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Imonje RK, Nyagah G. "Academic Staff effectiveness in mainstreaming disability interventions for students with special needs in public universities in Kenya.". In: 2nd Africe International Conference. University of Nairobi, Kenya Science Campus; Forthcoming.
Imonje RK, Ndirangu CW. Curriculum Change and Innovation. Nairobi; 2012.
Imonje RK, Kibera MW, Gakunga DK. Provision of Education for Pastoralists Children: The Case of Mobile Schools in Kenya.. Lambert publishing house; 2013.
Impellizzeri P, Romeo C, Borruto FA, Granata F, Scalfari G, De Ponte FS, Longo M. "Sclerotherapy for cervical cystic lymphatic malformations in children. {Our} experience with computed tomography-guided 98% sterile ethanol insertion and a review of the literature." Journal of pediatric surgery. 2010;45:2473-2478. AbstractWebsite
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Imungi, JK; Okoth MW. 2nd Food Science Subject Meeting Report.; 1996.
Imungi JK, Biesalski HK, Okoth MW. " http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0023643811002659 http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/17023 .". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Certain indigenous foods commonly consumed by Kenyan vulnerable groups (the malnourished; children under 5 years of age; pregnant and lactating women; malnourished adults in cases of vitamin or mineral deficiencies, TB, diabetes, cancer, AIDS; refugees; orphans the elderly and the disabled) are not yet evaluated for phenolic content and health relevant functionality. The present study was therefore designed to analyze the phenolic content, antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of methanolic extract of raw and traditionally processed food ingredients. The total phenolic contents of the cereals, legumes, oil seeds and vegetables were ranged from 0.41 to 3.00 g/100 g DM. Amaranth grain (Amaranthus cruentus) and drumstick leaves (Moringa oleifera) exhibited significantly higher phenolic content than the other samples. The methanolic extract of the investigated samples showed promising levels of DPPH radical scavenging activity (81–89%); ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP, 44–744 mmolL−1 Fe[II]/g extract DM); α-amylase (10–45%) and α-glucosidase (13–80%) inhibition activities. The food ingredients with high phenolic content exhibited relatively higher antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. The results indicate that soaking + cooking is the mild processing method to preserve the phenolic compounds and their health relevant functionality in the presently investigated cereal, legume and oil grains, while cooking is suitable treatment for vegetables.

Imungi JK. "Solar dehydration of cassava for production of flour for local foods in Kenya."; 1992. Abstract

Kenyans subsist for the most part on maize and wheat-based foods. The rapid population increase, however, has not been paralleled by a corresponding increase in maize production and has increased the need for wheat imports. This situation has led to the consideration, on a national basis, of the use of composite flours as potential alternatives to expanded maize production and increased wheat importation. This paper reports on the attempts to produce cassava flour for combining with maize meal in ugali, sorghum and millet flours in uji, and wheat flour in mandazis. Evaluations were also made on the shelf-stability of flour under the prevailing weather conditions in Kenya and in package commonly used for milled cereal product storage. Cassava slices 2-mm thick were dried within 5 hr during fine, sunny weather, and were milled to produce good quality flour. Up to 50 of the composite flour was acceptable in uji and mandazi, but only up to 20 was tolerable in ugali. The flour maintained good color and organoleptic properties for up to 6 months of storage. Results indicate that cassava flour has potential for combining with milled cereal products in ugali, uji, and mandazis.

In. Counseling skills for counsellors. Nairobi: Jo-Vansallen Publishing Company; 2015.
IN Chege, Okalebo FA, A Nkatha Guantai, S Karanja, Derese S. "Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus by traditional medicine practitioners in Kenya-key informant interviews." The Pan African Medical Journa. 2015;22(90):1-12. Abstract

Abstract
Introduction: worldwide, plant based medicines are increasing in popularity due to perceptions of safety and efficacy. Herbalists in Kenya are widely consulted for the management of many diseases including Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). This study investigated the level of knowledge of the herbalists in management of T2DM.

Methods: purposive sampling was used to identify 4 herbalists working in the urban areas who actively manage T2DM. Key informant interviews were used to gather data about the management of T2DM. It was analyzed using a content thematic approach.

Results: diverse management methods which included both pharmacological and non- pharmacological were noted. Glycemic control was assessed with the help of a glucometer. In addition, presenting signs and symptoms were key in diagnosing T2DM. The herbalists used various herbs, minerals and animals as medicinal sources. The drugs were dispensed as decoctions with excipients being added appropriately. Adverse effects were recorded. The herbalists acknowledged that patients use both herbal and allopathic medicine together. A level of record keeping was observed but patient follow-up was poor. The cost of the herbal drugs was perceived to be excessive.

Conclusion: some similarities exist in the management of T2DM between allopathic and traditional medicine practitioners. Training of herbalists is required to improve the quality of care given to patients.

In K. Mukelabai, N. O. Bwibo M(E)& R. "HIV infection and AIDS in children.". In: , Primary health care manual for medical students and other health workers (3rd . UNICEF; 2010.
Indalo AA, Kokwaro GO. "Pharmacokinetics of temazepam in male surgical patients.". 1995. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of temazepam, the 3-hydroxy1 derivative of diazepam, were studied in nine male surgical patients (age: 28-57 years; weight: 55-87 kg) who had ingested single 40 mg doses, 4 hours prior to minor surgical procedures. Peak plasma temazepam concentrations were achieved rapidly (within 1 h post drug administration) and the estimated volume of distribution (mean: 1.13 1/kg), total clearance (mean: 1.6 ml/min/kg) and terminal elimination half-life (mean: 8 hours) were comparable to previously reported values in healthy subjects. There was no correlation between volume of distribution and either weight or age, and between clearance and age. These findings are broadly consistent with previous reports from studies in healthy subjects. Temazepam can therefore be used as a premedicant in patients requiring minor surgery; the concomitant anaesthetic agents administered and the surgical procedures have no effects on temazepam pharmacokinetics

Indalo DM. Factors Affecting Patients Retention And Defaulter Rates In An Anti-retroviral Therapy Program.; Submitted. Abstract

