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O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Decentralisation for Good Governance and Development: The Unending Debate," in Regional Development Dialogue, (UNCRD, Nagoya) Vol. 21, No. 1. Spring 2000, pp. iii-xix.". In: Walter B. Stohr, J.S. Edralin and Medyani Mani, (eds.), Decentralisation, Governance, and New Planning for Local Level Development (Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group). IPPNW; 2000. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFMUMMAALBERT. "Judicial Review of Administrative Action, in European Environmental Law: A Comparative Perspective, in G. Winter (ed), Tempus Series, Dartmouth (1996), at p. 129.". In: UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy, vol. 19, 2000/2001, No. 1 at p. 181. Departmental seminar; 1996. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Growth and development of abandoned babies in institutional care in Nairobi. Otieno PA, Nduati RW, Musoke RN, Wasunna AO.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Aug;76(8):430-5. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of growth and development of institutionalised infants and to compare the outcome with that of infants living with their biological mothers. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Seven children's homes; Kenyatta National Hospital's New Born Unit and Well Baby Clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-two abandoned babies who fulfilled the selection criteria were recruited and for each abandoned baby two mothered babies matched for age and sex were selected from the well baby clinics. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anthropometric measures of weight, length, head circumference and left mid arm circumference (LUMAC) were taken and the mean values and Z scores determined to demonstrate growth pattern and nutritional status of the babies. The Revised Denver Development Screening Test (RDDST) was used to assess the development pattern of infants. RESULTS: Seventy per cent of infants were below six months old and 73% were abandoned within the first week of life. Abandoned babies were significantly thinner with the mean LUMAC of 10.8 cm versus 12.3 cm (p = 0.02) Institutionalised babies were significantly wasted (p = 0.00001) and stunted (p = 0.00001). Abandoned babies were significantly delayed in development (p < 0.0001). In all the four sectors tested for, institutionalised babies showed significant delay, p < 0.0001 in each sector. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that infants under institutional care have poorer growth and development compared to mothered infants. PIP: This cross-sectional study examined the pattern of growth and development of infants in some of the baby institutions in Nairobi and compared the outcome with that of infants living with their biological mothers. The participating institutions included the Kenyatta National Hospital and 7 children's homes within the city. The study recruited 82 abandoned babies aged 1-18 months who had been abandoned for at least 2 weeks. Each abandoned baby was paired with 2 mothered babies matched for age and sex. Anthropometric measures of weight, length, head circumference, and left mid arm circumference (LUMAC) were taken. The mean values and Z scores were determined to assess growth pattern and nutritional status of the babies. The results showed that abandoned babies were significantly thinner, with a mean LUMAC of 10.8 cm vs. 12.3 cm. Moreover, abandoned babies were significantly wasted (p = 0.00001), stunted (p = 0.00001), and delayed in development (p 0.0001). These findings indicate that institutionalized infants have poorer growth and development compared to mothered infants.

O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "Book Review, Urban Migrants and Rural Development in Kenya, by John O. Oucho, Nairobi University Press.". In: African Book Publishing Record, Vol.xxiv, No.3, 1998, p.214.; 1996. Abstract
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O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga High Frequency Sum Rules for Quasi-One-Dimensional Quantum Plasma Dielectric Tensor; International Journal of Theoretical Physics 27, 835 (1988).". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1988.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. and Ogaa, J.S. (1977). Pathology of reproduction in the bovine. The Upjohn seminars in reproduction, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the Association of veterinary teachers and research workers of Great Britain Annual Scientific Conference, April 1981, Scarbororough, England. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1977. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Prediction of cognitive competence in Kenyan children from Toddler nutrition, family characteristics and abilities. J Child Psychol Psychiatry . 1991 Jan; 32 ( 2 ): 307-20 . PMID: 1903401 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Sigman M, McDonald MA, Neumann C, Bw.". In: J Child Psychol Psychiatry . 1991 Jan; 32 ( 2 ): 307-20 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1991. Abstract

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, Los Angeles.

This study explored the extent to which cognitive competence in 5-yr old Kenyan children was associated with earlier nutritional factors, family conditions and toddler characteristics. Food intake during the 18th-30th mths and physical stature at 30 mths were associated with cognitive skills at 5 yrs. Measures of family background, abilities of the child as a toddler and current schooling were also associated with cognitive abilities at 5 yrs. These variables influenced development independently, so that later cognitive competence was best predicted by a combination of earlier nutritional, family and toddler characteristics.

PMID: 1903401 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O. "Challenges Facing Management of Free Primary Education in Kenya; A case of Nyamira County-Kenya” ." International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow, IJBMT . 2011;Vol.1(1):65-75.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Otieno, L.S. and McLigeyo S.O.: Pulmonary Oedema between Dialysis as seen in Intermittent Haemodialysis at Kenyatta National Hospital. East African Medical Journal 64(11): 726-729, 1987.". In: East African Medical Journal 64(11): 726-729, 1987. University of Nairobi.; 1987. Abstract
Forty seven patients with acute renal failure were studied prospectively over a two-year period at the Kenyatta National Hospital. There were 20 males and 27 females. The mortality rate was 40.4%. Most patients had medically oriented problems. Complications that were associated with a high mortality were infections and the presence of neuropsychiatric manifestations.
O PROFORINDADA. "O'Malley JA, Ho YK, Chakrabarti P, DiBerardino L, Chandra P, Orinda DA, Byrd DM, Bardos TJ, Carter WA.Antiviral activity of partially thiolated polynucleotides. Mol Pharmacol. 1975 Jan;11(1):61-9. No abstract available. PMID: 163952 [PubMed - indexed for .". In: Molecular Pharmacology II, 61-69, (1975). Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1975. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 163952 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Methodological Issues in Administrative Research in Africa," in Bashir O. M. Fadlalla and Fassil Kiros, (eds.), Research Methods in the Social Sciences (Khartoum: University of Khartoum Press).". In: Walter O. Oyugi and A. Gitonga, (eds.), Democratic Theory and Practice in Africa (Nairobi: Heinemann Publishers Ltd., 1987), pp. 99-110. IPPNW; 1986. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O DROPEREALFRED, M PROFMUTUAFRANCIS. "The need for a flood forecasting system in Kenya (revised).". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, March 2002. International Journal of Climatology; 2002. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "McLigeyo S.O., Kungu A., Kayima J.K., Sitati S.M., Were A.j.: Glomerular disease in KEnya - Another look at the disease characterised by Nephrotic Proteinuria. African Journal of Health Sciences 1(4): 185-191, 1994.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences 1(4): 185-191, 1994. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 1994. Abstract
Persistent microcytosis was noted among a number of post renal transplant patients attending the transplant clinic at the Western General Hospital Edinburgh. We retrospectively looked at the pattern of recovery of the anaemia of chronic renal failure following successful renal transplantation with good graft function (Creatinine less than 250 (mol/l). Comparisons were made between those patients with persistent microcytosis and those with normal mean cell volume (MCV). Patients with microcytosis tended to have a slower recovery compared to those with normal MCV especially from week 12 to 21 after transplantation with corresponding Hb changes of 108+ 20 to 126+/-20 g/l vs 128+ 17 to 144+/-19 g/l ([P < 0.05], 95% confidence limits). The microcytic groups also tended to have had poorer graft function with serum creatinines significantly higher than those with normal MCV from week 8 to 21, 182+/- 62 to 173+/- 51 (mol/1 vs 139+/- 40 to 149+/- 38 (mo1/L ([P < 0.05] 95% confidence limits). In both groups haemoglobin concentration was negatively correlated to serum creatinine. (r=-0.54, [P < 0.05]). Body iron status studies had not been done in these patients. Persistent microcytosis though a non sensitive marker of iron deficiency may be a marker of disordered iron metabolism in patients with poorer graft functions.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: the use of antithyroid drugs. East Afr Med J. 1985 Dec;62(12):905-10. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Dec;62(12):905-10. E Afr Med J; 1985. Abstract

Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Diagnostic utility of cerebrospinal fluid studies in patients suspected to have tuberculous meningitis. International Journal of Tuberculosis and lung Diseases. 2003;7(8):787-796.". In: International Journal of Tuberculosis and lung Diseases. 2003;7(8):787-796. University of Nairobi.; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinico-laboratory features and precipitating factors of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Inpatient medical and surgical wards of KNH. SUBJECTS: Adult patients aged 12 years and above with known or previously unknown diabetes hospitalised with a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis. RESULTS: Over a nine month period, 48 patients had DKA out of 648 diabetic patients hospitalised within the period, one died before full evaluation. Mean (SD) age was 37 (18.12) years for males, 29.9 (14.3) for females, range of 12 to 77 years. Half of the patients were newly diagnosed. More than 90% had HbA1c > 8%, only three patients had HbA1c of 7-8.0%. More than 90% had altered level of consciousness, with almost quarter in coma, 36% had systolic hypotension, almost 75% had moderate to severe dehydration. Blunted level of consciousness was significantly associated with severe dehydration and metabolic acidosis. Over 65% patients had leucocytosis but most (55%) of them did not have overt infection. Amongst the precipitating factors, 34% had missed insulin, 23.4% had overt infection and only 6.4% had both infection and missed insulin injections. Infection sites included respiratory, genito-urinary and septicaemia. Almost thirty (29.8%) percent of the study subjects died within 48 hours of hospitalisation. CONCLUSION: Diabetic ketoacidosis occurred in about 8% of the hospitalised diabetic patients. It was a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The main precipitant factors of DKA were infections and missed insulin injections. These factors are preventable in order to improve outcomes in the diabetic patients who complicate to DKA.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""The Ndhiwa By-election," in East African Journal Vol. No. 10 October 1970.". In: East African Journal of Rural Development, Vol. 9, 9 June 1976. IPPNW; 1970. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Ground subsidence and its socio-economic implications on the population: A case study of Nakuru area in Central Rift Valley, Kenya.". In: Environmental Geology. 39(6), 567-574. Wiley Interscience; 2000. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Koech DK, Obel AO. Efficacy of Kemron (low dose oral natural human interferon alpha) in the management of HIV-1 infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl 2):SS64-70.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl 2):SS64-70. E Afr Med J; 1990. Abstract
One hundred and ninety nine symptomatic and 5 asymptomatic patients seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) were treated with KEMRON, a natural human interferon alpha (nHIF alpha) stabilized in a complex polysacchariche carrier. Treatment was given for at least 10 weeks at a daily oral dose of approximately 2.0 IU of nHIF alpha per kg body weight. Karnofsky performance score increased from an average of 60.5 on entry into the study to 100 by the 10th week after treatment. Similarly, common clinical complaints associated with HIV-1 infection rapidly reduced per patient from an average of 3.8 to 0.05 and 0 by week 8 and 10 of treatment. Eighteen of the patients serodeconverted by both ELISA and western blot assays during the study period. These observations suggest that KEMRON used as recommended is beneficial in HIV-1 seropositive individuals.
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Diress, T. A., D. M. Nyariki, and K. O. Farah. 2000. Changing land use systems and socio-economic roles of vegetation in semi-arid Africa: The case of the Afar and Tigrai of Ethiopia. J. Soc. Sci. 4:199 .". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000.
O DRMUSANDUJOYCE. "Musandu, J. O. Primary Health Care; .". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, June 1987. James Murimi; 1987. Abstract
Naisho JN, Ongaya L, Musandu JO. PIP: In highlighting the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the implementation of primary health care (PHC) in Kenya, the following topics are discussed: characteristics of TBAs as reported in studies, the training program, program objectives, content, the training process, resources for training, the role of TBAs in PHC, and evaluation. The definition of midwife is given as midwives trained in a community setting to assist in delivery within the confines of accepted cultural beliefs. A study of 28 midwives from different regions in Kenya in 1980 found that most were illiterate women between 24 and 68 years olds received no monetary gain, had a variety of occupational backgrounds, and provided varying amounts of advice but little pre- or postnatal care. Almost all advised mothers to breast feed for at least 2 years. 80% of mother use TBAs for delivery. In order to minimize maternal (5-20/1000 live births on the average) and infant mortality, many countries have or are developing training programs for TBAs. Inadequacies in TBA care may be little prenatal care, too little postnatal care, and deficits in promoting child spacing; other unsafe practices may be improper washing of hands and severing the umbilical cord with unsterile objects. Other advantages of training TBAs involve less cost, less need for transportation, personalized setting in the home, source of health education in the community, and rapport with her clients. The training program goal is to reduce mortality by eliminating bad practices. The objectives are to reduce maternal deaths or illness from hemorrhage, infection, and toxemia; to encourage better nutrition; to reduce perineal or vaginal tears which may lead to longterm disability from urinary or rectal fistula; to reduce the number of pregnancies or exposure to risk; and to reduce neonatal tetanus asphyxia, infection, diarrhea, and malnutrition. Activities entail educating adolescent girls and pregnant women on menstruation and sexuality within cultural norms, prenatal care and delivery and postnatal care, maternal care, and educating mothers about personal hygiene, nutrition, child spacing, and immunization, and acknowledgement of the valuable service TBAs contribute to the community. Programs have operated for 10 years and evaluation is underway. PMID: 2630785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J. O., 2003. SGL 104 : Geostatistics,.". In: Lecture Notes for 1st Year Bed. (Science) by Distance Learning, 155 pp. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2003. Abstract
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O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: advances in antibiotic therapy. East Afr Med J. 1982 Sep;59(9):573-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Sep;59(9):573-8. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G. O. Rading An Evaluation of Residual Stress Distribution in Welded Compact Tension Specimens Using Neutron Diffraction J. Strain Analysis 40(2) (2005) p 211-216.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 2005. Abstract

