recruited for the study. Of these, sixty had Marasmus, twenty Kwashiorkor and eleven Marasmic-Kwashiorkor. HIV serology was positive in 43% of study subjects. There were 30 bacterial isolates from 26 subjects. Ten bacterial isolates were gram positive and twenty gram negative. Isolation rates did not vary by HIV serological status. Twenty one out of the 30 isolates were from blood culture. About 1/3 of the gram positive isolates were coagulase negative staphylococci, largely resistant to commonly used antibiotics such as Erythromycin, Ampicillin, Cotrimoxazole, Chloramphenicol and even Oxacillin. More than half demonstrated resistance to commonly used oral antibiotics while 80% of all gram positive and negative isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin. Aminoglycosides, Gentamicin and Amikacin, and third generation Cephalosporins, Ceftriaxone and Ceftazidime, were found to be effective against most gram-negative isolates. CONCLUSION: Nearly a third (28.9%) of children admitted with severe malnutrition at KNH have concomitant severe bacterial infections; primarily manifesting as bacteraemia. Gram-negative agents are responsible for most severe bacterial infections in children admitted at the KNH, regardless of their HIV serological status. Whenever possible, blood culture should be included in the initial septic screening of severely malnourished children at KNH. In the absence of culture and sensitivity information, ciprofloxacin should be considered among the first line options in the empirical treatment of severe bacterial infections among these children. Clinical trials to further evaluate in-vivo effectiveness of various single or combination antibiotics are recommended. PMID: 16167706 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O. PROFMAGOHAGEORGEA. "Management of carcinoma of the penis: A review. East African Medical Journal, 72: 547-550, 1995.". In: East African Medical Journal, 72: 547-550, 1995. EAMJ; 1995. Abstract

Partial penectomy is effective in the treatment of T1 and T2 penile carcinoma with 80% five-year survival rates in the absence of inguinal metastases, and the residual stump is serviceable for upright micturition and sexual function. The use of micrographic surgery first introduced by Mohs in 1941 for small distally located lesions of upto one centimetre diametre achieves results comparable to partial penectomy. Carbon dioxide and Neodymium-Yag lasers have also been used in the treatment of T1 and T2 tumours with 89% five year survival rates. Radiotherapy is also ideal for the treatment of T1 and T2 primary penile carcinoma because failure is corrected with salvage partial penectomy. In T3 disease with extensive local growth total penectomy and removal of scrotal contents followed by perineal reconstruction with scrotal flap is associated with 90% five year survival rates. In advanced T4 tumours with fixed inguinal nodes (N3), hemipelvectomy or hemicorporectomy with combination cytotoxic chemotherapy is considered in selected cases. Various cytotoxic agents like bleomycin, vincristine and methotrexate have been used in adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy with mixed results. Pre operative radiotherapy is useful in the treatment of patients with metastatic groin lymph nodes of greater than or equal to 4 cm in size. Radiotherapy also provides effective palliation in patients with advanced regional and/or distant metastases. Groin block dissection is commonly performed to treat groin node metastasis and to stage nodal disease in patients with clinically negative groins. The procedure is however associated with significant morbidity resulting in complications such as wound infection and skin necrosis leading to wound breakdown and lymphoedema.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Plummer FA, Nagelkerke NJD, Moses S, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo J, Ngugi E. The importance of core groups in the epidemiology and control of HIV. AIDS 5(suppl.) S 169 - S 176, 1991.". In: AIDS 5(suppl.) S 169 - S 176, 1991. IBIMA Publishing; 1991. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. OL. "Communication Theories and their Applications: The Case of Family Planning Adoption in Kenya.". A Kenya Institute of Mass Communication Training Manual. Nairobi: Ministry of Information and Broadcasting; 1996. Abstract
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O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Mark A Luscher, Greory Choy, Ephanta Njagi, Bwayo JJ, ANZALA AO, Ndinya-Achola J, Kelly MacDonald et al. Naturally Occuring IgG Anti-HLA Alloantibody Does not Correlate with HIV Type 1 Resistance in Nairobi Prostitutes. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998 Jan.". In: AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998 Jan 20;14(2):109-15. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1998. Abstract
In an effort to identify an immunological basis for natural resistance to HIV-1 infection, we have examined serum antibody responses to HLA class I antigens in female prostitutes of the Nairobi Sex Workers Study. Anti-HLA antibodies are known to block HIV infectivity in vitro and can be protective against SIV challenge in macaques immunized with purified class I HLA. Thus, it was postulated that broadly cross-reactive alloantibodies recognizing common HLA alleles in the client population might contribute to the prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV. In fact, 12% of the women were found to have serum IgG antibodies against class I alloantigens. However, this alloantibody did not correlate with the HIV status of the women and was found in a similar proportion of HIV-positive and HIV-resistant women. The observed levels of alloantibody did not increase with HIV infection in susceptible individuals, suggesting that potential antigenic mimicry between HIV and host HLA class I antigens does not significantly increase levels of anti-class I antibodies. The lack of correlation between serum anti-allo-class I HLA antibodies and the risk of sexual transmission indicates that this humoral immune response is unlikely to be the natural mechanism behind the HIV-resistance phenotype of persistently HIV-seronegative women. This result, however, does not preclude the further investigation of alloimmunization as an artificial HIV immunization strategy.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O., (2001): .". In: In African Population Studies, Vol.16, No.1, June 2001, pp87-93. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Kreiss J.K. Coombs R, Plummer F, Holmes KK, Nikora B, Cameron W, Ngugi E, Ndinya-Achola JO, Corey L. Isolation of human immunodeficiency virus from genital ulcers in Nairobi prostitutes. J. Infect. Dis. 160(3): 380 - 384, 1989.". In: J. Infect. Dis. 160(3): 380 - 384, 1989. IBIMA Publishing; 1989. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O. (1986): .". In: In The Kenyan Geographer, Vol.1, 1986. Kisipan, M.L.; 1986. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Mattson CL, Campbell RT, Bailey RC, Agot K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Moses S.Risk compensation is not associated with male circumcision in Kisumu, Kenya: a multi-faceted assessment of men enrolled in a randomized controlled trial.PLoS ONE. 2008 Jun 18;3(6):e2443.". In: PLoS ONE. 2008 Jun 18;3(6):e2443. IBIMA Publishing; 2008. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have confirmed that male circumcision (MC) significantly reduces acquisition of HIV-1 infection among men. The objective of this study was to perform a comprehensive, prospective evaluation of risk compensation, comparing circumcised versus uncircumcised controls in a sample of RCT participants. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between March 2004 and September 2005, we systematically recruited men enrolled in a RCT of MC in Kenya. Detailed sexual histories were taken using a modified Timeline Followback approach at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Participants provided permission to obtain circumcision status and laboratory results from the RCT. We evaluated circumcised and uncircumcised men's sexual behavior using an 18-item risk propensity score and acquisition of incident infections of gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis. Of 1780 eligible RCT participants, 1319 enrolled (response rate = 74%). At the baseline RCT visit, men who enrolled in the sub-study reported the same sexual behaviors as men who did not. We found a significant reduction in sexual risk behavior among both circumcised and uncircumcised men from baseline to 6 (p<0.01) and 12 (p = 0.05) months post-enrollment. Longitudinal analyses indicated no statistically significant differences between sexual risk propensity scores or in incident infections of gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis between circumcised and uncircumcised men. These results are based on the most comprehensive analysis of risk compensation yet done. CONCLUSION: In the context of a RCT, circumcision did not result in increased HIV risk behavior. Continued monitoring and evaluation of risk compensation associated with circumcision is needed as evidence supporting its' efficacy is disseminated and MC is widely promoted for HIV prevention.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Mcclelland RS, Wang CC, Mandaliya K, Overbaugh J, Reiner MT, Panteleeff DD, Lavreys L, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK.Treatment of cervicitis is associated with decreased cervical shedding of HIV-1.AIDS. 2001 Jan 5;15(1):105-10.". In: AIDS. 2001 Jan 5;15(1):105-10. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether cervical mucosal shedding of HIV-1 RNA and HIV-1 infected cells decreases following successful treatment of cervicitis. DESIGN: Prospective interventional study. SETTING: Sexually Transmitted Infections Clinic, Coast Provincial General Hospital, Mombasa, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-six HIV-1 seropositive women with cervicitis: 16 with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, seven with Chlamydia trachomatis, and 13 with non-specific cervicitis. INTERVENTIONS: Treatment of cervicitis. Main outcome measures: Levels of total (cell-free and cell-associated) HIV-1 RNA and presence of HIV-1 DNA (a marker for infected cells) in cervical secretions before and after resolution of cervicitis. RESULTS: After treatment of cervicitis, the median HIV-1 RNA concentration in cervical secretions was reduced from 4.05 to 3.24 log10 copies/swab (P = 0.001). Significant decreases in cervical HIV-1 RNA occurred in the subgroups with N. gonorrhoeae (3.94 to 3.28 log10 copies/swab; P = 0.02) and C. trachomatis (4.21 to 3.19 log10 copies/swab; P = 0.02). Overall, the prevalence of HIV-1 infected cells in cervical secretions also decreased after treatment, from 67% to 42% (odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-6.0; P = 0.009). Detection of infected cells was associated with higher mean HIV-1 RNA levels (4.04 versus 2.99 log10 copies/swab; P< 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Effective treatment of cervicitis resulted in significant decreases in shedding of HIV-1 virus and infected cells in cervical secretions. Treatment of sexually transmitted diseases may be an important means of decreasing the infectivity of HIV-1 seropositive women by reducing exposure to HIV-1 in genital secretions.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Piot P, Colebunders R, Laga M, Ndinya-Achola JO, Vander Groen G, Plummer FA.AIDS in Africa: A Public Health Priority. J. Virol. Method, 17: 1 - 10, 1987.". In: J. Virol. Method, 17: 1 - 10, 1987. IBIMA Publishing; 1987. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Mumcuoglu,K.Y., BenYakir, D., Ochanda,J.O. and Galun, R. Immunogenic proteins in the body and feacal material of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus and their homology to antigens of other lice species: Medical and Veterinary Entomology.10, 10.". In: Med Vet Entomol. 1997 Oct;11(4):315-8. East African Medical Journal; 1996. Abstract
Immunization of rabbits with a faecal extract of the human body louse (Pediculus humanus) induced a high titre of specific IgG. The mean weight of blood taken by females fed on the immunized rabbits was significantly lower (29%) than taken by females fed on the control rabbits. The mean number of eggs per female fed on the immunized rabbits was significantly lower than for females fed on the control rabbits. The hatchability of the eggs laid by lice fed on immunized rabbits (91%) was significantly lower than of those fed on control rabbits (94%). The rate of development of nymphs fed on control rabbits was significantly higher than those fed on the immunized rabbits. There was no difference in survival rates of lice fed on immunized and control rabbits.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Mattson CL, Bailey RC, Agot K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Moses S.A nested case-control study of sexual practices and risk factors for prevalent HIV-1 infection among young men in Kisumu, Kenya.Sex Transm Dis. 2007 Oct;34(10):731-6.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2007 Oct;34(10):731-6. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To investigate sexual practices and risk factors for prevalent HIV infection among young men in Kisumu, Kenya. GOAL: The goal of this study was to identify behaviors associated with HIV in Kisumu to maximize the effectiveness of future prevention programs. STUDY DESIGN: Lifetime sexual histories were collected from a nested sample of 1337 uncircumcised participants within the context of a randomized controlled trial of male circumcision to reduce HIV incidence. RESULTS: Sixty-five men (5%) tested positive for HIV. Multiple logistic regression revealed the following independent predictors of HIV: older age, less education, being married, being Catholic, >4 lifetime sex partners, prior treatment for an STI, sex during partner's menstruation, ever practicing bloodletting, and receipt of a medical injection in the last 6 months. Prior HIV testing and postcoital cleansing were protective. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis confirms the importance of established risk factors for HIV and identifies practices that warrant further investigation.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Sherry B, Embree JE, Mei Z, Ndinya-Achola JO, Njenga S, Muchunga ER, Bett J, Plummer FA.Sociodemographic characteristics, care, feeding practices, and growth of cohorts of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers in Nairobi, Kenya.Trop.". In: Trop Med Int Health. 2000 Oct;5(10):678-86. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Onyango FE, Ndinya-Achola JO, Orinda V, Musoke R. Lancefield group B Beta haemolytic Streptococcal infection in the Newborn unit at Kenyatta National Hospital. E.A. Med. J. Vol. 61: 376 - 382, 1984.". In: E.A. Med. J. Vol. 61: 376 - 382, 1984. IBIMA Publishing; 1984. Abstract
Routine procedures used to isolate Haemophilus ducreyi in a busy laboratory are reported. Identification was based on colony morphology and nutritional and biochemical properties of 120 fresh isolates of H. ducreyi. These isolates grew very well on Gonococcal Agar and Mueller-Hinton Agar incubated at 34 degrees C in candle extinction jars containing moistened filter paper. Colonies varied in size, giving a polymorphic appearance. They were smooth, dome-shaped, and buff-yellow to grey in colour, and measured 2 mm in diameter. They could be pushed intact across the agar surface. By microscopic examination of gram-stained smears the isolates were gram-negative coccobacilli arranged in short chains, clumps or whorls and occasionally in typical "rail track" arrangements. Individual bacteria showed bipolar staining. Colonies autoagglutinated in saline. All strains were catalase-negative and did not produce indole or H2S. They were oxidase- and beta-lactamase positive and required X but not V factor for growth. Now that reliable techniques have been developed and characteristics established it is possible for most clinical laboratories to isolate and identify this organism from most patients with chancroid.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Ochanda, J.O., Okuro, J.K., Oduor, E.A.C., Mumcuoglu, K.Y.,Ben-Yakir,D. and Galun, R. Characterization of Louse gut antigenic proteins recognized by resistant laboratory hosts. Induction of resistance to lice by Immunization.". In: East African Medical Journal Vol. 71. No.10 Page, 35-39. James Opiyo Ochanda, PhD 14. East African Medical Journal; 1993. Abstract
Abstract in proceedings of Biotech SA 93 held at Rhodes University, 31 January-3 February 1993
O. KG. "Advance Geomorphology.". Forthcoming. Abstract
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O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Donoval BA, Landay AL, Moses S, Agot K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nyagaya EA, MacLean I, Bailey RC.HIV-1 target cells in foreskins of African men with varying histories of sexually transmitted infections.Am J Clin Pathol. 2006 Mar;125(3):386-91.". In: Am J Clin Pathol. 2006 Mar;125(3):386-91. IBIMA Publishing; 2006. Abstracthiv-1_target_cells_in_foreskins_of_african_men.dochiv-1_target_cells_in_foreskins_of_african_men.pdf