The purpose of this research was to determine patients' retention and associated factors in the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) program. Specifically, it establishes factors that contribute to patients' retention and recommends the appropriate strategies that enhance sustainable retention of patients in the ART program. The case studies were carried out at Kibera Community Based Health Care project/clinic - AMREF intervention area in Kibera slum
A descriptive cross-sectional method was employed aimed at collecting information from the patients in the program through random sampling, while stratified sampling was used to pick on defaulters, who were traced by Community Health Workers as well as key informants. A representative sample constituted 357 patients in the ART program, 27 defaulters and 8 Health Care Providers of the total population of patients in the program. Quantitative data was collected using a standardized questionnaire administered to the study participants in the program and defaulters. Qualitative data
was obtained through; focus Group Discussion and Key informants interviews. Ethical consideration and risk to human subjects was put into consideration, through provision of willing consent and confidentiality upheld at all times.
The study reveals that AMREF in Kenya, Kibera project continues to playa leading role in the fight against HIV/AIDS. A majority of the respondents (69%) confirmed to have disclosed their HIV status to someone while 31% were categorical that they have not disclosed their status to anyone. It is imperative to point out that disclosure levels were high (88%) amongst respondents in the 51-55 years age group and closely followed by those in the 41-45 years age group (77%). The study also found out that 49.5% of the respondents were on the affirmative that indeed they find it easy discussing their challenges with their clinicians, while 50.5% noted that they do not find it easy. It is
interesting to observe that the challenges of side effects related to ARV are more pronounced amongst those who skip appointments at the clinic compared to stigma and lack of food. A considerable number (15%) of the respondents noted that they like the clinic as it provides free ARVs while 4% lauded the good counseling services offered at the clinic. Some 3% liked the facility as it was near to their areas of residence. Asked to state the reasons why they would prefer other ART clinics, most of the respondents (63%) pointed to the distance from their areas of residence, 14% made reference to the quality of services while 8% explained that they would prefer other clinics if they offer food supplements as part of the program.
In conclusion psycho-social counseling appeared the most preferred service in the facility, it enforces adherence to medication and also reduces stigma related condition among the patients and those around them. MSF Belgium clinics were most preferred clinic in Kibera slum; AMREF Kibera project management should consider exchange visits to their sites and learn from each other. The study detects that there is a cross cutting call from the study approach that an ideal ART programme should provide comprehensive care and support (37%) and offer free medical care (15%) to enhance
accessibility besides integrating PTC (7%) among others as captured from the interviews with defaulters. Service delivery it was suggested should also be done professionally without unethical and coercive practices such sexual harassment among other malpractices that accentuate default.
AMREF Kibera project should consider to networking and collaborating with other organizations that are working in informal settlement to learn and share best practice to enhance adherence to ART care. Address the attitude of health care providers in the facility through trainings, supervision and assessment of care. The project should also review its approach to ART care and through operation research to boost ART care in marginalized communities in the informal settlements.

Indangasi H. "Images of Africa and Africans in Japanese Literature.". In: African Affairs. Japan; 2007.
Indangasi H, Laguma A. ""In the Fog of the Seasons' End.".". 1984.Website
Indetie D;, Ouda J;, Irungu R;, Mwai O. "Factors Influencing Pre-weaning Performance In Beef Cattle.".; 1996.
Induli M, Cheloti M, Wasuna A, Wekesa I, Wanjohi JM, Byamukama R, Heydenrich M, Makayoto M, Yenesew A. "Naphthoquinones from the roots of Aloe secundiflora." Phytochemistry Letters . 2012;5:506-509.
digestibility and nutritive quality of sheep diets Influence of big sagebrush(Artemisia tridentata) browse on intake. Influence of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) browse on intake, digestibility and nutritive quality of sheep diets.; 1990.Website
Ingasia LA, Akala HM, Imbuga MO, Opot BH, Eyase FL, Johnson JD, Bulimo WD, Kamau E. "Molecular Characterization of the Cytochrome b Gene and In Vitro Atovaquone Susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Kenya." Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.. 2015;59(3):1818-21. Abstractingasia_molecular_characterization_of_the_cytochrome_b_gene_and_in_vitro_atovaquone_susceptibility_of_plasmodium_falciparum_isolates_from_kenya.pdf

The prevalence of a genetic polymorphism(s) at codon 268 in the cytochrome b gene, which is associated with failure of atovaquone-proguanil treatment, was analyzed in 227 Plasmodium falciparum parasites from western Kenya. The prevalence of the wild-type allele was 63%, and that of the Y268S (denoting a Y-to-S change at position 268) mutant allele was 2%. There were no pure Y268C or Y268N mutant alleles, only mixtures of a mutant allele(s) with the wild type. There was a correlation between parasite 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) and parasite genetic polymorphism; mutant alleles had higher IC50s than the wild type.

Ingebrigtsen T, Morgan MK, Faulder K, Ingebrigtsen L, Sparr T, Schirmer H. "Bifurcation geometry and the presence of cerebral artery aneurysms." Journal of Neurosurgery. 2004;101:108-113. Abstract

OBJECT: The angles of arterial bifurcations are governed by principles of work minimization (optimality principle). This determines the relationship between the angle of a bifurcation and the radii of the vessels. Nevertheless, the model is predicated on an absence of significant communication between these branches. The circle of Willis changes this relationship because the vessels proximal to the ring of vessels have additional factors that determine work minimization compared with more distal branches. This must have an impact on understanding of the relationship between shear stress and aneurysm formation. The authors hypothesized that normal bifurcations of cerebral arteries beyond the circle of Willis would follow optimality principles of minimum work and that the presence of aneurysms would be associated with deviations from optimum bifurcation geometry. Nevertheless, the vessels participating in (or immediately proximal to) the circle of Willis may not follow the geometric model as it is generally applied and this must also be investigated. METHODS: One hundred seven bifurcations of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), distal internal carotid artery (ICA), and basilar artery (BA) were studied in 55 patients. The authors analyzed three-dimensional reconstructions of digital subtraction angiography images with respect to vessel radii and bifurcation angles. The junction exponent (that is, a calculated measure of the division of flow at the bifurcation) and the difference between the predicted optimal and observed branch angles were used as measures of deviation from the geometry thought best to minimize work. The mean junction exponent for MCA bifurcations was 2.9 +/- 1.2 (mean +/- standard deviation [SD]), which is close to the theoretical optimum of 3, but it was significantly smaller (p {\textless} 0.001; 1.7 +/- 0.8, mean +/- SD) for distal ICA bifurcations. In a multilevel multivariate logistic regression analysis, only the observed branch angles were significant independent predictors for the presence of an aneurysm. The odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval) for the presence of an aneurysm was 3.46 (1.02-11.74) between the lowest and highest tertile of the observed angle between the parent vessel and the largest branch. The corresponding OR for the smallest branch was 48.06 (9.7-238.2). CONCLUSIONS: The bifurcation beyond the circle of Willis (that is, the MCA) closely approximated optimality principles, whereas the bifurcations within the circle of Willis (that is, the distal ICA and BA) did not. This indicates that the confluence of hemodynamic forces plays an important role in the distribution of work at bifurcations within the circle of Willis. In addition, the observed branch angles were predictors for the presence of aneurysms.

