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O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. A comparison of timolol plus hydrochlorothiazide plus amiloride and methyldopa in essential hypertension in Black Africans. Trop Geogr Med. 1983 Sep;35(3):285-91.". In: Trop Geogr Med. 1983 Sep;35(3):285-91. E Afr Med J; 1983. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O.; Hofino, P.O.; Grevle I.S., einarsson S. & H. Rodriguez- Martinez Viability and Fertility of deep-frozen boar semen packaged in plastic bags.". In: 12th International Congress on Animal Reproduction, the Hague, 1992.Workshop on sperm preservation in swine. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1992.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Hematopathological observations in Kenyan children with sickle cell anemia in the first decade of life. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol . 1982 Summer; 4 ( 2 ): 182-6 . PMID: 6180653 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Kasili EG, Bwibo NO.". In: Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol . 1982 Summer; 4 ( 2 ): 182-6 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1982. Abstract

This paper reviews clinicopathological and hematological manifestations of sickle cell anemia as seen in Kenyan children in the first decade of life. The information is based on a study of 447 patients. The findings are similar to those that are well documented from America, West Africa, and other parts of Africa. However, local variations and complications such as malnutrition and topical infections that may affect prognosis are high-lighted.

O DROUTAGEORGE. "7. .". In: Souvenir Journal of African Literature, No 1. Vol 1. Octawns: Nairobi, 1999. 1999; 1986. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 11957248 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Assessing Local Administrative Capacity for Development Purposes: A Kenyan Case," in The African Review, Vol. 5, No. 3.". In: East African Journal of Rural Development, Vol. 9, 9 June 1976. IPPNW; 1975. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O DRMUSANDUJOYCE. "Wagoro M.C.A.,Othieno C.J.Musandu J & Karani A.,2008,: Structure and Process Factors that Influence Patient.". In: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 15, 246. James Murimi; 2008. Abstractstructure_and_process_factors_that_influence_patients_perception_of_inpatient_psychiatric_nursing_care_at_mathari_hospital__nairobi.pdf

To explore structure and process factors which influence patients' perception of quality inpatient psychiatric nursing care at Mathari hospital. This was a cross-sectional study of 236 inpatients selected by stratified random sampling. Competence to give consent was determined by a minimum score of 24 on Mini Mental State Examination. Patients were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Differences in proportions of variables were determined by calculating confidence interval and summary chi-squared statistics. P-values of < or =0.05 were considered significant. Majority of patients (87%) were aged 20-49 years with 43% having stayed in the ward for over a month. Structure factors related to patients' perception of care included physical environment, being happy with the way the ward looked was significantly related to satisfaction with care (chi(2) = 5.506, P = 0002). Process factors significantly related to patients' satisfaction with care included nurses providing patients with information on prescribed medicines (chi(2) = 10.50, P = 00012). Satisfaction with care was positively related to ability to recommend someone for admission in the same ward (chi(2) = 20.2, P = 00001). Structure and process factors identified as influencing patients' perception of care were physical environment and nurses' qualities that fit within the characteristics of Peplau's Interpersonal Relations Theory.

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Tombe M, Bhatt KM, Obel AO. Quinine loading dose in severe Falciparum malaria at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1992 Dec;69(12):670-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Dec;69(12):670-4. E Afr Med J; 1992. Abstract
From July 1989 to February 1990, 17 non-pregnant patients with severe falciparum malaria, aged 14 years and above received an initial intravenous quinine dihydrochloride loading dose of 20 mg/kg in 500 mls of normal saline or 5% dextrose infused over 4 hours followed by 100mg/kg infused 8 hourly for at least 24 hours. Sixteen comparable controls were similarly treated but without an initial loading dose. Oral quinine bisulfate 10mg/kg 8 hourly was substituted for a total of 7 days when patients were well enough. There was no significant difference in clinical and parasitological response between the two groups. Fever clearance time in hours was 44.00 +/- 13.92 (mean +/- SD) in the study group and 51.43 +/- 19.63 (mean +/- SD) in the control group (p > 0.05). Parasite clearance time in hours was 42.40 +/- 9.75 (mean +/- SD) in the study group and 47.05 +/- 7.69 (mean +/- SD) in the control group (p > 0.05). One patient from each group died. Mild toxic effects were common in both groups. Transient partial hearing loss occurred significantly more in the study than control group (p < 0.05). Hypoglycaemia during treatment occurred in 3 (18%) patients in the study group and 1 (6%) in the control group. The mean trough and peak plasma quinine levels in 3 patients per group was persistently higher than 9mg/L after first infusion. We conclude that though fairly well tolerated, quinine loading dose appears to have no advantage over the standard treatment for severe falciparum malaria at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Community- And Road-Kill Rabies Surveillance In Kibwezi, Kenya.". In: Conference. Journal of Commonwealth Veterinary Association (JCVA); Submitted. Abstract
JG Kamau1, WO Ogara1, JJ McDermott2, PM Kitala*   1 Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, PO Box 29053 00625, Nairobi, Kenya 2 International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), PO Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya * Corresponding Author   Summary   We investigate the possibility of cross-infection by rabies between domestic animals and wild mammalian carnivores at a wild-domestic animal interface. The area was known to have a domestic-dog rabies but the involvement of wildlife was unknown. Four sublocations within a transect of approximately 20 km along the Nairobi-Mombasa highway were selected as the study area. A total of 202 households within the area were randomly selected and visited to collect information on wildlife abundance and habits, and for wild-life-domestic dog interactions. Forty of the 202 households were randomly selected for wildlife trapping. An eight-month long community-and road-kill-based rabies surveillance was implemented in the 4 sublocations. The white-tailed mongoose (Ischeumia albicauda), the genet cat (Genetta genetta), the common mongoose (Herpestes spp), the civet cat (Viverra civetta) and the bush squirrel (Paraxerus spp), were identified as the most prevalent species of wildlife in the area. Seventy-one percent (143/202) of the households reported having heard or witnessed their dogs fighting with unspecified wild animal species. White-tailed mongooses (11) and genet cats (11) were the species of wild carnivores trapped within the precincts of the households. The domestic dog accounted for 91% (20/22) of the rabies positive animal brain specimens collected in the community-based rabies surveillance. Only 6.2% (5/81) of the specimens from road-kills were positive for rabies including a domestic cat, a goat, a common mongoose (Herpestes spp), a genet cat, and an unidentified wildlife species.   This study has revealed that small wild carnivores are frequent in Kibwezi and interact with dogs. Dogs are currently the main species for transmission of rabies but there is some rabies in wildlife. The potential for wildlife to act as a reservoir for rabies as in other areas where dog rabies has been controlled needs further investigation.   Keywords: Rabies; Surveillance; Community-based; road-kills; Kenya  
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Mcligeyo S.O.: Long Distance Truck Driving: Its role in the dynamics of the AIDS/HIV epidemic. East African Medical Journal 74 (6): 341-342, 1997.". In: East African Medical Journal 74 (6): 341-342, 1997. University of Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract

Four hundred and three teenage secondary school students (50.6% males) from two girls' and two boys' Nairobi City Schools, selected by stratified sampling, were screened to determine the prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, nitrituria and hypertension. Nine students (2.2%) had significant proteinuria while 14 (3.5%) had microscopic haematuria. Two students had combined proteinuria and haematuria. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of proteinuria and/or haematuria between the sexes. Other urinary abnormalities detected were leucocyturia in 14(3.5%) and nitrites in four (1%). Leucocyturia was commonner in females (p = 0.001). Cloudy urinary appearance was significantly associated with the presence of leucocyturia (p = 0.0028) and proteinuria (p = 0.0276). Neither personal history of recurrent sore throat and skin infections nor family history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus or kidney disease was significantly associated with proteinuria or haematuria. Blood pressure tended to increase with age. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in boys than girls in the age group 15-18 years (P < 0.001). Of the 397 students whose blood pressures were measured, four (1%) were found to be hypertensive. Weight and body mass index were strong positive correlates of blood pressure. The prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, other urinary abnormalities and hypertension ranges between 1% and 3.5% among teenage secondary school children. The majority are asymptomatic and have no significant associations. It is recommended that routine urinalysis and blood pressure measurements should be part of the school health service so as to identify asymptomatic students who require close monitoring and/or intervention.

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Current trends in the use of oral hypoglycaemic agents in diabetes mellitus-practical therapeutics. East Afr Med J. 1981 Apr;58(4):244-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Apr;58(4):244-8. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading "Fatigue Crack Growth in Welded Al-Li-Cu Alloy 2095 (WeldaliteTM 049)" Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Alabama (1994).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1994.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Effect of newborn resuscitation training on health worker practices in Pumwani Hospital, Kenya. Opiyo N, Were F, Govedi F, Fegan G, Wasunna A, English M.PLoS ONE. 2008 Feb 13;3(2):e1599.". In: PLoS ONE. 2008 Feb 13;3(2):e1599. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2008. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Birth asphyxia kills 0.7 to 1.6 million newborns a year globally with 99% of deaths in developing countries. Effective newborn resuscitation could reduce this burden of disease but the training of health-care providers in low income settings is often outdated. Our aim was to determine if a simple one day newborn resuscitation training (NRT) alters health worker resuscitation practices in a public hospital setting in Kenya. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a randomised, controlled trial with health workers receiving early training with NRT (n = 28) or late training (the control group
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Impact of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions on the environment.". In: In Wandiga S.O. and Abuodha N.L. (Editors) Environment and Development. Wiley Interscience; 1996. Abstract
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O DROGARAWILLIAM. "TACIT KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER - THE IMPERATIVES AND PRACTICES.". In: Journal. Journal of the Association of Professional Societies in East Africa; Submitted. Abstract
Wycliffe Omanya, Development Communication Consultant womanya@gmail.com & Dr. William O. Ogara, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi wogara@uonbi.ac.ke Abstract:   This paper seeks to explore tacit knowledge in the light of knowledge transfer. Specifically it looks at the technique of mentoring as a process through which this highly personalized knowledge can be replicated in any organisation. It also introduces knowledge acquisition process as innate and broadly presents various existing models of tacit knowledge transfer. In addition, it explores the significance of mentoring to all key actors in the process of knowledge transfer while also providing some case scenarios in which this strategy has been successfully used to ensure competitive advantage based on developed long standing knowledge.   Key words: Knowledge management, Tacit Knowledge, explicit knowledge, knowledge transfer, mentoring, transfer models.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: approach to the therapy of diarrhoeal diseases. East Afr Med J. 1984 Jun;61(6):493-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Jun;61(6):493-8. E Afr Med J; 1984. Abstract
Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Farah, K.O., A. F. Tanaka, and N. E. West. 1988. Autecology and population biology of dyers woad (Isatis tinctoria) . Weed Science 36:186-193.". In: In: Proceedings of First symposium of University of Nairobi ASAL thrust and ICRAF held at Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi, December, 1989. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1988.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "McLigeyo S.O., Kayima J.K., Were A.J.O. Severe malaria in a renal transplant patient Afr. J. Medical Pract. 2(1) 8-9, 1995.". In: Afr. J. Medical Pract. 2(1) 8-9, 1995. University of Nairobi.; 1995. Abstract
A 30 year old female with an unexpected right adrenal phaechromacytoma invading the renal vein, the inferior vena cava and extending into the right atrium is presented. She also had BuddChiari syndrome due to invasion of the hepatic veins by the tumour. Additionally, the tumour had metastasised to the liver and the lungs. Despite elevated 24 hour urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) the patient was normotensive pre-operatively. The patient underwent right adrenalectomy and extended nephrectomy with milking of the tumaur from the inferior vena cava. Unfortunately, the patient developed multiple hypotensive episodes and adult respiratory distress syndrome post-operatively and died three weeks after surgery.
O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O., 1977. Magnetic model theory in the analysis of vertical gradient anomalies, M.Sc. thesis,.". In: Queen. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1977. Abstract
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O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Growth and development of abandoned babies in institutional care in Nairobi. Otieno PA, Nduati RW, Musoke RN, Wasunna AO.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Aug;76(8):430-5. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1999. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of growth and development of institutionalised infants and to compare the outcome with that of infants living with their biological mothers. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Seven children's homes; Kenyatta National Hospital's New Born Unit and Well Baby Clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-two abandoned babies who fulfilled the selection criteria were recruited and for each abandoned baby two mothered babies matched for age and sex were selected from the well baby clinics. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anthropometric measures of weight, length, head circumference and left mid arm circumference (LUMAC) were taken and the mean values and Z scores determined to demonstrate growth pattern and nutritional status of the babies. The Revised Denver Development Screening Test (RDDST) was used to assess the development pattern of infants. RESULTS: Seventy per cent of infants were below six months old and 73% were abandoned within the first week of life. Abandoned babies were significantly thinner with the mean LUMAC of 10.8 cm versus 12.3 cm (p = 0.02) Institutionalised babies were significantly wasted (p = 0.00001) and stunted (p = 0.00001). Abandoned babies were significantly delayed in development (p < 0.0001). In all the four sectors tested for, institutionalised babies showed significant delay, p < 0.0001 in each sector. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that infants under institutional care have poorer growth and development compared to mothered infants. PIP: This cross-sectional study examined the pattern of growth and development of infants in some of the baby institutions in Nairobi and compared the outcome with that of infants living with their biological mothers. The participating institutions included the Kenyatta National Hospital and 7 children's homes within the city. The study recruited 82 abandoned babies aged 1-18 months who had been abandoned for at least 2 weeks. Each abandoned baby was paired with 2 mothered babies matched for age and sex. Anthropometric measures of weight, length, head circumference, and left mid arm circumference (LUMAC) were taken. The mean values and Z scores were determined to assess growth pattern and nutritional status of the babies. The results showed that abandoned babies were significantly thinner, with a mean LUMAC of 10.8 cm vs. 12.3 cm. Moreover, abandoned babies were significantly wasted (p = 0.00001), stunted (p = 0.00001), and delayed in development (p 0.0001). These findings indicate that institutionalized infants have poorer growth and development compared to mothered infants.