The neutron diffraction technique was used to determine the residual stress field in welded compact tension specimens of the aluminium-lithium alloy M 2095. The deep penetrating characteristic of neutrons was exploited to evaluate the through-thickness variation in residual stress. Moreover, insight into the redistribution of these stresses was gained by extending a fatigue crack through the residual stress field and re-examining the stress distribution. The specimen without a crack was found to have a high compressive stress (of the order of -135 MPa) ahead of the notch. This rose to a maximum tensile stress of about 50 MPa, 22 mm from the notch, followed by a drop to negative values further ahead of the notch. It was observed that the magnitude of the stresses changed on moving into the thickness of the specimen. However, the form of the graph showing stress versus distance ahead of the notch remained unchanged. When fatigue cracks of different lengths were introduced, the magnitude of the stress close to the tip first increased with crack length, before decreasing and then rising again. Nevertheless, the form of the graph remained unchanged and the stress at the crack tip remained compressive. The paper concludes that any study of the response of a component to mechanical loading involving a residual stress field must take these factors (i.e. through-thickness stress variation and stress redistribution) into consideration.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

 

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Institutional and organisational requirements for implementing the Livestock Identification and Traceability System in Kenya.". In: Journal. Livestock Research for Rural Development; Submitted. Abstract
G O Matete, J M Gathuma, G Muchemi, W Ogara, N Maingi, W Maritim* and B Moenga* Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi P.O Box 29053, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com* Ministry of Livestock Development P.O Kabete 00625 Kangemi, Nairobi, Kenya   Abstract Livestock Identification and Traceability Systems (LITS) contribute to reduction, control or eliminated safety scares that result from transbounadry diseases outbreaks.  Recent studies on LITS in Kenya have been focused on testing  innovative technology, information and traceability system management, and examining the determinants for effective implementation. This paper analyzes the strengths and limitations of the operating a LITS institutional and organisational mechanisms in Kenya.   The result revealed that a disarticulated intitutional and organisational environment was the main constraint to effective implementation of LITS.  It proposes that for successful implemenation, a regional approach covering multiple countries, substantial private sector involvement and intensive stakeholder education are essential. Keywords: Institutional and organisational mechanisms, livestock identification, traceability  
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O.: The Human TIssue Act: Time and amendment was considered. Nairobi Journal of Medicine Vol 19(1):5-7, 1996.". In: Nairobi Journal of Medicine Vol 19(1):5-7, 1996. University of Nairobi.; 1996. Abstract
The currently available evidence suggest that diuretics and/or low dose dopamine increases renal blood flow (RBF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and natriuresis in experimental animals, and limits ATP utilisation and oxygen needs in nephron segments at high risk of ischaemic injury, actions that could potentially limit renal injury and accelerate recovery in acute renal failure (ARF). These effects have indeed been confirmed in most experimental animals while using mannitol or low dose dopanime. Frusemide, however, for unknown reasons, has been effective in some animal models, but not others. In humans, it can be said that diurectics have a limited value to prevent, reverse or speed recovery from acute renal failure. Most clinical studies have failed to demonstrate convincingly that low dose dopamine either prevents ARF in high risk patients or improves renal function or outcome in patients with established ARF. This confusing scenario is further complicated by the fact that both diuretics and low dose dopamine can result in severe metabolic and cardiovascular complications in critically ill patients.
O MRAKELOERNEST, ONSERIO MRNYAMWANGESTEPHEN. "Inventory Management by Simulation Analysis .". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . IBIMA Publishing; 2008. Abstract
This paper presents the findings of a study that explored the use of Monte Carlo simulation method to optimally manage inventory in the water equipment industry. The study treated both demand and lead time as stochastic. It proposes an inventory model that will minimize the total inventory costs through simulation analysis while demonstrating how simulation technique can be effectively used to solve inventory management problems
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Delivery of paediatric care at the first-referral level in Kenya. Lancet. 2004 Oct 30-Nov 5;364(9445):1622-9. English M, Esamai F, Wasunna A, Were F, Ogutu B, Wamae A, Snow RW, Peshu N.". In: Lancet. 2004 Oct 30-Nov 5;364(9445):1622-9. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2004. Abstract

We aimed to investigate provision of paediatric care in government district hospitals in Kenya. We surveyed 14 first-referral level hospitals from seven of Kenya's eight provinces and obtained data for workload, outcome of admission, infrastructure, and resources and the views of hospital staff and caretakers of admitted children. Paediatric admission rates varied almost ten-fold. Basic anti-infective drugs, clinical supplies, and laboratory tests were available in at least 12 hospitals, although these might be charged for on discharge. In at least 11 hospitals, antistaphylococcal drugs, appropriate treatment for malnutrition, newborn feeds, and measurement of bilirubin were rarely or never available. Staff highlighted infrastructure and human and consumable resources as problems. However, a strong sense of commitment, support for the work of the hospital, and a desire for improvement were expressed. Caretakers' views were generally positive, although dissatisfaction with the physical environment in which care took place was common. The capacity of the district hospital in Kenya needs strengthening by comprehensive policies that address real needs if current or new interventions and services at this level of care are to enhance child survival.

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Rifting of the Continents:.". In: A keyproject of the International Lithospere Program. Tectonophysics, 236, 1-2. Wiley Interscience; 1994. Abstract
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O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. A comparison of timolol plus hydrochlorothiazide plus amiloride and methyldopa in essential hypertension in Black Africans. Trop Geogr Med. 1983 Sep;35(3):285-91.". In: Trop Geogr Med. 1983 Sep;35(3):285-91. E Afr Med J; 1983. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O MROUKOKENNEDY. "March 2002: Healthy Futures: An Evaluation. A report on the "Healthy Futures" project. Published on behalf of "Maendeleo ya Wanawake" organization by Pritman, 2003.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; 2003. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
O PROFMOSIREUBEN. "Mosi, R.O. and Musau Munuve (2003). An assessment of the efficiency of dairy cow evaluation methods.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. 51(4), 198-203. Elsevier; 2003. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Design and development of an electronic identification and traceability system for cattle under pastoral production systems: A case for Kenya.". In: Journal. Livestock Research for Rural Development; Submitted. Abstract
G O Matete, N Maingi*, G Muchemi, W Ogara and J M Gathuma Department of Veterinary Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi P.O Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com* Department of Veterinary Pathology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract Traceability systems offer strong incentives to livestock and meat exporting countries by altering their productive and industrial processes in order to access premium meat markets globally.  Kenya, whilst acknowledged as one of the countries within the horn of Africa with a reasonably credible veterinary service, has very limited access to beef and livestock markets in importing countries due to perceived risk or suspicions of presence of trans-boundary animal diseases (TADs) such as Rift Valley Fever (RVF) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), lack of capacity to prove the absence of TADs and absence of an effective traceability system that acts as proxy for quality assurance.  The objective of this study was to report on the processes through which a model traceability system was designed for pastoral production systems of Northeastern Kenya.   The study reports that industry-wide consultation is a critical ingredient in the design process that encompassed simple drop down menus, low price and phased process of implementation. The use of a single central database reduced considerably the cost of implementation and minimized response time for impact analysis. Key words: Design, electronic traceability systems
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. The efficacy of dyazide in the treatment of fluid retention and hypertension. East Afr Med J. 1980 Jul;57(7):495-9. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1980 Jul;57(7):495-9. E Afr Med J; 1980. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O.: Nitric Oxide - source, Evolution and possible biological and clinical relevance. East African Medical Journal 71(2): 73-74, 1994.". In: East African Medical Journal 71(2): 73-74, 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1994. Abstract
End stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy is a common complication of several renal diseases that are seen in the tropics. World over, the costs of the various modalities of therapy that constitute renal replacement therapy, including hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and renal transplantation, is prohibitive. All the above modes of therapy are provided in Kenya, unlike most countries with similar level of socioeconomic development. This article analyses the factors behind the limited success that renal replacement therapy enjoys in Kenya, which is faced with more pressing basic problems of malnutrition and infection.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Elisha T. O. Opiyo, Multi-Agent Systems Scheduler in a Dynamic Environment Using a Load Optimizing Strategy. A PhD Thesis, University of Nairobi, June 2012.". In: Proceedings of the Unesco-Hp Brain Gain Workshop on Distributed Systems, 29th August 2012, at Kenya School of Monetary Studies in Nairobi, Kenya. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2012.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Wasunna A. Local treatment of the commonest diseases in developing countries. World Hosp. 1986 Jun;22(2):34-6. No abstract available.". In: World Hosp. 1986 Jun;22(2):34-6. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1986. Abstract
Two major etiological agents, hepatitis B virus and aflatoxin B1, are considered to be involved in the induction of liver cancer in Africa. In order to elucidate any synergistic effect of these two agents we conducted a study in various parts of Kenya with different liver cancer incidence in order to establish the rate of exposure to aflatoxin and the prevalence of hepatitis infections. Of all tested individuals 12.6% were positive for aflatoxin exposure as indicated by the urinary excretion of aflatoxin B1-guanine. Assuming no annual and seasonal variation, a regional variation in the exposure was observed. The highest rate of aflatoxin exposure was found in the Western Highlands and Central Province. The incidence of hepatitis infection nationwide as measured by the presence of the surface antigens was 10.6%, but a wide regional variation was observed. A multiplicative and additive regression analysis to investigate if hepatitis and aflatoxin exposure had a synergetic effect in the induction of liver cancer was negative. However, a moderate degree of correlation between the exposure to aflatoxin and liver cancer was observed when the study was limited to certain ethnic groups. The study gives additional support to the hypothesis that aflatoxin is a human liver carcinogen.
O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading "A Compendium of Jigs and Fixtures" Internal Report, Kenya Bureau of Standards (1987).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1987. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Munyao TM, Bwayo JJ, Owili DM, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kwasa TO, Kreiss JK. Human immunodeficiency virus- 1 in leprosy patients attending Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 1994 Aug;71(8):490-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Aug;71(8):490-2. uon; 1994. Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine if Mycobacterium leprae is an opportunistic pathogen in immunosuppressed subjects with HIV infection. Ninety six leprosy patients at Infectious Diseases Hospital (IDH), Nairobi were screened for, HIV-1 antibody between January 1991 and June 1992. The patients included 15 who were diagnosed during the study period and 81 who were previously diagnosed and were on anti-leprosy treatment. Blood was screened for HIV antibody by first ELISA and double positive samples were confirmed by a second ELISA. The HIV seronegative patients were re-tested serologically every 3 months. Smears from skin slits were used to determine bacterial index and the patients were classified according to criteria described by Ridley and Jopling. The patients were re-assessed clinically monthly. The mean age of the patients was 40 years and ranged from 13 to 78 years. Forty seven percent had paucibacillary and 53% had multibacillary leprosy. The HIV seroprevalence was 8% in previously diagnosed patients and zero in the newly diagnosed patients. There were no changes in clinical spectrum in HIV seropositive patients during follow up period; neither reversal reactions nor erythema nodosum leprosum were observed. The study suggests that M. leprae may not be an opportunistic pathogen in immunosuppressed subjects with HIV infection.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Petrology, geochemistry and evaluation of the heavy mineral deposits in Malindi and Uganga shore areas.". In: Marine Mining. Vol. 10, 337-351. Wiley Interscience; 1991. Abstract
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O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Current trends in the use of oral hypoglycaemic agents in diabetes mellitus-practical therapeutics. East Afr Med J. 1981 Apr;58(4):244-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Apr;58(4):244-8. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFOWINOJOHN. "Owino, J. O. & Bodo, E. O.(2005): Maintainability in a Mannpower System:.". In: East African J. of Stats. Vol.1, No.1, pp 41-48. 1999; 2005. Abstract
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O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Mosi R O, A M Okeyo, C O Ahuya, M A Okomo and W O Ogara, 2002. Herd structure and uses of small East African Zebu cattle in Lake Victoria Basin and Coastal Lowland of Kenya. (Bull. Hith. Prod. Afri.).". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2002. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O.: Nephrotic Synrome - Symtomatic treatment. East African Medical Journal 70(1): 1-2, 1993.". In: East African Medical Journal 70(1): 1-2, 1993. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract
Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Eric Ayienga, Elisha Opiyo, Bernard Manderick, Okello-Odongo, Ann Nowe (2006). Multiagent Systems for Bandwidth Optimization in Wireless Grids.". In: Second Annual International conference on sustainable capacity in developing countries - SREC06, AUGUST 6-9, 2006, MAKERERE UNIVERSITY, KAMPALA, UGANDA. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2006.
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT, PETER DRMUGWE. "Smith AW, Hatcher J, Mackenzie IJ, Thompson S, Bal I, Macharia I, Mugwe P, Okoth-Olende C, Oburra H, Wanjohi Z.Randomised controlled trial of treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media in Kenyan schoolchildren.Lancet. 1996 Oct 26;348(9035):1128-33.". In: Lancet. 1996 Oct 26;348(9035):1128-33. MEDICOM; 1996. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The outcomes of treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) are disappointing and uncertain, especially in developing countries. Because CSOM is the commonest cause of hearing impairment in children in these countries, an effective method of management that can be implemented on a wide scale is needed. We report a randomised, controlled trial of treatment of CSOM among children in Kenya; unaffected schoolchildren were taught to administer the interventions. METHODS: We enrolled 524 children with CSOM, aged 5-15 years, from 145 primary schools in Kiambu district of Kenya. The schools were randomly assigned treatments in clusters of five in a ratio of two to dry mopping alone (201 children), two to dry mopping with topical and systemic antibiotics and topical steroids (221 children), and one to no specific treatment (102 children). Schools were matched on factors thought to be related to their socioeconomic status. The primary outcome measures were resolution of otorrhoea and healing of tympanic membranes on otoscopy by 8, 12, and 16 weeks after induction. Absence of perforation was confirmed by tympanometry, and hearing levels were assessed by audiometry. 29 children were withdrawn from the trial because they took non-trial antibiotics. There was no evidence of differences in timing of withdrawals between the groups. FINDINGS: By the 16-week follow-up visit, otorrhoea had resolved in a weighted mean proportion of 51% (95% CI 42-59) of children who received dry mopping with antibiotics, compared with 22% (14-31) of those who received dry mopping alone and 22% (9-35) of controls. Similar differences were recorded by the 8-week and 12-week visits. The weighted mean proportions of children with healing of the tympanic membranes by 16 weeks were 15% (10-21) in the dry-mopping plus antibiotics group, 13% (5-20) in the dry-mopping alone group, and 13% (3-23) in the control group. The proportion with resolution in the dry-mopping alone group did not differ significantly from that in the control group at any time. Hearing thresholds were significantly better for children with no otorrhoea at 16 weeks than for those who had otorrhoea, and were also significantly better for those whose ears had healed than for those with otorrhoea at all times. INTERPRETATION: Our finding that dry mopping plus topical and systemic antibiotics is superior to dry mopping alone contrasts with that of the only previous community-based trial in a developing country, though it accords with findings of most other trials in developed countries. The potential role of antibiotics needs further investigation. Further, similar trials are needed to identify the most cost-effective and appropriate treatment regimen for CSOM in children in developing countries. PIP: 524 children aged 5-15 years with chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) were enrolled in a study to determine the effectiveness of different treatment regimens. The subjects were from 145 primary schools in Kenya's Kiambu district. 201 children received dry mopping treatment, 221 received dry mopping with topical and systemic antibiotics and topical steroids, and 102 received no treatment. Participating schools were matched on factors thought to be related to their socioeconomic status. 29 children were withdrawn from the trial for taking non-trial antibiotics, with no evidence observed of differences in the timing of withdrawals between the two groups. At 16 weeks of follow-up, otorrhoea had resolved in a weighted mean proportion of 51% of children who received dry mopping with antibiotics, 22% of children who received dry mopping alone, and 22% of untreated children. Similar differences were observed at 8 and 12 weeks of follow-up. The weighted mean proportions of children with healing of the tympanic membranes by 16 weeks were 15% in the dry-mopping plus antibiotics group, 13% in the dry-mopping alone group, and 13% in the control group. Hearing thresholds were significantly better for children with no otorrhoea at 16 weeks than for those who had otorrhoea, and were also significantly better for those whose ears had healed than for those with otorrhoea at all times.