Inimah G, Ndeti N, Mukulu E. "Portrayal of People with Disabilities in the Print Media in Kenya." IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2014;Vol. 19(Issue 7, July 2014):Pp 09-16.
Ininda J, Njuguna JGM, Gichuru L, Lorroki P. "Performance of Three-Way Cross Hybrids for Agronomic Traits and Resistance to Maize Streak Virus Disease in Kenya."; 2007. Abstract

Maize Streak virus (MSV) disease is a major disease in many parts of Africa, and is the most important viral pathogen of maize in Kenya. A study was conducted in 2004 to evaluate the agronomic performance and maize streak virus (MSV) resistance of maize ( Zea mays check for this species in other resources L.) three-way crosses developed in Kenya. Twenty hybrids and one check were grown under normal conditions in a randomized complete block design, in two replications at Embu, 1540 masl; and Muguga, 2093 masl). In a parallel trial in Muguga, hybrids were also evaluated in two replications under artificial inoculation with MSV. The analyses of variance combined across environments showed significant differences (P<0.05) among genotypes for grain yield, days to 50% pollen shed, days to mid-silk and ear height. Genotype x environment interaction was significant (P<0.01) for grain yield and days to mid-silk, indicating some hybrids were more adapted in some environments. Grain yield for MU03-025 (10.04 t ha-1) was significantly better (P<0.05) than the check, H513 (7.53t ha-1). In the disease inoculated experiment, the best hybrids for disease resistance were MU03-012 and MU03-006 (score of 1.75), while H513 had a mean score of >3.0. The highest yielding hybrid under disease inoculation, MU03-026 showed yield gain of 5.2 t ha-1 above that of H513. The results indicate adoption of disease resistant hybrids would result in a higher maize yields in the mid-altitude areas of Kenya.

Ininda JM. DYNAMIC METREOROLOGY II (SMR 401). Nairobi: University Of Nairobi; 2005. AbstractUniversity of Nairobi

This course is a continuation of Dynamic Meteorology I (SMR401). If you studied SMR301 a long while ago, it
may be advisable to review it once more before you embark on this course. As you worked through SMR301, you may have been introduced to several equations and may be wondering why this course appear to be mathematical. Well, as you may have already found out, there are many processes that take place in the atmosphere, dynamic meteorology will seek not only to explain how this comes about, but also to express the relationship between the forces involved in a mathematical form.

and Inkani, A.I KNGOIA. "Assessment of Water Demand and Supply Situations in Rural Areas of Katsina State, Nigeria." The Nigerian Geographical Journal, New Series. 2015;Vo. 10(No. 2):1-12.publications.docx
and Inkani, A.I KNGOIA. "An Appraisal of Institutional Strategies of Managing Rural Water Supply in Katsina State, Nigeria." Abuja Journal of Business and Management. 2014;Vol.1(No. 2):137-147.
Inoti, V I; Matanji P. "Interlending and document supply in Kenya." Information Development. 1990;Vol. 6( Issue 3):158-162.
INUANI DRMUGIVANEFRED. "Singh Surrendra, Mugivane, F.I. 1987. .". In: The Academic Journal of Daystar university. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1987.
INUANI DRMUGIVANEFRED. "Mugivane Fred I. 1995. Approach to participatory community .". In: The Academic Journal of Daystar university. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1995.
INUANI DRMUGIVANEFRED. "Mugivane Fred I prospect and constraints facing women small-scale Dairy Farmersin Vihiga District western Kenya Journal of commonwealth veterinary Association, July 2006. Volume 22 No.2 PP2 22.". In: The Academic Journal of Daystar university. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 2006.
INUANI DRMUGIVANEFRED. "Mugivane Fred I. 1993. A comparison of the Homeless in Nairobi Kenya and Nashville, TN, USA African Urban Quarterly volume & Nos. 3 and 4 of August and November, 1993.". In: The Academic Journal of Daystar university. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1993.
INUANI DRMUGIVANEFRED. "1999: Ph.D in Rural Sociology and Agricultural Extension and Marketing University of Nairobi/Mississippi State University.". In: The Academic Journal of Daystar university. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1999.
INUANI DRMUGIVANEFRED. "1987: Msc. Agricultural Economics and Rural Development Tennessee State University Nashville.". In: The Academic Journal of Daystar university. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1987.
INUANI DRMUGIVANEFRED. "Mugivane, Fred I. 1998. Benefits and Constraints of Zero-Grazing Dairy Production by Small Holder Farm Women groups. Submitted: Discovery and Innovation: AA/MSS/1626.". In: The Academic Journal of Daystar university. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1998.
Inwani I, Mbori-Ngacha DA, R W Nduati, Obimbo E, Dalton Wamalwa, John-Stewart G, Farquhar C. "Performance of Clinical Algorithms for HIV-1 Diagnosis and Antiretroviral Initiation among HIV-1-Exposed Children Aged Less Than 18 Months in Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Ninety percent of HIV-1-infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART), approximately 50% die before 2 years. Methods We evaluated sensitivity and specificity of clinical algorithms for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection and ART initiation among HIV-1-exposed children aged less than 18 months. Children were identified with routine HIV-1 testing and assessed using 3 sets of criteria: 1) Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI), 2) World Health Organization Presumptive Diagnosis (WHO-PD) for HIV-1 infection, and 3) CD4 T-lymphocyte cell subsets. HIV-1 infection status was determined using DNA PCR testing. Findings A total of 1,418 children (median age 5.4 months) were screened for HIV-1 antibodies, of whom 144 (10.2%) were seropositive. Of these, 134 (93%) underwent HIV-1 DNA testing and 80 (60%) were found to be HIV-1-infected. Compared to HIV-1 DNA testing, sensitivity and specificity of the IMCI were 19% and 96% and for WHO-PD criteria 43% and 88%, respectively. Inclusion of severe immune deficiency determined by CD4 percent improved sensitivity of IMCI and WHO-PD to 74% and 84% respectively, however, specificity declined to 43% and 41%, respectively. Interpretation Diagnosis of HIV-1 infection among exposed children less than 18 months in a high prevalence, resource-limited setting remains a challenge and current recommended algorithms have low sensitivity. This underscores the need for rapid scale-up of viral assays for early infant diagnosis.