O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Amayo EO, Kwasa TO, Otieno CF. Herpes zoster myelitis: report of two cases. East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):279-80.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):279-80. uon; 2002. Abstract
Two male patients aged 40 and 45 years with HIV infection and paraplegia are presented. The two had sub-acute onset paraplegia with a sensory level, which developed 10 days after herpes zoster dermatomal rash. They both had asymmetrically involvement of the lower limbs. Investigation including imaging of the spinal cord did not reveal any other cause of the neurological deficit. The two responded very well to treatment with acyclovir. Herpes zoster myelitis is a condition likely to rise with the upsurge of HIV infection and there is a need to identify the condition early. We also review the literature on the subject.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Magadi: Geology of the Kedong Valley.". In: In Kenya from Space. CREDU, France. East African Educational Publisher. 140-143, Nairobi. Wiley Interscience; 1992. Abstract
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O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Strategic Management of Technology in Public Health Sector in Kenya and South Africa. East African Medical Journal. Vol. 81 No. 6: 279-286.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2004. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Related Articles, Links Clinical trials in medicine. East Afr Med J. 1981 Nov;58(11):809-13. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Nov;58(11):809-13. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFMIDIWOJACOB, ABIY PROFYENESEW, O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Four Isoflavones from the Stem Bark of Erythrina sacleuxii.". In: Phytochemistry, 49, 1, 247-249.; 1998. Abstract
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O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Proceedings of the 1st Regional Seminar in Earth Sciences,.". In: (Editor) Dakar, Senegal, 1986. ANSTI-UNESCO. 124p. Wiley Interscience; 1987. Abstract
Nyambok, I.O.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Elisha T. O. Opiyo (2009). Innovative applications in Healthcare. University of Nairobi College of Health Sciences, Institute of Tropical & Infectious Diseases, The UNITID Fellowship Programme, HIV Health Informatics Track.". In: Published by The University of Nairobi, Printed by College of Education and External Studies, 2009. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2009.
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT. "Oburra HO, Idenya M.Frequency of adenotonsillectomy in some Nairobi hospitals.East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7):338-42.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7):338-42. MEDICOM; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of adenotonsillectomy in a sample of Kenyan hospitals and to review indications, timing and complications in 97 cases of adenotonsillectomy done by the authors. DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National, Nairobi, Aga Khan, Gertrude and Mater Hospitals. RESULTS: Adenotonsillectomy is the most frequent otolaryngologic surgical operation. Indications for surgery were upper airway obstruction in 61.3%, recurrent tonsillitis in 28.7% and both in 7.5%. Surgery was indicated during the acute stage in 6.8% of cases. There was one case of post-operative acute airway obstruction. Post operative bleeding from the tonsillar bed was encountered in 2.1% of cases. CONCLUSION: Adenotonsillectomy is the most common otolaryngologic surgical operation in our set-up. The low frequency of complications and a short hospital stay puts up a case for routine adenotonsillectomy as a day surgery procedure.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W.O. 2001. Economic Benefits of Environmental Regulations and Standards. In Public Education and Awareness of Regulations and Standards of the Environmental Management and Coordination Act, 1999.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2001. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Recent advances in mechanism of causation of diabetes mellitus in man and Acomys cahirinus. East Afr Med J. 1974 May;51(5):425-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1974 May;51(5):425-8. E Afr Med J; 1974. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O.: Muscle cramps during prednisolone treatment. Bri. Med. J. 307: 802-803, 1993.". In: Bri. Med. J. 307: 802-803, 1993. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract
In a six month period at the Kenyatta National Hospital, 46 patients (30 males) with chronic renal failure (CRF) and 22 healthy subjects have had a clinical and echocardiographic study of their cardiovascular systems. The patients with CRF were further classified as stable or in end stage renal disease (ESRD), the latter group requiring dialysis. Hypertension and circulatory congestion were the commonest clinical cardiovascular findings in patients with CRF. The patients with ESRD had significantly higher blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine than the ones with stable CRF. Echocardiographically right ventricular size, left atrial size, aortic root diameter, left ventricular internal diameters, left ventricular end diastolic and systolic volumes, stroke volume, cardiac output, left ventricular posterior wall and interventricular septal thickness, ejection time and mitral and aortic peak flow rates were significantly higher in patients with CRF than in controls. In contrast, the circumferential fibre shortening and the ejection fraction were reduced in patients with CRF. Global left ventricular dysfunction was found in 47.8% of the patients. Using doppler flow studies, valvular incompetence was detected in a number of patients, mitral regurgitation being found in 84%.76% of the patients with CRF had varying degrees of pericardial effusion. The echocardiographic abnormalities and the pericardial effusions responded six weeks of haemodialysis in a variable manner.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Dietary micronutrients are associated with higher cognitive function gains among primary school children in rural Kenya. Gewa CA, Weiss RE, Bwibo NO, Whaley S, Sigman M, Murphy SP, Harrison G, Neumann CG.Br J Nutr. 2008 Sep 30:1-10. [Epub ahead of print].". In: Br J Nutr. 2008 Sep 30:1-10. [Epub ahead of print]. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2008. AbstractDietary micronutrients.pdf

With the exception of iodine and Fe, there is still very limited information on the effect of micronutrients on cognitive function, especially among school-age children. The present analysis evaluates the relationship between dietary Fe, Zn and B vitamins (B12, B6, folate and riboflavin) and gains in cognitive test scores among school children in rural Kenya. Data for the present study were obtained from The Child Nutrition Kenya Project, a 2-year longitudinal, randomised controlled feeding intervention study using animal source foods. Dietary nutrient values were based on monthly and bimonthly 24 h recall data collected during the study period. In longitudinal regression analyses, available Fe, available Zn, vitamin B12 and riboflavin showed significant relationships with improved cognitive test scores, after controlling for confounders such as energy intake, school, socio-economic status and morbidity. Available Fe intake was associated with significantly higher gains in Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices test scores over time. Available Zn intake was associated with significantly higher gains in digit span-total test scores over time, while vitamin B12 and riboflavin intakes were each associated with significantly higher gains in digit span-forward test scores over time. This analysis demonstrates the influence of improved dietary micronutrient status on school children's cognitive function.

O PA, Rambo CM. "Emerging Challenges in the Completion of Construction Projects through Public Private Partnerships: Empirical Literature Review." Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research. 2020:263-272.
O PROFOWINOJOHN. "OWINO, J & C. M. PHILIPS (1988): .". In: Kenya J. Sci. (A) Vol., 9, pp 5-10. 1999; 1988. Abstract
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O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC, OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Precambrian Geology of the Ishiara area, Kenya.". In: Journal of African Earth Sciences. Vol.2 No.1 pp34-38. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1984. Abstract
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O DROGARAWILLIAM, ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS, KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "Risk of infection with Brucella abortus and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 associated with marketing of unpasteurized milk in Kenya.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Benzoquinone Pigments in Kenyan Myrsinaceae:.". In: New 2,5-dihydroxyakyl derivatives from Maesa lanceolata. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. (1990), 4 (1) 71.; 1990. Abstract
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O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "13th July, 2007 .". In: Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.; 2007. Abstract
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O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Trace elements in fluorites from Kerio Valley, Kenya.". In: Neues Jb. Miner. Mh. H.7. 298-307. Wiley Interscience; 1978. Abstract
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O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, V O Awour, 1997. Effect of climate change on wildlife and tourism. In: impacts of climate change in Kenya (Ogola J.S, M A Abira and V O Awour eds) Pages 73-91.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1997. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O., Otieno, L.S., Kinuthia, D.M.W., Mwongera F.K. and Wairagu, S.G.: Pregnancy in patients with nephrotic syndrome. East African Medical Journal. 68(6): 447-483, 1991.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68(6): 447-483, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. Characteristics of 14 patients above 12 years of age with congenital polycystic liver disease attending liver clinic at KNH were analysed. The diagnosis was mainly based on ultrasonographic findings. The disease was found predominantly among the Kikuyu ethnic group with a female/male ratio of 6:1 and the peak age at presentation was in the 5th decade. The liver function tests were essentially normal in all cases with no complication directly relating to liver disease. Hypertension was found in 78.6% of cases and chronic renal failure in 35.7% of cases. There was an associated polycystic disease in at least one other abdominal organ in all cases.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "The impact of dietary intervention on the cognitive development of Kenyan school children. J Nutr . 2003 Nov; 133 ( 11 Suppl 2 ): 3965S-3971S . PMID: 14672297 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Whaley SE, Sigman M, Neumann C, Bwibo N, Guthrie D, Weiss RE, Alb.". In: J Nutr . 2003 Nov; 133 ( 11 Suppl 2 ): 3965S-3971S . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2003. Abstract

Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. swhaley@mednet.ucla.edu

Previous observational studies in developing countries have suggested that diet quality, particularly increased animal source food (ASF) consumption, is positively associated with child cognitive development. This report presents findings from a study in rural Kenya, designed to test the impact of three different diets on the cognitive development of school children. Twelve schools with a total of 555 Standard 1 children (equivalent to U.S. Grade 1) were randomized to one of four feeding interventions: Meat, Milk, Energy or Control (no feeding). Feeding continued for seven school terms (21 mo), and cognitive tests were administered before the commencement of feeding and during every other term of feeding. Hierarchical linear random effects models and associated methods were used to examine the effects of treatment group on changes in cognitive performance over time. Analyses revealed that children receiving supplemental food with meat significantly outperformed all other children on the Raven's Progressive Matrices. Children supplemented with meat, and children supplemented with energy, outperformed children in the Control group on tests of arithmetic ability. There were no group differences on tests of verbal comprehension. Results suggest that supplementation with animal source food has positive effects on Kenyan children's cognitive performance. However, these effects are not equivalent across all domains of cognitive functioning, nor did different forms of animal source foods produce the same beneficial effects. Implications of these findings for supplementation programs in developing countries are discussed.

PMID: 14672297 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O DROPEREALFRED. "Opere, A. (2005): Hazard Risk assessment in Mount Kenya headwaters: Sustainable Management of Headwater Resources; research from Africa and India, United Nations University, p165-177; Jansky L., Martin J. Haigh and H. Prasad (eds).". In: Proc. 7th Kenya Meteorological Society Workshop on Meteorological Research, Applications and Services, Nairobi, 17-21 0ctober 2005. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2005. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Serological determination of prevalence of congenital syphilis in two hospitals in Kenya. East Afr Med J . 1982 Nov; 59 ( 11 ): 750-3 . No abstract available. PMID: 6764198 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Wafula EM, Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J . 1982 Nov; 59 ( 11 ): 750-3 . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1982. Abstract
No abstract available.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Munyua, S.J.M., Wahome, R.G. Mitaru, B.M., Agumbah G.J.O. and Kiptoon, J.C. (1992). Reproductive performance and wastage in small scale piggeries in Kenya. Ken. Vet. 93 - 95.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1992. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFORINDADA. "Nyakundi PM, Kinuthia DW, Orinda DA. Clinical aspects and causes of rickets in a Kenyan population. East Afr Med J. 1994 Aug;71(8):536-42.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Feb;71(2):84-7. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1994. Abstract
Twenty nine patients with rickets were studied in a one year period. The majority of patients (17/29) were below 2 years of age. Most of them had nutritional rickets resulting from a combination of factors. Premature delivery, nonexposure to sunlight, nutritional marasmus and inappropriate dietary intake. Some had familial hypophosphataemic rickets, others had renal tubular acidosis while the rest had rickets with a familial tendency. Both the previous hospital records and the present study indicate that rickets is a persistent problem in children in the community and should be suspected in children who present with features of failure to thrive, among other conditions.
O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga High-Frequency Sum-Rules for Relativistic Quantum Dielectric Tensor; African Journal of Science and Technology B.". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992.
O DRLUMUMBAPATRICK. "THE ROLE OF LAW IN SOCIETY.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 1. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1998.
O DRACHIATHOMASN. "Spatial Durbin model for poverty mapping and analysis.". In: European Journal of Social Science. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2008. Abstract
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O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Tombe M, Bhatt KM, Obel AO. Quinine loading dose in severe Falciparum malaria at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1992 Dec;69(12):670-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Dec;69(12):670-4. E Afr Med J; 1992. Abstract