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Mineral resources of the Lake Victoria Basin - Proceedings of I.D.S.". In: Workshop on Lake Victoria Basin Development. Occasional Paper 34. 159-174. Wiley Interscience; 1979. Abstract
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O DROPEREALFRED. "Water Resources Vulnerability to Environmental Change in Eastern Africa sub-region: Workshop on Africa.". In: University of Nairobi. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2007. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 2000. Disaster preparedness in the livestock industry in Kenya with respect to drought. In: The veterinary Profession in a changing environment. Proceedings of the Commonwealth Veterinary association/ Kenya Veterinary Association Joint Regional.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2000. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO, Swao JO, Wairagu SG, Luta M, Mwongera FK, Otieno LS.Pregnancy in a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD): a case report. East Afr Med J. 1992 May;69(5):294-5. Review.". In: Central African Journal of Medicine, 38(10): 421-424, 1992. University of Nairobi.; 1992. Abstract
We present what we believe is the first case of pregnancy occurring in a patient on CAPD, and indeed end stage renal disease (ESRD), in Kenya. Pregnancy progressed very well until the thirtieth week when foetal movements and heart sounds were noted to be absent and this was confirmed by sonography. A macerated still birth was delivered per vagina following induction of labour. We review the literature on this rare occurrence and discuss the possible causes of the unpleasant outcome in our patient.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE, W DRGETAOKATHERINE. "Multi-Agent systems scheduler in a dynamic environment.". In: (Ph.D Colloquium) Proceedings of the 1st Annual International Conference and Workshop on Sustainable ICT capacity in developing countries 2005. Makerere University, Kampala, pp 229-243. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 2005.
O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "New Dialkyl benzoquinone from fruits of Myrsine africana and Maesa lanceolata, Forsk.". In: Natural Products Letter 8, pp 11-14.; 1996. Abstract
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O PROFGENGARIEWA. "Solution of the Coulomb scattering potential problem by method of contour integration and change of approximation functions.". In: African Journal of Sci. & Tech. 6(2):52-58. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2005.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Rainfall characteristics as an indicator of drought in semi-arid Kitui district of Kenya (revised).". In: Discovery and Innovations, African Academy Science publishers. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2004. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O OD, O WANDIGAS, A A’oD. "Synergistic Effects of Titanium (IV) Oxide Modified Clay for Disinfection and Purification of Water." European International Journal of Science and Technology . 2017;6(5):7-32.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, P G Mbuthia, H Kaburi 1993. Fish pathogens isolated from fish species inhabiting L. Naivasha and aquaculture systems of Nyandarua District, Kenya. European Association of Fish Pathologists (EAFP) 5th International conference. Diseases of fish a.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1993. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""The Search for an Appropriate Decentralization Design in Kenya: Historical and Comparative Perspectives," in Kindiki, K., and Ambani, O., (eds.), The Anatomy of Bomas: Selected Analyses of the 2004 Draft Constitution of Kenya, Nairobi: Claripress.". In: Siriba Teachers Colege, Maseno, Kenya. IPPNW; 2005. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. and MacLaren, A.P.C. (1989). Scificity and immunoglobin types reactive in the C.I.E. test for the diagnosis of C fetus infection in cattle. Acta. Veterinarian Bograde. 39 197 - 208.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1989. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Early growth of very low birth weight infants. East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):84-9. Were FN, Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):84-9. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2006. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 20956-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Early growth in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants has been found predictive of their later outcomes. This has led to increased interest in establishing measures to optimise such growth. In facilities without the resources required to undertake long-term audits for all the high risk infants they graduate, these growth parameters may also be used as selection criteria for those meriting such follow up reducing costs. OBJECTIVES: To describe early growth patterns among a cohort of VLBW infants and determine some of the factors associated with poor growth among them. DESIGN: Cross section survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and seventy five neonatal survivors. RESULTS: Of the 175 infants recruited, the male/female ratio was 4:6, sixty four (36.6%) were intrauterine growth retarded while significant illnesses during the neonatal period were reported in 109 (62.3%). Forty seven percent of the infants had been fed on exclusive breast milk, 33% on mixed feeds while 20% received exclusive preterm formula. The mean neonatal weight gain for the whole cohort was 13.5 (3.9) g/kg/day, length of 0.34 (0.11) cm/week and head circumference of 0.32 (0.71) cm/week. By term only 33 (18.9%), 37 (21.1%) and 48 (28%) had reached the expected (the 3rd percentile) weight, length and head circumference respectively. Sixty percent of the infants gained weight at <15 g/kg/day while 70% and 78% grew in head circumference and length at < 0.5 cm/week respectively. At term weight, head and linear growth faultering were recorded in 81%, 72% and 79% respectively. The factors that were associated with better growth at this stage included feeding on preterm formula (P < 0.001) and absence of neonatal morbidity (P < 0.001). Infants who were appropriate for gestational age at birth also had better catch up growth at term compared to those born small for gestation (P < 0.001) but their neonatal growth itself was not significantly better. CONCLUSION: The mean neonatal growth in all anthropometric measures was less than expected and by the time of their expected delivery, less than 30% of these infants had reached the 3rd percentile of the expected measurement in all the three growth parameters. Choice of milk and neonatal morbidity influenced these growth patterns. RECOMMENDATIONS: Routine fortification of mother's milk or addition of preterm formula and reorganised care of sick newborns is recommended to improve early growth. PMID: 16771104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo, Otieno LS.Diabetic ulcers–a clinical and bacteriological study. East Afr Med J. 1991 Mar;68(3):204-10.". In: East African Medical Journal (68(11): 841-843, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
One hundred consecutive patients with diabetic ulcers were studied in an 8-month-period. There were 58 females. The mean age was 59.9 years. Eighty three patients had non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. The mean duration of diabetes mellitus was 11.6 years. The mean duration of the ulcer was 8.5 months. Sixty nine of the ulcers were gangrenous. Over 50% of the ulcers involved the big toes. Neuropathic ulcers were found mainly in the sole of the feet. Roentgenograms showed evidence of osteomyelitis in 44 patients. There were 356 bacterial isolates (340 aerobes and 16 anaerobes) from the ulcers. There were 3.6 infecting organisms per ulcer in gangrenous ulcers, while in neuropathic ulcers, there were 3.4 infecting organisms per ulcer. In both types of ulcer Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the commonest infecting organisms each being isolated in 88 of the 100 ulcers studied. In repeat bacterial cultures at 4 weeks there were 116 bacterial isolates. Staphylococcus aureus persisted in 63 ulcers despite therapy, while Escherichia coli persisted in 35. There were no new organisms isolated at repeat cultures and no ulcer was completely sterile. The Staphylococcus aureus was 100% sensitive to Augmentin (Amoxicillin plus clavulinic acid), Clindamycin, Novobiocin, and Amikacin while the gram negative bacilli were sensitive to Cefotaxime, Piperacillin, Amikacin and augmentin, Clindamycin, Chloramphenicol and Lincomycin inhibited the growth of anaerobes to a varying degree.
O PROFORINDADA, O PROFORINDADA. "Mbiti MJ, Ojwang PJ, Orinda DA. External quality control performance in clinical chemistry: experience in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1993 Apr;70(4 Suppl):16-20.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Apr;70(4 Suppl):16-20. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1993. Abstract
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Analysis of eleven biochemical laboratory tests was done during an International External Quality Assessment Scheme (IEQAS) in which the clinical chemistry laboratory at Kenyatta National Hospital participated. Technicon SMA II continuous flow system was used in the biochemical analyses apart from glucose which was assayed manually by the glucose oxidase method. Using the standard deviation index (SDI), twenty six percent of the results were found to be outside the two standard deviation (2SD) limit. However, when variance index score (VIS) was used, 42% of the results were found to be outliers. Overall, our laboratory performed poorly compared to other laboratories in both the IEQAS and the United Kingdom External Quality Assurance Scheme (UKEQAS). This poor performance is attributed to the use of improper equipment which is not regularly maintained, lack of diagnostic reagents, lack of quality control (QC) materials and inadequate staff training in the field of quality control.
O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "The East African Community's Prospects on the Global Stage", in RoK Ajulu (ed.), The Making of a Region:.". In: The Revival of the East African Community Midrand, S.A., pp 31-44.; 2005. Abstract
n/a
O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga Wave Propagation in strongly Magnetized Electron Gas; Kenya Journal of Science and Technology (A), 10 (1989).". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1989.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Opere, A.O., Mutua, F.M. and L.A. Ogallo (1993): Catchment spatial characteristics derived from principal component analysis (PCA). Proceedings of the First International workshop for the African Meteorological Society, 8-12 February 1993, KICC, Nairobi, .". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, vol.15, 2001. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 1993. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah G.J.O. and Ogaa, J.S. (1979). Genital tropism and coital transmission of C. fetus subsp intestinals. Br. Vet. J. 135 83 - 91.". In: Proceedings of the Association of veterinary teachers and research workers of Great Britain Annual Scientific Conference, April 1981, Scarbororough, England. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1979. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Protein energy malnutrition: current status. East Afr Med J . 1992 Aug; 69 ( 8 ): 413-4 . No abstract available. PMID: 1396204 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J . 1992 Aug; 69 ( 8 ): 413-4 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1992. Abstract