Inwani I, Mbori-Ngacha DA, R W Nduati, Obimbo E, Dalton Wamalwa, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G. "Performance of Clinical Algorithms for HIV-1 Diagnosis and Antiretroviral Initiation among HIV-1-Exposed Children Aged Less Than 18 Months in Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Ninety percent of HIV-1-infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART), approximately 50% die before 2 years. Methods We evaluated sensitivity and specificity of clinical algorithms for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection and ART initiation among HIV-1-exposed children aged less than 18 months. Children were identified with routine HIV-1 testing and assessed using 3 sets of criteria: 1) Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI), 2) World Health Organization Presumptive Diagnosis (WHO-PD) for HIV-1 infection, and 3) CD4 T-lymphocyte cell subsets. HIV-1 infection status was determined using DNA PCR testing. Findings A total of 1,418 children (median age 5.4 months) were screened for HIV-1 antibodies, of whom 144 (10.2%) were seropositive. Of these, 134 (93%) underwent HIV-1 DNA testing and 80 (60%) were found to be HIV-1-infected. Compared to HIV-1 DNA testing, sensitivity and specificity of the IMCI were 19% and 96% and for WHO-PD criteria 43% and 88%, respectively. Inclusion of severe immune deficiency determined by CD4 percent improved sensitivity of IMCI and WHO-PD to 74% and 84% respectively, however, specificity declined to 43% and 41%, respectively. Interpretation Diagnosis of HIV-1 infection among exposed children less than 18 months in a high prevalence, resource-limited setting remains a challenge and current recommended algorithms have low sensitivity. This underscores the need for rapid scale-up of viral assays for early infant diagnosis.

Inwani I, Nduati R, Obimbo E, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, G J-S, C. F. "Performance of clinical algorithms for HIV-1 diagnosis and antiretroviral initiation among HIV-1-exposed children aged less than 18 months in Kenya. ." J Acquir Immune DeficSyndr. 2009 Apr 15;50(5):492-8. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e318198a8a4.. 2009. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Ninety percent of HIV-1-infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy, approximately 50% die before 2 years.
METHODS:
We evaluated sensitivity and specificity of clinical algorithms for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection and antiretroviral therapy initiation among HIV-1-exposed children aged less than 18 months. Children were identified with routine HIV-1 testing and assessed using 3 sets of criteria: (1) Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI), (2) World Health Organization Presumptive Diagnosis (WHO-PD) for HIV-1 infection, and (3) CD4 T-lymphocyte cell subsets. HIV-1 infection status was determined using DNA polymerase chain reaction testing.
FINDINGS:
A total of 1418 children (median age 5.4 months) were screened for HIV-1 antibodies, of whom 144 (10.2%) were seropositive. Of these, 134 (93%) underwent HIV-1 DNA testing and 80 (60%) were found to be HIV-1 infected. Compared with HIV-1 DNA testing, sensitivity and specificity of the IMCI criteria were 19% and 96% and for WHO-PD criteria 43% and 88%, respectively. Inclusion of severe immune deficiency determined by CD4% improved sensitivity of IMCI and WHO-PD criteria to 74% and 84%, respectively; however, specificity declined to 43% and 41%, respectively.
INTERPRETATION:
Diagnosis of HIV-1 infection among exposed children less than 18 months in a high-prevalence resource-limited setting remains a challenge, and current recommended algorithms have low sensitivity. This underscores the need for rapid scale-up of viral assays for early infant diagnosis.

Inwani I, Nduati R, Obimbo E, Obimbo E, Wamalwa D, G J-S, Farquhar C. " Performance of clinical algorithms for HIV-1 diagnosis and antiretroviral initiation among HIV-1-exposed children aged less than 18 months in Kenya." J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Apr 15;50(5):492-8. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e318198a8a4.. 2009. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Ninety percent of HIV-1-infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy, approximately 50% die before 2 years.
METHODS:
We evaluated sensitivity and specificity of clinical algorithms for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection and antiretroviral therapy initiation among HIV-1-exposed children aged less than 18 months. Children were identified with routine HIV-1 testing and assessed using 3 sets of criteria: (1) Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI), (2) World Health Organization Presumptive Diagnosis (WHO-PD) for HIV-1 infection, and (3) CD4 T-lymphocyte cell subsets. HIV-1 infection status was determined using DNA polymerase chain reaction testing.
FINDINGS:
A total of 1418 children (median age 5.4 months) were screened for HIV-1 antibodies, of whom 144 (10.2%) were seropositive. Of these, 134 (93%) underwent HIV-1 DNA testing and 80 (60%) were found to be HIV-1 infected. Compared with HIV-1 DNA testing, sensitivity and specificity of the IMCI criteria were 19% and 96% and for WHO-PD criteria 43% and 88%, respectively. Inclusion of severe immune deficiency determined by CD4% improved sensitivity of IMCI and WHO-PD criteria to 74% and 84%, respectively; however, specificity declined to 43% and 41%, respectively.
INTERPRETATION:
Diagnosis of HIV-1 infection among exposed children less than 18 months in a high-prevalence resource-limited setting remains a challenge, and current recommended algorithms have low sensitivity. This underscores the need for rapid scale-up of viral assays for early infant diagnosis.