From July 1989 to February 1990, 17 non-pregnant patients with severe falciparum malaria, aged 14 years and above received an initial intravenous quinine dihydrochloride loading dose of 20 mg/kg in 500 mls of normal saline or 5% dextrose infused over 4 hours followed by 100mg/kg infused 8 hourly for at least 24 hours. Sixteen comparable controls were similarly treated but without an initial loading dose. Oral quinine bisulfate 10mg/kg 8 hourly was substituted for a total of 7 days when patients were well enough. There was no significant difference in clinical and parasitological response between the two groups. Fever clearance time in hours was 44.00 +/- 13.92 (mean +/- SD) in the study group and 51.43 +/- 19.63 (mean +/- SD) in the control group (p > 0.05). Parasite clearance time in hours was 42.40 +/- 9.75 (mean +/- SD) in the study group and 47.05 +/- 7.69 (mean +/- SD) in the control group (p > 0.05). One patient from each group died. Mild toxic effects were common in both groups. Transient partial hearing loss occurred significantly more in the study than control group (p < 0.05). Hypoglycaemia during treatment occurred in 3 (18%) patients in the study group and 1 (6%) in the control group. The mean trough and peak plasma quinine levels in 3 patients per group was persistently higher than 9mg/L after first infusion. We conclude that though fairly well tolerated, quinine loading dose appears to have no advantage over the standard treatment for severe falciparum malaria at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Ondari C.O., Kibwage I.O., Ndemo F.O. and McLigeyo S.O.: Comparative bioavailability of two brands of chlorpropamide in Kenyans East African Medical Journal 66(10): 663-668, 1989.". In: East African Medical Journal 66(10): 663-668, 1989. University of Nairobi.; 1989. Abstract
We have reviewed the literature relating to the use of monoclonal antibodies in acute renal allograft rejection. More emphasis has been placed on Orthoclone OKT3 which has been more commonly used and summarise our experience with its use as rescue therapy in renal allograft rejection.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Bwibo N O and Health Service (chapter 11 pp 154 .". In: Publishers . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1988. Abstract

One hundred children comprising of 57 males and 43 females aged between 8 and 24 months entered the study. 46 children had single and 54 children had multiple helminth infections. All children received albendazole 200 mg (10 ml) suspension as a single dose. Albendazole proved very effective and safe in the treatment of single and multiple helminth infections in children under 2 years of age, achieving cure rates of 100% in both Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus respectively, 83% in Trichuris trichiura and 66% in Hymenolepis nana. Treatment of polyparasitism appears to be of benefit in improving nutritional status using haemoglobin concentrations as an index.

PMID: 2591328 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O DROPEREALFRED. "Opere, A.O. (2000): The need for a flood forecasting system (FFS) in Kenya Proceedings of the Fifth workshop of the Kenya Meteorological Society workshop on Meteorological Research, Applications and Services, 4-8 September 2000, Mombasa, Kenya.". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, vol.15, 2001. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2000. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFMUMMAALBERT. ""The Use of Compliance Monitoring in Water Pollution Prosecutions..". In: Journal of Environmental Law, vol. 5/2, (1993), at p. 191. Departmental seminar; 1993. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. (1981). The counter-current immunoelectrophoresis method in the diagnosis of C.fetus infection in cattle.". In: Proceedings of the Association of veterinary teachers and research workers of Great Britain Annual Scientific Conference, April 1981, Scarbororough, England. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1981. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFORINDADA. "Odonga AM, Wambwa JR, Orinda DA.Acute intermittent porphyria in an East African female.East Afr Med J. 1980 Oct;57(10):716-9. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1980 Oct;57(10):716-9. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1980. Abstract
PMID: 7215256 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Growth and development of abandoned babies in institutional care in Nairobi. Otieno PA, Nduati RW, Musoke RN, Wasunna AO.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Aug;76(8):430-5. Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1999. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of growth and development of institutionalised infants and to compare the outcome with that of infants living with their biological mothers. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Seven children's homes; Kenyatta National Hospital's New Born Unit and Well Baby Clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-two abandoned babies who fulfilled the selection criteria were recruited and for each abandoned baby two mothered babies matched for age and sex were selected from the well baby clinics. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anthropometric measures of weight, length, head circumference and left mid arm circumference (LUMAC) were taken and the mean values and Z scores determined to demonstrate growth pattern and nutritional status of the babies. The Revised Denver Development Screening Test (RDDST) was used to assess the development pattern of infants. RESULTS: Seventy per cent of infants were below six months old and 73% were abandoned within the first week of life. Abandoned babies were significantly thinner with the mean LUMAC of 10.8 cm versus 12.3 cm (p = 0.02) Institutionalised babies were significantly wasted (p = 0.00001) and stunted (p = 0.00001). Abandoned babies were significantly delayed in development (p < 0.0001). In all the four sectors tested for, institutionalised babies showed significant delay, p < 0.0001 in each sector. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that infants under institutional care have poorer growth and development compared to mothered infants. PIP: This cross-sectional study examined the pattern of growth and development of infants in some of the baby institutions in Nairobi and compared the outcome with that of infants living with their biological mothers. The participating institutions included the Kenyatta National Hospital and 7 children's homes within the city. The study recruited 82 abandoned babies aged 1-18 months who had been abandoned for at least 2 weeks. Each abandoned baby was paired with 2 mothered babies matched for age and sex. Anthropometric measures of weight, length, head circumference, and left mid arm circumference (LUMAC) were taken. The mean values and Z scores were determined to assess growth pattern and nutritional status of the babies. The results showed that abandoned babies were significantly thinner, with a mean LUMAC of 10.8 cm vs. 12.3 cm. Moreover, abandoned babies were significantly wasted (p = 0.00001), stunted (p = 0.00001), and delayed in development (p 0.0001). These findings indicate that institutionalized infants have poorer growth and development compared to mothered infants.

O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Bureaucracy and the Management of Health Services in Kenya," in H.K. Asmeron, Robert Hoppe and R.B. Jain, (eds.), Public Bureaucracies in Developing Countries (Amsterdam: VU University Press).". In: Walter O. Oyugi, (ed.), Politics and Administration in East Africa (Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers). IPPNW; 1992. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFGENGARIEWA. "Otieno Malo, R. O. Genga Single Particle Motion in the Strongly Coupled One- & Component Plasma in a Uniform Magnetic Field; Fusion Energy and Plasma Physics, Edited by P.H. Sakanaka, pp 341 .". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1987.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: approach to the therapy of diarrhoeal diseases. East Afr Med J. 1984 Jun;61(6):493-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Jun;61(6):493-8. E Afr Med J; 1984. Abstract

Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.

O DRBWANGACALEB. "Wakhungu J.W. and Bwanga, C.O.; and Kipleel D.B. Strictures on the choice criteria of dairy cattle breeds in smallholder farms in Kenya. Contract Research report to USAID-ARF-KARI, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: A paper presented in the 3rd Commonwealth Veterinary Association Workshop on . The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1997.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Serological determination of prevalence of congenital syphilis in two hospitals in Kenya. East Afr Med J . 1982 Nov; 59 ( 11 ): 750-3 . No abstract available. PMID: 6764198 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Wafula EM, Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J . 1982 Nov; 59 ( 11 ): 750-3 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1982. Abstract

No abstract available.

O DROUTAGEORGE. "Fabricating Nationhood: Sigana (Narrative) as Theatre in Post-colonial Kenya,.". In: Getting Heard: Reclaiming Performance Space in Kenya. Twaweza Communications, Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 11957248 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Relearning Old Lessons: The Case of the Special Rural Development Programme (SRDP)," in African Association of Public Administration and Management (AAPAM) Managing Rural Development in Africa, Addis Ababa.". In: Indian Journal of Public Administration, Vol. XXVI, No.3. IPPNW; 1979. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT, PETER DRMUGWE. "Macfadyen C, Gamble C, Garner P, Macharia I, Mackenzie I, Mugwe P, Oburra H, Otwombe K, Taylor S, Williamson P.Topical quinolone vs. antiseptic for treating chronic suppurative otitis media: a randomized controlled trial.Clin Otolaryngol. 2005 Apr;30(2):1.". In: Clin Otolaryngol. 2005 Apr;30(2):193-4. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare a topical quinolone antibiotic (ciprofloxacin) with a cheaper topical antiseptic (boric acid) for treating chronic suppurative otitis media in children. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 427 children with chronic suppurative otitis media enrolled from 141 schools following screening of 39 841 schoolchildren in Kenya. Intervention Topical ciprofloxacin (n = 216) or boric acid in alcohol (n = 211); child-to-child treatment twice daily for 2 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Resolution of discharge (at 2 weeks for primary outcome), healing of the tympanic membrane, and change in hearing threshold from baseline, all at 2 and 4 weeks. RESULTS: At 2 weeks, discharge was resolved in 123 of 207 (59%) children given ciprofloxacin, and in 65 of 204 (32%) given boric acid (relative risk 1.86; 95% CI 1.48-2.35; P < 0.0001). This effect was also significant at 4 weeks, and ciprofloxacin was associated with better hearing at both visits. No difference with respect to tympanic membrane healing was detected. There were significantly fewer adverse events of ear pain, irritation, and bleeding on mopping with ciprofloxacin than boric acid. CONCLUSIONS: Ciprofloxacin performed better than boric acid and alcohol for treating chronic suppurative otitis media in children in Kenya.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Muraguri P., McLigeyo S.O., Kayima J.K. Proteinuria, other selected urinary abnormalities and Hypertension among teenage secondary school students in Nairobi, Kenya. East African Medical Journal, 74(8): 467 - 473; 1997.". In: East African Medical Journal, 74(8): 467 - 473; 1997. University of Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract

Four hundred and three teenage secondary school students (50.6% males) from two girls' and two boys' Nairobi City Schools, selected by stratified sampling, were screened to determine the prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, nitrituria and hypertension. Nine students (2.2%) had significant proteinuria while 14 (3.5%) had microscopic haematuria. Two students had combined proteinuria and haematuria. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of proteinuria and/or haematuria between the sexes. Other urinary abnormalities detected were leucocyturia in 14(3.5%) and nitrites in four (1%). Leucocyturia was commonner in females (p = 0.001). Cloudy urinary appearance was significantly associated with the presence of leucocyturia (p = 0.0028) and proteinuria (p = 0.0276). Neither personal history of recurrent sore throat and skin infections nor family history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus or kidney disease was significantly associated with proteinuria or haematuria. Blood pressure tended to increase with age. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in boys than girls in the age group 15-18 years (P < 0.001). Of the 397 students whose blood pressures were measured, four (1%) were found to be hypertensive. Weight and body mass index were strong positive correlates of blood pressure. The prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, other urinary abnormalities and hypertension ranges between 1% and 3.5% among teenage secondary school children. The majority are asymptomatic and have no significant associations. It is recommended that routine urinalysis and blood pressure measurements should be part of the school health service so as to identify asymptomatic students who require close monitoring and/or intervention.

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Related Articles, Links Clinical trials in medicine. East Afr Med J. 1981 Nov;58(11):809-13. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Nov;58(11):809-13. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading, M. Shamsuzzoha and J. T. Berry A Model for HAZ Hardness Profiles in AL-Li-X Alloys: Application to the Al-Li-Cu Alloy 2095 Welding Journal, 77(10) (1998) p. 411-s to 416-s.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1998. Abstract

