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D K, W. O, P. M, N L, E A. "“Upper Echelons Theory and Research: A review of Theory and Empirical Literature 28 Years Later”." Business Administration Management. 2012;2(10):697-703.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Mitogenic activities in African traditional herbal medicines:Planta Med. 1993 Aug;59(4):354-8.". In: Planta Med. 1993 Aug;59(4):354-8. UN-HABITAT; 1993. Abstract
Mitogenic activities in African traditional herbal medicines were examined using protein fractions obtained from their extracts by precipitation with ammonium sulfate. Potent mitogenic activities for human and mouse lymphocytes were found in the three plants: Croton macrostachyus, Croton megalocarpus (Euphorbiaceae), and Phytolacca dodecandra (Phytolaccaceae). All the gel chromatographic patterns of these protein fractions progressed toward the smaller molecule site with pronase treatment, while their mitogenic activities decreased significantly. Protein fractions from these three plants induced mitogenesis both in human and mouse isolated T cells, but not in lymphocytes from athymic nude mice. By testing further fractionated protein fractions with gel filtration chromatography, it was found that all three plants contained several mitogens having different molecule sizes.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Maitai CK, Ogeto JO, Munenge RW, Ochieng S, Juma FD.A comparative study of the efficacy of seven brands of frusemide tablets.East Afr Med J. 1984 Jan;61(1):6-10.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Jan;61(1):6-10. UN-HABITAT; 1984. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of antipyrine were studied in 12 healthy volunteers and 10 patients of Kenya African origin with Hodgkin's lymphoma. The half-life of antipyrine was 12.2 +/- 1.3 h (mean + s.d.), while the apparent volume of distribution (V) was 0.67 +/- 0.11 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) and the total body clearance was 40.7 +/- 3.2 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) in the healthy volunteers. The antipyrine half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was 17.1 +/- 2.7 h (mean +/- s.d.). The apparent volume of distribution was 0.72 +/- 0.14 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) which was larger than in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.05). The total body clearance was 30.3 +/- 9.4 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean + s.d.) and this was reduced compared with that in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.02). After cytotoxic therapy the half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was significantly decreased to 8.3 +/- 1.3 h (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.07), and the apparent volume of distribution was reduced to 0.65 +/- 0.07 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.05) while the total body clearance increased to 52.8 +/- 5.5 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.01).

D PROFJUMAFRANCIS, N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "Cardiovascular risk factor profiles in mild to moderate hypertensives seen at Kenyatta National Hospital.East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):693-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):693-5. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
Sixty newly diagnosed adult patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension were assessed to determine their cardiovascular risk factor profiles. Detailed history and physical examinations were done. Resting 12-lead ECG was done and serum levels of uric acid, fasting cholesterol, and fasting glucose were determined. Twenty nine patients had hypertension and two or more cardiovascular risk factors. The most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors other than hypertension were electro-cardiovascular left ventricular hypertrophy (31.7%), obesity (28.3%) and hypercholesterolaemia (28.3%). About a half of these patients (48.3%) can be classified as high risk hypertensives. This calls for aggressive management of cardiovascular risk factors as a whole and not just hypertension alone if we are to reduce incidence of hypertensive complications.
D DRNJUGUNAKARANJA. "Karanja D N, Yeboah R K, Yokoyama N and Igarashi I. Alternative laboratory methods for diagnosis of babesia carrier animals.". In: Kenyan Veterinarian 29:25-28. Kenyan Veterinarian; 2005.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Ichimaru M, Nakatani N, Takahashi T, Nishiyama Y, Moriyasu M, Kato A, Mathenge SG, Juma FD, Nganga JN.Cytotoxic C-benzylated dihydrochalcones from Uvaria acuminata.Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2004 Jan;52(1):138-41.". In: Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2004 Jan;52(1):138-41. UN-HABITAT; 2004. Abstract
Two new C-benzylated dihydrochalcones, isochamuvaritin (1) and acumitin (2), have been isolated from the African medicinal plant Uvaria acuminata, together with the previously reported benzylbenzoate (3), uvaretin (4), isouvaretin (5), diuvaretin (6), and uvangoletin (7). The structural elucidation of compounds 1 and 2 in spectroscopic studies is described. C-Benzylated dihydrochalcones, especially 1, 2, 4, and 6, showed considerable cytotoxicity toward human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Practical therapeutics: some investigations of the toxic effects of the alkaloids extracted from Strychnos henningsii (Gilg) "muteta".Ogeto JO, Juma FD, Muriuki G. East Afr Med J. 1984 May;61(5):427-32.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 May;61(5):427-32. UN-HABITAT; 1984. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of antipyrine were studied in 12 healthy volunteers and 10 patients of Kenya African origin with Hodgkin's lymphoma. The half-life of antipyrine was 12.2 +/- 1.3 h (mean + s.d.), while the apparent volume of distribution (V) was 0.67 +/- 0.11 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) and the total body clearance was 40.7 +/- 3.2 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) in the healthy volunteers. The antipyrine half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was 17.1 +/- 2.7 h (mean +/- s.d.). The apparent volume of distribution was 0.72 +/- 0.14 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) which was larger than in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.05). The total body clearance was 30.3 +/- 9.4 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean + s.d.) and this was reduced compared with that in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.02). After cytotoxic therapy the half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was significantly decreased to 8.3 +/- 1.3 h (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.07), and the apparent volume of distribution was reduced to 0.65 +/- 0.07 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.05) while the total body clearance increased to 52.8 +/- 5.5 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.01).