Inyama H, J. M, G. R, T. O. "The incidence of nosocomial urinary tract infections at the Kenyatta National Hosptial – ICU." Kenya Nursing Journal . 2009;38(1):31-43.
Inyama HK, G R, J M, T O. "THE INCIDENCE OF NOSOCOMIAL URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS: KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL – INTENSIVE CARE UNIT." Kenya Nursing Journal. 2015;38(1):31-42. Abstractfull_publication.pdf

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are most common nosocomial infections in the acute care settings and long-term care facilities. In the acute care settings a vast majority of UTIs occur in patients with temporary urinary catheters. Nosocomial catheter-associated urinary tract infections (NCAUTIs) have been one of the major problems in the Intensive care unit (ICU) and have contributed to the mortality and morbidity of the patients. Efforts to contain the problem have resulted in the introduction of guidelines to reduce the incidence and prevalence of the nosocomial UTI. Such measures have been implemented in the developed world; unfortunately the developing countries have not duplicated the same. This descriptive cross-sectional study Urine samples were collected and analysed in the laboratory for growth of microorganisms to determine the incidence of NCAUTIs. The findings of the study indicate that the Incidence of NCAUTI was determined to be 18% with the common isolated microorganism being Escherichia coli. It recommend that, a procedure and policy on the management of a patient with a urinary catheter should be developed and made available for use in the ICU.

Inyama HK, Kimani S, Omoni G. "Innovative Program for Increasing Access to Higher Education for working Nurses.". In: Research as a driver for science, Technology and Innovation for Health. Nairobi; 2013:. Abstractinnovation_program_for_increasing_access_to_higher_education_for_working_nurses_abstract.pdf

Background: Health care training including nursing have conventionally been delivered through face to face mode requiring physical presence of the trainee. Because of distance, shortage of staff, cost, perceived and/or real staff vacuum, higher training of working nurses have been a challenge. Therefore, the University of Nairobi (UoN), School of Nursing sciences (SONS) in partnership with AMREF established an innovative program to increase accessibility of higher training for working nurses.
Objective: To increase access to higher education for Nursing while maintaining acceptable staffing patterns and health care delivery services.
Methodology: This is a blended eLearning program where registered diploma nurses upgrade to BSc Nursing. The program takes three academic years, structured into 3 trimesters of 14 to 17 weeks. In addition, each semester has 2 weekly three face to face sessions with the remaining time dedicated for self-directed learning. The program has been running seamlessly since 2012.
Results: Five groups have been admitted since the inception totaling 300 students. Of the students, 80 %( n=240) are females. The transition of each class from one level to the next have been 80 to 95%. The performance by the student on individual course unit have been above 80 %( very good) including the biomedical courses.
Implication: E-Learning program is an effective model that should be adopted for nursing training. It improves accessibility to higher education for nurses, maintains staffing patterns while assuring continued service delivery. A unique collaboration between University and private entity bringing synergism and resource maximization has been brought forth. In conclusion, a review of the performance by the students undertaking this programme needs to be carried out to assess the trickledown effect of the accrued benefits of higher nursing training.

Inyama H, J. M, G. R, T. O. "Quality of Critical Care in relation to the Incidence of Nosocomial Urinary tract Infections at the Kenyatta National Hospital – ICU." Baraton Interdisciplinary & Research Journal . 2006;1(2):12-21.
Inyama HK, Odero T. "Quality of Critical Care in relation to the Incidence of Nosocomial Urinary tract Infections at the Kenyatta National Hospital - ICU." Baraton Interdisciplinary & Research Journal . 2011;1(2):12-21.
Inyama HK, Revathi G, Musandu J, Odero T. "The Incidence of Nosocomial Urinary Tract Infections: Kenyatta National Hospital – Intensive Care Unit." Baraton Interdisciplinary Research Journal . 2011;1(2):12-21. Abstractfull_publication_.pdf

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common nosocomial infections in both acute care settings and long-term care facilities. Each year millions of urethral catheters are put in place in these facilities across the United States. In the acute care settings a vast majority of UTIs occur in patients with temporary urinary catheters. Nosocomial catheter-associated urinary tract infections (NCAUTIs) have been one of the major problems in the Intensive care unit (ICU) and have contributed to the mortality and morbidity of the patients. Efforts to contain the problem have resulted in the introduction of guidelines to reduce the incidence and prevalence of the nosocomial UTI. Such measures have been implemented in the developed world; unfortunately the developing countries have not duplicated the same. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Urine samples were collected and analysed in the laboratory for growth of microorganisms to determine the incidence of NCAUTIs. The findings of the study indicate that the Incidence of NCAUTI was determined to be 18% with the common isolated microorganism being Escherichia coli. It recommended that there was need for judicious use of antibiotics to prevent drug resistance and that a procedure and policy on the management of a patient with a urinary catheter should be developed and made available for in the ICU.

Inyangala BAO;, Rege JEO;, Itulya S. "Growth traits of the Dorper sheep. I. Factors influencing growth traits."; 1992. Abstract

Presents results of a study carried out to analyse growth traits of the Dorper sheep. Data on 969 lambs collected over a 10-year period (1978 to 1987) at Magogo, Kenya were used in the study. Lamb traits studied were weights from birth to yearling and absolute growth rates between adjacent stages of growth. All the fixed effects studied influenced growth in one way or another.

Inyangala BAO, Rege JEO, Itulya S. "Genetic and phenotypic parameter estimates of growth traits of the Dorper and Dorper X Red Masai sheep.". 1990. Abstract

Data on 1550 Dorper and Dorper X Masai lambs recorded over a 10-yr period were analysed. The crossbred lambs were from dams having >73.4% Dorper inheritance. The effect of percentage of Dorper inheritance was not significant for birth weight and for most measures of body weight to 12 months of age. The h²s, estimated by paternal half-sib analysis, were 0.15±0.07 for birth weight, 0.18±0.08 for weaning weight, 0.39±0.11 for 9-month weight, and 0.55±0.13 for 12-month weight. Genetic correlations among body weights were 0.15-0.99 and phenotypic correlations 0.02-0.