Numerous epidemiologic studies have found significant associations between lack of circumcision and HIV-1 acquisition in men. To our knowledge, this is the first study of human foreskin tissue that examines biologic mechanisms that increase susceptibility of uncircumcised African men to HIV-1. Foreskin specimens from 20 men with and 19 men with no history of sexually transmitted infections were examined for HIV-1 target cells. Most Langerhans cells were found in the epithelium; most CD4+ T cells and macrophages were in the submucosa. There were no differences in HIV-1 target cells between men with and those without history of sexually transmitted infections. However Langerhans cells and macrophages were more abundant in the group with a history of infection. The densities and positions of HIV-1 target cells in the foreskin tissue of these Kenyan men indicate that the inner mucosal surface of the human foreskin contains cells that make it highly susceptible to HIV infection.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "MacDonald KS, Embree J, Njenga S, Nagelkerke NJD, Ngatia I, Mohammed Z, Barber BH, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo J, Plummer FA Mother-Child Class I HLA Concordance Increased Perinatal Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Transmission Journ. Infe. Dis 177:551-6, .". In: Journ. Infe. Dis 177:551-6, 1998. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
To determine the effect of circumcision status on acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 and other sexually transmitted diseases, a prospective cohort study of 746 HIV-1-seronegative trucking company employees was conducted in Mombasa, Kenya. During the course of follow-up, 43 men acquired HIV-1 antibodies, yielding an annual incidence of 3.0%. The annual incidences of genital ulcers and urethritis were 4.2% and 15.5%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, after controlling for demographic and behavioral variables, uncircumcised status was an independent risk factor for HIV-1 infection (hazard rate ratio [HRR=4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-8.3) and genital ulcer disease (HRR=2.5; 95% CI, 1.1-5.3). Circumcision status had no effect on the acquisition of urethral infections and genital warts. In this prospective cohort of trucking company employees, uncircumcised status was associated with increased risk of HIV-1 infection and genital ulcer disease, and these effects remained after controlling for potential confounders.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "Engineering education at the University of Nairobi.". In: Kenya Engineer  Journal of the Institution of Engineers of Kenya, Vol. 18, No 2, Nairobi. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1998. Abstract
A model for the establishment of an integrated geodetic datum covering a region is treated. The integrated geodetic datum is understood here to comprise the geoid, the reference ellipsoid, and the positional coordinates. A comprehensive unified solution model including the three parameters comprising the datum is considered. The estimation model adopted rigorously incorporates determined prior information in the estimation of the datum parameters. Mathematical models together with the pertinent observation equations are presented, followed by a description of the procedure for the aetual setting up of the datum. The observational scheme is based on a system of modular traverses anchored on a trilateration of GPS baselines.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "K'Obonyo, P.O. (1996). Severity of Consequences for the Leader and Subordinates Work History as Determinants of Leader Attribution.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management, vol. 2.; 1996. Abstract

The effects of the level of seriousness of consequences of a subordinates performance and the nature of a subordinate's work history on leader attribution and response were investigated in a 2 x 3 factorial design with a sample of 46 male and 38 female junior and middle-level managers. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of six experimental conditions. Two variables, "consequences" of subordinate's performance and subordinate's "work history" were manipulated in a laboratory setting. As expected, (1) the level of internal attribution and response directed at the subordinate increased with the increase in the seriousness of consequences; (2) Internal attribution and the level of response directed at the subordinate were greater in the "poor work history" situation than in the "good work history" situation. Contrary to expectation, however, there was no significant difference between the two levels of serious consequences, i.e., "serious" and "serious with consequences" for the manager.