D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Towett PK, Kanui Stimulation of mu and delta opioid receptors induces hyperalgesia while stimulation of kappa receptors induces antinociception in the hot plate test in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber). Brain Res Bull. 2006 Dec 11;71(1-3):60-8. .". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S43-7. UN-HABITAT; 2006. Abstract
The antinociceptive effects of highly selective mu (DAMGO), delta (DPDPE) and kappa (U-50488 and U-69593) opioid agonists were evaluated following intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in the naked mole-rat. A hot plate test set at 60 degrees C was used as a nociceptive test and the latency to the stamping of the right hind paw (response latency) was used as the end-point. DAMGO (5-10 mg/kg) and DPDPE (2.5-5 mg/kg) caused a naloxone-reversible significant decrease in the mean response latency. Subcutaneous injection of naloxonazine (20 mg/kg) 24h prior to the administration of DAMGO (5 mg/kg) also blocked the reduction in the response latency observed when DAMGO was injected alone. On the contrary, U-50488 (2.5-5 mg/kg) or U-69593 (0.08 or 0.1 mg/kg) caused a naloxone-reversible significant increase in the mean response latency. These results showed that activation of mu or delta receptors caused hyperalgesia, whereas activation of kappa receptors caused antinociception in the hot plate test in naked mole-rat. This suggests that mu and delta receptors modulate thermal pain in a different way than kappa receptors in the naked mole-rat. It is not possible at the moment to point out how they modulate thermal pain as little is known about the neuropharmacology of the naked mole-rat.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Kinetics, distribution, and efficacy of ceftriaxone versus cefazolin in open heart surgery.Am J Surg. 1984 Oct 19;148(4A):41-2.". In: Am J Surg. 1984 Oct 19;148(4A):41-2. UN-HABITAT; 1984. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of antipyrine were studied in 12 healthy volunteers and 10 patients of Kenya African origin with Hodgkin's lymphoma. The half-life of antipyrine was 12.2 +/- 1.3 h (mean + s.d.), while the apparent volume of distribution (V) was 0.67 +/- 0.11 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) and the total body clearance was 40.7 +/- 3.2 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) in the healthy volunteers. The antipyrine half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was 17.1 +/- 2.7 h (mean +/- s.d.). The apparent volume of distribution was 0.72 +/- 0.14 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) which was larger than in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.05). The total body clearance was 30.3 +/- 9.4 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean + s.d.) and this was reduced compared with that in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.02). After cytotoxic therapy the half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was significantly decreased to 8.3 +/- 1.3 h (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.07), and the apparent volume of distribution was reduced to 0.65 +/- 0.07 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.05) while the total body clearance increased to 52.8 +/- 5.5 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.01).