In a previous paper (Ref. 1), details were presented of a theoretical model describing the evolution of the hardness profiles in the heat-affected zones (HAZ) of AI-Li-X weldments. The intent of the model was to qualitatively predict the general shape of such a profile, which indicates points of double inflection. In the present paper, experimental results are presented to validate the model. Panels of AI-Li-Cu Alloy 2095 in the peak aged (T8) condition were welded by the gas tungsten arc (GTA) process using AA 2319 filler metal. Conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were conducted on specimens taken from specific points across the HAZ to estimate the relative ratios of T1, (AI2CuLi) and _d' (AI3Li) precipitates, as well as incoherent grain boundary phases. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) was used to determine the variation of concentrations of elements across the HAZ, while the hardness profile was determined using Vickers micro-hardness measurements. The hardness profile and the associated pattern of phases present agree well with the information predicted qualitatively by the previously described model.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Current state-of-the-art, problems and preliminary results of seismic hazard assessment in sub-Saharan Africa.". In: In: Bormann, P. (Editor). Regional International Training Course Volume (1997) on Seismology and Seismic Hazard Assessment. Scientific Technical Report STR 98/05. Potsdam. 262-271. Wiley Interscience; 1998. Abstract
n/a
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Knowledge Management & Institutional Framework: Kenyan Veterinary Services.". In: Journal. Journal of Knowledge Management Practice; Submitted.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. The development of beta adrenoceptors in medicine. East Afr Med J. 1984 Oct;61(10):733-5. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Oct;61(10):733-5. E Afr Med J; 1984. Abstract
Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "CLIMATE CHANGE AND TH EMERGENCE OF HELTER-SKELTER LIVELIHOODS AMONG THE PASTORALISTS OF SAMBURU EAST DISTRICT, KENYA.". In: Journal. Ecological Society for Eastern Africa; Submitted.
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Farah, K. O. 1994. Vegetation, pp. 119-128; in: Tiffen, Mortimore, Gichuki (eds). More people, less erosion: environmental recovery in Machakos District, Kenya. John Wiley and Sons.". In: in: Tiffen, Mortimore, Gichuki (eds). More people, less erosion: environmental recovery in Machakos District, Kenya. John Wiley and Sons. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO.Emerging concepts about the renin angiotensin system: present and future clinical applications. East Afr Med J. 1996 Sep;73(9):607-10. Review.". In: East African Medical Journal 73(9):607-610, 1996. University of Nairobi.; 1996. Abstract
This review article looks at the emerging concepts about the renin angiotensin system. The specific aspects it covers include angiotensin II receptors, angiotensin receptor antagonists and alternative enzymatic pathways for the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II other than angiotensin converting enzyme. The review, additionally, looks at the current and future clinical applications of the above concepts.
O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O., 1984. Euler.". In: Geophysics 49, 1549-1553. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1984. Abstract
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O OT, O. KD, N. MJ. "Evaluating Superplasticizer Compatibility in the Production of High Performance Concrete using Portland Pozzolana Cement CEM II/B-P." SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering. 2020;Vol. 7(6):92-100.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Wasunna A, Mohammed K. Low birthweight babies: socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics of adolescent mothers at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):543-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):543-6. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare some socio-demographic and obstetric factors between adolescent mothers (aged below 20 years) and older mothers of low birthweight (birthweight < 2000 gm) babies. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive study. SETTING: The Newborn Unit of the Kenyatta National Hospital. RESULTS: Sixty nine adolescent mothers and 73 older mothers were studied. Adolescent mothers were more likely to be unmarried (p = 0.0001) have less formal education (p < 0.0001) be unemployed and be primigravida (76.5% compared to 36% of older mothers). Although the obstetric factors of antenatal clinic attendance, premature rupture of the membranes, pre-eclamptic toxaemia, infections and interventronal delivery tended to be more frequent among the adolescent mothers, non of these differences were significant probably due to the small numbers of patients studied. CONCLUSION: This study does suggest mothers of very low birthweight babies tend to have unfavourable socio-demographic and obstetric factors like being single parents having less formal education, being unemployed and having obstetric risks for poor pregnancy outcome.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Seismology and Related Sciences in Africa.". In: Tectonophysics Special Issue, Vol. 209 Nos. 1-4, Elsevier. 337p.(editors). Wiley Interscience; 1992. Abstract
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O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Bernard O. Okuku, Elisha T. O. Opiyo. An efficient agent-based wireless communication model. In the proceedings of The 3rd International Conference on Internet Technology and Applications (iTAP 2012), August 18-20, 2012 in Wuhan, China. To appear in EEE X.". In: Proceedings of the Unesco-Hp Brain Gain Workshop on Distributed Systems, 29th August 2012, at Kenya School of Monetary Studies in Nairobi, Kenya. AJFAND; 2012.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Community perceptions of important camel diseases in Lapur Division of Turkana District, Kenya. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 37(2005), 187-204.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2005. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: the newer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):366-73. Review. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):366-73. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O LK, M MO, J NF. "Indicators of Value Added Agri-Businesses on Small Farms in Kenya: An Empirical Study of Kiambu and Murang’a Counties." Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship Development. 2014;vol.2(No.3 & 4):89-101. Abstractindicators_of_value_added_agri-businesses_on_small_farms_in_kenya.pdf

Kenya is ranked among the top ten largest economies in Africa and bearing the tag
of middle income. This tag should motivate the country to have food security but
this does not seem to be the case as many small farmers, who are the backbone of
the economy, are not adding value to their agricultural produce. Adding value is an
entrepreneurial process that creates wealth for both the farmers and the country.
This study investigated the factors that influence value addition on small farms in
Kenya. The study employed a cross-sectional survey design and a multi-stage
sampling technique where 15 locations from Kiambu and Murang’a counties were
identified. 388 farms were selected by line transect technique for this study.
Descriptive statistics was used to estimate the extent of value addition in agribusinesses
on small farms. Linear Probability Model (LPM), Logit, and Probit
models were used to estimate the determinants of value addition on the small farms.
The study reveals that kenya’s agrarian economy is suffering from limited value
addition as the statistics show that 6% of small farmers add value to their
agricultural produce. It was discovered that farm sizes are negatively correlated with
value addition. The distance to the market and accessibility to loan facilities were
found to be the major determinants of value addition in Kenya. The study
recommended that the government should create rural markets for the farmers and
facilitate financial institutions to lend money to small farmers at reasonable interest
rates. Small and Micro Enterprises should be encouraged to play an active role of
value addition in the agri-businesses of the Kenyan middle-income economy.

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O.: Human organ transplantation in Report of the Seminar and Workshop on Medical ethics and Human Rights and Workshop on Medical Ethics and Human Rights, W. Lore (ed), Commonwealth Medical Association, East and Central Africa region. 1994, pp 2.". In: Commonwealth Medical Association, East and Central Africa region. 1994, pp 26-27. University of Nairobi.; 1994. Abstract
End stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy is a common complication of several renal diseases that are seen in the tropics. World over, the costs of the various modalities of therapy that constitute renal replacement therapy, including hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and renal transplantation, is prohibitive. All the above modes of therapy are provided in Kenya, unlike most countries with similar level of socioeconomic development. This article analyses the factors behind the limited success that renal replacement therapy enjoys in Kenya, which is faced with more pressing basic problems of malnutrition and infection.
O PROFMOSIREUBEN. "Mosi, R.O. and D.E. Mbogo (1987). Role of animal and institutional resources in dairy cattle improvement: A case study of the National Daily Cattle Breeding Programme for A.I. bulls in Kenya. Bull. Int. Dairy Fed. 221:32-46.". In: Bull. Int. Dairy Fed. 221:32-46. Elsevier; 1987. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Autrup H, Bradley KA, Shamsuddin AK, Wakhisi J, Wasunna A. Detection of putative adduct with fluorescence characteristics identical to 2,3-dihydro-2-(7'-guanyl)-3-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 in human urine collected in Murang'a district, Kenya. Carcinogenesis. 19.". In: Carcinogenesis. 1983 Sep;4(9):1193-5. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1983. Abstract

Food samples collected in Murang'a district, Kenya are known to be contaminated with a mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB), and a positive correlation exists between the dietary intake of AFB and the incidence of liver cancer. When urine samples collected in this district were analyzed for the presence of 2,3-dihydro-2-(7'-guanyl)-3-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 (AFB-GuaI) by h.p.l.c., 6 of 81 samples had a detectable level of a compound whose fluorescence spectrum was identical to chemically synthesized AFB-GuaI as confirmed by photoncounting fluorescence spectrophotometry. These results are an indication of interaction between the ultimate carcinogenic form of AFB and cellular nucleic acids in vivo and further support the hypothesis that AFB may play an important role in the etiology of human liver cancer.

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Nairobi University Geology Magazine.". In: Editors), (NUGSA). 126P. Wiley Interscience; 1990. Abstract
n/a
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT. "Oburra H and Idenya M. The frequency of adenotonsillectomy in a sample of Hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya. Surgical indications, timing and complications in 97 cases of adenotonsillectomy. East African Medical Journal, 2001: 78: 338-342.". In: East African Medical Journal, 2001: 78: 338-342. MEDICOM; 2001. Abstract
BACKGROUND: In the time of evidence based medicine the analysis of the influence of demographic parameters and different environmental factors on the treatment concepts in a country is often neglected. This is also true for Otorhinolaryngology. METHOD: An evaluation of the situation concerning distribution of physicians, diagnostic procedures and epidemiology in Kenya has been performed. These factors are discussed in consideration of their effect on the incidence of different diseases and their treatment under the specific socio-economic conditions for the otolaryngological situation in Kenya. RESULTS: In Kenya 28 otolaryngologists are registered that concentrate on few urban regions. Chronic otitis media, malignant tumors in the head and neck region and AIDS associated diseases have meanwhile increased dramatically. Numerous instruments and equipment for diagnosis are missing. Bigger equipment for CT scans are nearly exclusively used by private hospitals. PERSPECTIVE: Beside a better provision with different equipment for diagnosis it is especially the organization of certain training programmes where local physicians are further educated that may lead to an optimised medical care in Kenya.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W.O. 2002. Water Quality and Standards. In Public Education and Awareness of Regulations and Standards of the Environmental Management and Coordination Act, 1999. Workshop series.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2002. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. The efficacy of dyazide in the treatment of fluid retention and hypertension. East Afr Med J. 1980 Jul;57(7):495-9. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1980 Jul;57(7):495-9. E Afr Med J; 1980. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Mathenge, R.N., McLigeyo S.O., Mutua, A.K. and Otieno, L.S.: The Spectrum of achocardiographic findings in chronic renal failure. East African Medical Journal 70(2): 107-111, 1993.". In: East African Medical Journal 70(2): 107-111, 1993. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract
In a six month period at the Kenyatta National Hospital, 46 patients (30 males) with chronic renal failure (CRF) and 22 healthy subjects have had a clinical and echocardiographic study of their cardiovascular systems. The patients with CRF were further classified as stable or in end stage renal disease (ESRD), the latter group requiring dialysis. Hypertension and circulatory congestion were the commonest clinical cardiovascular findings in patients with CRF. The patients with ESRD had significantly higher blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine than the ones with stable CRF. Echocardiographically right ventricular size, left atrial size, aortic root diameter, left ventricular internal diameters, left ventricular end diastolic and systolic volumes, stroke volume, cardiac output, left ventricular posterior wall and interventricular septal thickness, ejection time and mitral and aortic peak flow rates were significantly higher in patients with CRF than in controls. In contrast, the circumferential fibre shortening and the ejection fraction were reduced in patients with CRF. Global left ventricular dysfunction was found in 47.8% of the patients. Using doppler flow studies, valvular incompetence was detected in a number of patients, mitral regurgitation being found in 84%.76% of the patients with CRF had varying degrees of pericardial effusion. The echocardiographic abnormalities and the pericardial effusions responded six weeks of haemodialysis in a variable manner.
O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Chromatographic separation and spectroscopic analysis of Kenyan Myrsinaceae benzoquinones.". In: The Matsumae International Foundation Fellowship Report,(1992), Vol. 2. 143.; 1992. Abstract
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O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "22nd January, 2007 .". In: National Defense College, Karen, Nairobi.; 2007. Abstract
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O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Petrology, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Alkaline Rocks, Jombo Hill Kenya.". In: Acta Universities Upsaliensis Diss. Abstr.493. 14p. Wiley Interscience; 1978. Abstract
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O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Opiyo, Elisha T. O. (1995). Case-based reasoning for expertise relocation in support of rural health workers in developing countries.". In: In Manuela Veloso, Agnar Aamodt (Editors), Case- Based Reasoning Research and Development, First International Conference, ICCBR-95, Sesimbra, Portugal, October 1995, Proceedings. Springer -Verlag. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1995.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Okeyo M A, R O Mosi, G O Ahunya, W O Ogara and M A Okomo, 1998. Morphological and physical characteristics of the small East African Zebu cattle in the Lake Victoria Basin and Costal Lowlands of Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1998. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Ogutu, E.O. and McLigeyo, S.O.: Adult Polycystic liver disease at Kenyatta National Hospital. East African Medical Journal. 68(3): 204-352-358, 1991.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68(3): 204-352-358, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. Characteristics of 14 patients above 12 years of age with congenital polycystic liver disease attending liver clinic at KNH were analysed. The diagnosis was mainly based on ultrasonographic findings. The disease was found predominantly among the Kikuyu ethnic group with a female/male ratio of 6:1 and the peak age at presentation was in the 5th decade. The liver function tests were essentially normal in all cases with no complication directly relating to liver disease. Hypertension was found in 78.6% of cases and chronic renal failure in 35.7% of cases. There was an associated polycystic disease in at least one other abdominal organ in all cases.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Neumann CG, Bwibo NO, Murphy SP, Sigman M, Whaley S, Allen LH, Guthrie D, Weiss RE, Demment MW.Animal source foods improve dietary quality, micronutrient status, growth and cognitive function in Kenyan school children: background, study design and baselin.". In: J Nutr. 2003 Nov;133(11 Suppl 2):3941S-3949S. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2003. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 20956-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Early growth in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants has been found predictive of their later outcomes. This has led to increased interest in establishing measures to optimise such growth. In facilities without the resources required to undertake long-term audits for all the high risk infants they graduate, these growth parameters may also be used as selection criteria for those meriting such follow up reducing costs. OBJECTIVES: To describe early growth patterns among a cohort of VLBW infants and determine some of the factors associated with poor growth among them. DESIGN: Cross section survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and seventy five neonatal survivors. RESULTS: Of the 175 infants recruited, the male/female ratio was 4:6, sixty four (36.6%) were intrauterine growth retarded while significant illnesses during the neonatal period were reported in 109 (62.3%). Forty seven percent of the infants had been fed on exclusive breast milk, 33% on mixed feeds while 20% received exclusive preterm formula. The mean neonatal weight gain for the whole cohort was 13.5 (3.9) g/kg/day, length of 0.34 (0.11) cm/week and head circumference of 0.32 (0.71) cm/week. By term only 33 (18.9%), 37 (21.1%) and 48 (28%) had reached the expected (the 3rd percentile) weight, length and head circumference respectively. Sixty percent of the infants gained weight at <15 g/kg/day while 70% and 78% grew in head circumference and length at < 0.5 cm/week respectively. At term weight, head and linear growth faultering were recorded in 81%, 72% and 79% respectively. The factors that were associated with better growth at this stage included feeding on preterm formula (P < 0.001) and absence of neonatal morbidity (P < 0.001). Infants who were appropriate for gestational age at birth also had better catch up growth at term compared to those born small for gestation (P < 0.001) but their neonatal growth itself was not significantly better. CONCLUSION: The mean neonatal growth in all anthropometric measures was less than expected and by the time of their expected delivery, less than 30% of these infants had reached the 3rd percentile of the expected measurement in all the three growth parameters. Choice of milk and neonatal morbidity influenced these growth patterns. RECOMMENDATIONS: Routine fortification of mother's milk or addition of preterm formula and reorganised care of sick newborns is recommended to improve early growth. PMID: 16771104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O DROPEREALFRED. "Africa Global Change Synthesis (AGS) book, 2006: Chapter 8: Water resources and global change. Global Change Processes and Impacts in Africa; pp.152-172. Lead Author: A. Opere; Contributing Authors: I. Saayman and F. Githui.". In: Vulnerability to Climate-Induced Highland Malaria in East AIACC Working Paper No.25; 47pp. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2006. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFORINDADA. "Musoke RN, Ayisi RK, Orinda DA, Mbiti MJ.Do healthy very-low-birth-weight infants fed on their own mothers' milk require sodium supplementation? Adv Exp Med Biol. 2001;501:431-7.". In: Adv Exp Med Biol. 2001;501:431-7. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2001. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Sodium and potassium levels were measured weekly in mothers' milk and in serum and urine of 41 supplemented and 25 unsupplemented very-low-birth-weight infants whose mean birth weights were 1390g and 1332g, respectively (mean gestational age, 31 weeks). Sodium intake was 5.95mmol/kg/day for the supplemented group and 2.75mmol/kg/day for controls. None of the infants in either group was hyponatremic during the 6-week period of study. Urinary sodium in the supplemented group was 15.7mmol/L as compared with 7.5mmol/L in controls. Human milk sodium was significantly lower than reported elsewhere. Growth in the supplemented group was greater than in the unsupplemented group. Since no episode of hyponatremia occurred, it was concluded that routine sodium supplementation was unnecessary.