No abstract available

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Kinuthia, D.M.W., Yamanaka, T., Otieno, L.S. Ongeri, S.K., Mwongera, F.K., Wairagu, S.G. and McLigeyo S.O.: Hepatitis B Viral Status of staff and patients in a Renal Unit. Proceedings of the Internatioal Society of Nephrology Sponsored African Kidney and .". In: Proceedings of the Internatioal Society of Nephrology Sponsored African Kidney and Electrocytes Conference in Cairo, Egypt, February 1987 page 166. University of Nairobi.; 1987. Abstract
We have reviewed the literature relating to the use of monoclonal antibodies in acute renal allograft rejection. More emphasis has been placed on Orthoclone OKT3 which has been more commonly used and summarise our experience with its use as rescue therapy in renal allograft rejection.
O PROFORINDADA. "Orinda DA.Rate of tumour inhibition by activated macrophages in vitro.East Afr Med J. 1978 Apr;55(4):177-81. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1978 Apr;55(4):177-81. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1978. Abstract
PMID: 679868 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""The Unification of the Local Government System in Kenya," in Peter deValk and Wekwete, (eds.), Decentralisation for Participatory Planning (Aldershot: Gower Publishing Co.).". In: Walter O. Oyugi, (ed.), Politics and Administration in East Africa (Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers). IPPNW; 1989. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O OL. "Development Journalism in Africa: Capitulation of the Fourth Estate?". Africa Media Review 5, 2: 197-209; 1990. Abstract
n/a
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Muraguri P., McLigeyo S.O., Kayima J.K. Proteinuria, other selected urinary abnormalities and Hypertension among teenage secondary school students in Nairobi, Kenya. East African Medical Journal, 74(8): 467 - 473; 1997.". In: East African Medical Journal, 74(8): 467 - 473; 1997. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 1997. Abstract

Four hundred and three teenage secondary school students (50.6% males) from two girls' and two boys' Nairobi City Schools, selected by stratified sampling, were screened to determine the prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, nitrituria and hypertension. Nine students (2.2%) had significant proteinuria while 14 (3.5%) had microscopic haematuria. Two students had combined proteinuria and haematuria. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of proteinuria and/or haematuria between the sexes. Other urinary abnormalities detected were leucocyturia in 14(3.5%) and nitrites in four (1%). Leucocyturia was commonner in females (p = 0.001). Cloudy urinary appearance was significantly associated with the presence of leucocyturia (p = 0.0028) and proteinuria (p = 0.0276). Neither personal history of recurrent sore throat and skin infections nor family history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus or kidney disease was significantly associated with proteinuria or haematuria. Blood pressure tended to increase with age. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in boys than girls in the age group 15-18 years (P < 0.001). Of the 397 students whose blood pressures were measured, four (1%) were found to be hypertensive. Weight and body mass index were strong positive correlates of blood pressure. The prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, other urinary abnormalities and hypertension ranges between 1% and 3.5% among teenage secondary school children. The majority are asymptomatic and have no significant associations. It is recommended that routine urinalysis and blood pressure measurements should be part of the school health service so as to identify asymptomatic students who require close monitoring and/or intervention.

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Placebo-controlled trial of potassium supplements in black patients with mild essential hypertension. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1989 Aug;14(2):294-6.". In: J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1989 Aug;14(2):294-6. E Afr Med J; 1989. Abstract

Forty-eight black patients with mildly increased blood pressure (BP) that had not yet been subjected to treatment took part in a double-blind clinical trial of the efficacy and tolerability of oral potassium supplements (64 mmol daily) versus a matching placebo (made of starch with coating) in a 16-week study. Potassium supplements produced a significant decrease in mean supine and standing BP within 4 weeks after treatment inception. Urinary potassium excretion increased significantly in the 24 patients who received potassium supplements (p less than 0.001). No significant changes occurred in plasma sodium and potassium concentrations or in urinary excretion of sodium during the study. All patients completed the trial without experiencing any notable untoward effects. These results are consistent with the premise that oral potassium supplements may exert hypotensive effects of clinically significant degree in patients with mild hypertension.

O G, Nduati R, Obimbo E, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, B O, M K, F N, L N, K K, Farquhar C, Kiarie J, Kiarie J, I K. "Engagement of decentralized health facilities in research and training.". 2016.
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O.; Cyropreservation of Boar Semen: Studies on freezing packaging and fertilizing capacity. Master of Veterinary Sciences, Thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Uppsala.". In: 12th International Congress on Animal Reproduction, the Hague, 1992.Workshop on sperm preservation in swine. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1990.
O DROUTAGEORGE. "7. .". In: Souvenir Journal of African Literature, No 1. Vol 1. Octawns: Nairobi, 1999. 1999; 1986. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 11957248 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Assessing Local Administrative Capacity for Development Purposes: A Kenyan Case," in The African Review, Vol. 5, No. 3.". In: East African Journal of Rural Development, Vol. 9, 9 June 1976. IPPNW; 1975. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O MS. " Pain management in Kidney Diseases. ." Health Line.. 2002;6(4):56-60.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Tombe M, Bhatt KM, Obel AO. Quinine loading dose in severe Falciparum malaria at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1992 Dec;69(12):670-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Dec;69(12):670-4. E Afr Med J; 1992. Abstract
From July 1989 to February 1990, 17 non-pregnant patients with severe falciparum malaria, aged 14 years and above received an initial intravenous quinine dihydrochloride loading dose of 20 mg/kg in 500 mls of normal saline or 5% dextrose infused over 4 hours followed by 100mg/kg infused 8 hourly for at least 24 hours. Sixteen comparable controls were similarly treated but without an initial loading dose. Oral quinine bisulfate 10mg/kg 8 hourly was substituted for a total of 7 days when patients were well enough. There was no significant difference in clinical and parasitological response between the two groups. Fever clearance time in hours was 44.00 +/- 13.92 (mean +/- SD) in the study group and 51.43 +/- 19.63 (mean +/- SD) in the control group (p > 0.05). Parasite clearance time in hours was 42.40 +/- 9.75 (mean +/- SD) in the study group and 47.05 +/- 7.69 (mean +/- SD) in the control group (p > 0.05). One patient from each group died. Mild toxic effects were common in both groups. Transient partial hearing loss occurred significantly more in the study than control group (p < 0.05). Hypoglycaemia during treatment occurred in 3 (18%) patients in the study group and 1 (6%) in the control group. The mean trough and peak plasma quinine levels in 3 patients per group was persistently higher than 9mg/L after first infusion. We conclude that though fairly well tolerated, quinine loading dose appears to have no advantage over the standard treatment for severe falciparum malaria at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.
O DRMUSANDUJOYCE. "Musandu, J. O. .". In: Kenya Nursing Journal December 1998. James Murimi; 1998. Abstract

Warenius LU, Faxelid EA, Chishimba PN, Musandu JO, Ong'any AA, Nissen EB.

Division of International Health, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. Linnea.Warenius@ki.se

Adolescent sexuality is a highly charged moral issue in Kenya and Zambia. Nurse-midwives are the core health care providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health services but public health facilities are under-utilised by adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes among Kenyan and Zambian nurse-midwives (n=820) toward adolescent sexual and reproductive health problems, in order to improve services for adolescents. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Findings revealed that nurse-midwives disapproved of adolescent sexual activity, including masturbation, contraceptive use and abortion, but also had a pragmatic attitude to handling these issues. Those with more education and those who had received continuing education on adolescent sexuality and reproduction showed a tendency towards more youth-friendly attitudes. We suggest that critical thinking around the cultural and moral dimensions of adolescent sexuality should be emphasised in undergraduate training and continuing education, to help nurse-midwives to deal more empathetically with the reality of adolescent sexuality. Those in nursing and other leadership positions could also play an important role in encouraging wider social discussion of these matters. This would create an environment that is more tolerant of adolescent sexuality and that recognises the beneficial public health effect for adolescents of greater access to youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services.

PMID: 16713886 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Related Articles, Links Benefit/risk comparisons in therapy. East Afr Med J. 1983 Apr;60(4):201-2. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1983 Apr;60(4):201-2. E Afr Med J; 1983. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Pesticide Residues in Beef and Camel Meat from slaughterhouses in 13 Districts in Kenya.". In: Journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2009.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "N .O Bwibo Nutrition and Child Health in Kenya In: Paediatrics .". In: Pitman Medical Publishers 1980, pp 177-184. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1980. Abstract

No abstract available.

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Lodenyo HA, McLigeyo SO, Ogola EN.Cardiovascular disease in elderly in-patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi-Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1997 Oct;74(10):647-51.". In: East African Medical Journal. 74(10):605-606, 1997. University of Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract
A prospective study to determine the prevalence and profile of cardiovascular disease in elderly patients admitted into the medical wards, Kenyatta National Hospital, was carried out between July 1991 and January 1992. Two hundred and two patients over 60 years of age were admitted into the medical wards over this period. This formed seven per cent of the total medical admissions. Two of these refused to take part in the study. Of the 200 elderly patients evaluated for cardiovascular disease, 146 (73%) were between 60 and 75 years of age with only 26 (13%) being over 85 years. Fifty seven per cent were males. Clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease was present in 79 (39.5%) of the patients evaluated. There was no sex difference in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease as judged from clinical evaluation (37.7% males versus 41.9% females, p > 0.05). Cardiovascular diseases in our medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital are common and especially so with hypertension which plays an important role in the aetiology of congestive heart failure and cerebravascular accidents. Cardiac arrhythmias are also common though not necessarily symptomatic. Rheumatic heart disease and cardiomyopathies were uncommon in our study population. A community-based survey is needed to determine the true prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in the elderly and their contribution to morbidity in this sector of the population.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "McNeill PM, Macklin R, Wasunna A, Komesaroff PA. An expanding vista: bioethics from public health, indigenous and feminist perspectives. Med J Aust. 2005 Jul 4;183(1):8-9. No abstract available.". In: Med J Aust. 2005 Jul 4;183(1):8-9. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2005. Abstract
School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia. paul.mcneill@unsw.edu.au
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Group takes a fresh look at the lithosphere underneath southern Kenya,.". In: KRSIP Working Group EOS Transactions, AGU 76, 81-82. Wiley Interscience; 1995. Abstract
(including Nyambok, I.O.), .
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: approach to the therapy of diarrhoeal diseases. East Afr Med J. 1984 Jun;61(6):493-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Jun;61(6):493-8. E Afr Med J; 1984. Abstract
Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.
O OGUMOE, N. KC, J. KIMENJU, MW O. "Comparison of the efficiency of solar-powered prototype vapour compression cooler with evaporative charcoal cooler in maintaining quality of French beans ." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation,. 2021;2(Special issue).
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Farah, K.O., A. F. Tanaka, and N. E. West. 1988. Autecology and population biology of dyers woad (Isatis tinctoria) . Weed Science 36:186-193.". In: In: Proceedings of First symposium of University of Nairobi ASAL thrust and ICRAF held at Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi, December, 1989. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1988.
O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O., 1977. Magnetic model theory in the analysis of vertical gradient anomalies, M.Sc. thesis,.". In: Queen. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1977. Abstract
n/a
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "CLIMATE CHANGE AND TH EMERGENCE OF HELTER-SKELTER LIVELIHOODS AMONG THE PASTORALISTS OF SAMBURU EAST DISTRICT, KENYA.". In: Journal. Ecological Society for Eastern Africa; Submitted.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics. Medical treatment of peptic ulcers. East Afr Med J. 1981 Feb;58(2):84-9. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Feb;58(2):84-9. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G. O. Rading, "The Effect of Welding on the Fatigue Crack Growth Rate in a Structural Steel" Welding J. Res. Supplement 37(7) (1993) p 307-s.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1993. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Congenital pyloric stenosis in African infants. Report of 19 cases in Uganda. Bwibo NO. East Afr Med J. 1970 Jul;47(7):377-82.". In: East Afr Med J. 1970 Jul;47(7):377-82. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1970. Abstract