Inyega HN, Inyega JO. Gentle gracing giraffes. Nairobi: ARK; 2016.
Inyega J, Thomson N, BUTLER MALCOLMB. Evidence-based chemistry unit lesson plan designing and implementation following in-service programs: Multi-site cases of teachers in Kenya. Dallas, Texas, USA: NARST; 2005. Abstract

This paper examines multi-site cases of in-service teachers' classroom practices and experiences about chemistry unit lesson planning and implementation following the Strengthening of Mathematics and Science in Secondary Education (SMASSE) professional development programs in Kenya. A descriptive comparison was made of chemistry district in-service educators in two districts in four different settings (boys' boarding, girls' boarding, mixed boarding, and mixed day schools). The study found that participants prepared student-centred lesson activities, improvised teaching/learning materials, and conducted small-scale experiments in areas involving dangerous reactions. They enhanced their lesson planning and teaching skills in the areas of the periodic table, the "mole concept," electrochemistry and organic chemistry (the satisfiers or benefits from the In-service education). Participants were dissatisfied because of increased school workloads and not being compensated for implementing district in-service education programs during the 5-year project duration. Implementation of inquiry-based student activities and improvisations in chemistry was hindered by national examinations which do not contain items from such areas.

Inyega HN, Inyega JO. "Six Ts for effective and efficient early grade literacy instruction. (Book Chapter) In Ross Graham (Eds.). Developing languages in Africa: Social and educational perspectives.". In: Developing languages in Africa: social and educational perspectives. London: Cambridge University Press; In Press.
Inyega HN. "The young child's memory for words: Developing first and second language and literacy. Book Review." Journal of language and Literacy Education (on-line), 1(1) 32-34. 2005.
Inyega HN, Inyega JO. "Experiences of student teachers’ on placement." International Journal of Educational Policy Research and Review. 2017;4(5):90-102.
Inyega, H.N. IAKMMJOWJ, Ngesu LM. "Transforming Early Childhood Teacher Education using an Early Grade Reading Instruction Curriculum." Early Grade Reading Instruction Curriculum (EGRIC); 2015. Abstract
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Inyega JO. Teachers' practices and experiences following professional development: A Kenya multi-site analysis. Saarbrucken, Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Muller (ISBN: 978-3-639-32625-3). Online available: www.amazon.com. SAARBRUCKEN: VDM- Verlag Dr. Muller; 2011. AbstractWebsite

In this qualitative research case study, multi-site cases of teachers' practices and experiences about chemistry unit lesson planning and implementation following an in-service teacher education program in Kenya are examined. Specifically, a descriptive comparison of chemistry educators in the Strengthening of Mathematics and Science in Secondary Education (SMASSE) In-service Program in four different school settings (boys' boarding, girls' boarding, mixed boarding, and mixed day) was made. The intent of this study was to determine what changes, if any, teachers made in the design and implementation of their lessons, how these changes were implemented, and why the teachers made such changes. Among other findings, the study established that participants planned, prepared and implemented student-centered activity lessons using a new lesson plan format during chemistry unit lessons on the Periodic Table, "Mole Concept", Electrochemistry, and Organic Chemistry. They improvised teaching/learning materials, where conventional equipment were not available in school.

INYEGA DRHELLENNASIMIYUH. "Commeyras, M., & Inyega, H. N. (2007). An Integrative Review of Teaching Reading in Kenyan Primary Schools.". In: Reading Research Quarterly. International Reading Association; 2007. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
Inyega JO, Inyega HN, Hardman F. "Implementing cross-age peer tutoring in the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools." The International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies ISSN 2321 – 9203. 2017;5(4):16-22.
Inyega JO, Inyega HN. "Mainstreaming early grade reading instruction in early childhood teacher education." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2017;5(4):103-119.
Inyega, H. N., Inyega JO. "Infusing Reading Instruction into Early Childhood Teacher Education Programs: The Case of University of Nairobi.". In: In M. N. Amutabi (ed.). Africa at development crossroads, Chapter 9, pp. 111-126.(ISBN: 978-9966-1933-5-3). Nairobi: Centre for Democracy Research and Development (CEDRED); 2017.
INYEGA DRHELLENNASIMIYUH. "Brooker, S., Okello, G., Njagi, K., Dubeck, M. M., Halliday, K. E., Inyega, H. N., & Jukes, M. C. H. (2010). Improving educational achievement and anaemia of school children: design of a cluster randomised trial of school-based malaria prevention and enha.". In: The Fountain Journal Vol 4 No. 2. Trials Journal; 2010. Abstract
Background Improving the health of school-aged children can yield substantial benefits for cognitive development and educational achievement. However, there is limited experimental evidence on the benefits of school-based malaria prevention or how health interventions interact with other efforts to improve education quality. This study aims to evaluate the impact of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction on the health and educational achievement of school children in Kenya. Design A factorial, cluster randomised trial is being implemented in 101 government primary schools on the coast of Kenya. The interventions are (i) intermittent screening and treatment of malaria in schools by public health workers and (ii) training workshops and support for teachers to promote explicit and systematic literacy instruction. Schools are randomised to one of four groups: receiving either (i) the malaria intervention alone; (ii) the literacy intervention alone; (iii) both interventions combined; or (iv) control group where neither intervention is implemented. Children from classes 1 and 5 are randomly selected and followed up for 24 months. The primary outcomes are educational achievement and anaemia, the hypothesised mediating variables through which education is affected. Secondary outcomes include malaria parasitaemia, school attendance and school performance. A nested process evaluation, using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussion and a stakeholder analysis will investigate the community acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the interventions. Discussion Across Africa, governments are committed to improve health and education of school-aged children, but seek clear policy and technical guidance as to the optimal approach to address malaria and improved literacy. This evaluation will be one of the first to simultaneously evaluate the impact of health and education interventions in the improvement of educational achievement. Reflection is made on the practical issues encountered in conducting research in schools in Africa.
Inyega HN, Inyega JO. My sister has got mumps. Nairobi: ARK; 2016.
Inyega HN, Inyega JO. "The Nuts and Bolts for Effective Literacy and Numeracy Instruction in Early Childhood." University of Dar es salaam School of Education Journal of Education and Development (ISSN 0856-4027). 2017;(35):17-40.
Inyega JO, Thomson N, Chomchid P. "Secondary high school chemistry teachers’ perspectives on the difficulties of teaching atomic structure and the periodic table: Views from Thailand and Kenya." Songklanakarin E-Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities. 2009;15(4):577-594. AbstractWebsite