O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Makoni, L.T., Ogaa, J.S. and Agumbah, G.J.O. (1994). The efficiency of an Oestrone sulphate ELISA kit to detect pregnancy in sow in zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal 25 92) 64 -69.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1994. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFORINDADA. "Johansen MV, Simonsen PE, Butterworth AE, Ouma JH, Mbugua GG, Sturrock RF, Orinda DA, Christensen NO. A survey of Schistosoma mansoni induced kidney disease in children in an endemic area of Machakos District, Kenya.Acta Trop. 1994 Oct;58(1):21-8.". In: Acta Trop. 1994 Oct;58(1):21-8. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1994. Abstract
Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory, Charlottenlund. The association between Schistosoma mansoni infection and kidney lesions was investigated in school children selected from three primary schools in Machakos District, Kenya, namely Miu (n = 159), Kitengei (n = 160) and Misuuni (n = 99) schools. The children were examined parasitologically for S. mansoni infection, clinically for enlargement of the liver and spleen, and biochemically for proteinuria and serum and urine creatinine. High prevalences of S. mansoni infection, ranging from 84-96%, were seen in all the schools, but the geometric mean intensity of egg excretion varied, being relatively low in Misuuni (31 eggs/g), medium in Miu (182 eggs/g) and high in Kitengei (413 eggs/g). The prevalence of pathological proteinuria (> or = 200 mg/l) in the schools ranged from 10.1% in Miu to 28.8% in Kitengei. No difference in the levels of proteinuria was noted between age or sex groups. No association between intensity of infection and pathological proteinuria was observed in any of the schools, nor was any correlation between organomegaly and proteinuria observed. However, significant correlations between malaria and organomegaly (p < 0.001) and between malaria and proteinuria (p < 0.05) were observed when pooling data from all schools. These findings suggest that S. mansoni induced nephrotic syndromes are not common in children from this highly endemic area of Kenya.
O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. ""Peace and Security in Post-Cold War Africa: Safeguarding the Future", .". In: African Journal of Political Economy, 1993. Special Issue on African International Relations, pp 119-148.; 1993. Abstract
n/a
O DRLUMUMBAPATRICK. "CONSTITUTION THE STATE, TERRITORY, CITIZENRY AND NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY IN A CONSTITUTION.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 1. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1998.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Beef Industry in Kenya: A Review of National and International Perspectives.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1981.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo, S.O.,Notghi, A., Anderton, J.L., Dick, J.: The use of mnoclonal antibodies in the treatment of acute renal allograft rejection - A Review article and a summary of our experience. East African Medical Journal, 67(9): 667-673, 1990.". In: East African Medical Journal, 67(9): 667-673, 1990. University of Nairobi.; 1990. Abstract
In 7 years (1981-1988) at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was made in 67 patients. In 23 of these patients lupus nephritis complicated the SLE. Lupus nephritis was diagnosed through renal biopsy, haematuria and proteinuria in urine with positive lupus erythematosus (LE) cell phenomenon. The histology found in these patients included 5 patients with minimal lesion, 7 patients with membranous, 3 with focal, 4 with diffuse, 3 with crescenteric and one with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. While patients with minimal, membranous and focal nephritis had general good outlook on low dose maintenance or intermittent high dose steroid therapy the others with diffuse, crescenteric and membranoproliferative nephritis had poor prognosis. Patients with diffuse proliferative, membranoproliferative and crescenteric nephritis tended to have septicaemia, pulmonary oedema, fluid overload and chronic renal failure with poor prognosis. These patients responded poorly to oral and parenteral steroid therapy whether high or low dose.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Relationship between nutrition and development in Kenyan toddlers. J Pediatr . 1989 Sep; 115 ( 3 ): 357-64 . PMID: 2769494 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Sigman M, Neumann C, Baksh M, Bwibo N, McDonald MA.". In: J Pediatr . 1989 Sep; 115 ( 3 ): 357-64 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1989. Abstract

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine 90024-1759.

The relationship between mild to moderate malnutrition, as measured by food intake and anthropometric status, and developmental outcome was explored in 110 Kenyan toddlers. Developmental outcome was assessed at 30 months of age by the Bayley Mental and Motor scales and by evaluation of play behaviors. Verbalization and play during months 15 to 30 were also evaluated. Family background and home rearing conditions were assessed, and these variables were separated from the correlations between nutrition and outcome by partial correlation methods. Food intake was related to anthropometric status, play behaviors, and total amount of verbalization and play even when the potentially confounding effects of certain family background and home rearing variables were covaried. Food intake was not related to Bayley Mental and Motor scores, but measures of length and weight were, even when family background and home rearing variables were held constant. Mild to moderate malnutrition does appear to affect the child's development adversely even when other environmental characteristics, which also relate to development, are considered.

PMID: 2769494 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O DROPEREALFRED. "Opere, A.O. (2002): Impacts of climate change in water resources planning and management. Proceedings of the 9th Nile 2002 International conference, Kenya College of Communications and Technology (KCCT), Nairobi, 7-9 October 2002.". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, March 2002. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2002. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFMUMMAALBERT. ""Land Tenure and Water Resources," in In Land We Trust: Environment, Private Property & Constitutional Change, Juma, C & Ojwang J.B. (eds) Initiatives Publishers/ACTS press, (1996), at p. 143, with A.F. Juma & C Torori).". In: UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy, vol. 19, 2000/2001, No. 1 at p. 181. Departmental seminar; 1996. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. (1983). Vibriosis: Current Diagnostic trends.". In: Annual Conf. Ken. Vet. Assoc. April, 1983, Nairobi. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1983. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH. "Jitta J, Nduati RW Growth monitoring and promotion during early childhood development. In: Primary Health Care: A manual for medical students and other health workers. Ed. Mukelebai K, Bwibo NO, Onyango FE. 2nd edition, UNICEF.". In: Book. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1990. Abstract

Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

O PROFORINDADA. "Serum Lysozymes (Muramidase) levels in the normal and various Pathological States in Kenyan African.E. G. Kasili, D.A.O. Orinda, and J. Mudasia E. A. Med. Journal Vol. 58 No. 3, Marhc (1981).". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Mar;58(3):163-70. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1981. Abstract
PMID: 7249984 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Provision of Services in Rural Kenya: Who Benefits?" in Ole Therkildsen and Semboja Joseph, (eds.), State, NGOs and Service Provision in East Africa (London: James Currey).". In: African Journal of Political Science Vol. 2 No. 2,pp. 41-69. IPPNW; 1995. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga Wave Propagation in Strongly Coupled Classical Plasmas in an External Magnetic Field; International Journal of Theoretical Physics 27, 649 (1988).". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1988.
O O, EM N. "Solar retinopathy: a case report." JOECSA. 2017;21(1):30-31.joecsa_july_2017.pdf
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. The development of beta adrenoceptors in medicine. East Afr Med J. 1984 Oct;61(10):733-5. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Oct;61(10):733-5. E Afr Med J; 1984. Abstract

Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.

O DRBWANGACALEB. "Mogoa E.G.M., Omiti J.M., Tsuma V.T., Bwanga C.O; Some constraints and opportunities in the privatization of animal breeding services in Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the University of Nairobi. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2000.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Gonadotropin excretion during puberty in malnourished children. J Pediatr . 1984 Aug; 105 ( 2 ): 325-8 . PMID: 6431069 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Kulin HE, Bwibo N, Mutie D, Santner SJ.". In: J Pediatr . 1984 Aug; 105 ( 2 ): 325-8 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1984. Abstract

p6nadotropins were measured by radioimmunoassay of urine samples from 285 privileged Nairobi adolescents and from 238 rural peripubertal Kenyan boys and girls who had had moderate malnutrition during childhood. Gonadotropins were reduced at all ages in the rural adolescents, but pubertal stage-matched comparisons showed no differences between children of the two study areas in middle or late phases of sexual maturity. These results document the pattern of gonadotropin changes in an environment of reduced caloric intake and confirm the presumed hypothalamic-pituitary origin of the delayed adolescence that occurs under such circumstances.

PMID: 6431069 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFOYUGIWALTER. "Walter O. Oyugi, Rural Development Administration: A Kenyan Case Study. plus Bibliography.". In: New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House. 265 pp. IPPNW; 1981. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFKIBWAGEISAAC, DR. KAMAU FRANCON. "F.N. Kamau, I.O Kibwage, G. Muriuki, A.N. Guantai, J. Hoorgmartens, E. Roers, C. Govaerts, H. Chepkwony and R. Busson. (2002). Estrogenic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of a Steroidal Indoxyl.". In: East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 5(3): 44-48. The Centre for Open and Distance Learning, University of Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
An isocratic liquid chromatographic method with UV detection at 215 nm, which is suitable for the analysis of azithromycin (AZT) in bulk samples, is described. AZT is separated from its synthesis intermediates and a degradation product as well as from six unknown impurities on an XTerra RP18 column at 70 degrees C using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-pH 6.5 0.2M K2HPO4-water (35:10:55, v/v/v) at 1.0 mL/min. The XTerra stationary phase contains methyl groups that are incorporated in the bulk structure of the material. This allows for special selectivities. Robustness is evaluated by a full factorial design experiment. The method shows good selectivity, repeatability, linearity, and sensitivity.
O MS. "Curtailing maternal to child transmission of HIV." East African Medical Journal.2002:79 (11);563 . 2002;79(11):563. AbstractWebsite

We present two cases of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), one a 35 year old male who first recognised his problem at the age of fifteen years and at the time of assessment, satisfied the National Institute of Health (NIH) diagnostic criteria for NF-1 and had a nodular plexiform neurofibroma involving the left fifth dorsal nerve root and a diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving the left lower limb. The second patient, a 45 year old female recognised her problem at the age of 39 years, did not quite satisfy the NIH diagnostic criteria for NF 1 and had diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving both lower limbs and buttocks almost symmetrically, a finding which has not previously been described to the best of our knowledge. The scarcity of management options are briefly outlined.