No abstract available

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO, Mbui J, Kungu A, Amayo E, Ogendo SW.Fibrosarcoma of the lung with extrapulmonary manifestations: case report. East Afr Med J. 1995 Jul;72(7):465-7.". In: African Journal of Medical Practice 2(3): 91-93, 1995. University of Nairobi.; 1995. Abstract
A 50-year-old female presented with a five months history of recurrent attacks of dizziness, sweatiness, tremors and fainting with loss of consciousness. These were found to be due to hypoglycaemic episodes with blood sugars less than 1 mmol/l and were treated as such. A diagnosis of insulinoma was initially considered, but the patient turned out to have fibrosarcoma of the lung, a rare lung tumour. She also had finger and toe clubbing and features of hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Wasunna A, Whitelaw A, Gallimore R, Hawkins PN, Pepys MB. C-reactive protein and bacterial infection in preterm infants. Eur J Pediatr. 1990 Mar;149(6):424-7.". In: Eur J Pediatr. 1990 Mar;149(6):424-7. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1990. Abstract
{ Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration was measured by a new solid phase ligand-binding radiometric monoclonal antibody immunoassay in a prospective study of 193 consecutively born preterm infants. In 104 with no clinical or laboratory evidence of infection the median CRP in cord serum was 0.125 mg/l (range 0.011-6.0 mg/l), at 24 h it was 1 mg/l (0.016-7.0) and at 48 h 2 mg/l (0.400-8.0). The present highly sensitive assay has enabled these normal ranges to be defined for the first time, at levels below the threshold of non-labelled immunoassays and of all commercially available CRP assays. The values in cord serum were significantly lower than in normal healthy adults (median 0.8 mg/l, range 0.07-29 mg/l
O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Nyangasi and G.O. Rading "Establishment of a Design and Mechanical Engineering Laboratory at KIRDI" Consultancy report submitted to UNIDO/UNDP (1988).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1988. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Kwasa TO, Jowi JO, Amayo EO.Efficacy and tolerability of oral sumatriptan in the treatment of acute migraine.East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):479-82.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):479-82. uon; 1995. Abstract
An open prospective study of the efficacy and tolerability of oral sumatriptan in the treatment of acute migraine attacks at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, is presented. Thirty two patients were initially recruited and 24 completed the trial giving a drop-out rate of 25%. The age range was 17 to 55 years with a mean of 35 years. Sumatriptan was found to be effective in 22 (92%) out of 24 patients. Side effects occurred in 38% (9/24) patients. These were mild and transient and included nausea, vomiting, numbness of limbs, fever and a feeling of heat in the head. It is concluded that oral sumatriptan is an effective drug in the treatment of acute migraine headaches. It has few side effects and is well tolerated by majority of patients.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Oldoinyo Lenkiyio Range: Geology, geomorphology and hydrographic pattern of the.". In: In Kenya from Space. A contribution to a CREDU publication. East African Educational Publishers. 116-119. Nairobi. Wiley Interscience; 1992. Abstract
n/a
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Related Articles, Links Clinical trials in medicine. East Afr Med J. 1981 Nov;58(11):809-13. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Nov;58(11):809-13. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFMOSIREUBEN. "Mosi, R.O. (1978). An assessment of the efficiency of the Kenya Beef Records.". In: Bull. Int. Dairy Fed. 221:32-46. Elsevier; 1978. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Technology Transfer and the Innovative Process in Biomedical Sciences in the Developed World. Discovery and Innovation. Vol. 14 No. .". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2002. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O.: Calculation of creatinine clearance from plasma creatinine. East African Medical Journal 70(1): 3-5, 1993.". In: East African Medical Journal 70(1): 3-5, 1993. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract
Interest in renal disease and practice in East Africa started as far back as the first quarter of this century. Work in this colonial era concentrated on establishing the existence of renal diseases and identifying the nature and incidence of these diseases. This was achieved by case identification and reporting as well as retrospective studies on post mortem and medical notes. The post independence period has not only identified the existence of even more renal diseases but also concentrated on getting a deeper understanding of the aetiology, nature, pattern, regional variations, complications and outcome of these diseases as seen in our environment. Apart from the better understanding of the prevalent renal diseases, emphasis has also been put on the expansion and delivery of renal services. Investigative and treatment facilities have been improved and a lot has been put into the training of the required local team of experts to man these services. This article reviews what has gone on in the last 70 years from the pure case-report and postmortem reports era to the era of locally available modern facilities including haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Opiyo Elisha T. O., Erick Ayienga, Katherine Getao, Bernard Manderick, Okello-Odongo, Ann Now.". In: In Proceedings of the 4th International Operations Research Society of East Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 23rd-24th Oct 2008, Nairobi, Kenya. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2008.
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT. "Oburra H. Otolaryngology/Head and neck surgical services in developing countries: Challenges and future perspectives.". In: Editorial. East African Medical Journal 75: 321, 1998. MEDICOM; 1998. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of adenotonsillectomy in a sample of Kenyan hospitals and to review indications, timing and complications in 97 cases of adenotonsillectomy done by the authors. DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National, Nairobi, Aga Khan, Gertrude and Mater Hospitals. RESULTS: Adenotonsillectomy is the most frequent otolaryngologic surgical operation. Indications for surgery were upper airway obstruction in 61.3%, recurrent tonsillitis in 28.7% and both in 7.5%. Surgery was indicated during the acute stage in 6.8% of cases. There was one case of post-operative acute airway obstruction. Post operative bleeding from the tonsillar bed was encountered in 2.1% of cases. CONCLUSION: Adenotonsillectomy is the most common otolaryngologic surgical operation in our set-up. The low frequency of complications and a short hospital stay puts up a case for routine adenotonsillectomy as a day surgery procedure.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "The M.". In: Kenya Journal of Science & Technology, Series A, 2nd Issue. 117-124. Wiley Interscience; 1980. Abstract
n/a
O DROPEREALFRED. "UNEP 2008. Beekman H.E., Abu-Zeid K., Afouda A., Hughes S., Kane A., Kulindwa K.A., Odada E.O., Opere Alfred., Oyebande L. and Saayman, I.C. : .". In: University of Nairobi. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2008. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 2000. Critical aspects of animal production, health sciences and environmental litigation. In: The Veterinary profession in a changing environment. Proceedings of the Commonwealth Veterinary Association/Kenya Veterinary Association joint Region.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2000. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Masunda, B., C. C. Mutisi, H. Hamudikuwanda and J.G.O. Agumbah (2002). The use of faecal Progestia measurements to monitor reproductive activity in Mashona cows in a small holder farminf area in Zimbabwe. Tropical Animal Health and Production 34 (4) 309 .". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2002. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Some historical and philosophical aspects of Geology.". In: Thought and Practice, Vol. l (2). Wiley Interscience; 1974. Abstract
n/a
O DROPEREALFRED. "Opere, A. (2005): Hazard Risk assessment in Mount Kenya headwaters: Sustainable Management of Headwater Resources; research from Africa and India, United Nations University, p165-177; Jansky L., Martin J. Haigh and H. Prasad (eds).". In: Proc. 7th Kenya Meteorological Society Workshop on Meteorological Research, Applications and Services, Nairobi, 17-21 0ctober 2005. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2005. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 1996. Kenya Veterinary Association Privatization Scheme (KVAPS). Background current status and futures perspectives. Proceedings of the joint Regional Commonwealth Veterinary Association, Mauritius veterinary association/ Pan- African Veterinar.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1996. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Serological determination of prevalence of congenital syphilis in two hospitals in Kenya. East Afr Med J . 1982 Nov; 59 ( 11 ): 750-3 . No abstract available. PMID: 6764198 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Wafula EM, Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J . 1982 Nov; 59 ( 11 ): 750-3 . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1982. Abstract
No abstract available.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Munyua, S.J.M., Wahome, R.G. Mitaru, B.M., Agumbah G.J.O. and Kiptoon, J.C. (1992). Reproductive performance and wastage in small scale piggeries in Kenya. Ken. Vet. 93 - 95.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1992. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Designing snacks to address micronutrient deficiencies in rural Kenyan schoolchildren. J Nutr . 2007 Apr; 137 ( 4 ): 1093-6 . Review. PMID: 17374685 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Murphy SP, Gewa C, Grillenberger M, Bwibo NO, Neumann CG.". In: J Nutr . 2007 Apr; 137 ( 4 ): 1093-6 . Review. PMID: 17374685 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2007. Abstractdesigning_snacks_to_address_micronutrient.pdf

University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA. suzanne@crch.hawaii.edu

Three snacks were designed to improve nutrient intakes among school-age children living in rural Kenya. Snacks containing animal-source foods (milk and meat) provided more nutrients than an equicaloric vegetarian snack. The vegetarian snack provided extra vitamin A (primarily from fortified cooking fat; the milk snack was rich in calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin B-12; and the meat snack supplied vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc. When changes in intakes from baseline to the feeding period were compared across the 4 groups, total energy intake increased the most for children in the meat group and the least for children in the control group. Differences in energy intakes across the 3 feeding groups were primarily caused by decreases in home intake for the vegetarian and milk snack groups. It is important to evaluate the change in home intakes as well as intakes from the foods provided by the study when evaluating the effect of feeding programs on nutrient adequacy.

PMID: 17374685 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO, Otieno LS, Kinuthia DM, Mwongera FK, Ongeri SK.Ascites in patients undergoing intermittent haemodialysis at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1991 Oct;68(10):789-94.". In: East African Medical Journal (68(11): 841-843, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
In a two-year-period (August 1984 to August 1986), 77 patients were admitted into the maintenance haemodialysis programme at Kenyatta National Hospital. 24 (31.5%) of these had ascites during haemodialysis. Nine (37.5%) of the patients who had ascites had prior peritoneal dialysis, while 15 (62.5%) had congestive cardiac failure at the time of development of the ascites. In 21 (87.5%), the ascites responded to therapy with diuretics, salt and fluid restriction, antibiotics when indicated and to ultrafiltration during dialysis. In 3 (12.5%) of the patients, the ascites developed in the absence of any predisposing cause. The ascites progressively increased in amount and was associated with marked wasting. These patients were considered to have refractory ascites of haemodialysis.
O PROFORINDADA. "Nyakundi PM, Kinuthia DW, Orinda DA. Clinical aspects and causes of rickets in a Kenyan population. East Afr Med J. 1994 Aug;71(8):536-42.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Feb;71(2):84-7. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1994. Abstract
Twenty nine patients with rickets were studied in a one year period. The majority of patients (17/29) were below 2 years of age. Most of them had nutritional rickets resulting from a combination of factors. Premature delivery, nonexposure to sunlight, nutritional marasmus and inappropriate dietary intake. Some had familial hypophosphataemic rickets, others had renal tubular acidosis while the rest had rickets with a familial tendency. Both the previous hospital records and the present study indicate that rickets is a persistent problem in children in the community and should be suspected in children who present with features of failure to thrive, among other conditions.
O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "November 8, 2006 .". In: The 1st Korea .; 2006. Abstract
n/a
O DRLUMUMBAPATRICK. "THE ROLE OF LAW IN SOCIETY.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 1. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1998.
O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga High-Frequency Sum-Rules for Relativistic Classical Plasmas in a Magnetic Field; International Journal of Theoretical Physics 28 893 (1989). 30. R. O. Genga Wave Propagation in Strongly coupled.". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1989.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Opere, A.O. (2000): The need for a flood forecasting system (FFS) in Kenya Proceedings of the Fifth workshop of the Kenya Meteorological Society workshop on Meteorological Research, Applications and Services, 4-8 September 2000, Mombasa, Kenya.". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, vol.15, 2001. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2000. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O MW. "Mwanda W. O. Geographical, demographical and some clinical characteristics of Burkitt's Lymphoma in Kenya . Doctor of Medicine (M.D) thesis of the University of Nairobi , 2001." (Medicom) 2001:16, 6;100-102.. 2001. AbstractWebsite

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. (1981). The counter-current immunoelectrophoresis method in the diagnosis of C.fetus infection in cattle.". In: Proceedings of the Association of veterinary teachers and research workers of Great Britain Annual Scientific Conference, April 1981, Scarbororough, England. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1981. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Child battering in Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr Med J . 1993 Nov; 70 ( 11 ): 688-92 . PMID: 8033769 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Sumba RO, Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J . 1993 Nov; 70 ( 11 ): 688-92 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1993. Abstract

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

A survey of battered children was carried out at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi between 1st May 1989 and 30th April 1990. Twenty eight cases were identified and compared with twenty six controls, matched for age and sex. The battered children were likely to be aged between three and four years, with slight male predominance. The abusing parents tended to live in crowded environments, were younger in age, less educated and were less likely to be practising contraception. They were relatively new migrants to Nairobi and were socially isolated. The socio-economic and cultural issues are discussed.