O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Kihurani, D.O., Masake, R.A., Nantulya, V.M. and Mbiuki, S.M. (2000): Characterization of trypanosome isolates from naturally infected horses on a farm in Kenya. Veterinary Parasitology, 89: 173-185.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Kenya Camel Forum, Nanyuki, Laikipia district, 13th to 16th March, 2001, p. 46-47. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2000.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "Motivating Employees: Guidelines for Managers.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1988.
O. O’C, Mosi R, O. AJ, K. M, O. M. "Genetic evaluation of a Kenyan Boran herd for the relative performance of embryo donor cows based on growth and fertility traits." Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 2010. 2010;7(1):783-791.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Ochanda JO, Syuto B, Oguma K, Iida H, Kubo S.Comparison of antigenicity of toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum type C and D strains.Appl Environ Microbiol. 1984 Jun;47(6):1319-22.". In: Appl Environ Microbiol. 1984 Jun;47(6):1319-22. East African Medical Journal; 1984. Abstract
C1 neurotoxin of Clostridium botulinum strains C-Stockholm (C-ST), C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 and type D toxin of strains D-1873 and D-CB16 were purified by gel filtration, ion exchange, and affinity chromatographies. The purified toxins had di-chain structure made of heavy and light chains. The toxins of C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 reacted with anti-C-ST heavy chain and anti-C-ST light chain in immunodiffusion tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas D-CB16 toxin reacted with anti-D-1873 heavy chain and anti-D-1873 light chain. However, C-6813 toxin reacted with anti-D-1873 heavy chain and anti-C-ST light chain but not with anti-C-ST heavy chain or anti-D-1873 light chain immunoglobulin G. These results indicate common antigens in the heavy chains of C-6813 and D-1873 toxins and in the light chains of C-6813 and C-ST toxins. Further, they provide evidence for heterogeneity within type C1 toxin subunits.
O. PROFMBECHEOYUKO. "Mbeche, O. O., "A Review of Commercial Renewable Energy Initiatives in Kenya." Proceedings: International Symposium on Decentralised Energy Alternatives, UNDESA, Division for Sustainable Development Energy and Transport Branch, Columbia University, New Yo.". In: International. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 1999. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
O. KB, Mate P, Mulwa W. "Characterizing Thermo-physical Properties of Surfaces using an Absorption Calorimeter." J. of Measurement Science. 1995.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "Personality Characteristics in Personal Selling.". In: Marketing Review.; 1988.
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J.A., Gathumbi, P.K., Kihurani, D.O., Mbithi, P.M.F. and Mbiuki, S.M. (1989): Atypical (cutaneous) Actinobacillosis in cattle: Clinical observations, diagnosis and treatment in eighteen cases. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Afr.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1989. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
O. OW. "The Niche of Sociology in the Climate Change Debate." The Professional Journal. 2011;Vol. 3(2):21-26.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Baeten JM, Overbaugh J, Panteleeff DD, Chohan BH, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss JK.Virus load during primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) type 1 infection is related to the severity of acute HIV illness in Kenyan wo.". In: Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Jul 1;35(1):77-81. Epub 2002 Jun 3. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
We evaluated the association between the severity of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) illness and HIV-1 plasma virus load before seroconversion using stored plasma samples obtained from 74 prostitutes in Mombasa, Kenya. Fever, vomiting, headache, fatigue, arthralgia, myalgia, sore throat, skin rash, or being too sick to work were each associated with significantly higher virus loads before HIV-1 seroconversion, and each additional symptom or sign was associated with an increase in virus load of 0.4 log(10) copies/mL.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Koesters SA, Alimonti JB, Wachihi C, Matu L, ANZALA OA, Kimani J, Embree JE, Plummer FA, Fowke KR. IL-7Ralpha expression on DC4+ T lymphocytes decreases with HIV disease progression and inversely correlates with immune activation. Eur J Immunol. 2006 Feb;.". In: Eur J Immunol. 2006 Feb;36(2):336-44. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2006. Abstract
HIV diversity may limit the breadth of vaccine coverage due to epitope sequence differences between strains. Although amino acid substitutions within CD8(+) T cell HIV epitopes can result in complete or partial abrogation of responses, this has primarily been demonstrated in effector CD8(+) T cells. In an HIV-infected Kenyan cohort, we demonstrate that the cross-reactivity of HIV epitope variants differs dramatically between overnight IFN-gamma and longer-term proliferation assays. For most epitopes, particular variants (not the index peptide) were preferred in proliferation in the absence of corresponding overnight IFN-gamma responses and in the absence of the variant in the HIV quasispecies. Most proliferating CD8(+) T cells were polyfunctional via cytokine analyses. A trend to positive correlation was observed between proliferation (but not IFN-gamma) and CD4 counts. We present findings relevant to the assessment of HIV vaccine candidates and toward a better understanding of how viral diversity is tolerated by central and effector memory CD8(+) T cells.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Jackson DJ, Martin Jr, HL, Bwayo J, Nyange PM, Rakwar JP, Kashonga F, Mandalya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss JK,Acceptability of HIV Vaccine Trials in High-Risk Heterosexual Cohorts in Mombasa, Kenya.AIDS 9: 1297-83 1995.". In: AIDS 9: 1297-83 1995. IBIMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract
For a HIV vaccine to be effective, it will be essential that it protect against the virus variants to which individuals are most frequently exposed. HIV-1 is predominantly a sexually acquired virus, thus, variants in genital secretions are a potentially important reservoir of viruses that are transmitted. Because there are no data available on variants in the genital mucosa, we analyzed this provirus population and compared it to the proviruses in the blood of individuals chronically infected with HIV-1. A major genetic difference between variants within a patient were insertions, which were apparently created by duplication of adjacent sequences, that resulted in acquisition of new potential glycosylation sites in V1 and V2. Comparisons of mucosal and PBMC variants suggest that these tissues harbor distinct, but related populations of HIV-1 variants. In two of three patients, the mucosal variants were most closely related to a minor variant genotype in blood. In a third individual, viruses in both tissues were surprisingly homogeneous, but the majority of variants in the cervix encoded a V1 sequence with a predicted glycosylation pattern similar to a minor variant in blood. The V3 sequence patterns of the mucosal isolates indicate they may be predominantly macrophage-tropic viruses.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Kreiss J, Ngugi E, Holmes K, Ndinya-Achola J, Waiyaki P, Roberts PL, Ruminjo I, Sajabi R, Kimata J, Fleming TR, et al.Efficacy of nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge use in preventing heterosexual acquisition of HIV in Nairobi prostitutes. JAMA. 1992 Jul 22-.". In: JAMA. 1992 Jul 22-29;268(4):477-82. IBIMA Publishing; 1992. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. MRKOTENGDAVID. "G A Munga and D O Koteng.". In: Proceedings of Symposium on Unsaturated Soil Behaviour and Applications. 22-23 August 1995, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Pp 146-151. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1995. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
O. OL. "Africa's Poverty Trap: What Role the Mass Media?". Peter Desbarats and Phillis Giroux (eds.) Encounter 91. London, ON.: The University of Western Ontario; 1992. Abstract
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O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Kenneth E. Robbins, Leondios G Kostrikis, Teresa M. Brown, ANZALA AO, Sunny Shin, Francis A Plummer, Marcia L Kalish. Genetic analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains in Kenya: A comparison using phylogenetic analysis and combinational melt.". In: AIDS Res. Human Retroviruses, 1999; 1;15(4):329-35. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1999. Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine whether the maternal infecting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 clade affects mother-to-child transmission frequency. Mothers in the mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission study in Nairobi, Kenya, were grouped by HIV-1 status of their first enrolled child: uninfected, perinatally infected, or postnatally infected. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was used to determine HIV-1 viral clades of nested polymerase chain reaction products from HIV-1 protease or p24 genes. When inconclusive, sequencing determined the clade. Clade distributions within the groups were compared. The 3 groups displayed a uniform clade distribution. The predominant clades were A (59%) and D (20%). Clades B, C, F, mixed, and recombinant infections comprised the remainder (21%). No significant association was seen between clades A and D and either frequency or mode of vertical transmission. RFLP analysis revealed 2 clade B infections, 9 mixed, and 5 p24/protease recombinant infections in the study population.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, Elias, H.O. (2001): The Effect of Health Education Programme on Adolescents Sexual Behaviour A Case Study of Nairobi City Adolscents.". In: in African Population Studies Vol.16 No.1 June, 2001 pp87-193. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Plummer FA, Simonsen JN, Chubb H, Slaney L, Kimata J, Bosire M, Ndinya-Achola JO and Ngugi EN.Epidemiologic evidence for the development of serovar specific immunity after gonococcal infection. J.,Slaney L Clin.Invest. 83: 1472 - 1476, 1989.". In: J.,Slaney L Clin.Invest. 83: 1472 - 1476, 1989. IBIMA Publishing; 1989. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O. and J.O. Oucho (1995) The Refugee Crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa What are the solutions?". In: In African Population paper No.4 published by the African Population and Environmental Institute and JAICA, Nairobi, pp.1-31. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Kimani J, Kaul R, Nagelkerke NJ, Luo M, MacDonald KS, Ngugi E, Fowke KR, Ball BT, Kariri A, Ndinya-Achola J, Plummer FA.Reduced rates of HIV acquisition during unprotected sex by Kenyan female sex workers predating population declines in HIV prevalence.AI.". In: AIDS. 2008 Jan 2;22(1):131-7. IBIMA Publishing; 2008. Abstractreduced_rates_of_hiv_acquisition_during_unprotected_sex_by_kenyan_female_sex_workers_predating_population_declines_in_hiv_prevalence.pdf

OBJECTIVES: Female sex workers (FSWs) form a core group at high risk of both sexual HIV acquisition and secondary transmission. The magnitude of these risks may vary by sexual risk taking, partner HIV prevalence, host immune factors and genital co-infections. We examined temporal trends in HIV prevalence and per-act incidence, adjusted for behavioral and other variables, in FSWs from Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: An open cohort of FSWs followed since 1985. Behavioral and clinical data were collected six monthly from 1985 to 2005, and sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnostics and HIV serology performed. A Cox proportional hazards model with time-dependent covariables was used to estimate infection risk as a function of calendar time. RESULTS: HIV prevalence in new FSW enrollees peaked at 81% in 1986, and was consistently below 50% after 1997. Initially uninfected FSWs remained at high risk of acquiring HIV throughout the study period, but the rate of HIV acquisition during unprotected sex with a casual client declined by over four-fold. This reduction correlated closely with decreases in gonorrhea prevalence, and predated reductions in the Kenyan HIV population prevalence by over a decade. CONCLUSIONS: The per-act rate of HIV acquisition in high-risk Nairobi FSWs fell dramatically between 1985 and 2005. This decline may represent the impact of improved STI prevention/therapy, immunogenetic shifts in at-risk women, or changes in the proportion of HIV exposures occurring with clients who had acute HIV infection. Declining HIV incidence in high-risk cohorts may predict and/or be causally related to future reductions in population prevalence.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "MacDonald KS, Malonza I, Chen DK, Nagelkerke NJ, Nasio JM, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo JJ, Sitar DS, Aoki FY, Plummer FA.Vitamin A and risk of HIV-1 seroconversion among Kenyan men with genital ulcers.AIDS. 2001 Mar 30;15(5):635-9.". In: AIDS. 2001 Mar 30;15(5):635-9. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Vitamin A is involved in normal immune function and the maintenance of mucosal integrity through complex effects on cellular differentiation. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether serum vitamin A levels were associated with altered susceptibility to primary infection with HIV-1 in men with high-risk sexual behaviour and genital ulcers who presented for treatment at an STD clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: HIV-1 seronegative men were prospectively followed. Vitamin A levels at study entry were compared among 38 men who HIV-1 seroconverted versus 94 controls who remained HIV seronegative. RESULTS: Vitamin A deficiency (retinol less than 20 microg/dl) was very common and was present in 50% of HIV-1 seroconverters versus 76% of persistent seronegatives. Seroconversion was independently associated with a retinol level greater than 20 microg/dl (HR 2.43, 95% CI 1.25-4.70
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Nesbitt A, Jitta JS, Bubi J, Ndinya-Achola J.Pyogenic meningitis in Nairobi children.East Afr Med J. 1988 Mar;65(3):189-96.". In: East Afr Med J. 1988 Mar;65(3):189-96. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Mumcuoglu,K.Y., Ben-Yakir, D.,Ochanda,J.O., Miller,J. and Galun, R. Immunization of rabbits with a feacal extract of the human body louse,Pediculus humanus humanus :.". In: the effect of induced resistance on the louse population: Med. Vet. Entomol. 11, 315-318. East African Medical Journal; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Screening and biochemical characterisation of trypanosome-lysing factor (trypanolysin) from non-vector insect, Schistocerca gregaria. DESIGN: Laboratory based experiment. SETTING: Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. RESULTS: Lysis of isolated trypanosomes was demonstrated with midgut homogenates of natural vector Glossina morsitans centralis as well in non-vector insects. The highest trypanolytic activity was observed in midgut homogenate of the desert locust. Schistocerca gregaria followed by the cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L). Further studies on the S. gregaria trypanolytic factor showed its proteinaceous nature due to its sensitivity to temperatures above 40 degrees C and to proteases. Additionally, the factor showed lectin-like properties since the activity was blocked by D-glucosamine. CONCLUSION: The trypanolytic factor has the potential of being used to modulate tsetse fly vectorial capacity.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Smith JS, Moses S, Hudgens MG, Agot K, Franceschi S, Maclean IW, Ndinya-Achola JO, Parker CB, Pugh N, Meijer CJ, Snijders PJ, Bailey RC.Human papillomavirus detection by penile site in young men from Kenya.Sex Transm Dis. 2007 Nov;34(11):928-34.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2007 Nov;34(11):928-34. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstracthuman_papillomavirus_detection_by_penile_site_in_young_men_from_kenya.pdf