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: the newer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):366-73. Review. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):366-73. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "J.M. Kihiu, G.O. Rading and S. M. Mutuli Geometric Constants in Plain Cross-Bored Cylinders J. Pressure Vessel Technology, 125 (2003) p 446-453.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 2003. Abstract

A 3D FEM computer program was developed to establish the stress distributions and SCFs in thick walled cylinders with radiused entry flush and non-protruding cross bores under internal pressure. The displacement formulation and eight noded brick isoparametric elements were used. The Frontal solution technique was used due to the limited computing facilities. The variation of SCF with entry radius to main bore radius ratio was established for varying cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio and cross bore to main bore radius ratio. For low values of cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio (≤2.25), the lower values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio resulted in lower SCFs. For high values of cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio (>2.25),  the lower values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio resulted in higher SCFs. The cylinder with cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio of 2.25 was found to be a transition geometry. For very small values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio, the SCFs converged to a value of 2.2 for entry radius to main bore radius ratio of 0.2. The cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio of 1.75 to 3 cylinders had a constant SCF value of 2.3 at cross bore to main bore radius ratio of 0.05 and entry radius to main bore radius ratio of 0.2. A new categorization of cylinders earlier proposed in the study of plain cross-bored cylinders is further validated.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Congenital biliary atresia. East Afr Med J . 1977 Oct; 54 ( 10 ): 535-8 . No abstract available. PMID: 608421 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Ongeri SK, Bwibo NO, Kinuthia D.". In: East Afr Med J . 1977 Oct; 54 ( 10 ): 535-8 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1977. Abstract

No abstract available.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD, SAMSON PROFMEMEJULIUS. "Meme J. S., Hillma D., Hillman E., Macleod S., Bwibo N. O. University of Nairobi, Department of Paediatrics: The McGill Legacy Clin. Invest. Med 9: 14 1986.". In: Clin. Invest. Med 9: 14 1986. au-ibar; 1986. Abstract

A case of fanconi's anemia was referred to the Dental School from the Department of Pediatrics. The patient was a 24-year-old male and a product of a consanguineous marriage. His chief complaint was loose and falling teeth, which has started at the age of 16 years. The first teeth to fall out were the first permanent molars followed by mandibular and maxillary anteriors. General examination showed that the patient was of normal intelligence and small for his age. He had no palmar plantar hyperkeratosis and was not diabetic. A total of 19 teeth remained in the mouth, most of them with grade three mobility. The remaining molars and first maxillary premolars had grade three furcation involvement. Most of the teeth had periodontal pockets more than 10 mm deep. Full mouth intraoral periapical radiographs and orthopantomographic views showed severe horizontal bone loss uncommensurate with the patient's age. In view of the patient's history and severe bone loss at an early age, the diagnosis was juvenile periodontitis associated with Fanconi's anemia.

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Controlled source seismic experiments in Kenya.". In: Proc. 1997 IGCP 400 (Continental Rifts) Workshop, Dublin, Eire,pp 38-41. Wiley Interscience; 1998. Abstract
n/a
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Implementation of a structured paediatric admission record for district hospitals in Kenya–results of a pilot study. BMC Int Health Hum Rights . 2006 Jul 20; 6 : 9 . PMID: 16857044 [PubMed] Mwakyusa S, Wamae A, Wasunna A, Were F, Esamai F, Ogutu B, Muriit.". In: BMC Int Health Hum Rights . 2006 Jul 20; 6 : 9 . F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2006. Abstract
KEMRI Centre for Geographic Medicine Research-Coast, P,O, Box 43640, Nairobi, Kenya. sekela_mwakyusa@yahoo.com BACKGROUND: The structured admission form is an apparently simple measure to improve data quality. Poor motivation, lack of supervision, lack of resources and other factors are conceivably major barriers to their successful use in a Kenyan public hospital setting. Here we have examined the feasibility and acceptability of a structured paediatric admission record (PAR) for district hospitals as a means of improving documentation of illness. METHODS: The PAR was primarily based on symptoms and signs included in the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) diagnostic algorithms. It was introduced with a three-hour training session, repeated subsequently for those absent, aiming for complete coverage of admitting clinical staff. Data from consecutive records before (n = 163) and from a 60% random sample of dates after intervention (n = 705) were then collected to evaluate record quality. The post-intervention period was further divided into four 2-month blocks by open, feedback meetings for hospital staff on the uptake and completeness of the PAR. RESULTS: The frequency of use of the PAR increased from 50% in the first 2 months to 84% in the final 2 months, although there was significant variation in use among clinicians. The quality of documentation also improved considerably over time. For example documentation of skin turgor in cases of diarrhoea improved from 2% pre-intervention to 83% in the final 2 months of observation. Even in the area of preventive care documentation of immunization status improved from 1% of children before intervention to 21% in the final 2 months. CONCLUSION: The PAR was well accepted by most clinicians and greatly improved documentation of features recommended by IMCI for identifying and classifying severity of common diseases. The PAR could provide a useful platform for implementing standard referral care treatment guidelines. PMID: 16857044 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC1555611
O DRMUSANDUJOYCE. "Musandu, J. O. Staff Development for Improved Performance, Kenya Nursing Journal, September 1986.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, September 1986. James Murimi; 1986. Abstract
Naisho JN, Ongaya L, Musandu JO. PIP: In highlighting the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the implementation of primary health care (PHC) in Kenya, the following topics are discussed: characteristics of TBAs as reported in studies, the training program, program objectives, content, the training process, resources for training, the role of TBAs in PHC, and evaluation. The definition of midwife is given as midwives trained in a community setting to assist in delivery within the confines of accepted cultural beliefs. A study of 28 midwives from different regions in Kenya in 1980 found that most were illiterate women between 24 and 68 years olds received no monetary gain, had a variety of occupational backgrounds, and provided varying amounts of advice but little pre- or postnatal care. Almost all advised mothers to breast feed for at least 2 years. 80% of mother use TBAs for delivery. In order to minimize maternal (5-20/1000 live births on the average) and infant mortality, many countries have or are developing training programs for TBAs. Inadequacies in TBA care may be little prenatal care, too little postnatal care, and deficits in promoting child spacing; other unsafe practices may be improper washing of hands and severing the umbilical cord with unsterile objects. Other advantages of training TBAs involve less cost, less need for transportation, personalized setting in the home, source of health education in the community, and rapport with her clients. The training program goal is to reduce mortality by eliminating bad practices. The objectives are to reduce maternal deaths or illness from hemorrhage, infection, and toxemia; to encourage better nutrition; to reduce perineal or vaginal tears which may lead to longterm disability from urinary or rectal fistula; to reduce the number of pregnancies or exposure to risk; and to reduce neonatal tetanus asphyxia, infection, diarrhea, and malnutrition. Activities entail educating adolescent girls and pregnant women on menstruation and sexuality within cultural norms, prenatal care and delivery and postnatal care, maternal care, and educating mothers about personal hygiene, nutrition, child spacing, and immunization, and acknowledgement of the valuable service TBAs contribute to the community. Programs have operated for 10 years and evaluation is underway. PMID: 2630785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: the use of antithyroid drugs. East Afr Med J. 1985 Dec;62(12):905-10. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Dec;62(12):905-10. E Afr Med J; 1985. Abstract
Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Long-term performance of electronic identification devices and model traceability system for cattle under pastoral production systems of Kenya.". In: Journal. Livestock Research for Rural Development; Submitted. Abstract
G O Matete*, W Maritim**, G Muchemi**, N Maingi***, J M Gathuma* and W Ogara* * Department of Veterinary Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi P.O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com** Ministry of Livestock Development P.O Kabete 00625 Kangemi, Nairobi, Kenya*** Department of Veterinary Pathology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract The readability of two different types of electronic identifiers (EID) were evaluated under pastoral production system in North-Eastern Kenya.  Physical verification and reading was done at day 0, and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 months respectively on a total of 1943 beef cattle of which 934 were tagged using ear button tags and 1009 with rumen boluses.  The retention rates were recorded and readability determined using a hand-held reader and subsequently compared using a non parametric survival analysis.   The results showed that, rumen boluses were more effective with retention and readability of 100% after the one-year period.  The retention rate for ear button tags deteriorated after day 120 to 94.6%.  This implied that rumen boluses are safe and tamper-proof and are thus recommended for use in pastoral production systems. When tested within the model Livestock Identification and Traceability System (LITS), the use of RFID identifiers were able to substantially contribute to better record keeping, and proof of credible livestock certification. However, due to cost considerations, undertaking a benefit-cost analysis and provisional analysis of the institutional and organisational infrastructure may be critical for successful implementation. Keywords: livestock identification, radio frequency identification devices, traceability system
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Farah, K.O., A. F. Tanaka, and N. E. West. 1988. Autecology and population biology of dyers woad (Isatis tinctoria) . Weed Science 36:186-193.". In: Proceedings of a national workshop of the Pastoral Information Network Programme (PINEP) held at Machakos, Kenya, 14-15 October 1999. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Owino, E.A., McLigeyo S.O., Gathua S.N., Nyongo A.: The prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus infectio and its impact on the diagnostic yields in exudative pleural effusions at Kenyatta National Hospital. East African Medical Journal 73(9):575-578, 1.". In: East African Medical Journal 73(9):575-578, 1996. University of Nairobi.; 1996. Abstract
The currently available evidence suggest that diuretics and/or low dose dopamine increases renal blood flow (RBF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and natriuresis in experimental animals, and limits ATP utilisation and oxygen needs in nephron segments at high risk of ischaemic injury, actions that could potentially limit renal injury and accelerate recovery in acute renal failure (ARF). These effects have indeed been confirmed in most experimental animals while using mannitol or low dose dopanime. Frusemide, however, for unknown reasons, has been effective in some animal models, but not others. In humans, it can be said that diurectics have a limited value to prevent, reverse or speed recovery from acute renal failure. Most clinical studies have failed to demonstrate convincingly that low dose dopamine either prevents ARF in high risk patients or improves renal function or outcome in patients with established ARF. This confusing scenario is further complicated by the fact that both diuretics and low dose dopamine can result in severe metabolic and cardiovascular complications in critically ill patients.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Recent advances in mechanism of causation of diabetes mellitus in man and Acomys cahirinus. East Afr Med J. 1974 May;51(5):425-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1974 May;51(5):425-8. E Afr Med J; 1974. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O., 1987 Geophysical detection of mineral conductors in tropical terrains with target conductors partly embedded in the conductive overburden,.". In: Geophysical Prospecting 35, 568-589. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1987. Abstract
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O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Waardenburgs syndrome in an African child. Hum Hered . 1970; 20 ( 1 ): 19-22 . No abstract available. PMID: 5444872 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Bwibo NO, Mkono MD.". In: Hum Hered . 1970; 20 ( 1 ): 19-22 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1970. Abstract

No abstract available

O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Wasunna A. Effects of theophylline administration and intracranial abnormalities on protective head turning response in preterm infants. East Afr Med J. 2003 Apr;80(4):204-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Apr;80(4):204-6. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2003. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Meningitis occurs in up to one third of neonates with septicaemia. Diagnosis is difficult due to its non-specificity of signs and symptoms. While neonatal septicaemia is a common problem at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), there are no recent data on the incidence and clinical characteristics of neonatal meningitis at the hospital. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and the bacterial aetiology of meningitis in neonates at the Newborn Unit (NBU) of KNH. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Newborn Unit of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Lumbar punctures were performed on eighty-four neonates with suspected sepsis based on specified clinical criteria. Cases were defined as meningitis if the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for bacteria by Gram stain, aerobic bacterial culture or latex particle agglutination assay. RESULTS: The prevalence of meningitis amongst cases of suspected sepsis was 17.9%. The male:female ratio was 1.5:1 mean birth weight 2116.7 grams (1682.2-2551.2) mean gestational age 35.7 weeks (32.6-38.8) and the mean postnatal age was 4.1 days (2.7-5.4) with none of the parameters being significantly different from those without meningitis. Feed intolerance and lethargy were the most common clinical features, present in 73.3% and 60% of patients with meningitis respectively. Neonates with meningitis had a higher mean CSF protein value (2.67 g/L vs 1.97 g/L
O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "J.K. Musuva and G.O. Rading "The Effects of Welding on the Fatigue Crack Growth Rate in a Structural Steel" Proc. of ANSTI, Ibadan, Nigeria (1984).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1984. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "A re-evaluation of the geology and tectonics of the granitoid plutons around Kakamega town, Western Kenya.". In: In Opiyo-Aketch (Editor):Proccedings of the 5th Conference of the Geology of Kenya. Geological Society of Kenya Publication. 63-68. Wiley Interscience; 1993. Abstract
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O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Pesticide Residues in Beef and Camel Meat from slaughterhouses in 13 Districts in Kenya.". In: Journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2009.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: advances in antibiotic therapy. East Afr Med J. 1982 Sep;59(9):573-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Sep;59(9):573-8. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O.: Human Organ Transplantation - Ethical, Legal, Religious and Cultural Issues and their possible relevance to Human Rights. Medicus 13(7): 196-203, 1994.". In: Medicus 13(7): 196-203, 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1994. Abstract
End stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy is a common complication of several renal diseases that are seen in the tropics. World over, the costs of the various modalities of therapy that constitute renal replacement therapy, including hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and renal transplantation, is prohibitive. All the above modes of therapy are provided in Kenya, unlike most countries with similar level of socioeconomic development. This article analyses the factors behind the limited success that renal replacement therapy enjoys in Kenya, which is faced with more pressing basic problems of malnutrition and infection.
O PROFMOSIREUBEN. "Okeyo, AM., R.O. Mosi and L.K.I. Lan.". In: Topic. Agric. Trinidad. 75: No 3: 384-389. Elsevier; 1998. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Autrup H, Wakhisi J, Vahakangas K, Wasunna A, Harris CC. Detection of 8,9-dihydro-(7'-guanyl)-9-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 in human urine. Environ Health Perspect. 1985 Oct;62:105-8.". In: Environ Health Perspect. 1985 Oct;62:105-8. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1985. Abstract

A possible role of aflatoxin B1 (AFB) in the etiology of human liver cancer has been suggested from several epidemiological studies. This has been based upon the association between consumption of AFB-contaminated food and the liver cancer incidence in different parts of the world. To further establish the role of AFB as a major factor, we initiated a pilot study in three different districts of Kenya to determine the number of individuals exposed to significant amounts of AFB as measured by the urinary excretion of 8,9-dihydro-8-(7-guanyl)-9-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 (AFB-Gua), an adduct formed between the ultimate carcinogenic form of AFB and nucleic acids. This product has previously been detected in urine from rats treated with AFB. Urine collected at the outpatient clinics at the district hospitals were concentrated on C18 Sep-Pak columns and analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography under two different chromatographic conditions. The chemical identity of the samples showing a positive response in both chromatographic systems was verified by synchronous scanning fluorescence spectrophotometry. The highest number of individuals with detectable urinary AFB-Gua lived in either Murang'a district or the neighboring Meru and Embu districts. In Murang'a district a rate of 12% was observed in the January-March period, while only 1 of 32 patients (3%) had a detectable exposure in July-August.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Oduor DO, Bwayo JJ, Bhatt SM, Kwasa TO, Maitha GM, Ombette JO. Multiple sexually acquired diseases occurring concurrently in an HIV positive man: case report, diagnosis and management. East Afr Med J. 1992 Jun;69(6):345-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Jun;69(6):345-6. uon; 1992. Abstract

A case of an HIV positive man with multiple sexually acquired disease occurring concurrently is described. Risk behaviours that could have predisposed him to HIV infection are discussed. The factors which might have interacted to make the sexually acquired infections severe and difficult to treat are postulated.