PMID: 8033769 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O., Otieno L.S., Kinuthia D.M.W. Ongeri S.K., Mwongera F.K., Wairagu S.G.: Problems with a Renal Replacement Programme in a Developing Country. Postgraduate Medical Journal 648 (56): 783-786, 1988.". In: Postgraduate Medical Journal 648 (56): 783-786, 1988. University of Nairobi.; 1988. Abstract
We have reviewed the literature relating to the use of monoclonal antibodies in acute renal allograft rejection. More emphasis has been placed on Orthoclone OKT3 which has been more commonly used and summarise our experience with its use as rescue therapy in renal allograft rejection.
O PROFORINDADA. "Odonga AM, Wambwa JR, Orinda DA.Acute intermittent porphyria in an East African female.East Afr Med J. 1980 Oct;57(10):716-9. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1980 Oct;57(10):716-9. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1980. Abstract
PMID: 7215256 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Bureaucracy and the Management of Health Services in Kenya," in H.K. Asmeron, Robert Hoppe and R.B. Jain, (eds.), Public Bureaucracies in Developing Countries (Amsterdam: VU University Press).". In: Walter O. Oyugi, (ed.), Politics and Administration in East Africa (Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers). IPPNW; 1992. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Koech DK. Outcome of intervention with or without low dose oral interferon alpha in thirty-two HIV-1 seropositive patients in a referral hospital. East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl 2):SS71-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl 2):SS71-6. E Afr Med J; 1990. Abstract

Thirty two critically ill patients were admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital with a diagnosis of HIV-1 seropositivity on both ELISA and Western Blot between October 1989 and January 1990. Sixteen of the patients received low dose oral interferon alpha while the other 16 patients received intensive supportive management alone. Of the 16 patients who received low dose interferon alpha, 14 were discharged from the Hospital within 2 to 4 weeks of admission in a reasonable state of health while two of the patients died after 18 and 42 days from the time of admission. All the 16 patients who received intensive supportive management alone were dead within 4 weeks of entering the Hospital, their mean (+/- SD) stay after admission being 8.6 +/- 6.8 days. These results suggest that low dose oral interferon alpha may be of value in the care of critically ill HIV-1 seropositive patients.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Medical curriculum in a developing country. East Afr Med J . 1987 Oct; 64 ( 10 ): 697-709 . No abstract available. PMID: 3507316 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J . 1987 Oct; 64 ( 10 ): 697-709 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1987. Abstract

No abstract available

O E, Robert SJ. Acknowledgments.; 1995.
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O.; Einarsson S.; Rodriguez-Martinez H.Cryopreservation of boar semen: II. Effect of cooling rate and duration of freezing point plateau in boar semen frozen in mini -, maxi-straws and plastic bags. Acta Vet. Scand. 32, 455-461.". In: 12th International Congress on Animal Reproduction, the Hague, 1992.Workshop on sperm preservation in swine. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1991.
O DROUTAGEORGE. "Fabricating Nationhood: Sigana (Narrative) as Theatre in Post-colonial Kenya,.". In: Getting Heard: Reclaiming Performance Space in Kenya. Twaweza Communications, Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 11957248 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Relearning Old Lessons: The Case of the Special Rural Development Programme (SRDP)," in African Association of Public Administration and Management (AAPAM) Managing Rural Development in Africa, Addis Ababa.". In: Indian Journal of Public Administration, Vol. XXVI, No.3. IPPNW; 1979. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O DRMUSANDUJOYCE. "Musandu J.O. New Developments in Nursing Education , Kenya Nursing Journal Volume 34 Number 1 June 2006.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal Volume 34 Number 1 June 2006. James Murimi; 2006. Abstract

Warenius LU, Faxelid EA, Chishimba PN, Musandu JO, Ong'any AA, Nissen EB.

Division of International Health, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. Linnea.Warenius@ki.se

Adolescent sexuality is a highly charged moral issue in Kenya and Zambia. Nurse-midwives are the core health care providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health services but public health facilities are under-utilised by adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes among Kenyan and Zambian nurse-midwives (n=820) toward adolescent sexual and reproductive health problems, in order to improve services for adolescents. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Findings revealed that nurse-midwives disapproved of adolescent sexual activity, including masturbation, contraceptive use and abortion, but also had a pragmatic attitude to handling these issues. Those with more education and those who had received continuing education on adolescent sexuality and reproduction showed a tendency towards more youth-friendly attitudes. We suggest that critical thinking around the cultural and moral dimensions of adolescent sexuality should be emphasised in undergraduate training and continuing education, to help nurse-midwives to deal more empathetically with the reality of adolescent sexuality. Those in nursing and other leadership positions could also play an important role in encouraging wider social discussion of these matters. This would create an environment that is more tolerant of adolescent sexuality and that recognises the beneficial public health effect for adolescents of greater access to youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services.

PMID: 16713886 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: the role of diuretics in current medicine. East Afr Med J. 1983 Sep;60(9):656-8. Review. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1983 Sep;60(9):656-8. E Afr Med J; 1983. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Antimicrobial susceptibility of non-sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli isolated from cattle feaces and milk samples.". In: Journal. African Journal of Microbiology Research; Submitted.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "N. O Bwibo Haematological Diseases in Tropics In: Paediatrics Practice in Developing countries. Editor: G.J Ebrahim, MacMilla Press Ltd 1981 London pp 239-256.". In: MacMilla Press Ltd. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1981. Abstract

This paper reviews clinicopathological and hematological manifestations of sickle cell anemia as seen in Kenyan children in the first decade of life. The information is based on a study of 447 patients. The findings are similar to those that are well documented from America, West Africa, and other parts of Africa. However, local variations and complications such as malnutrition and topical infections that may affect prognosis are high-lighted.

PMID: 6180653 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Ngugi N, Mcligeyo S.O., Kayima J.K.:The emergency treatment of hyperkalaemia by altering the transcellular gradient in patients with renal failure - effects of various therapeutic approaches. East African Medical Journal. 74(8):, 1997.". In: East African Medical Journal. 74(8):, 1997. University of Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract

Four hundred and three teenage secondary school students (50.6% males) from two girls' and two boys' Nairobi City Schools, selected by stratified sampling, were screened to determine the prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, nitrituria and hypertension. Nine students (2.2%) had significant proteinuria while 14 (3.5%) had microscopic haematuria. Two students had combined proteinuria and haematuria. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of proteinuria and/or haematuria between the sexes. Other urinary abnormalities detected were leucocyturia in 14(3.5%) and nitrites in four (1%). Leucocyturia was commonner in females (p = 0.001). Cloudy urinary appearance was significantly associated with the presence of leucocyturia (p = 0.0028) and proteinuria (p = 0.0276). Neither personal history of recurrent sore throat and skin infections nor family history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus or kidney disease was significantly associated with proteinuria or haematuria. Blood pressure tended to increase with age. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in boys than girls in the age group 15-18 years (P < 0.001). Of the 397 students whose blood pressures were measured, four (1%) were found to be hypertensive. Weight and body mass index were strong positive correlates of blood pressure. The prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, other urinary abnormalities and hypertension ranges between 1% and 3.5% among teenage secondary school children. The majority are asymptomatic and have no significant associations. It is recommended that routine urinalysis and blood pressure measurements should be part of the school health service so as to identify asymptomatic students who require close monitoring and/or intervention.

O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, W. DRIRIMUGRACE, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "English M, Irimu G, Wamae A, Were F, Wasunna A, Fegan G, Peshu N.Health systems research in a low-income country: easier said than done.Arch Dis Child. 2008 Jun;93(6):540-4.". In: Arch Dis Child. 2008 Jun;93(6):540-4. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2008. Abstract
Small hospitals sit at the apex of the pyramid of primary care in the health systems of many low-income countries. If the Millennium Development Goal for child survival is to be achieved, hospital care for referred severely ill children will need to be improved considerably in parallel with primary care in many countries. Yet little is known about how to achieve this. This article describes the evolution and final design of an intervention study that is attempting to improve hospital care for children in Kenyan district hospitals. It illustrates many of the difficulties involved in reconciling epidemiological rigour and feasibility in studies at a health system, rather than an individual, level and the importance of the depth and breadth of analysis when trying to provide a plausible answer to the question: does it work? Although there are increasing calls for more health systems research in low-income countries, the importance of strong, broadly based local partnerships and long-term commitment even to initiate projects is not always appreciated.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. The development of beta adrenoceptors in medicine. East Afr Med J. 1984 Oct;61(10):733-5. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Oct;61(10):733-5. E Afr Med J; 1984. Abstract
Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Farah, K. O. 1994. Vegetation, pp. 119-128; in: Tiffen, Mortimore, Gichuki (eds). More people, less erosion: environmental recovery in Machakos District, Kenya. John Wiley and Sons.". In: in: Tiffen, Mortimore, Gichuki (eds). More people, less erosion: environmental recovery in Machakos District, Kenya. John Wiley and Sons. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994.
O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O., 1984. Euler.". In: Geophysics 49, 1549-1553. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1984. Abstract
n/a
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Antimicrobial susceptibility of non-sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli isolated from cattle feaces and milk samples.". In: Journal. African Journal of Microbiology Research; Submitted.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics treatment of gout. East Afr Med J. 1981 Mar;58(3):151-5. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Mar;58(3):151-5. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading, J. Li and J.T. Berry "Fatigue Crack Growth in Cast Al-Cu Alloy A206 With Different Levels of Porosity" AFS Trans. 45 (1994) p 57-61.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1994. Abstract

The fatigue crack growth (FCG) characteristics of a cast Al-Cu alloy A206 in the T7 temper condition were studied in laboratory air at a frequency of 30 Hz and an R-ratio of 0.2. Two different (as cast) thicknesses and two different casting conditions (casting with and without a chill) were investigated with the aim of characterizing the effect of porosity on the FCG behavior. The level of porosity in each sample was determined by the point-counting method and varied from 2.4 to 4.0% before hot isostatic pressing (HIP).<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

 

The study covered both near-threshold and mid-range regimes of FCG. The results indicate that for this limited range of porosity, there exists no systematic relationship between casting conditions (i.e., chilled or non-chilled) or the as-cast thickness and the average level of porosity. However, in the near-threshold regime, the FCG resistance decreased as the level of porosity increased, while in the mid-range of FCG, the FCG rate was fairly independent of the amount of porosity.

Application of HIP led to a reduction in the porosity level from about 4% to less than 0.4%, but this was accompanied by improvement in the FCG resistance only, close to the threshold. The results are rationalized in terms of the effect of porosity on the micro-mechanisms of fatigue crack growth and the initiation of secondary cracks caused by the size, distribution and morphology, of the pores.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "The role of neonatal infection in neonatal and childhood mortality. J Trop Pediatr Environ Child Health . 1971 Sep; 17 ( 3 ): 89-90 . No abstract available. PMID: 5210143 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Bwibo NO.". In: J Trop Pediatr Environ Child Health . 1971 Sep; 17 ( 3 ): 89-90 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1971. Abstract

No abstract available.