D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Juma FD, Rogers HJ, Trounce JR.Pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and alkylating activity in man after intravenous and oral administration.Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1979 Sep;8(3):209-17.". In: Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1979 Sep;8(3):209-17. UN-HABITAT; 1979. Abstract
1 The concentrations of cyclophosphamide in plasma and saliva were determined in seven patients following administration of single doses of cyclophosphamide during chemotherapy for lymphoma. 2 The saliva/plasma ratio was 0.77 +/- 0.24 (s.d.) and showed no time-dependence being rapidly established following intravenous and oral administration. 3 The T 1/2 of cyclophosphamide (8.38 +/- 2.25 h) determined from salivary measurements was not significantly different from that in plasma (8.24 +/- 2.60 h). It was not possible to estimate the apparent volume of distribution or total body clearance utilizing the salivary cyclophosphamide concentration without appropriate correction for the saliva/plasma concentration ratio. 4 The binding to the plasma protein of normal plasma of cyclophosphamide was 13.4 +/- 5.3%. The Scatchard plot for binding to bovine serum albumin indicates only weak binding to non-specific sites. 5 Salivary cyclophosphamide therefore indicates the concentration of the unbound fraction of plasma cyclophosphamide.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Juma FD.Disposition of antipyrine in African patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma.Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1987 Dec;24(6):809-11.". In: Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1987 Dec;24(6):809-11. UN-HABITAT; 1987. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of antipyrine were studied in 12 healthy volunteers and 10 patients of Kenya African origin with Hodgkin's lymphoma. The half-life of antipyrine was 12.2 +/- 1.3 h (mean + s.d.), while the apparent volume of distribution (V) was 0.67 +/- 0.11 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) and the total body clearance was 40.7 +/- 3.2 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) in the healthy volunteers. The antipyrine half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was 17.1 +/- 2.7 h (mean +/- s.d.). The apparent volume of distribution was 0.72 +/- 0.14 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) which was larger than in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.05). The total body clearance was 30.3 +/- 9.4 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean + s.d.) and this was reduced compared with that in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.02). After cytotoxic therapy the half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was significantly decreased to 8.3 +/- 1.3 h (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.07), and the apparent volume of distribution was reduced to 0.65 +/- 0.07 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.05) while the total body clearance increased to 52.8 +/- 5.5 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.01).