PIP: The case of an HIV-seropositive man with gonorrhea, syphilis, genital warts, and chancroid is described. Multiple sexual partners, genital ulcer diseases, and lack of circumcision may have predisposed him to HIV infection. As indicated by his CD4/CD8 ratio of 0.5, his immunological status was not very compromised. Other factors were therefore probably behind these multiple sexually transmitted diseases (STD). This 30-year old man was inadequately treated for a long time for urethral discharge and genital ulcer disease, and ultimately collapsed on the job with a comprised central nervous system. Bacterial infection related to the multiple STDs could certainly have caused this collapse. The time demands of this man's work, the lack of medical facilities to diagnose and treat such conditions, his unprotected sexual behavior with multiple partners, and broader socioeconomic conditions which separate wage- earning males from their families in Africa conspire to produce multiply-afflicted cases such as these.

O PROFMIDIWOJACOB, O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Bernard F. Juma, Yenesew A., Midiwo J. O. and Waterman P.G. Flavones and Phenylpropanoids in the exudate of Psiadia punctulata.". In: Phytochemistry. Vol. 57 (4), 571-574.; 2001. Abstract
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O DROGARAWILLIAM. "A point prevalence study of gastrointestinal parasites in Burchell.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2002. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics. Medical treatment of peptic ulcers. East Afr Med J. 1981 Feb;58(2):84-9. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Feb;58(2):84-9. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Otineo, M.R.B., McLigeyo S.O., Rogo, K.O. and Kigondu, C.S.: Menstrual disorders in patinents with chronic renal faliure. East African Medical Journal 70(1): 1-2, 1993.". In: East African Medical Journal 70(1): 1-2, 1993. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract
Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
O PROFOWINOJOHN. "August 1998: .". In: In proceeding of the 4th International, Iranian Statistical Conference IISC, TEHERAN, Iran. 1999; 1998. Abstract
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O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Polynuclear Acetogenic Pigments in the Fruits of the Myrsinaceae.". In: Biochemiphysics (1993) (1,2), 115.; 1993. Abstract
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O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "13-15 march, 2007 participated at the .". In: Kenya School of Monetary Studies, Nairobi.; 2007. Abstract
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O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Geology, hydrology and sedimentation: in Odingo, R.S.(Editor) An African Dam.". In: Ecological Bull. No. 29. 17-37. Wiley Interscience; 1979. Abstract
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O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE, W DRWAGACHAPETER. "Computer-Based Medical Diagnostic Decision Assistant.". In: International ICT Workshop 2004 On Application of ICT in enhancing Higher Learning Education, pp 114-123. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2004.
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT. "Oburra HO.Ear, nose and throat problems in developing countries.East Afr Med J. 1990 Jan;67(1):1-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Jan;67(1):1-3. MEDICOM; 1990. Abstract
Information on the prevalence of hearing impairment and related ear pathologies in children in sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. A pilot study for a clinical trial of simple treatments for chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) in school children in Kiambu district, Kenya, provided information on the prevalence of hearing impairment and ear pathologies. Five-thousand-three-hundred-sixty-eight children from 57 randomly chosen primary schools in Kiambu district were examined. Simple otoscopy was performed by clinical officers with specialty training in ENT, and hering testing was performed by trained nurses, using a hand held field audiometer. Microbiological specimens were obtained from those children with CSOM. Five-point-six percent of the children had a hearing impairment of > 30 dB HL in one or both ears, with 2.2% having bilateral hearing impairment. Two-point-four percent had at least one perforated tympanic membrane, and 1.1% had CSOM. Eight-point-six percent of the children had wax obstructing the tympanic membrane. There is evidence of a relationship between hearing impairment and both CSOM and wax obstructing the tympanic membrane. The most common organisms found were Pseudomonas spp. (34%), Proteus spp. (34%) and Eschericia coli (19%). These results are comparable with other studies in Africa and indicate a considerable burden of ear disease in Kiambu district, Kenya.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 2000. Constitutional review. Country report-Kenya: proceeding of the Commonwealth Veterinary Association/Kenya Veterinary Association Joint Regional Conference for Eastern, Central, and Southern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya; April 20 .". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2000. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Mcligeyo SO.Initial experience with CAPD in patients with HIV infection in a developing country. Perit Dial Int. 1992;12(2):267-8. No abstract available.". In: Central African Journal of Medicine, 38(10): 421-424, 1992. University of Nairobi.; 1992. Abstract
Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a well-recognized technique for sampling solid organs. It is used in renal transplantation to clarify the cause of a poorly functioning graft. Differential scoring techniques with respect to peripheral blood cell populations, and immunocytochemistry have been employed in this context. We describe the use of simple morphological criteria alone in renal transplant FNA. We compare these with needle biopsy and clinical parameters and show their value in the detection of active cellular rejection. Their limitations are discussed within the framework of other patterns of transplant pathology.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Neumann CG, Gewa C, Bwibo NO.Child nutrition in developing countries. Pediatr Ann. 2004 Oct;33(10):658-74.". In: Pediatr Ann. 2004 Oct;33(10):658-74. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2004. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 20956-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Early growth in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants has been found predictive of their later outcomes. This has led to increased interest in establishing measures to optimise such growth. In facilities without the resources required to undertake long-term audits for all the high risk infants they graduate, these growth parameters may also be used as selection criteria for those meriting such follow up reducing costs. OBJECTIVES: To describe early growth patterns among a cohort of VLBW infants and determine some of the factors associated with poor growth among them. DESIGN: Cross section survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and seventy five neonatal survivors. RESULTS: Of the 175 infants recruited, the male/female ratio was 4:6, sixty four (36.6%) were intrauterine growth retarded while significant illnesses during the neonatal period were reported in 109 (62.3%). Forty seven percent of the infants had been fed on exclusive breast milk, 33% on mixed feeds while 20% received exclusive preterm formula. The mean neonatal weight gain for the whole cohort was 13.5 (3.9) g/kg/day, length of 0.34 (0.11) cm/week and head circumference of 0.32 (0.71) cm/week. By term only 33 (18.9%), 37 (21.1%) and 48 (28%) had reached the expected (the 3rd percentile) weight, length and head circumference respectively. Sixty percent of the infants gained weight at <15 g/kg/day while 70% and 78% grew in head circumference and length at < 0.5 cm/week respectively. At term weight, head and linear growth faultering were recorded in 81%, 72% and 79% respectively. The factors that were associated with better growth at this stage included feeding on preterm formula (P < 0.001) and absence of neonatal morbidity (P < 0.001). Infants who were appropriate for gestational age at birth also had better catch up growth at term compared to those born small for gestation (P < 0.001) but their neonatal growth itself was not significantly better. CONCLUSION: The mean neonatal growth in all anthropometric measures was less than expected and by the time of their expected delivery, less than 30% of these infants had reached the 3rd percentile of the expected measurement in all the three growth parameters. Choice of milk and neonatal morbidity influenced these growth patterns. RECOMMENDATIONS: Routine fortification of mother's milk or addition of preterm formula and reorganised care of sick newborns is recommended to improve early growth. PMID: 16771104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O DROPEREALFRED. "Opere A.O., Mkhandi S.H. and P. Willems (2006): At Site Food Frequency Analysis for the Nile Equatorial basins. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 31 (2006) 919.". In: Vulnerability to Climate-Induced Highland Malaria in East AIACC Working Paper No.25; 47pp. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2006. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. (1996). Knobbed acrosome and swollen in-piece defects associated with sub fertility in a ram. Zim. Vet. J. 28, 6 - 15.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1996. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "Book Review, Urban Migrants and Rural Development in Kenya, by John O. Oucho, Nairobi University Press.". In: African Book Publishing Record, Vol.xxiv, No.3, 1998, p.214.; 1996. Abstract
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O PROFGENGARIEWA. "Transverse fluctuation-dissipation theorem in an external magnetic field: quantum domain.". In: Int. J. Theor. Phys. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
O DRLUMUMBAPATRICK. "A HAND BOOK ON CRIMINAL PROCEDURE IN KENYA.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 1. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1998.
O DRACHIATHOMASN. "Logistic regression modeling of poverty using Demographic and Health Survey data.". In: European Journal of Social Science. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2010. Abstract
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O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Otieno L.S., McLigeyo S.O., Kayima J.K., and Sitati S. Management of lupus nephritis at the Kenyatta National Hospital East African Medical Journal, 67(6): 387-395; 1990.". In: East African Medical Journal, 67(6): 387-395; 1990. University of Nairobi.; 1990. Abstract
In 7 years (1981-1988) at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was made in 67 patients. In 23 of these patients lupus nephritis complicated the SLE. Lupus nephritis was diagnosed through renal biopsy, haematuria and proteinuria in urine with positive lupus erythematosus (LE) cell phenomenon. The histology found in these patients included 5 patients with minimal lesion, 7 patients with membranous, 3 with focal, 4 with diffuse, 3 with crescenteric and one with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. While patients with minimal, membranous and focal nephritis had general good outlook on low dose maintenance or intermittent high dose steroid therapy the others with diffuse, crescenteric and membranoproliferative nephritis had poor prognosis. Patients with diffuse proliferative, membranoproliferative and crescenteric nephritis tended to have septicaemia, pulmonary oedema, fluid overload and chronic renal failure with poor prognosis. These patients responded poorly to oral and parenteral steroid therapy whether high or low dose.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Prediction of cognitive competence in Kenyan children from Toddler nutrition, family characteristics and abilities. J Child Psychol Psychiatry . 1991 Jan; 32 ( 2 ): 307-20 . PMID: 1903401 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Sigman M, McDonald MA, Neumann C, Bw.". In: J Child Psychol Psychiatry . 1991 Jan; 32 ( 2 ): 307-20 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1991. Abstract

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, Los Angeles.

This study explored the extent to which cognitive competence in 5-yr old Kenyan children was associated with earlier nutritional factors, family conditions and toddler characteristics. Food intake during the 18th-30th mths and physical stature at 30 mths were associated with cognitive skills at 5 yrs. Measures of family background, abilities of the child as a toddler and current schooling were also associated with cognitive abilities at 5 yrs. These variables influenced development independently, so that later cognitive competence was best predicted by a combination of earlier nutritional, family and toddler characteristics.