Our research study provides a glimpse into difficulties high school chemistry teachers in Thailand and
Kenya encounter in classroom practice when addressing issues of learning atomic structure and the periodic
table. In this paper, we focus on chemistry teachers’ reflections using surveys with questionnaires and interviews
to learn about the difficulties they encounter in teaching basic concepts related to atomic structure and the
periodic table in chemistry. We do not believe that teachers in Thailand and Kenya are different from those in
the global community, but little data exists to support this claim especially with regard to rural areas. Our data
is being used to design and create curriculum materials relevant to the teachers’ and students’ needs and we are
planning to investigate its usefulness.
Keywords: atomic structure, chemistry, Kenya, periodic table, teachers’ perspectives, Thailand

Inyega HN, Inyega JO. "Empowering children and teachers through literacy: the case of children’s book project (CBP) for Tanzania." Education Research Journal.. 2017;7(5):94-102.
Inyega J. Teaching online courses: Lessons learned. College Reading Association Yearbook; 2007.
Inyega HN, Inyega JO. Learning to read and reading to learn: A practical teacher's guide. Nairobi: Riverbrooks Communications Network. ISBN: 996-67336-3-9. Nairobi: Riverbrooks Communications Network; 2011. Abstract

The book focus on teaching methodology with special reference to reading

Inyega HN, Inyega JO, Matula PD. "Enhancing college students' communication skills: adopting an interdisciplinary approach." International Journal of Literacy and Development. 2014;1(1):25-44.
Inyega HN, Inyega JO. All teachers teaching reading all children reading: a pedagogical shift in teacher education in Kenya. Nairobi: Jo-Vansallen Publishing Company ; 2017.
INYEGA DRHELLENNASIMIYUH. "Inyega, H. N. (2005). The Young Child.". In: Reading Research Quarterly. University of Georgia; 2005. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
Inyega HN, Inyega JO. "Implementing a school-based teacher support system for sustainable education development in Kenya.". In: International Conference on Research and innovation in Education. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018.
Inyega HN. Learning to read and reading to learn: A practical teachers' guide. Nairobi: Riverbrooks Publishers; 2011.
INYEGA DRHELLENNASIMIYUH. "Kioko, A., Mutiga, J., Muthwii, M., Shroeder, L., Inyega, H. N. & Trudell, B. (2008). Language and Education in Africa: Answering the Questions.". In: The Fountain Journal Vol 4 No. 2. UNESCO; 2008. Abstract
Background Improving the health of school-aged children can yield substantial benefits for cognitive development and educational achievement. However, there is limited experimental evidence on the benefits of school-based malaria prevention or how health interventions interact with other efforts to improve education quality. This study aims to evaluate the impact of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction on the health and educational achievement of school children in Kenya. Design A factorial, cluster randomised trial is being implemented in 101 government primary schools on the coast of Kenya. The interventions are (i) intermittent screening and treatment of malaria in schools by public health workers and (ii) training workshops and support for teachers to promote explicit and systematic literacy instruction. Schools are randomised to one of four groups: receiving either (i) the malaria intervention alone; (ii) the literacy intervention alone; (iii) both interventions combined; or (iv) control group where neither intervention is implemented. Children from classes 1 and 5 are randomly selected and followed up for 24 months. The primary outcomes are educational achievement and anaemia, the hypothesised mediating variables through which education is affected. Secondary outcomes include malaria parasitaemia, school attendance and school performance. A nested process evaluation, using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussion and a stakeholder analysis will investigate the community acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the interventions. Discussion Across Africa, governments are committed to improve health and education of school-aged children, but seek clear policy and technical guidance as to the optimal approach to address malaria and improved literacy. This evaluation will be one of the first to simultaneously evaluate the impact of health and education interventions in the improvement of educational achievement. Reflection is made on the practical issues encountered in conducting research in schools in Africa.
Inyega HN, Inyega JO. The girl whose feet could not stop growing. Nairobi: ARK; 2016.
Inyega JO, Bulinda DM. "Pre-service graduate teachers' perceptions on instructional supervision in relation to preparation and planning for teaching and learning in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2019;4(1):26-31.
INYEGA DRJUSTUSOKEO, INYEGA DRHELLENNASIMIYUH. "Inyega, J. O., Thomson, N., Butler, M.B., & Inyega, H. N. In-Service Teachers Classroom Practices and Experiences.". In: The Fountain Journal Vol 4 No. 2. The Fountain Journal of Educational Research; 2010. Abstract

This paper examines multi-site cases of in-service teachers' classroom practices and experiences about chemistry unit lesson planning and implementation      following the Strengthening of Mathematics and Science in Secondary Education (SMASSE) professional development programs in Kenya. A descriptive comparison was made of chemistry district in-service educators in two districts in four different settings (boys' boarding, girls' boarding, mixed boarding, and mixed day schools). The study found that participants prepared student-centred lesson activities, improvised teaching/learning materials, and conducted small-scale experiments in areas involving dangerous reactions. They enhanced their lesson planning and teaching skills in the areas of the periodic table, the "mole concept," electrochemistry and organic chemistry (the satisfiers or benefits from the In-service education). Participants were dissatisfied because of increased school workloads and not being compensated for implementing district in-service education programs during the 5-year project duration. Implementation of inquiry-based student activities and improvisations in chemistry was hindered by  national examinations which do not contain items from such areas.