D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Juma FD, Rogers HJ, Trounce JR.Effect of renal insufficiency on the pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and some of its metabolites.Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1981;19(6):443-51.". In: Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1981;19(6):443-51. UN-HABITAT; 1981. Abstract
Cyclophosphamide pharmacokinetics were studied in seven patients with moderate to severe renal insufficiency (creatinine clearances 0-51 ml . min-1), and compared with a matched control group of patients with normal renal function. The mean half-life of cyclophosphamide following intravenous administration in the normal group was 8.21 +/- 2.33 (SD) h whilst that in renal failure was 10.15 +/- 1.80 h: these were significantly different. The total body clearance in the normal control group was 58.6 +/- 10.9 ml . kg-1h-1 which was significantly larger than in renal failure where it was 48.8 +/- 10.9 ml . kg-1h-1. Vd beta, Vdss and Vc were not significantly different between the two groups. A linear relationship exists between beta, the first order disposition rate constant and endogenous creatinine clearance since this drug shows a relatively small degree of compartmentalisation. The plasma half-life of phosphoramide mustard, a cytotoxic metabolite of cyclophosphamide, shows a parallel and significant increase in renal failure with the parent compound. The t1/2 in normal patients was 8.33 +/- 2.0 h, whilst in the renal failure group it was 13.37 +/- 4.23 h. Total alkylating activity as measured by the nitrobenzyl-pyridine reaction showed a significant increase in renal failure. This data suggests that in pharmacokinetic terms it may not be necessary to alter the dose of cyclophosphamide until there is severe renal impairment. Further studies correlating the efficacy and toxicity of the drug with its pharmacokinetics in renal failure are necessary.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Hagos B, Nganga JN, Juma FD, Ndegwa P.A comparative study of the neutralising capacity of eight brands of antacids.East Afr Med J. 1989 Jun;66(6):408-10.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Jun;66(6):408-10. UN-HABITAT; 1989. Abstract
Eight brands of antacid tablets commonly available in the private market in Kenya were subjected to in-vitro tests for neutralizing capacity. The neutralizing capacity per gram and per tablet of the products was compared. The neutralizing capacity in millilitres of 0.1 M HC1 per gram ranged from 103.10 for Gelusil to 225.13 for Maalox, with others ranging between +/- 18.1% and -12% about the average. The neutralizing capacity per tablet ranged from 64.90 ml for Magnesium trisilicate Co tablets B.P. to 263.15 ml for Maalox, with the others ranging between +/- 24.9% and -33.1% about the average. This shows high variation in the neutralizing capacities of the different brands available especially in relations to the neutralizing capacities per tablet due to the high variation in the tablet weight.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Juma FD.Pharmacokinetics of pindolol in Kenyan Africans.Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1983;25(3):425-6.". In: Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1983;25(3):425-6. UN-HABITAT; 1983. Abstract
The pharmacokinetics of pindolol was studied in 8 normal Africans following administration of a single oral 10 mg dose. The mean peak concentration was 30.2 +/- 5.0 ng X ml-1, the mean half-life (t1/2) of the elimination phase was 3.4 +/- 1.1 h, and the total body clearance was 628 +/- 13 ml X min-1. The apparent volume of distribution was 3.0 +/- 1.31 X kg-1. The values are the same as those reported in Europeans.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Acetylation status using hydralazine in African hypertensives at Kenyatta National Hospital:East Afr Med J. 1992 Jul;69(7):406-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Jul;69(7):406-8. UN-HABITAT; 1992. Abstract
In this study, the investigation of hydralazine acetylator phenotype was undertaken for the first time in African hypertensives at Kenyatta National Hospital. A total of 25 randomly selected patients with moderate to severe hypertension (diastolic pressure 105-130 mmHg), participated in the phenotyping study. The phenotyping was done by administering oral standard hydralazine dose of 150 mg/day in three divided doses. The 24 hour urinary MTP/hydralazine ratio was used to categorize patients into slow and fast acetylators. Of the patients studied 69.9% were slow acetylators while 30.4% were fast acetylators. The mean 24 hour urinary MTP/hydralazine ratio for slow acetylators was 1.01 +/- 0.95. This was significantly different from the fast acetylators where the mean 24 hour urinary MTP/hydralazine ratio was 10.6 +/- 4.4 (P < 0.001). The acetylator phenotyping divided the patients into two distinct populations and no further arbitrary method was required to divide the patients into either group.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Juma FD, Gitau W, Bwibo NO, Gachoka C.Haemoglobin A1C in children with sickle cell disease.East Afr Med J. 1984 Jan;61(1):32-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Jan;61(1):32-4. UN-HABITAT; 1984. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of antipyrine were studied in 12 healthy volunteers and 10 patients of Kenya African origin with Hodgkin's lymphoma. The half-life of antipyrine was 12.2 +/- 1.3 h (mean + s.d.), while the apparent volume of distribution (V) was 0.67 +/- 0.11 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) and the total body clearance was 40.7 +/- 3.2 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) in the healthy volunteers. The antipyrine half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was 17.1 +/- 2.7 h (mean +/- s.d.). The apparent volume of distribution was 0.72 +/- 0.14 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) which was larger than in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.05). The total body clearance was 30.3 +/- 9.4 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean + s.d.) and this was reduced compared with that in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.02). After cytotoxic therapy the half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was significantly decreased to 8.3 +/- 1.3 h (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.07), and the apparent volume of distribution was reduced to 0.65 +/- 0.07 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.05) while the total body clearance increased to 52.8 +/- 5.5 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.01).