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O., Cameron J.S., Sacks S.: Improved survival inlupus nephritis in the modern era (1979-1989) using only oral corcosteroids and azethiprine as maitenance therapy. African Journal of Health Sciences 2(1): 211-219 1995.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences 2(1): 211-219 1995. University of Nairobi.; 1995. Abstract
A 30 year old female with an unexpected right adrenal phaechromacytoma invading the renal vein, the inferior vena cava and extending into the right atrium is presented. She also had BuddChiari syndrome due to invasion of the hepatic veins by the tumour. Additionally, the tumour had metastasised to the liver and the lungs. Despite elevated 24 hour urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) the patient was normotensive pre-operatively. The patient underwent right adrenalectomy and extended nephrectomy with milking of the tumaur from the inferior vena cava. Unfortunately, the patient developed multiple hypotensive episodes and adult respiratory distress syndrome post-operatively and died three weeks after surgery.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Bernard O. Okuku, Elisha T. O. Opiyo. An efficient agent-based wireless communication model. In the proceedings of The 3rd International Conference on Internet Technology and Applications (iTAP 2012), August 18-20, 2012 in Wuhan, China. To appear in EEE X.". In: Proceedings of the Unesco-Hp Brain Gain Workshop on Distributed Systems, 29th August 2012, at Kenya School of Monetary Studies in Nairobi, Kenya. AJFAND; 2012.
O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Herpes zoster myelitis: report of two cases. East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):279-80.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):279-80. uon; 2002. Abstract
Two male patients aged 40 and 45 years with HIV infection and paraplegia are presented. The two had sub-acute onset paraplegia with a sensory level, which developed 10 days after herpes zoster dermatomal rash. They both had asymmetrically involvement of the lower limbs. Investigation including imaging of the spinal cord did not reveal any other cause of the neurological deficit. The two responded very well to treatment with acyclovir. Herpes zoster myelitis is a condition likely to rise with the upsurge of HIV infection and there is a need to identify the condition early. We also review the literature on the subject.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Naivasha: Geology and natural resources.". In: In Kenya from space. East African Educational Publishers. 60-62. Nairobi. Wiley Interscience; 1992. Abstract
n/a
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: the newer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):366-73. Review. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):366-73. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O OL, W KL, W MR, S BB. "Diet composition and nutritional contribution of food scavenged by indigenous chickens in Western Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2009;21.
O PROFMOSIREUBEN. "Mosi, R.O. and D.E. Mbogo (1987). Role of animal and institutional resources in dairy cattle improvement: A case study of the National Daily Cattle Breeding Programme for A.I. bulls in Kenya. Bull. Int. Dairy Fed. 221:32-46.". In: Bull. Int. Dairy Fed. 221:32-46. Elsevier; 1987. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Owino J., Eric S. Mitema, William O. Ogara, and Herwig O. Gutzeit. 2004. Heat Shock Affects Attachment and Proliferation of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Primary Hepatocytes. In-Vitro cell. Developmental Biol. Animal.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2004. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO.Nitric oxide–sources, evolution and potential biological and clinical relevance. East Afr Med J. 1994 Feb;71(2):73-4. No abstract available.". In: African Journal of Medical Practice 1(5):129-132, 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1994. Abstract
Autonomic nervous function was assessed in twenty two patients (16 males and 6 females) with chronic renal failure on conservative management. The presenting symptoms were postural dizziness in 10(45%), impotence in 4(18%) patients and 1 patient each with diplopia, urinary urgency and nocturnal diarrhoea. The following autonomic function tests were performed; valsalva manoeuvre, heart rate response to deep breathing, heart rate response to posture and postural change in blood pressure. Fifteen (68%) patients had abnormal autonomic function tests. Out of these patients, 14(93%) had abnormalities of the parasympathetic system and only one had abnormalities in the sympathetic system. There was a negative correlation between the creatinine levels and the following; valsalva ratio (r = -0.72 p < 0.001), heart rate response to standing (r = -0.56 p < 0.01) and heart rate response to deep breathing (r = -0.45 p < 0.05).
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Elisha T. O. Opiyo (2009). Innovative applications in Healthcare. University of Nairobi College of Health Sciences, Institute of Tropical & Infectious Diseases, The UNITID Fellowship Programme, HIV Health Informatics Track.". In: Published by The University of Nairobi, Printed by College of Education and External Studies, 2009. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2009.
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT. "Oburra HO, Idenya M.Frequency of adenotonsillectomy in some Nairobi hospitals.East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7):338-42.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7):338-42. MEDICOM; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of adenotonsillectomy in a sample of Kenyan hospitals and to review indications, timing and complications in 97 cases of adenotonsillectomy done by the authors. DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National, Nairobi, Aga Khan, Gertrude and Mater Hospitals. RESULTS: Adenotonsillectomy is the most frequent otolaryngologic surgical operation. Indications for surgery were upper airway obstruction in 61.3%, recurrent tonsillitis in 28.7% and both in 7.5%. Surgery was indicated during the acute stage in 6.8% of cases. There was one case of post-operative acute airway obstruction. Post operative bleeding from the tonsillar bed was encountered in 2.1% of cases. CONCLUSION: Adenotonsillectomy is the most common otolaryngologic surgical operation in our set-up. The low frequency of complications and a short hospital stay puts up a case for routine adenotonsillectomy as a day surgery procedure.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC, OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Precambrian Geology of the Ishiara area, Kenya.". In: Journal of African Earth Sciences. Vol.2 No.1 pp34-38. Wiley Interscience; 1984. Abstract
Nyambok, I.O.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Recent advances in mechanism of causation of diabetes mellitus in man and Acomys cahirinus. East Afr Med J. 1974 May;51(5):425-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1974 May;51(5):425-8. E Afr Med J; 1974. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFOWINOJOHN. "OWINO, J & C. M. PHILIPS (1988): .". In: Kenya J. Sci. (A) Vol., 9, pp 5-10. 1999; 1988. Abstract
n/a
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 2001. Chemicals in the livestock industry. Workshop on chemical management. Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources 12 .". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2001. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC, OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Precambrian Geology of the Ishiara area, Kenya.". In: Journal of African Earth Sciences. Vol.2 No.1 pp34-38. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1984. Abstract
n/a
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo, S.O.: Initial experience with continuous Ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Viru infection in a developing country. Peritoneal dialysis International 12(2): 267-268, 1992.". In: Bri. Med. J. 307: 802-803, 1993. University of Nairobi.; 1992. Abstract
In a one year period (March 1990 to March 1991) the pattern of diseases in geriatric patients (over 60 years of age) admitted to the medical wards at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) was studied. In all, there were 1296 patients (M:F = 1.7:1) in this age group forming 11.5% of all admissions during the study period. 1008 (77.8%) of the geriatric patients were between 60 and 79 years of age. Most of the admissions (86.4%) were first admissions. The mean number of diseases per geriatric patient was 1.4. Hypertension and Cardiomyopathy were the commonest single diseases recorded, making up 43.9% of all diseases in this patient population. The commonest neurological diagnosis was stroke, which occurred in a setting of hypertension or cardiomyopathy in all the patients in whom it was diagnosed. The mean duration (+/- 2SD) of stay in the hospital in this patient population was 43 (+/- 19) days. Eighty eight (6.8%) of the patients died, the commonest cause of death being heart failure due to cardiomyopathy or hypertensive heart disease. It is concluded that geriatric patients form a sizeable proportion of our medical admissions and that a large proportion suffer from diseases of the cardiovascular system. It is thus recommended that further studies be carried out on the pattern of diseases in such patients and optimal management strategies for their ailments be outlined.
O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "A new flavonol tetraglycoside from Myrsina africana leaves.". In: Natural Products letters, 9, 121-126.; 1997. Abstract
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O K V, A C J, G W F, B T G, E D. "Catha edulis (khat) induces cell death by apoptosis in leukemia cell lines.". 2003. AbstractWebsite

Khat is the Celastraceus edulis plant, a flowering evergreen tree or large shrub, which grows in the Horn of Africa and southwestern Arabia. Khat use has been associated with development of oral cancer, but its molecular effects remain controversial. This study describes a novel cytotoxic effect of whole khat extract on three leukemia cell lines. Cells were exposed to khat extract and harvested for analysis by fluorescent and electron microscopy, trypan blue exclusion, as well as immunoblotting to characterize the mode of cell death. In a separate series, cells were pretreated with a panel of caspase inhibitors for possible inhibitory effects. Khat induced a rapid cell death effect in HL-60, Jurkat, and NB4 cells that occurred within 2 h of exposure. The treated cells retained their ability to exclude trypan blue dye, a key feature in the apoptotic process. Exposed cells consistently developed morphological features of manifest apoptosis. Z-VAD, a pan-caspase inhibitor, completely inhibited toxic activity for up to 8 h, with partial inhibition by other caspase-specific agents. Western blot analysis showed specific cleavage of caspase-3 in khat-exposed cells. This study shows that khat induces cell death by apoptosis in a process sensitive to inhibition by caspase inhibitors, suggesting that subcellular interactions could be of particular relevance for the biological effects of khat in the cell death process and possibly carcinogenesis

O Okumu, J Muthomi WNMMRC. "Role of agronomic practices on the occurrence of Fusarium head blight of wheat.". 2014. Abstracthttps://profiles.uonbi.ac.ke/mainawagacha/

Fusarium head blight is a disease of small grain cereals that reduces yield and
causes mycotoxin contamination. The role of agronomic practices on the occurrence of
wheat agronomic practices was studied. In the experiment, a survey to determine wheat
production practices was conducted in four agro-ecological zones in 2013 cropping season.
Fusarium head blight incidence and severity was determined in four 1m2 quadrants by
counting infected heads and the proportion of diseased head respectively. Fungal

O Ortolani, A Conti NTOAMZWLP. "Ethnic differences in propofol and fentanyl response: a comparison among Caucasians, Kenyan Africans and Brazilians." European Journal of Anesthesiology. 2004;21(4):314-319.
O'Connor CE, Reed WP. "In vivo location of the human vermiform appendix." Clinical Anatomy. 1994;7:139-142. AbstractWebsite

The anatomic position of the appendiceal tip is cited in many surgical and anatomical texts as being fixed in the retrocecal position in as many as two-thirds of cases studied. The reference most often quoted to support this observation is Wakeley (1933), but this frequency did not correspond to the clinical experience of the surgical staff at the authors' institution. Accordingly, a prospective survey of the in vivo location of the vermiform appendix was undertaken over a 6-month period. The results demonstrated that the retrocecal position was indeed the most common location, but occurred in only 33% of instances. This observation may encourage greater utilization of laparoscopic appendectomy, since it suggests that retroperitoneal dissection will not be necessary to locate the appendiceal tip in the majority of cases. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

O'Day DH. "Acid protease activity during germination of microcysts of the cellular slime mold Polysphondylium pallidum." J. Bacteriol.. 1976;125(1):8-13. Abstract

Extracts of dormant microcysts of Polysphondylium pallidum demonstrate pH optima for the hydrolysis of casein at 3.5 and 6.0. During germination the intracellular pH 6.0 caseinolytic specific activity does not change significantly. The pH 6.0 protease is also active on azo-albumin, revealing the same developmental pattern with this substrate. Both acid protease activities are excreted during the germination process. Addition of purified nonspecific protease to cultures speeds up germination, suggesting that the excreted protease may play a role in removal of the microcyst wall. When cycloheximide is added to cultures, complete germination (emergence) is stopped whereas the pH 6.0 protease activity still accumulates to between 50 and 60% of the maximum control activity. Although this suggests that post-translational controls might mediate the accumulation of a portion of the pH 6.0 protease increase, mixing and dilution experiments with cell extracts do not reveal the differential presence of soluble activators or inhibitors of this activity at different developmental stages. The presence of tightly bound enzyme-inhibitor complexes for protease B in dormant microcysts has not been ruled out and is currently under study.