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on whether sampling from the penile shaft or urethra increases detection of penile HPV infection in men beyond that found in the glans and coronal sulcus. METHODS: Within a randomized clinical trial, a validation study of penile sampling was conducted in Kisumu, Kenya. Young men (18-24 years) were invited to provide penile exfoliated cells using prewetted Dacron swabs to determine the best site for HPV detection. beta-Globin gene PCR and HPV DNA type GP5+/6+ PCR status were ascertained from 3 anatomical sites. RESULTS: A total of 98 young HIV-seronegative, uncircumcised men participated. Penile HPV prevalence varied by anatomical site: 50% in penile exfoliated cells from the glans, coronal sulcus, and inner foreskin tissue; 43% in the shaft and external foreskin tissue; and 18% in the urethra (P <0.0001). For each anatomical site, over 87% of samples were beta-globin positive. Beyond that found in the glans/coronal sulcus, urethral sampling resulted in no increase in HPV positivity and shaft sampling resulted in an additional 7.3% of overall HPV positivity. The prevalence of high-risk HPV positivity varied by anatomical site: 39% in glans/coronal sulcus, 31% in shaft, and 13% in the urethra (P <0.0001). HPV 16 was the most common type identified. DISCUSSION: Penile HPV prevalence was approximately 50% among young men in Kisumu, Kenya. Urethral sampling for HPV detection in men added no sensitivity for HPV detection over that found from sampling the glans/coronal sulcus and penile shaft. These data will help inform studies on HPV transmission dynamics, and on the efficacy of HPV prophylactic vaccines on penile HPV carriage in men.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Gichangi P, Fonck K, Sekande-Kigondu C, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Kiragu D, Claeys P, Temmerman M.Partner notification of pregnant women infected with syphilis in Nairobi, Kenya. Int J STD AIDS. 2000 Apr;11(4):257-61.". In: Int J STD AIDS. 2000 Apr;11(4):257-61. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract
We examined partner notification among syphilitic pregnant women in Nairobi. At delivery, 377 women were found to be rapid plasma reagin (RPR) reactive. Data were available for 94% of the partners of women who were tested during pregnancy; over 67% of the partners had received syphilis treatment while 23% had not sought treatment mainly because they felt healthy. Six per cent of the women had not informed their partners as they feared blame and/or violence. Adverse pregnancy outcome was related to lack of partner treatment during pregnancy (7% versus 19%, odds ratio (OR) 3.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9-10.0). Our data suggest that messages focusing on the health of the unborn child have a positive effect on partner notification and innovative and locally adapted strategies for partner notification need more attention.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Laga M, Plummer FA, Nsanze H, Namaara W, Brunham RC, Ndinya-Achola JO, Maitha G, Ronald AR, D'Costa LJ, Bhullar V, Mati JY, Fransen L, Cheang M, Piot P.Epidemiology of ophthalmia neonatorum in Kenya. Lancet ii: 1145 - 1149, 1986.". In: Lancet ii: 1145 - 1149, 1986. IBIMA Publishing; 1986. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Ochieng, V.O., Ochanda, J.O., Osir, E.O and Olembo, N.K (1993): Temporal synthesis of cuticlar proteins.". In: During larval Development in G. morsitants. J.Biochem. Physiol Vol. 105B. No 2, pp 309-316. East African Medical Journal; 1993. Abstract
The efficacy of bloodmeal digestion in teneral Glossina morsitans centralis fed on rabbits immunized with tsetse fly midgut extracts was progressively monitored over a period of 96 hours. Flies fed on immunized rabbits showed reduced rate of bloodmeal digestion as compared to the controls. Although there was insignificant difference in the rate of bloodmeal digestion upto 24 hours post-feeding in later stages of digestion there was quite a significant difference. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic patterns of bloodmeal drawn from the posterior sections of the midgut demonstrated that, bloodmeal is completely degraded in the midgut after 96 hours in the control flies, while substantial amount is still undigested in the experimental flies. However, not much difference in the rates of digestion was observed with bloodmeal drawn from the anterior section of the midgut. These results suggests that when flies are fed on rabbits immunized with tsetse fly midgut extract, there is an impairment on the efficiency of digestion. The anti-midgut antibodies could be interfering with either the induction or proteolytic activity of the midgut enzymes.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "McClelland RS, Hassan WM, Lavreys L, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Jaoko W, Kurth AE, Baeten JM. HIV-1 acquisition and disease progression are associated with decreased high-risk sexual behaviour among Kenyan female sex workers.". In: AIDS 2006; 20:1969-73. IBIMA Publishing; 2006. Abstracthiv-1_acquisition_and_disease_progression.dochiv-1_acquisition_and_disease_progression.pdf

{ BACKGROUND: Low serum selenium has been associated with lower CD4 counts and greater mortality among HIV-1-seropositive individuals, but most studies have not controlled for serum albumin and the presence of an acute phase response. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate relationships between serum selenium concentrations and CD4 count, plasma viral load, serum albumin, and acute phase response markers among 400 HIV-1-seropositive women. RESULTS: In univariate analyses, lower CD4 count, higher plasma viral load, lower albumin, and the presence of an acute phase response were each significantly associated with lower serum selenium concentrations. In multivariate analyses including all four of these covariates, only albumin remained significantly associated with serum selenium. For each 0.1 g/dl increase in serum albumin, serum selenium increased by 0.8 microg/l (p < 0.001). Women with an acute phase response also had lower serum selenium (by 5.6 microg/l

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Malonza IM, Tyndall MW, Ndinya-Achola JO, Maclean I, Omar S, MacDonald KS, Perriens J, Orle K, Plummer FA, Ronald AR, Moses S.A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of single-dose ciprofloxacin versus erythromycin for the treatment of chancr.". In: J Infect Dis. 1999 Dec;180(6):1886-93.Click here to read. IBIMA Publishing; 1999. Abstract
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya, to compare single-dose ciprofloxacin with a 7-day course of erythromycin for the treatment of chancroid. In all, 208 men and 37 women presenting with genital ulcers clinically compatible with chancroid were enrolled. Ulcer etiology was determined using culture techniques for chancroid, serology for syphilis, and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for chancroid, syphilis, and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Ulcer etiology was 31% unmixed chancroid, 23% unmixed syphilis, 16% unmixed HSV, 15% mixed etiology, and 15% unknown. For 111 participants with chancroid, cure rates were 92% with ciprofloxacin and 91% with erythromycin. For all study participants, the treatment failure rate was 15%, mostly related to ulcer etiologies of HSV infection or syphilis, and treatment failure was 3 times more frequent in human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects than in others, mostly owing to HSV infection. Ciprofloxacin is an effective single-dose treatment for chancroid, but current recommendations for empiric therapy of genital ulcers may result in high treatment failure due to HSV infection.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW, O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "Robust geodetic parameter estimation under least squares through weighting on the basis of the mean square error.". In: Quo vadis geodesia. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1999. Abstract
A model for the establishment of an integrated geodetic datum covering a region is treated. The integrated geodetic datum is understood here to comprise the geoid, the reference ellipsoid, and the positional coordinates. A comprehensive unified solution model including the three parameters comprising the datum is considered. The estimation model adopted rigorously incorporates determined prior information in the estimation of the datum parameters. Mathematical models together with the pertinent observation equations are presented, followed by a description of the procedure for the aetual setting up of the datum. The observational scheme is based on a system of modular traverses anchored on a trilateration of GPS baselines.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "K'Obonyo, P.O. Management of Social Services: Examples from the Health Sector.". In: Medicus, vol. 15, No. 1, pp.6-12.; 1996.
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Kihurani, D.O. (2001): Economics of early diagnosis of camel trypanosomiasis using Suratex.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Kenya Camel Forum, Nanyuki, Laikipia district, 13th to 16th March, 2001, p. 46-47. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2001. Abstract
Yohimbine, 4-aminopyridine, and a combination of the 2 drugs were studied to asses their potential as antagonists to xylazine in goats. Twenty-four shall East African goats were divided randomly into 4 groups of 6 goats each in a placebo-controlled study. They were all treated with intramuscular xylazine at 0.44 mg/kg. At the time of maximum sedation, sterile water was administered intravenously to the control group, 0.15 % 40aminopyridine at 0.4mg/kg to Group2, 0.1% yohimbine at 0.25mg/kg to Group 4. The hohimbine/40aminopyridine combination was also used to antangonise xylazine at 0.88mg/kg in 6 goats. The heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements, the peal and palpebral reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimuli, the standing time and the total recovery time were established and evaluated to assess the effects of the treatments. The drugs reversed the xylazine-induced decrease in the heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements and also rapidly restored the reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimulation. In addition, they significantly (p<0.05) decreased the mean standing time. The mean total recovery time was decreased significantly (p<0.05) by 4-aminopyridine and the yohimbine/4-aminopyridine combination, but non-sigificantly (p>0.05) by yohimbine. No relapse in sedation occurred. Overall, the combination of yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine produce better responses than the individual drugs, and may therefore be used for rapid reversal of xylazine-induced sedation in goats. Yohimbine or 4-aminopyridine may also be useful for this purpose but recovery may be prolonged. Key words: small East African goats, xylazine antagonists, xylazine hydrochloride, yombine, 4-aminopyridine.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ndinya-Achola JO, Kasili EG.Acute Leukaemia in pregnancy -A case report from Kenyatta National Hospital. E.A. Med. J. Vol. 53 No. 11, Nov. 1976.". In: E.A. Med. J. Vol. 53 No. 11, Nov. 1976. IBIMA Publishing; 1976. Abstract
To monitor clinically significant isolates and their antimicrobial susceptibilities, all specimens sent to microbiology laboratory of the Kenyatta National Hospital were cultured on appropriate media. The susceptibility of the isolates was performed on Muller Hinton or diagnostic sensitivity test (DST) agar using comparative discs diffusion technique. The results were then entered into Microbe Base 2 computer programme. A total of 7416 clinically significant isolates were collected from 1991 to 1995. The most commonly isolated organisms were E.coli, Klebsiella and Staphylococcus aureus. Most of these hospital acquired infections had multiple resistance to conventional antimicrobials, namely, penicillin, tetracyclines, gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole and ampicillin. The resistance pattern was high among both gram negative and positive bacteria isolates. Beta-lactamase production amongst them were 51%, 69.3%, 79.6% respectively. Prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 39.8%. Addition of clavulanic acid to amoxycillin increased Staphylococcus aureus susceptibility three fold. The emergence of multiple drug resistance calls for a continuous monitoring and reviewing of antibiotic policy in the hospital and the country at large.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES, O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Naiki, M., Ramasamy., J.O. Ochanda and G.Maina: Lipid composition of Schistosoma mansoni and surface labelling of glycolipids. Jpn. J.Vet. Sci. 47, 777- 786.". In: Proceedings of the 10th Annual Medical Scientific Conference page, 189. Nairobi, Kenya. East African Medical Journal; 1985. Abstract
Lipophorin was isolated from the haemolymph of adult tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans, by ultracentrifugation in a potassium bromide density gradient. 2. The tsetse fly lipophorin (Mr congruent to 600,000) has a density of congruent to 1.11 g/ml and consists of two apoproteins, apolipophorin-I (apoLp-I, Mr congruent to 250,000) and apolipophorin-II (apoLp-II, Mr congruent to 80,000), both of which are glycosylated as shown by staining with periodate-Schiff reagent. The protein complex is composed of 49% protein and 51% lipids. 3. The finding of lipophorin in tsetse fly haemolymph suggests that, although these flies primarily utilize proline for their energy needs, there is an active transport mechanism for the supply of lipid requirements.
O. PROFMBECHEOYUKO. "Mbeche, O. O., and T. O. Otieno, "Design Criteria Considerations of Pedestrian Crossings: The Case of a Major Arterial in Nairobi", East African Journal of Engineering, vol. 6, April 2001.". In: The Case of a Major Arterial in Nairobi", East African Journal of Engineering, vol. 6, April 2001. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 2001. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
O. MAGOMERET, D. OBUKOSIAS, W. PROFMUTITUEUNICE, F O, C. NGICHABE, I. SHIBAIROS. Molecular Characterization of ‘Candidatus’ liberibacter species/strains causing huanglongbing disease of citrus in Kenya..; 2009.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Voeten HA, O'hara HB, Kusimba J, Otido JM, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Varkevisser CM, Habbema JD.Gender differences in health care-seeking behavior for sexually transmitted diseases: a population-based study in Nairobi, Kenya.Sex Transm Dis. 2004 May;31(.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2004 May;31(5):265-72. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Health care-seeking behavior for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is important in STD/HIV control. GOAL: The goal of this study was to describe the proportion seeking care, patient delay, and choice of provider among men and women with STD-related complaints in Nairobi, Kenya. STUDY DESIGN: A population-based questionnaire was administered in 7 randomly selected clusters (small geographic areas covering approximately 150 households each). RESULTS: Of the 291 respondents reporting complaints, 20% of men versus 35% of women did not seek care, mainly because symptoms were not considered severe, symptoms had disappeared, or as a result of lack of money. Of those who sought care, women waited longer than men (41 vs. 16 days). Most men and women went to the private sector (72% and 57%, respectively), whereas the informal sector was rarely visited (13% and 16%, respectively). Relatively more women visited the government sector (28% vs. 15%). Because women were mostly monogamous, they did not relate their complaints to sexual intercourse, which hampered prompt care-seeking. CONCLUSION: Women should be convinced to seek care promptly, eg, through health education in communities.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Jackson DJ, Rakwar JP, Richardson BA, Mandalya K, Chohan BH, Bwayo J, Ndinya Achola JO, Martin Jr HL, Moses S Kreiss JK.Decreased Incidence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Trucking Companies in Kenya: results of a Risk-Reduction Programme AIDS II: .". In: results of a Risk-Reduction Programme AIDS II: 903-09, 1997. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
Transport workers (n = 504) in Mombasa, Kenya, were screened for urethral infection by history, clinical examination, and laboratory testing of urethral swabs and first-catch urine specimens. The prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was 3.4%, Chlamydia trachomatis, 3.6%, and Trichomonas vaginalis, 6.0%; more than two-thirds of infections were asymptomatic. A complaint of urethral discharge, dysuria, or both was twice as sensitive as the sign of discharge on physical examination (34.5% vs. 15.5%) in identifying infection. A positive leukocyte esterase dipstick (LED) test on urine predicted infection with a sensitivity of 95.0% and a specificity of 59.3% in symptomatic men and with a sensitivity of 55.3% and a specificity of 82.8% in asymptomatic men. Demographic and behavioral factors were not independent predictors of infection. In resource-poor settings with high prevalences of urethral infection, an effective screening and management strategy would be to treat symptomatic men, as well as asymptomatic men with a positive LED test, for all three infections.
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J.A., Kihurani, D.O., Mbithi, P.M.F. and Mbiuki, S.M. (1990): Prognosis indicators and economic implications of advanced bovine ocular squamous cell carcinoma after radical surgery, The Kenya Veterinarian, 14:23-25.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Geneva Congress of Equine Medicine and Surgery, and 3rd Congress of the World Equine Veterinary Association (WEVA), Geneva, 7-11 December, 1993, Swiss Vet 11-S/ 1993, p. 184. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1990. Abstract
Equines are particularly susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma evansi and T. brucei, but rarely is natural T. congolense and T. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya, initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay ( antigen ELISA ).
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Fonck K, Mwai C, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Temmerman M.Health-seeking and sexual behaviors among primary healthcare patients in Nairobi, Kenya.Sex Transm Dis. 2002 Feb;29(2):106-11.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2002 Feb;29(2):106-11. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Health-seeking and sexual behaviors are important elements in the control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). GOAL: To examine patterns of health-seeking behavior and related sexual behavior relevant to improved prevention and care among patients attending primary healthcare (PHC) clinics. STUDY DESIGN: A questionnaire covering social, demographic, and healthcare-seeking and sexual behavior information was administered to 555 patients attending three primary healthcare clinics in low socioeconomic areas of Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: Women's knowledge about health in general and STIs in particular was poor. A major gender difference in delay of health seeking for STIs was observed (5 days for men versus 14 days for women). Significantly more men than women reported a history of STIs (68% versus 47%; P = 0.04). Men reported more extramarital affairs (17% versus 8%; P < 0.001). A high prevalence of gonorrhea (3%) and chlamydia (6%) was found in this population, with no difference between the genders. The urine dipstick was ineffective for the detection of these STIs. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for better understanding of behavioral factors, as well as gender and social aspects of health care. Health education and health promotion in these areas should be strengthened. Improved screening tests are needed for the detection of STI.