Inyega HN, Inyega JO. My sister was born yellow. Nairobi: ARK; 2016.
Inyega JO, Gunga SO. "Methodology for science teaching in higher education institutions. Nairobi: CODL.". In: University of Nairobi, Centre for Open & Distance Learning Training in Pedagogy Manual: Interactive Teaching Materials for University Lecturers and Professors in Pedagogy. Nairobi: CODL; 2014.
Inyega J, BUTLER MALCOLMB, Thomson N. A Multi-site analysis of teachers’ practices on the “mole concept” following professional development programs. Portland, Oregon, USA: ASTE; 2006. Abstract

This paper examines multi-site cases of in-service teachers' classroom practices and experiences about chemistry unit lesson planning and implementation following the Strengthening of Mathematics and Science in Secondary Education (SMASSE) professional development programs in Kenya. A descriptive comparison was made of chemistry district in-service educators in two districts in four different settings (boys' boarding, girls' boarding, mixed boarding, and mixed day schools). The study found that participants prepared student-centred lesson activities, improvised teaching/learning materials, and conducted small-scale experiments in areas involving dangerous reactions. They enhanced their lesson planning and teaching skills in the areas of the periodic table, the "mole concept," electrochemistry and organic chemistry (the satisfiers or benefits from the In-service education). Participants were dissatisfied because of increased school workloads and not being compensated for implementing district in-service education programs during the 5-year project duration. Implementation of inquiry-based student activities and improvisations in chemistry was hindered by national examinations which do not contain items from such areas.

Inyega JO, Inyega HN. "Teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge following in -service training in Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies.. 2017;5(5):8-13.
Inyega, H.N. and Commeyras M. "An integrative review of teaching reading in kenyan primary schools." Reading Research Quarterly. 2007;42(2).
Inyega JO, THOMSON NORMANF, BUTLER MALCOLMB, Inyega HN. "In-service teachers classroom practices and experiences following professional development: A Kenya multi-site analysis." The Fountain Journal of Educational Research. 2010;IV(1):1-21. Abstract

This paper examines multi-site cases of in-service teachers' classroom practices and experiences about chemistry unit lesson planning and implementation following the Strengthening of Mathematics and Science in Secondary Education (SMASSE) professional development programs in Kenya. A descriptive comparison was made of chemistry district in-service educators in two districts in four different settings (boys' boarding, girls' boarding, mixed boarding, and mixed day schools). The study found that participants prepared student-centred lesson activities, improvised teaching/learning materials, and conducted small-scale experiments in areas involving dangerous reactions. They enhanced their lesson planning and teaching skills in the areas of the periodic table, the "mole concept," electrochemistry and organic chemistry (the satisfiers or benefits from the In-service education). Participants were dissatisfied because of increased school workloads and not being compensated for implementing district in-service education programs during the 5-year project duration. Implementation of inquiry-based student activities and improvisations in chemistry was hindered by national examinations which do not contain items from such areas.

Inyega HN, Inyega JO, Wangamati AS. Communication skills for academic exellence. Nairobi: Jo-Vansallen Publishing Company; 2014.
Inyega JO, Inyega HN. "Teachers’ attitude towards teaching following in-service teacher education program in Kenya." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2017;5(4):93-102.
Inyega HN. "In-service teachers' classroom practices and experiences." The Fountain: Journal of Educational Research. 2010;IV(1):1-21.
INYEGA DRHELLENNASIMIYUH. "Fecho, B., Allen., Mazaros, C., & Inyega, H. N. (2005). Teacher Research in the Writing Classrooms. In P. Smagorinsky (Ed.), Research on Composition: Multiple Perspectives on Two Decades of Change (Chapter 5, pp.108- 140).". In: Reading Research Quarterly. Teachers College Press; 2005. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
Inyega HN. Principles of research in education and social sciences. Enugu, Nigeria: Fourth Dimension Publishing Co. Ltd.; 2011.
INYEGA DRHELLENNASIMIYUH. "Teaching online courses: Lessons learned.". In: The Fountain Journal Vol 4 No. 2. College Reading Association Year Book; 2007. Abstract
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Inyega HN, Inyega JO. "Psychotherapy, (il)literacy and information communication and technologies: building bridges to literacy excellence." Journal of Education and Human Development. 2017;6(2):128-138.
Inyega HN, Inyega JO. "The nuts and bolts for effective literacy instruction in early childhood. Papers in Education." Papers in Education, University of Dar es Salaam Journal. 2018;(35).
Inyo DN. "). Service Quality and Operational Performance of Tour Operators in Kenya." African Journal of Business and Management (AJBUMA). 2019;Vol.5(No.1):43-61.
Ipara BO, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA, Makokha SN. "The role of unregulated chicken marketing practices on the frequency of Newcastle Disease outbreaks in Kenya.". In: 6th African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE) . Abuja, Nigeria; 2019.
Ipara BO, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA, Makokha SN. "The role of chicken production systems and management practices on Newcastle Disease outbreaks in Kenya .". In: Tropentag Conference at Universities of Kassel & Goettingen. Germany; 2019.
Iqbal T, Amanullah A, Nawaz R. "Pattern and {Positions} of {Vermiform} {Appendix} in {People} of {Bannu} {District}." Gomal Journal of Medical Sciences. 2012;10:100-103. Abstract

Background: Vermiform appendix performs function immunologically and acts like a tonsil. The objective of the study was to determine different positions of appendix in people of district Bannu. Methods: It was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in district Bannu from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2009. Sample size was 500, including appendices during surgery in acute abdomen, postmortem, and among dissected bodies. Vermiform appendices were observed in situ and positions recorded accordingly. Results: The age ranges was 1 to 60 years. Retrocaecal position was highest (57%) followed by pelvic (28.6%), post-ileal (9.4%) and pre-ileal (4%). The paracaecal and ectopic varieties were 5%. Conclusion: Retrocaecal is the commonest position followed by pelvic appendix.

Iqbal Z, Ali IS, Khan M. "Comparison between predicted position of appendix on clinical examination and position of appendix as an intraoperative finding in patients with clinically suspected acute appendicitis." Journal of Postgraduate Medical Institute (Peshawar - Pakistan). 2011;25. AbstractWebsite

COMPARISON BETWEEN PREDICTED POSITION OF APPENDIX ON CLINICAL EXAMINATION AND POSITION OF APPENDIX AS AN INTRAOPERATIVE FINDING IN PATIENTS WITH CLINICALLY SUSPECTED ACUTE APPENDICITIS

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