PMID: 1903401 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O. "Challenges Facing Management of Free Primary Education in Kenya; A case of Nyamira County-Kenya” ." International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow, IJBMT . 2011;Vol.1(1):65-75.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Opere, A.O. (2002): Quality control of rainfall data Proceedings of pre-forum capacity building training workshop for the Great Horn of Africa (GHA), 20th January to 17th February, 2002, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, March 2002. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2002. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFMUMMAALBERT. "The Poverty of Africa's Position at the Climate Change Convention Negotiations.". In: UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy, vol. 19, 2000/2001, No. 1 at p. 181. Departmental seminar; 2001. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Ogaa, J. S. Agumbah, G.J.O., Patel, J.H. Kiere, S.M. and Mwangi, L. (1985).Massive obstructive urothiasis in a bull used for Artificial Insemination. Vet. Rec.117, 664 - 666.". In: Ken. Vet. Assoc. Scientific Seminars, April, 1987, Nyeri,Kenya. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1985. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFORINDADA. "Focal paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis preceding the development of steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome. A. M. Adam, and D.A.O. Orinda, J. Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 1986; 49: 957- 959.". In: Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 1986; 49: 957- 959. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1986. Abstract
Dept. of Human Pathol., Univ. of Nairobi, Kenya. PMID: 3180436 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Ethnicity in the Electoral Process: The 1992 General Elections in Kenya.". In: African Journal of Political Science Vol. 2 No. 2,pp. 41-69. IPPNW; 1997. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga High Frequency Expansion of Quantum Plasma Dielectric Tensor; Kenya Journal of Science and Technology A (1 & 2 ), 47, (1988).". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1988.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: the use of antithyroid drugs. East Afr Med J. 1985 Dec;62(12):905-10. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Dec;62(12):905-10. E Afr Med J; 1985. Abstract

Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Otieno, L.S. and McLigeyo S.O.: Acute Tubular Necrosis due to Acute Plasmodium Faciparum Infestation -review article and a summary of our experience. The African journal of Hospital Medicine (MEDICOM) 9 (5):139-142, 1987.". In: The African journal of Hospital Medicine (MEDICOM) 9 (5):139-142, 1987. University of Nairobi.; 1987. Abstract
Forty seven patients with acute renal failure were studied prospectively over a two-year period at the Kenyatta National Hospital. There were 20 males and 27 females. The mortality rate was 40.4%. Most patients had medically oriented problems. Complications that were associated with a high mortality were infections and the presence of neuropsychiatric manifestations.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Centre-Periphery Linkages in the Development Process: An Assessment of the Kenyan Experience," in F. Kiros, (ed.), Challenging Rural Poverty: Experiences in Institution-Building and Popular Participation for Rural Development in Eastern Africa (Trenton, .". In: Agricultural Administration (Essex) Vol. 19, No. 3,pp. 123-137. IPPNW; 1985. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Ngugi P.N., McLigeyo S.O., Kayima J.K., Otieno L.S., Mogere R. Vascular access for Haemodialysis. East African Medical Journal, 68(6): 442-447; 1991.". In: East African Medical Journal, 68(6): 442-447; 1991. East African Medical Journal.71(4): 253-5; 1994.; 1991. Abstract
In a fifteen month period (August 1987 to November 1988) forty patients requiring haemodialysis had 83 angioaccess procedures performed. Arteriovenous (AV) shunts and arteriovenous fistulae were the commonest procedures, comprising 56 (67%) and 20 (24%) of the patients respectively. Subclavian catheters and artificial grafts were used less frequently. Nephrologists and senior house officers attached to the Renal Unit were responsible for fashioning A-V shunts and inserting subclavian catheters while the A-V fistulae were fashioned by the urologists and vascular surgeons. The commonest complication of A-V shunts were clotting, occurring in 31 (55.4%) followed by bleeding in 14 (25%). Eight (32%) of the A-V fistulae never functioned from the beginning. It is noted that we are still very dependent on A-V shunts for vascular access in end stage renal disease (ESRF) patients and this is associated with an unacceptable level of complications. This dependency on A-V shunts in ESRD patients should be stopped or phased out. A-V fistulae should be used more frequently. Their constructions should be well thought out, executed and supervised by the few surgeons who are versed in them together with their follow-ups.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: advances in antibiotic therapy. East Afr Med J. 1982 Sep;59(9):573-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Sep;59(9):573-8. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G. O. Rading An Evaluation of Residual Stress Distribution in Welded Compact Tension Specimens Using Neutron Diffraction J. Strain Analysis 40(2) (2005) p 211-216.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 2005. Abstract

The neutron diffraction technique was used to determine the residual stress field in welded compact tension specimens of the aluminium-lithium alloy M 2095. The deep penetrating characteristic of neutrons was exploited to evaluate the through-thickness variation in residual stress. Moreover, insight into the redistribution of these stresses was gained by extending a fatigue crack through the residual stress field and re-examining the stress distribution. The specimen without a crack was found to have a high compressive stress (of the order of -135 MPa) ahead of the notch. This rose to a maximum tensile stress of about 50 MPa, 22 mm from the notch, followed by a drop to negative values further ahead of the notch. It was observed that the magnitude of the stresses changed on moving into the thickness of the specimen. However, the form of the graph showing stress versus distance ahead of the notch remained unchanged. When fatigue cracks of different lengths were introduced, the magnitude of the stress close to the tip first increased with crack length, before decreasing and then rising again. Nevertheless, the form of the graph remained unchanged and the stress at the crack tip remained compressive. The paper concludes that any study of the response of a component to mechanical loading involving a residual stress field must take these factors (i.e. through-thickness stress variation and stress redistribution) into consideration.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

 

O PROFBWIBONIMROD, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Neonatal nutrition and later outcomes of very low birth weight infants at Kenyatta national hospital Afr Health Sci. 2007 June; 7 (2) : 108.". In: Afr Health Sci. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2007. Abstract

Extensive research in developed countries has established that very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are particularly vulnerable to the effects of early nutritional deficiencies. There is, however, little information from poor countries on the long-term effects of these deficiencies in such infants.

Determine the association between neonatal feeding regimens and post-discharge morbidity/ mortality and neurological abnormalities at the age of two years for a cohort of VLBW infants.

One hundred and seventy five VLBW infants were recruited over a consecutive period of one year and followed up to the age of two years corrected for gestation. With neonatal feeding regimes as the exposure variable, post-discharge re-hospitalization, mortality and Saigal and Rosenbaum's functional disability assessment scores were compared as the outcome variables.

O DRMUSANDUJOYCE. "A paper highlighting the role of TBAs in the implementation of primary health care.Kenya Nurs J. 1989 Dec;17(2):26-8.PMID: 2630785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].". In: Kenya Nurs J. 1989 Dec;17(2):26-8.PMID: 2630785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. James Murimi; 1989. Abstract
Naisho JN, Ongaya L, Musandu JO. PIP: In highlighting the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the implementation of primary health care (PHC) in Kenya, the following topics are discussed: characteristics of TBAs as reported in studies, the training program, program objectives, content, the training process, resources for training, the role of TBAs in PHC, and evaluation. The definition of midwife is given as midwives trained in a community setting to assist in delivery within the confines of accepted cultural beliefs. A study of 28 midwives from different regions in Kenya in 1980 found that most were illiterate women between 24 and 68 years olds received no monetary gain, had a variety of occupational backgrounds, and provided varying amounts of advice but little pre- or postnatal care. Almost all advised mothers to breast feed for at least 2 years. 80% of mother use TBAs for delivery. In order to minimize maternal (5-20/1000 live births on the average) and infant mortality, many countries have or are developing training programs for TBAs. Inadequacies in TBA care may be little prenatal care, too little postnatal care, and deficits in promoting child spacing; other unsafe practices may be improper washing of hands and severing the umbilical cord with unsterile objects. Other advantages of training TBAs involve less cost, less need for transportation, personalized setting in the home, source of health education in the community, and rapport with her clients. The training program goal is to reduce mortality by eliminating bad practices. The objectives are to reduce maternal deaths or illness from hemorrhage, infection, and toxemia; to encourage better nutrition; to reduce perineal or vaginal tears which may lead to longterm disability from urinary or rectal fistula; to reduce the number of pregnancies or exposure to risk; and to reduce neonatal tetanus asphyxia, infection, diarrhea, and malnutrition. Activities entail educating adolescent girls and pregnant women on menstruation and sexuality within cultural norms, prenatal care and delivery and postnatal care, maternal care, and educating mothers about personal hygiene, nutrition, child spacing, and immunization, and acknowledgement of the valuable service TBAs contribute to the community. Programs have operated for 10 years and evaluation is underway. PMID: 2630785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Placebo-controlled trial of potassium supplements in black patients with mild essential hypertension. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1989 Aug;14(2):294-6.". In: J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1989 Aug;14(2):294-6. E Afr Med J; 1989. Abstract
Forty-eight black patients with mildly increased blood pressure (BP) that had not yet been subjected to treatment took part in a double-blind clinical trial of the efficacy and tolerability of oral potassium supplements (64 mmol daily) versus a matching placebo (made of starch with coating) in a 16-week study. Potassium supplements produced a significant decrease in mean supine and standing BP within 4 weeks after treatment inception. Urinary potassium excretion increased significantly in the 24 patients who received potassium supplements (p less than 0.001). No significant changes occurred in plasma sodium and potassium concentrations or in urinary excretion of sodium during the study. All patients completed the trial without experiencing any notable untoward effects. These results are consistent with the premise that oral potassium supplements may exert hypotensive effects of clinically significant degree in patients with mild hypertension.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Farmer Perceptions on Indigenous Pig Farming in Kakamega District, Western Kenya.". In: Journal. Nordic Journal of African Studies; 2010. Abstract
Florence MUTUA International Livestock Institute (ILRI), University of Nairobi, Kenya, Samuel ARIMI and William OGARA University of Nairobi, Kenya, Cate DEWEY University of Guelph, Canada & Esther SCHELLING International Livestock Institute (ILRI), Swiss Tropical Institute, Switzerland   Objectives for this paper were to study farmer beliefs and perceptions on local pig farming practices; and to explore opportunities for improved located production in selected villages of Western Kenya. The paper seeks to understand why the local pig breed still remains the predominant breed in these areas despite numerous calls to introduce better exotic breeds. Most pigs in Kenya are of exotic breeds, intensively managed on commercial farms. Focus group discussions were used to gather data. Discussions were taped, transcribed and translated from Swahili to English. Farmers use pigs to guard homes at night, pigs also act as a charm to protect families against evil spirits. Women farmers manage the family pigs, men sell the pigs. Farmers identified feeding, marketing, and breeding as the main challenges affecting the sector. The discussions identified a number of opportunities for improved production, and likely strengthened the bond between the farmers, researchers and staff. This created an outlook that can now be used in further public engagement as ongoing research studies on appropriate feed, health and improvement of market access are being analysed. Keywords: Western Kenya, pig farming, focus group discussions, farmer perceptions.
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Diress, T. A., K. O. Farah, and D. M. Nyariki. 1999. Influence of settlements on land use and vegetation in the rangelands of northeastern Ethiopia: Application of aerial photographic technique. J. Hum. Ecol. 10: 349-356.". In: In: European Union Dryland series based on a regional workshop on pastoralism in the horn of Africa (this a book chapter). Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO.Prevention and treatment of acute renal failure using diuretics and/or low ("Renal") dose of dopamine: a critical review. Afr J Health Sci. 1997 Jan-Mar;4(1):2-8.". In: East African Medical Journal. 74(10):605-606, 1997. University of Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract
The currently available evidence suggest that diuretics and/or low dose dopamine increases renal blood flow (RBF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and natriuresis in experimental animals, and limits ATP utilisation and oxygen needs in nephron segments at high risk of ischaemic injury, actions that could potentially limit renal injury and accelerate recovery in acute renal failure (ARF). These effects have indeed been confirmed in most experimental animals while using mannitol or low dose dopanime. Frusemide, however, for unknown reasons, has been effective in some animal models, but not others. In humans, it can be said that diurectics have a limited value to prevent, reverse or speed recovery from acute renal failure. Most clinical studies have failed to demonstrate convincingly that low dose dopamine either prevents ARF in high risk patients or improves renal function or outcome in patients with established ARF. This confusing scenario is further complicated by the fact that both diuretics and low dose dopamine can result in severe metabolic and cardiovascular complications in critically ill patients.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. The efficacy of dyazide in the treatment of fluid retention and hypertension. East Afr Med J. 1980 Jul;57(7):495-9. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1980 Jul;57(7):495-9. E Afr Med J; 1980. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Were FN, Lusweti B, Wasunna A , Musoke RN.Isdelivery outside hospital a risk of development of early sepsis?". In: Journal of Obstetrics and gynaecology East and Central Africa Vol 17:1; 19-24, 2004. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2004. Abstract
n/a
O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading "A Compendium of Jigs and Fixtures" Internal Report, Kenya Bureau of Standards (1987).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1987. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "The East African rift system in the light of KRISP 90.". In: Tectonophysics, 236, 465- 483. Wiley Interscience; 1994. Abstract
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O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Assessment of inpatient paediatric care in first referral level hospitals in 13 districts in Kenya. Lancet . 2004 Jun 12; 363 ( 9425 ): 1948-53 . PMID: 15194254 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] English M, Esamai F, Wasunna A, Were F, Ogutu B, Wamae A, Snow .". In: Lancet . 2004 Jun 12; 363 ( 9425 ): 1948-53 . F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2004. Abstract

KEMRI Centre for Geographic Medicine Research, PO Box 230, Kilifi, Kenya. menglish@wtnairobi.mimcom.net

BACKGROUND: The district hospital is considered essential for delivering basic, cost-effective health care to children in resource poor countries. We aimed to investigate the performance of these facilities in Kenya. METHODS: Government hospitals providing first referral level care were prospectively sampled from 13 Kenyan districts. Workload statistics and data documenting the management and care of admitted children were obtained by specially trained health workers. FINDINGS: Data from 14 hospitals were surveyed with routine statistics showing considerable variation in inpatient paediatric mortality (range 4-15%) and specific case fatality rates (eg, anaemia 3-46%). The value of these routine data is seriously undermined by missing data, apparent avoidance of a diagnosis of HIV/AIDS, and absence of standard definitions. Case management practices are often not in line with national or international guidelines. For malaria, signs defining severity such as the level of consciousness and degree of respiratory distress are often not documented (range per hospital 0-100% and 9-77%, respectively), loading doses of quinine are rarely given (3% of cases) and dose errors are not uncommon. Resource constraints such as a lack of nutritional supplements for malnourished children also restrict the provision of basic, effective care. INTERPRETATION: Even crude performance measures suggest there is a great need to improve care and data quality, and to identify and tackle key health system constraints at the first referral level in Kenya. Appropriate intervention might lead to more effective use of health workers' efforts in such hospitals.

PMID: 15194254 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Factors Influencing Adoption of Dairy Goats in Meru County, Kenya: Prospects And Constraints.". In: Journal. Journal of Commonwealth Veterinary Association; Submitted.

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