O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Gitura B, Joshi MD, Lule GN, Anzala O.Total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4+ t cell count in initiating antiretroviral therapy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 2007 Oct;84(10):466-72.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Oct;84(10):466-72. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of Total Lymphocyte Count (TLC) as a surrogate marker for CD4 + T cell count in antiretroviral (ARV) treatment initiation in a Kenyan population of HIV seropositive patients at Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, HIV treatment and follow-up outpatient facility; Comprehensive Care Centre, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and twenty five HIV Elisa positive, ARV naive patients visiting the Comprehensive Care Centre between January 2006 to March 2006. RESULTS: A significant linear correlation was found between TLC and CD4 cell count for the whole group with a Spearman rank correlation of 0.761 (p < 0.01); and was also independently observed in the four WHO clinical stages. The classification utility of TLC 1200 cells/mm3 cut-off was suboptimal; sensitivity 37% specificity of 99% and the NPV of 56%. The receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve generated an optimal TLC cut-off of 1900 cells/mm3 cut-off to be of greatest utility with a sensitivity of 81.1%, specificity of 90.3%, PPV of 90.8% and NPV of 80.2%. This implies that a TLC cut-off of 1900 cells/mm3 correctly classify eight out of ten HIV positive patients as having a CD4 < 200 cells/mm3 and only misclassify two such patients. Serial CD4 testing can then be performed on the minority of patients who despite a TLC > or = 1900 cells/mm3 are, on basis of clinical data, suspect of more advanced disease warranting ARV therapy. This would reduce the number of patients tested for and focus the application of CD4 testing and thus reduce attendant cost in care provision in CD4 resource poor settings. CONCLUSION: Our data showed a good positive correlation between TLC and CD4 cell count, however the WHO recommended TLC cuto-ff of 1200/mm3 was found to be of low sensitivity in classifying patients as having a CD4 counts < 200 cells/mm3. This would result in underestimation of advanced stage of disease and to withholding ARVs treatment to persons who need treatment. We recommend a TLC cut-off of 1900 cells/mm3 for our population to classify patients as either above or below the CD4 count cut-off of 200 cells/mm3 as an indicator of when to start antiretroviral therapy.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Overbaugh J, Anderson RJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss JK.Distinct but related human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variant populations in genital secretions and blood.AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1996 Jan 20;12(2):107-15.". In: AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1996 Jan 20;12(2):107-15. IBIMA Publishing; 1996. Abstract
For a HIV vaccine to be effective, it will be essential that it protect against the virus variants to which individuals are most frequently exposed. HIV-1 is predominantly a sexually acquired virus, thus, variants in genital secretions are a potentially important reservoir of viruses that are transmitted. Because there are no data available on variants in the genital mucosa, we analyzed this provirus population and compared it to the proviruses in the blood of individuals chronically infected with HIV-1. A major genetic difference between variants within a patient were insertions, which were apparently created by duplication of adjacent sequences, that resulted in acquisition of new potential glycosylation sites in V1 and V2. Comparisons of mucosal and PBMC variants suggest that these tissues harbor distinct, but related populations of HIV-1 variants. In two of three patients, the mucosal variants were most closely related to a minor variant genotype in blood. In a third individual, viruses in both tissues were surprisingly homogeneous, but the majority of variants in the cervix encoded a V1 sequence with a predicted glycosylation pattern similar to a minor variant in blood. The V3 sequence patterns of the mucosal isolates indicate they may be predominantly macrophage-tropic viruses.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Temmerman M, Chomba EN, Ndinya-Achola J, Plummer FA, Coppens M, Piot P.Maternal human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection and pregnancy outcome.Obstet Gynecol. 1994 Apr;83(4):495-501.". In: Obstet Gynecol. 1994 Apr;83(4):495-501. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of maternal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection on pregnancy outcome. METHODS: Between January 1989 and December 1991, 406 HIV-1-seropositive and 407 HIV-1-seronegative age- and parity-matched pregnant women from Nairobi, Kenya, all at less than 28 weeks' gestation, were recruited into a prospective study of HIV-1 infection in pregnant women and their offspring. Both groups were followed until 6 weeks postpartum. RESULTS: Three hundred fifteen HIV-1-seropositive women and 311 HIV-1-seronegative controls were followed until delivery. Seropositive women were younger at sexual debut and reported more lifetime partners and more sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) than the seronegative controls. The seropositive women had higher rates of genital ulcer disease (4.7 versus 2.0%; P = .08), genital warts (4.9 versus 2.0%; P = .03), and positive syphilis serology (7.9 versus 3.2%; P < .001), but there were no differences between the groups in isolation rates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (6.8 versus 7.1%) and Chlamydia trachomatis (11.5 versus 9.0%). Maternal HIV-1 infection was associated with significantly lower birth weight (2913 versus 3072 g; P = .0003) and with prematurity (21.1 versus 9.4%; P < .0001), but not with small for gestational age size (4.2 versus 3.2%; P = .7). The stillbirth rate was higher in seropositive women, yet not statistically significant (3.8 versus 1.9%; P = .2). Women with a CD4 count lower than 30% had a higher risk of preterm delivery (26.3 versus 10.1%; P < .001). Postpartum endometritis was more common in HIV-1-infected women than in seronegative controls (10.3 versus 4.2%; P = .01) and was inversely correlated with the CD4 percentage. No histopathologic placental abnormalities attributable to HIV-1 were detected. CONCLUSION: Maternal HIV-1 infection was significantly associated with prematurity and postpartum endometritis, but not with fetal growth retardation. There was a trend toward a higher stillbirth rate in HIV-1-seropositive mothers.