O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW, M PROFSYAGGAPAUL, MBATHA DRCHRISTOPHER, CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Education for a modern integrated survey professional: a model curriculum with special reference to developing countries.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1995. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J.A., Kihurani, D.O., Mbithi, P.M.F. Mbiuki, S.M. and Mogoa,E.G.M. (1991): Factors used to predict prognosis and economic outcome of surgery for advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 39.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Geneva Congress of Equine Medicine and Surgery, and 3rd Congress of the World Equine Veterinary Association (WEVA), Geneva, 7-11 December, 1993, Swiss Vet 11-S/ 1993, p. 184. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1991. Abstract
Equines are particularly susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma evansi and T. brucei, but rarely is natural T. congolense and T. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya, initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay ( antigen ELISA ).
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Osano A.A., Siboe, G.M., Ochanda, J.O. and Kokwaro, J.O., Biodegradation of DDT(1,1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis)(4-Chlorophenyl) ethene by the white not fungus James Opiyo Ochanda, PhD 16 Pleurotus Luteoalbus .". In: First, Pan-African Conference on Bichemistry and Molecular Biology, September, 2-6, Nairobi, Kenya. Book of Abstract P. (181). East African Medical Journal; Submitted. Abstract
C1 neurotoxin of Clostridium botulinum strains C-Stockholm (C-ST), C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 and type D toxin of strains D-1873 and D-CB16 were purified by gel filtration, ion exchange, and affinity chromatographies. The purified toxins had di-chain structure made of heavy and light chains. The toxins of C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 reacted with anti-C-ST heavy chain and anti-C-ST light chain in immunodiffusion tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas D-CB16 toxin reacted with anti-D-1873 heavy chain and anti-D-1873 light chain. However, C-6813 toxin reacted with anti-D-1873 heavy chain and anti-C-ST light chain but not with anti-C-ST heavy chain or anti-D-1873 light chain immunoglobulin G. These results indicate common antigens in the heavy chains of C-6813 and D-1873 toxins and in the light chains of C-6813 and C-ST toxins. Further, they provide evidence for heterogeneity within type C1 toxin subunits.
O. PROFMBECHEOYUKO. "Mbeche, O. O., and T.O. Otieno, "Bicycle Crossings: A Non- Motorised Transport Study in Nairobi". African Urban Quarterly Journal, vol. 12, 1998.". In: African Urban Quarterly Journal,. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Beaten JM, McClelland RS, Overbaugh J, Richardson BA< Emery S, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Bankson DD, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK. Vitamin A supplementation and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 shedding in women: results of a randomised clinical.". In: J Infect Dis 2002;185:1187-91. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
{ Observational studies have associated vitamin A deficiency with vaginal shedding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected cells and mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. To assess the effect of vitamin A supplementation on vaginal shedding of HIV-1, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 6 weeks of daily oral vitamin A (10,000 IU of retinyl palmitate) was conducted among 400 HIV-1-infected women in Mombasa, Kenya. At follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of HIV-1 DNA (18% vs. 21%
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Rakwar J, Jackson D, Maclean I, Obongo T, Bwayo J, Smith H, Mandaliya K, Moses S, Ndinya-Achola J, Kreiss JK.Antibody to Haemophilus ducreyi among trucking company workers in Kenya.Sex Transm Dis. 1997 May;24(5):267-71.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 1997 May;24(5):267-71. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, correlates, and incidence of Haemophilus ducreyi antibodies, a cohort of East African trucking company employees was evaluated. STUDY DESIGN: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-seronegative men working in six trucking companies in Mombasa, Kenya, were evaluated with a questionnaire and serologic testing for antibodies to H. ducreyi and other sexually transmitted pathogens. Men who were initially H. ducreyi seronegative were retested at 1 year of follow-up. RESULTS: The H. ducreyi seroprevalence among 501 men at enrollment was 26.5%. Seropositivity was significantly associated with older age, married status, years of active sex life, number of sex partners in the past year, history of unprotected sex with a prostitute in the past year, and history of alcohol intake (all P values < 0.01). Occupational travel for more than 14 days per month was also significantly associated with H. ducreyi seropositivity (odds ratio [OR] 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-3.2). Using multivariate analysis, H. ducreyi seropositivity was independently associated with age, married status, history of sex with a prostitute, and history of alcohol intake. Presence of H. ducreyi antibodies was significantly associated with seropositivity to the other major genital ulcerative pathogens, Treponema pallidum (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.2-8.3), herpes simplex virus type 2 (OR 4.9, 95% CI 2.0-11.5), and Chlamydia trachomatis (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.5-6.9). These associations remained significant after adjusting for demographic and exposure variables. The incidence of seroconversion to H. ducreyi antibodies was 3.6 per 100 person years. CONCLUSIONS: Serologic evidence of H. ducreyi infection was common among male trucking company employees. H. ducreyi seropositivity is an objective marker of high-risk behavior and is associated with serologic evidence of other ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases. PIP: A prospective cohort study of 501 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative male trucking company employees from Kenya revealed high rates of infection with Haemophilus ducreyi, the causative agent of chancroid. At enrollment in March 1993, the seroprevalence of H ducreyi antibodies was 26.5%. Also detected were high rates of herpes simplex virus-2 (49%), Chlamydia trachomatis (41%), and syphilis (8%). Of the 368 men who were seronegative at enrollment, 241 were re-evaluated after 12 months of follow-up. There were 9 seroconversions (3.6/100 person years). Sexual contact with a prostitute in the preceding year was reported by 33% of truckers and only a third of these encounters involved condom use. Ever-use of condoms was reported by only 51%. H ducreyi seropositivity was significantly and positively associated with older age, occupational travel for more than 2 weeks per month, history of sex with a prostitute, high number of sex partners in the past year, unprotected sex with a prostitute in the past year, alcohol drinking, and infection with other sexually transmitted diseases. The significant association of H ducreyi and seropositivity to syphilis, herpes simplex virus-2, and C trachomatis (odds ratios: 4.3, 4.9, and 3.2, respectively) raises the possibility that a genital ulcer increases the likelihood of infection with a second ulcerative pathogen. Overall, these findings suggest that the seroprevalence of H ducreyi may be used as an indicator of the extent of high-risk sexual risk behavior in a population, as well as an objective end point for measuring the efficacy of behavioral interventions in communities where the HIV seroincidence is too low to serve this purpose.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Stevens W, Kamali A, Karita E, Anzala O, Sanders EJ, Jaoko W, Kaleebu P, Mulenga J, Dally L, Fast P, Gilmour J, Farah B, Birungi J, Hughes P, Manigart O, Stevens G, Yates S, Thomson H, von Lieven A, Krebs M, Price MA, Stoll-Johnson L, Ketter N.aseline mor.". In: PLoS ONE. 2008 Apr 30;3(4):e2043. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2008. Abstract
BACKGROUND: An understanding of the health of potential volunteers in Africa is essential for the safe and efficient conduct of clinical trials, particularly for trials of preventive technologies such as vaccines that enroll healthy individuals. Clinical safety laboratory values used for screening, enrolment and follow-up of African clinical trial volunteers have largely been based on values derived from industrialized countries in Europe and North America. This report describes baseline morbidity during recruitment for a multi-center, African laboratory reference intervals study. METHODS: Asymptomatic persons, aged 18-60 years, were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study at seven sites (Kigali, Rwanda; Masaka and Entebbe, Uganda; Kangemi, Kenyatta National Hospital and Kilifi, Kenya; and Lusaka, Zambia). Gender equivalency was by design. Individuals who were acutely ill, pregnant, menstruating, or had significant clinical findings were not enrolled. Each volunteer provided blood for hematology, immunology, and biochemistry parameters and urine for urinalysis. Enrolled volunteers were excluded if found to be positive for HIV, syphilis or Hepatitis B and C. Laboratory assays were conducted under Good Clinical Laboratory Practices (GCLP). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of the 2990 volunteers who were screened, 2387 (80%) were enrolled, and 2107 (71%) were included in the analysis (52% men, 48% women). Major reasons for screening out volunteers included abnormal findings on physical examination (228/603, 38%), significant medical history (76, 13%) and inability to complete the informed consent process (73, 13%). Once enrolled, principle reasons for exclusion from analysis included detection of Hepatitis B surface antigen (106/280, 38%) and antibodies against Hepatitis C (95, 34%). This is the first large scale, multi-site study conducted to the standards of GCLP to describe African laboratory reference intervals applicable to potential volunteers in clinical trials. Approximately one-third of all potential volunteers screened were not eligible for analysis; the majority were excluded for medical reasons.
O. OM, O KDB, A. OH. Microwave Response to Moisture Content. JKUAT, Nairobi ; 2006.
O. DRBUKACHIFREDERICK. "Bukachi F, Waldenstr.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S43-7. UN-HABITAT; 2008. Abstract
Department of Medical Physiology, College of Health Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya. AIMS: Peak left ventricular (LV) relaxation normally precedes peak filling (E), which supports the hypothesis that LV suction contributes to early-diastolic filling. The significance of similar temporal discordance in late diastole has previously not been studied. We describe the time relationships between mitral annular motion and LV filling in early and late diastole and examine the effect of normal ageing on these time intervals. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 128 healthy subjects aged 25-88 years were studied. Transmitral and pulmonary venous flow reversals (Ar) were recorded by Doppler echocardiography. Mitral annular diastolic displacement-early (E(m)) and late (A(m))-were recorded by Doppler tissue imaging. With reference to electrocardiographic R and P-waves, the following measurements were made: R to peak E-wave (R-E) and E(m) (R-E(m)); onset P to peak A-wave (P-pA), A(m) (P-pA(m)), and Ar (P-pAr). The differences between [(R-E) and (R-E(m))] for early-diastolic temporal discordance (EDTD) and [(P-A) and (P-A(m))] for late-diastolic temporal discordance (LDTD) were calculated. Isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) was also measured. Early-diastolic temporal discordance was approximately 26 ms in all age groups. Late-diastolic temporal discordance, however, was inversely related to age (r = -0.35, P < 0.001) and IVRT (r = -0.34, P < 0.001) and therefore decreased in the elderly vs. young (13 +/- 10 vs. 23 +/- 10 ms; P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, age failed to predict LDTD in the presence of IVRT. A, A(m), and Ar were simultaneous at onset, and peak A(m) coincided with peak Ar in all age groups (r = 0.97, P < 0.001). No significant differences were noted in the RR intervals. CONCLUSIONS: Sequential prolongation of IVRT with ageing reduces LDTD, thus converging the peaks of A(m), A, and Ar (atrial mechanical alignment)-a potential novel method to identify subjects at increased dependency on atrial contraction for late-diastolic filling.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Baeten JM, Nyange PM, Richardson BA, Lavreys L, ChohanB, Martin HL Jr, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK. Hormonal contraception and risk of sexually transmitted disease acquisition: results from a prospective study. Am J obstet Gynecol 2001.". In: Am J obstet Gynecol 2001; 185:380-5. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between use of oral contraceptive pills or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and sexually transmitted disease acquisition. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort included 948 Kenyan prostitutes. Multivariate Andersen-Gill proportional hazards models were constructed, adjusting for sexual behavioral and demographic variables. RESULTS: When compared with women who were using no contraception, users of oral contraceptive pills were at increased risk for acquisition of chlamydia (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.9) and vaginal candidiasis (hazard ratio, 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.9) and at decreased risk for bacterial vaginosis (hazard ratio, 0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.0). Women using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate had significantly increased risk of chlamydia infection (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.4) and significantly decreased risk of bacterial vaginosis (hazard ratio, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.5-0.8), trichomoniasis (hazard ratio, 0.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.0), and pelvic inflammatory disease (hazard ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.7). Consistent condom use was associated with significantly decreased risk of gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital ulcer disease, bacterial vaginosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. CONCLUSIONS: The use of oral or injectable hormonal contraception altered susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases, which may in turn influence transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Consistent condom use was protective with regards to sexually transmitted disease and should be encouraged for the prevention of sexually transmitted disease and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 among women who use hormonal contraception.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Plourde P, Pepin J, Agoki E, Ronald AR, Ombette J, Tyndall M, Cheang M, Ndinya-Achola JO, D'Costa LJ, Plummer FA. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconversion in women with Genital Ulcers. J. Infect. Dis. 170: 313 - 317, 1994.". In: J. Infect. Dis. 170: 313 - 317, 1994. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract

{ Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are highly prevalent in pregnant women in many developing countries and have been associated with poor obstetric outcomes. Case detection and treatment of STDs in women is problematic and expensive, underscoring the need for other strategies. To explore the potential benefits of routine antimicrobial therapy on pregnancy outcome, we carried out a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial in one of the antenatal clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. Four hundred pregnant women between 28 and 32 weeks' gestation were given a single dose of 250 mg ceftriaxone intramuscularly or a placebo. There was a significant difference between ceftriaxone and placebo-treated women in infant birth weight (3,209 versus 3,056 g

O. PROFMAGOHAGEORGEA. "The role of varicocelectomy in the management of infertile males with varicoceles. East African Medical Journal, 71: 800-802, 1994.". In: East African Medical Journal, 71: 800-802, 1994. EAMJ; 1994. Abstract

Inguinal varicocelectomy was performed on 27 selected infertile males with Grade III varicoceles. Follow up was effected for eighteen months. 18 (66%) patients recorded improvement in sperm count to above (20 X 10(6)/ML). 17 (63%) patients recorded improvement in active sperm mortility to above 40%. 15 (55%) patients showed diminution in the level of abnormal sperms to less than 30% abnormal forms. A pregnancy rate of 33.3% was recorded. These findings indicate that varicocelectomy is effective in the management of carefully selected infertile males with varicoceles in conformity with the findings of previous other studies.

O. DROYATSIDONALDP, O. DROYATSIDONALDP, O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Incidence of rickets of prematurity at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 1999 Feb;76(2):63-6. PMID: 10442123 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Oyatsi DP, Musoke RN, Wasunna AO.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Feb;76(2):63-6. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1999. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Reports of osteopaenia/rickets of prematurity are on the increase due to improved survival rates of low birthweight infants. OBJECTIVE: To establish the incidence of rickets of prematurity by the age of six months in premature infants born at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Newborn unit and paediatric outpatient follow up clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Successive surviving infants of birthweight less than 2000 g residents in Nairobi. RESULTS: Incidence of rickets of prematurity by six months of age was 58.8%. Rickets appeared more commonly in male infants compared to female infants. CONCLUSION: Rickets of prematurity is a common problem in the premature infants seen at Kenyatta National Hospital. Routine vitamin D supplements to premature infants in adequate doses of at least 400iu per day should be adopted in our centre.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Trivedi HN, Plummer FA, ANZALA AO, Njagi E, Bwayo JJ, Ngugi EN, Embree JE, Hayglass KT. Resistance to HIV-1 infection among African sex workers is associated with global hypo responsiveness in interleukin 4 production. FASEB J. 2001 Aug; 15(10):1795-7.". In: FASEB J. 2001 Aug; 15(10):1795-7. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of HCV infection and HCV/HIV co-infection among voluntary blood donors at the National Blood Transfusion Centre and clients at the Kenyatta National Hospital HIV-Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) Centre. DESIGN: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary referral and teaching hospital and the National Blood Transfusion Services Centre, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Volunteer blood donors and VCT attendants. RESULTS: The prevalence of HCV/HIV co-infection among 6154 blood donors in the NBTSC was very low, at 0.02. The HIV prevalence among the 353 KNH HIV-VCT clients was 9.3%, none of the clients tested positive for HCV. The incidence of risk factors in the persons with HCV and/or HIV infection(s) was low. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HCV infection among pre-screened volunteer blood donors was low. However the current practice of screening all donated blood for HCV remains indispensable to prevent its transmission to blood recipients.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Charles Omondi and Elias, H.O. Ayiemba., 2003: .". In: In African Population Studies Vol. 18, No. 1. April 2003. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003. Abstract
Migration patterns in Kenya in general differentially affect fertility levels, patterns and behaviour. For economically dynamic areas, out-migration and the associated spousal separation and differential sex ratios seem to be associated with falling fertility, though migration is not the only or even the principal factor involved. In lagging and/or peripheral areas, by contrast, the demographic effect of migration seems to promote high fertility by undermining some critical factors of fertility determinants and behaviour. Examples from Africa in general and Kenya in particular are invoked to examine and explain this important association between migration and fertility. Furthermore the paper incorporates the geography of economic and social development to help understand the relationship between migration and fertility.

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