O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Melanie C.M., Joanne Embree, Sue G. Ramdahin, ANZALA AO, Simon Njenga, et al. Effect of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Type 1 Viral Genotype on Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV-1. J Infect Dis. 2000 181:746-9.". In: J Infect Dis. 2000 181:746-9. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2000. Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine whether the maternal infecting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 clade affects mother-to-child transmission frequency. Mothers in the mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission study in Nairobi, Kenya, were grouped by HIV-1 status of their first enrolled child: uninfected, perinatally infected, or postnatally infected. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was used to determine HIV-1 viral clades of nested polymerase chain reaction products from HIV-1 protease or p24 genes. When inconclusive, sequencing determined the clade. Clade distributions within the groups were compared. The 3 groups displayed a uniform clade distribution. The predominant clades were A (59%) and D (20%). Clades B, C, F, mixed, and recombinant infections comprised the remainder (21%). No significant association was seen between clades A and D and either frequency or mode of vertical transmission. RFLP analysis revealed 2 clade B infections, 9 mixed, and 5 p24/protease recombinant infections in the study population.
O. DRABUNGUCORNELIO. "Another Triangle Inequality.".". In: American Mathematical Monthly. Vol.83 No. 3, March 1976,p. 204. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 1976. Abstract
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O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Moses S, Bradley JE, Nagelkerke NJD, Ronald AR Ndinya-Achola JO, Plummer FA.Geographical patterns of male circumcision practices in Africa: Association with HIV seroprevalence. Int. J. Epidemiol. 19: 693 - 697, 1990.". In: J. Epidemiol. 19: 693 - 697, 1990. IBIMA Publishing; 1990. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. LK. "Mobile Phones and E-commerce among Micro and Small Enterprises in the Informal Sector: An Empirical Investigation of Entrepreneurship in Nairobi." Shaker Verlag – Germany. 2013;1(1). Abstract

Lack of employment has pushed many people into self employment in the informal sector in Nairobi and Kenya at large. Micro and small enterprises (MSEs) are recognized by the government for their contribution to the GDP. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are assisting the operators of MSEs in this sector to become more entrepreneurial. The ICT that is widely used in the sector is the mobile phone. Studies done on the usage of ICTs among MSEs have mostly concentrated on the roles of computers and internet usage, and given contradicting results on the benefits of using these technologies in e-commerce. Evidence on the role of mobile phones among MSEs in Kenya is lacking, especially, the evidence on factors facilitating and preventing their adoption, and the effects of the adoption on the performance of an MSE.

This thesis analyzed the determinants of mobile phone possession, the extent of its usage in e-commerce, and the impact of mobile phone usage on the performance of an MSE. The hypotheses that were tested and strongly rejected were: a) e-readiness factors that is, characteristics of the owner, the attributes of the firm and the environment under which the firm operates, have no effect on the adoption of mobile phones and their usage in e-commerce; and b) the adoption of mobile phones and their use to transact business has no effect on the performance of an MSE. Data for the study was collected from the 8 divisions of Nairobi Province. Three models were estimated using these data, namely, the logit model, the probit model and the LPM (linear probability model).

The main findings of the thesis are as follows: a) the majority of MSEs in Nairobi’s informal sector are poor although a few of them had sales running into millions of Kenya shillings; b) the sector is dominated by literate people, the majority of whom were male operators; c) many of the operators had mobile phones, and they used them for business transactions; d) each MSE paid a daily fee of 20 Kenya shillings to the City Council officers; e) the key readiness factor influencing the possession of the phone is electricity; f) education has a strong influence on the usage of the phone for e-commerce; and g) mobile phone possession and usage for e-commerce are highly associated with sales turnover and with employment creation within the informal sector.

It is recommended that MSEs be categorized by the value of items sold and not the number of employees. A clear distinction should be made between MSEs in the informal sector and those in the formal sector. Further, a conducive, operating environment which accommodates electricity needs to be provided. Computer training and innovations associated with the usage of mobile phones should be encouraged and facilitated among MSEs to enhance their performance. Research on business start-ups and innovations due to mobile phone usage should be carried out. Finally, research on specific transactions of mobile phone usage in e-commerce needs to be conducted.

O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O. (1999): .". In: in Kenya Journal of Sciences Series C:. Kisipan, M.L.; 1999. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Mehta SD, Moses S, Agot K, Agingu W, Parker C, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bailey RC.Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among young uncircumcised men in Kisumu, Kenya.Sex Transm Infect. 2008 Feb;84(1):42-8. Epub 2007 Sep 12.". In: Sex Transm Infect. 2008 Feb;84(1):42-8. Epub 2007 Sep 12. IBIMA Publishing; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection among men aged 18-24 in Kisumu, Kenya. METHODS: Baseline data from a randomised trial of male circumcision were analysed. Participants were interviewed for sociodemographic and behavioural risks. The outcome was HSV-2 by antibody status. Risk factors were considered singly and in combination through logistic regression models. RESULTS: Among 2771 uncircumcised men, 766 (27.6%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 26.0% to 29.3%) tested antibody positive for HSV-2. The median age at first sex was 16 years, and the median number of lifetime sexual partners was four. HSV-2 seroprevalence increased from 19% among 18-year-olds to 43% among 24-year-olds (p<0.001). In multivariable analysis, statistically significant risks for infection were increasing age (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.22-2.58), being married or having a live-in female partner (AOR = 1.80; 95% CI 1.28 to 2.53), preferring "dry" sex (AOR = 1.39; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.69), reported penile cuts or abrasions during sex (AOR = 1.58; 95% CI 1.32 to 1.91), increasing lifetime sex partners (multiple response categories; AORs ranging from 1.65 to 1.97), and non-student occupation (multiple response categories; AORs ranging from 1.44 to 1.93). Risk decreased with reported condom used at last sex (AOR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.99). CONCLUSION: Primary prevention efforts should be initiated at an early age. The same behavioural interventions used currently for HIV prevention-abstinence, reducing the number of sex partners and increasing condom use-should be effective for HSV-2 prevention.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Richardson BA, Lavreys L, Martin HL Jr, Stevens CE, Ngugi E, Mandaliya K, Bwayo J, Ndinya-Achola J, Kreiss JK.Evaluation of a low-dose nonoxynol-9 gel for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases: a randomized clinical trial.Sex Transm Dis. 2001 Ju.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2001 Jul;28(7):394-400. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Low-dose nonoxynol-9 products have a potential advantage of reduced toxicity. However, little is known about their efficacy in reducing the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). GOAL: To determine the effect that an intravaginal gel containing 52.5 mg of nonoxynol-9 has on the acquisition of STDs in a cohort of HIV-1-seronegative female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial was performed. RESULTS: In this study, 139 women were randomized to the nonoxynol-9 group and 139 to the placebo group. No significant differences were found between the two study groups in terms of safety outcomes and reported symptoms, except for a lower incidence of vaginal erythema in the nonoxynol-9 group. There was a significantly higher incidence of gonorrhea in the nonoxynol-9 group than in the placebo group. No significant differences were observed between the groups for acquisition of Candida, trichomonas, bacterial vaginosis, C trachomatis, syphilis, or HIV-1, although the statistical power to detect differences for some of these STDs was limited. CONCLUSIONS: In this randomized placebo-controlled trial of a low-dose nonoxynol-9 gel, a significantly higher incidence of gonorrhea was found in the nonoxynol-9 group, but no significant differences between the groups were found for Candida, trichomonas, bacterial vaginosis, C trachomatis, syphilis, or HIV-1.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Namaara W, Kunimoto DY, D'Costa L, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nsanze R, Ronald AR, Plummer FA,Treating chancroid with enoxacin. Genitourin Med 6A: 189 -192, 1988.". In: Genitourin Med 6A: 189 -192, 1988. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Ochanda, J. O. Containment specification for micro-organisms, plants and animals.". In: In proceedings of the National workshop on regulations and guidelines for safety in Biotechnology for. East African Medical Journal; 1998. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Screening and biochemical characterisation of trypanosome-lysing factor (trypanolysin) from non-vector insect, Schistocerca gregaria. DESIGN: Laboratory based experiment. SETTING: Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. RESULTS: Lysis of isolated trypanosomes was demonstrated with midgut homogenates of natural vector Glossina morsitans centralis as well in non-vector insects. The highest trypanolytic activity was observed in midgut homogenate of the desert locust. Schistocerca gregaria followed by the cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L). Further studies on the S. gregaria trypanolytic factor showed its proteinaceous nature due to its sensitivity to temperatures above 40 degrees C and to proteases. Additionally, the factor showed lectin-like properties since the activity was blocked by D-glucosamine. CONCLUSION: The trypanolytic factor has the potential of being used to modulate tsetse fly vectorial capacity.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "McClelland RS, Richardson BA, Hassan WM, Chohan V, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Ndinya-Achola JO, Baeten JM, Kurthe AE, Holmes KK. Improving vaginal health in women at risk for HIV-1. Results of a randomized trial.". In: J Infect Dis. In press. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstractimproving_vaginal_health_in_women_at_risk_for_hiv-1.pdfimproving_vaginal_health_in_women_at_risk_for_hiv-1.doc

Introduction. Male circumcision is being promoted for HIV prevention in high-risk heterosexual populations. However, there is a concern that circumcision may impair sexual function. Aim. To assess adult male circumcision's effect on men's sexual function and pleasure. Methods. Participants in a controlled trial of circumcision to reduce HIV incidence in Kisumu, Kenya were uncircumcised, HIV negative, sexually active men, aged 18-24 years, with a hemoglobin >/=9.0 mmol/L. Exclusion criteria included foreskin covering less than half the glans, a condition that might unduly increase surgical risks, or a medical indication for circumcision. Participants were randomized 1:1 to either immediate circumcision or delayed circumcision after 2 years (control group). Detailed evaluations occurred at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Main Outcome Measures. (i) Sexual function between circumcised and uncircumcised men; and (ii) sexual satisfaction and pleasure over time following circumcision. Results. Between February 2002 and September 2005, 2,784 participants were randomized, including the 100 excluded from this analysis because they crossed over, were not circumcised within 30 days of randomization, did not complete baseline interviews, or were outside the age range. For the circumcision and control groups, respectively, rates of any reported sexual dysfunction decreased from 23.6% and 25.9% at baseline to 6.2% and 5.8% at month 24. Changes over time were not associated with circumcision status. Compared to before they were circumcised, 64.0% of circumcised men reported their penis was "much more sensitive," and 54.5% rated their ease of reaching orgasm as "much more" at month 24. Conclusions. Adult male circumcision was not associated with sexual dysfunction. Circumcised men reported increased penile sensitivity and enhanced ease of reaching orgasm. These data indicate that integration of male circumcision into programs to reduce HIV risk is unlikely to adversely effect male sexual function.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Fonck K, Kidula N, Kirui P, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Claeys P, Temmerman M.Pattern of sexually transmitted diseases and risk factors among women attending an STD referral clinic in Nairobi, Kenya.Sex Transm Dis. 2000 Aug;27(7):417-23.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2000 Aug;27(7):417-23. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract
BACKGROUND: In Kenya, sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics care for large numbers of patients with STD-related signs and symptoms. Yet, the etiologic fraction of the different STD pathogens remains to be determined, particularly in women. GOAL: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of STDs and of cervical dysplasia and their risk markers among women attending the STD clinic in Nairobi. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-section of women were interviewed and examined; samples were taken. RESULTS: The mean age of 520 women was 26 years, 54% had a stable relationship, 38% were pregnant, 47% had ever used condoms (1% as a method of contraception), 11% reported multiple partners in the previous 3 months, and 32% had a history of STDs. The prevalence of STDs was 29% for HIV type 1, 35% for candidiasis, 25% for trichomoniasis, 16% for bacterial vaginosis, 6% for gonorrhea, 4% for chlamydia, 6% for a positive syphilis serology, 6% for genital warts, 12% for genital ulcers, and 13% for cervical dysplasia. Factors related to sexual behavior, especially the number of sex partners, were associated with several STDs. Gonorrhea, bacterial vaginosis, cervical dysplasia, and genital warts or ulcers were independently associated with HIV infection. Partners of circumcised men had less-prevalent HIV infection. CONCLUSION: Most women reported low-risk sexual behavior and were likely to be infected by their regular partner. HIV and STD prevention campaigns will not have a significant impact if the transmission between partners is not addressed.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Laga M, Namaara W, Brunham RC, Brunham RC, D'Costa LJ, Nsanze H, Piot P, Kummoto D, Ndinya-Achola JO, Slaney L, Ronald AR, Plummer FA. Single dose therapy of gonococcal ophthalmia with ceftriaxone. N. Engl. J. Med. 315: 1382 - 85, 1986.". In: N. Engl. J. Med. 315: 1382 - 85, 1986. IBIMA Publishing; 1986. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Ochanda,J.O., Mumcuoglu,K.Y., BenYakir,D., Okuro,J.K., Oduor,E.C.A., Oduol,V.O. and Galun, R. Characterization and properties of body louse midgut antigenic proteins recognized by resistant host.". In: The 2nd Federation of African Immunological Societies (FAIS) October, 23-27, Hotel Intercontinental Nairobi, Kenya (In Proceedings of, African Journal of Health Science. East African Medical Journal; 1994. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "McClelland RS, Ndinya-Achola JO, Baeten JM. Reply to: Is vaginal washing associated with increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition? AIDS 2006; 20:1348-1349.". In: AIDS 2006; 20:1348-1349. IBIMA Publishing; 2006. Abstractis_vaginal_washing_associated_with_increased_risk_of_hiv-1.docis_vaginal_washing_associated_with_increased_risk_of_hiv-1.pdf

BACKGROUND: There is limited information on the natural history of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in Africa, especially from individuals with well-defined dates of infection. We used data from a prospective cohort study of female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya, who were followed up monthly from before the date of HIV-1 infection. METHODS: Antiretroviral-naive women who had a well-defined date of HIV-1 infection were included in this analysis. The effects of set point plasma viral load (measured 4-24 months after infection), early CD4+ cell count, and symptoms of acute HIV-1 infection on mortality were assessed using Cox proportional hazards analysis. RESULTS: Among 218 women, the median duration of follow-up after HIV-1 infection was 4.6 years. Forty women died, and at 8.7 years (the time of the last death), the cumulative survival rate was 51% by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Higher set point viral load, lower early CD4+ cell count, and more-symptomatic acute HIV-1 illness each predicted death. In multivariate analysis, set point viral load (hazard ratio [HR], 2.28 per 1 log10 copies/mL increase; P=.001) and acute HIV-1 illness (HR, 1.14 per each additional symptom; P=.05) were independently associated with higher mortality. CONCLUSION: Among this group of African women, the survival rate was similar to that for HIV-1-infected individuals in industrialized nations before the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy. Higher set point viral load and more-severe acute HIV-1 illness predicted faster progression to death. Early identification of individuals at risk for rapid disease progression may allow closer clinical monitoring, including timely initiation of antiretroviral treatment.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Neilson JR, John GC, Carr JK, Lewis P, Kreiss JK, Jackson S, Nduati RW, Mbori-Ngacha D, Panteleeff DD, Bodrug S, Giachetti C, Bott MA, Richardson BA, Bwayo J, Ndinya-Achola J, Overbaugh J.Subtypes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and disease stage a.". In: J Virol. 1999 May;73(5):4393-403. IBIMA Publishing; 1999. Abstract
In sub-Saharan Africa, where the effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have been most devastating, there are multiple subtypes of this virus. The distribution of different subtypes within African populations is generally not linked to particular risk behaviors. Thus, Africa is an ideal setting in which to examine the diversity and mixing of viruses from different subtypes on a population basis. In this setting, it is also possible to address whether infection with a particular subtype is associated with differences in disease stage. To address these questions, we analyzed the HIV-1 subtype, plasma viral loads, and CD4 lymphocyte levels in 320 women from Nairobi, Kenya. Subtype was determined by a combination of heteroduplex mobility assays and sequence analyses of envelope genes, using geographically diverse subtype reference sequences as well as envelope sequences of known subtype from Kenya. The distribution of subtypes in this population was as follows: subtype A, 225 (70.3%); subtype D, 65 (20.5%); subtype C, 22 (6.9%); and subtype G, 1 (0.3%). Intersubtype recombinant envelope genes were detected in 2.2% of the sequences analyzed. Given that the sequences analyzed represented only a small fraction of the proviral genome, this suggests that intersubtype recombinant viral genomes may be very common in Kenya and in other parts of Africa where there are multiple subtypes. The plasma viral RNA levels were highest in women infected with subtype C virus, and women infected with subtype C virus had significantly lower CD4 lymphocyte levels than women infected with the other subtypes. Together, these data suggest that women in Kenya who are infected with subtype C viruses are at more advanced stages of immunosuppression than women infected with subtype A or D. There are at least two models to explain the data from this cross-sectional study; one is that infection with subtype C is associated with a more rapid disease progression, and the second is that subtype C represents an older epidemic in Kenya. Discriminating between these possibilities in a longitudinal study will be important for increasing our understanding of the role of specific subtypes in the transmission and pathogenesis of HIV-1.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "Transformation between GPS coordinates and local plane UTM coordinates using the Excel spreadsheet.". In: Survey Review, Vol. 36, No. 284,. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
A model for the establishment of an integrated geodetic datum covering a region is treated. The integrated geodetic datum is understood here to comprise the geoid, the reference ellipsoid, and the positional coordinates. A comprehensive unified solution model including the three parameters comprising the datum is considered. The estimation model adopted rigorously incorporates determined prior information in the estimation of the datum parameters. Mathematical models together with the pertinent observation equations are presented, followed by a description of the procedure for the aetual setting up of the datum. The observational scheme is based on a system of modular traverses anchored on a trilateration of GPS baselines.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "K'Obonyo, P.O. (1998) "Consumer Motives and Trends in Cigarette Smoking: Implications for Public Policy".". In: Nairobi Journal of Management, Vol. 4, 44-57.; 1998. Abstract

The theory of consumption values is used to analyze and explain trends in cigarette smoking worldwide. The analysis shows that the problem of smoking in increasing worldwide, particularly in the developing countries. The impact of the campaign against smoking that has been going on for more than a decade appears to have been limited. This may be partly due to private health organizations. To a large extent, various forms of control and warning messages on the harmful effects of smoking are directed at the individual. Yet most of these messages consist almost exclusively of warnings and threates that do not traget the smoker's consumption values. Research by Sheth, et.al (1991) found that emotional value was salient in discriminating between smokers and non-smokers. Based on the finding, it is concluded that people should be encouraged rather than threatened. This can be achieved by telling them good things about not smoking rather than bad things that are associated with smoking. Overall, the theory of consumption values provideds a useful framework for explaining and predicting behaviour of cigarette smokers and for formulating public policies and strategies for containing the incidence of smoking and its attendant effects.

O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Kihurani, D.O., Nantulya, V.M. and Masake, R.A. (2004): Skin reactions in horses infected with Trypanosoma congolense.". In: Proceedings of the First Scientific Symposium of the European College of Equine Internal Medicine. In Tierarztliche Praxis, 32; 80-81. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2004. Abstract
Eight horses exposed to both Trypanosoma congolense- infected and non-infected tsetse flies ( Glossina pallidipes) were examined daily for a period of 12 weeks. Three types of skin reactions were observed. These included local inflammatory skin reactions, which developed 1-2 days after the tsetse bites, and were evident in 5 infected horses and one uninfected. As these initial swellings regressed, further skin reactions (chancres) developed in the 6 horses bitten by T. congolense infected tsetse. The chancres were observed 6-12 days post-infection. In addition, 3 infected horses developed a third type of skin reaction, namely urticaria, on days 51, 67 and 71 post-infection. Histological examination was done of skin biopsies taken from all three types of skin reactions and they revealed different cell types. These were predominantly neutrophils in the initial skin reactions, lymphocytes in the chancres, and eosinophils in the urticaria. The skin lesions observed in the T. congolense infected horse have not been well documented elsewhere, particularly with regard to the histological picture. The first two lesions also occur early in the course of infection, while all three are of brief duration, hence are often missed.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Kamisky RG, Ndinya-Achola JO.Oesophagostomum spp. from Kenya. Identification through tissue sections. E.A. Med. J. Vol. 54, 296 - 297. 1977.". In: E.A. Med. J. Vol. 54, 296 - 297. 1977. IBIMA Publishing; 1977. Abstract
Routine procedures used to isolate Haemophilus ducreyi in a busy laboratory are reported. Identification was based on colony morphology and nutritional and biochemical properties of 120 fresh isolates of H. ducreyi. These isolates grew very well on Gonococcal Agar and Mueller-Hinton Agar incubated at 34 degrees C in candle extinction jars containing moistened filter paper. Colonies varied in size, giving a polymorphic appearance. They were smooth, dome-shaped, and buff-yellow to grey in colour, and measured 2 mm in diameter. They could be pushed intact across the agar surface. By microscopic examination of gram-stained smears the isolates were gram-negative coccobacilli arranged in short chains, clumps or whorls and occasionally in typical "rail track" arrangements. Individual bacteria showed bipolar staining. Colonies autoagglutinated in saline. All strains were catalase-negative and did not produce indole or H2S. They were oxidase- and beta-lactamase positive and required X but not V factor for growth. Now that reliable techniques have been developed and characteristics established it is possible for most clinical laboratories to isolate and identify this organism from most patients with chancroid.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "B.Syuto., M.Naiki., I.Ohishi and S.Kubo: Binding of 125 Ibotulinum neurotoxin to synatopsomal membrane receptor : Jpn. Med. Sci. Biol. 38,100.". In: Proceedings of the 11th Annual Medical Scientific Conference, Nairobi, Kenya. East African Medical Journal; 1986. Abstract
Lipophorin was isolated from the haemolymph of adult tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans, by ultracentrifugation in a potassium bromide density gradient. 2. The tsetse fly lipophorin (Mr congruent to 600,000) has a density of congruent to 1.11 g/ml and consists of two apoproteins, apolipophorin-I (apoLp-I, Mr congruent to 250,000) and apolipophorin-II (apoLp-II, Mr congruent to 80,000), both of which are glycosylated as shown by staining with periodate-Schiff reagent. The protein complex is composed of 49% protein and 51% lipids. 3. The finding of lipophorin in tsetse fly haemolymph suggests that, although these flies primarily utilize proline for their energy needs, there is an active transport mechanism for the supply of lipid requirements.
O. PROFMBECHEOYUKO. "Mbeche, O. O.,"An Energy Use Model for a Secondary City in a Developing Country.". In: East African Journal of Engineering, vol. 7,. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Baeten JM, Martin HL Jr, Overbaugh J, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Kreiss JK.Hormonal contraception and risk of HIV-1 acquisition: results of a 10-year prospective study.AIDS. 2004 Mar 5;18(4):695-7.". In: AIDS. 2004 Mar 5;18(4):695-7. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract
Polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the prevalence and correlates of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) in saliva, mouth, cervical, vaginal, plasma, and peripheral-blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples from 174 HHV8-seropositive female prostitutes in Mombasa, Kenya. The prevalence of detection of HHV8 was 32% in saliva samples, 28% in mouth swabs, 4% in cervical swabs, 2.3% in vaginal swabs, 9% in plasma samples, and 18% in PBMC samples. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seropositivity was associated with detection of HHV8 from any mucosal surface (odds ratio, 2.1 [95% confidence interval, 1.1-4.0]). In HIV-1-seropositive women, there was no association between detection of HHV8 and either CD4 count or HIV-1 viral load.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lewis P, Nduati R, Kreiss JK, John GC, Richardson BA, Mbori-Ngacha D, Ndinya-Achola J, Overbaugh J.Cell-free human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in breast milk. J Infect Dis. 1998 Jan;177(1):34-9.". In: J Infect Dis. 1998 Jan;177(1):34-9. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
{ Breast-feeding may be an important route of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vertical transmission in settings where it is routinely practiced. To define the prevalence and quantity of HIV-1 in cell-free breast milk, samples from HIV-1-seropositive women were analyzed by quantitative competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (QC-RT-PCR). HIV-1 RNA was detected in 29 (39%) of 75 specimens tested. Of these 29 specimens, 16 (55%) had levels that were near the detection limit of the assay (240 copies/mL), while 6 (21%) had >900 copies/mL. The maximum concentration of HIV-1 RNA detected was 8100 copies/mL. The prevalence of cell-free HIV-1 was higher in mature milk (47%) than in colostrum (27%
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "Integrierte geod.". In: Deutsche Geod. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1989. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "Effective Seminar Presentation: Notes for Managers.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management.; 1989.
O. PROFMBECHEOYUKO. "Mbeche, O. O., "Transit Traffic by Road in East-Central African Sub-Region: Current Status, Problems and Prospects", UNDP/UNCTAD Project RAF/88/015.Proceedings on Transit Traffic: Issues and Prospects (Symposium, Mombasa, Kenya, 20-22 June 1991.". In: Proceedings on Transit Traffic: Issues and Prospects (Symposium, Mombasa, Kenya, 20-22 . Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 1991. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "McClelland RS, Wang CC, Overbaugh J, Richardson BA, Corey L, Ashley RL, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK.Association between cervical shedding of herpes simplex virus and HIV-1.AIDS. 2002 Dec 6;16(18):2425-30.". In: AIDS. 2002 Dec 6;16(18):2425-30. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the cervical shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and HIV-1. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study on 200 women seropositive for both HSV-2 and HIV-1 was conducted in a family planning clinic at the Coast Provincial General Hospital, Mombasa, Kenya. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Quantities of HSV DNA (types 1 and 2) and HIV-1 RNA as well as the presence or absence of HIV-1 proviral DNA in cervical secretions were determined and compared. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between the quantities of HSV DNA and HIV-1 RNA in the cervical secretions of HSV-shedding women (Pearson's r = 0.24

O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Stevens W, Kamali A, Karita E, Anzala O, Sanders EJ, Jaoko W, Kaleebu P, Mulenga J, Dally L, Fast P, Gilmour J, Farah B, Birungi J, Hughes P, Manigart O, Stevens G, Yates S, Thomson H, von Lieven A, Krebs M, Price MA, Stoll-Johnson L, Ketter N.aseline mor.". In: PLoS ONE. 2008 Apr 30;3(4):e2043. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2008. Abstract
BACKGROUND: An understanding of the health of potential volunteers in Africa is essential for the safe and efficient conduct of clinical trials, particularly for trials of preventive technologies such as vaccines that enroll healthy individuals. Clinical safety laboratory values used for screening, enrolment and follow-up of African clinical trial volunteers have largely been based on values derived from industrialized countries in Europe and North America. This report describes baseline morbidity during recruitment for a multi-center, African laboratory reference intervals study. METHODS: Asymptomatic persons, aged 18-60 years, were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study at seven sites (Kigali, Rwanda; Masaka and Entebbe, Uganda; Kangemi, Kenyatta National Hospital and Kilifi, Kenya; and Lusaka, Zambia). Gender equivalency was by design. Individuals who were acutely ill, pregnant, menstruating, or had significant clinical findings were not enrolled. Each volunteer provided blood for hematology, immunology, and biochemistry parameters and urine for urinalysis. Enrolled volunteers were excluded if found to be positive for HIV, syphilis or Hepatitis B and C. Laboratory assays were conducted under Good Clinical Laboratory Practices (GCLP). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of the 2990 volunteers who were screened, 2387 (80%) were enrolled, and 2107 (71%) were included in the analysis (52% men, 48% women). Major reasons for screening out volunteers included abnormal findings on physical examination (228/603, 38%), significant medical history (76, 13%) and inability to complete the informed consent process (73, 13%). Once enrolled, principle reasons for exclusion from analysis included detection of Hepatitis B surface antigen (106/280, 38%) and antibodies against Hepatitis C (95, 34%). This is the first large scale, multi-site study conducted to the standards of GCLP to describe African laboratory reference intervals applicable to potential volunteers in clinical trials. Approximately one-third of all potential volunteers screened were not eligible for analysis; the majority were excluded for medical reasons.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Margo CM, Crowson AN, Alfa M, Nath A, Ronald A, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nasio J A Morphological Study of Penile Chancroid Lesions in Human Immunodeficiency Virus(HIV)- Positive and .". In: Human Pathl. 27: 1066-70, 1996. IBIMA Publishing; 1996. Abstract
Chancroid, the most common cause of genital ulceration in Africa, is known to be associated epidemiologically with heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The pathophysiological mechanisms by which chancroid might facilitate the spread of HIV are obscure. To investigate the role of chancroid in HIV transmission, the authors studied the histological features of biopsies from 11 men with penile chancroid lesions including five who were serologically positive for HIV. The histomorphologic and immunophenotypic nature of the inflammatory infiltrates suggests that there is a significant role for cell-mediated immunity in the host response to Hemophilus ducreyi infection. This response may be critical to the role of chancroid in HIV transmission.
O. DRABUODHASILVESTER. "The relative fracture strengths of the inner and outer surfaces of the egg shell of the domestic fowl. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Volume 262, pp 169-174, 1995.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Aug;73(8):538-40. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1995. Abstract
Between June and December 1992 forty AIDS patients as defined by the CDC criteria, admitted to the medical wards of the Kenyatta National Hospital, were studied to determine the prevalence and pattern of peripheral neuropathy. Their mean age was 33 +/- 3 years with a range of 16 to 55 years. Clinical and laboratory assessment were carried out both to confirm peripheral neuropathy and exclude other causes of peripheral neuropathy apart from AIDS. All the patients had nerve conduction and electromyographic studies done. Eighteen patients were asymptomatic while fourteen had both signs and symptoms. The commonest symptom was painful paresthesiae of the limbs (35%) while the commonest sign was loss of vibration sense (60%). When symptoms, signs, and electrophysiological studies were combined, all the patients fitted the definition of peripheral neuropathy. The commonest type of peripheral neuropathy was distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (DSPN) (37.5%). PIP: In Kenya, physicians evaluated 40 AIDS patients admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital during June-December 1992 to determine the prevalence and types of peripheral neuropathy in AIDS patients. 75% were 21-40 years old. 18 (45%) of the 40 AIDS patients had symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms included increased sensitivity to stimulation (43%), hyperpathia (15%), and muscle or limb weakness (13%). 26 AIDS patients had signs of peripheral neuropathy, especially impaired sense of vibration (60%). 14 of these patients had both signs and symptoms. Electromyographic and nerve conduction velocity revealed peripheral neuropathy in 16 (40%) AIDS patients. The types of peripheral neuropathy included distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (37.5%), polyneuropathy, and mononeuritis multiplex. When the symptoms, signs, and electroneurophysiological test findings were considered, all 40 AIDS patients had evidence of peripheral neuropathy.
O. DRBUKACHIFREDERICK. "Bukachi F, Kazzam, E, Clague JR, Waldenstr.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S43-7. UN-HABITAT; 2003. Abstract

{

OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical outcome of successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) in patients with poor ventricular function. METHODS: Analysis of angiographic, echocardiographic and clinical records of patients with severe LV dysfunction who underwent PTCA from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 1997 was undertaken. Forty-one patients aged 63+/-10 years, 36 men, all with significant coronary artery disease and impaired LV function (fractional shortening, FS<or=20%) were identified. Patients' data before and after angioplasty were analyzed. RESULTS: Post PTCA: angiographic success was 95.2%. Major complications occurred in 19.5% and hospital mortality was 2.7%. At 6 months after PTCA:LV fractional shortening (FS) increased from 15.9+/-3.4% to 19.6+/-6.6%

O. OE, Tyson PD, C PT. "Late Quaternary Environmental Change in Southern Africa." South African Journal of Science 97. 2001;97(3 &4):139-150.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Martin Jr. HL, Jackson DJ, Mandalya K, Bwayo J, Rakwar JP, Nyange P, Moses S, Ndinya-Achola JO, Holmes K, Plummer F, Ngugi E, Kreiss JPreparation for AIDS Vaccine Evaluation in Mombasa, Kenya: Establishment of Seronegative Cohorts of Commercial Sex Worker.". In: AIDS Resesearch and Human Retroviruses Vol. 10 S235-S237 1994. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract

{ Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are highly prevalent in pregnant women in many developing countries and have been associated with poor obstetric outcomes. Case detection and treatment of STDs in women is problematic and expensive, underscoring the need for other strategies. To explore the potential benefits of routine antimicrobial therapy on pregnancy outcome, we carried out a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial in one of the antenatal clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. Four hundred pregnant women between 28 and 32 weeks' gestation were given a single dose of 250 mg ceftriaxone intramuscularly or a placebo. There was a significant difference between ceftriaxone and placebo-treated women in infant birth weight (3,209 versus 3,056 g

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