D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Moriyasu M, Ichimaru M, Nishiyama Y, Kato A, Mathenge SG, Juma FD, Nganga JN.Minor Flavanones from Erythrina abyssinicaJ Nat Prod. 1998 Feb 27;61(2):185-8.". In: J Nat Prod. 1998 Feb 27;61(2):185-8. UN-HABITAT; 1998. Abstract

Four new prenylated flavanones, abyssinone-V 4'-methyl ether (1) and abyssinoflavanones IV (2), V (3), and VI (4), have been isolated as minor flavanones from the African medicinal plant, Erythrina abyssinica, together with a known flavanone, sigmoidin D. The structure elucidation of compounds 1-4 by spectroscopic studies is described.

D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Ogeto JO, Juma FD, Muriuki G.Practical therapeutics: some investigations of the toxic effects of the alkaloids extracted from Strychnos henningsii (Gilg) "muteta".East Afr Med J. 1984 May;61(5):427-32.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 May;61(5):427-32. UN-HABITAT; 1984. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of antipyrine were studied in 12 healthy volunteers and 10 patients of Kenya African origin with Hodgkin's lymphoma. The half-life of antipyrine was 12.2 +/- 1.3 h (mean + s.d.), while the apparent volume of distribution (V) was 0.67 +/- 0.11 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) and the total body clearance was 40.7 +/- 3.2 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) in the healthy volunteers. The antipyrine half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was 17.1 +/- 2.7 h (mean +/- s.d.). The apparent volume of distribution was 0.72 +/- 0.14 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) which was larger than in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.05). The total body clearance was 30.3 +/- 9.4 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean + s.d.) and this was reduced compared with that in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.02). After cytotoxic therapy the half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was significantly decreased to 8.3 +/- 1.3 h (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.07), and the apparent volume of distribution was reduced to 0.65 +/- 0.07 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.05) while the total body clearance increased to 52.8 +/- 5.5 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.01).

D M. "On the Minimal Resolution Conjecture for P3.". In: Internation Journal of Contemporary Mathematics. Hikari Limited; 2008. Abstract

The Minimal Resolution Conjecture is known to be true for projective spaces of dimension 2 and 3. In this article I used a variant method to prove it for P3.

D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Nishiyama Y, Moriyasu M, Ichimaru M, Iwasa K, Kato A, Mathenge SG, Chalo Mutiso PB, Juma FD.Secondary and tertiary isoquinoline alkaloids from Xylopia parviflora. Phytochemistry. 2006 Dec;67(24):2671-5. Epub 2006 Sep 11.". In: Phytochemistry. 2006 Dec;67(24):2671-5. Epub 2006 Sep 11.Click here to read. UN-HABITAT; 2006. Abstract
From the secondary and tertiary alkaloidal fractions of the root and the bark of Xylopia parviflora (Annonaceae), the isoquinoline alkaloids, 10,11-dihydroxy-1,2-dimethoxynoraporphine and parvinine were isolated, along with 39 known alkaloids. Their structures were determined on the basis of analysis of spectroscopic data.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Practical therapeutics: treatment of complications of malaria.East Afr Med J. 1984 Sep;61(9):727-30.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Sep;61(9):727-30. UN-HABITAT; 1984. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of antipyrine were studied in 12 healthy volunteers and 10 patients of Kenya African origin with Hodgkin's lymphoma. The half-life of antipyrine was 12.2 +/- 1.3 h (mean + s.d.), while the apparent volume of distribution (V) was 0.67 +/- 0.11 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) and the total body clearance was 40.7 +/- 3.2 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) in the healthy volunteers. The antipyrine half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was 17.1 +/- 2.7 h (mean +/- s.d.). The apparent volume of distribution was 0.72 +/- 0.14 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) which was larger than in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.05). The total body clearance was 30.3 +/- 9.4 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean + s.d.) and this was reduced compared with that in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.02). After cytotoxic therapy the half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was significantly decreased to 8.3 +/- 1.3 h (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.07), and the apparent volume of distribution was reduced to 0.65 +/- 0.07 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.05) while the total body clearance increased to 52.8 +/- 5.5 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.01).

D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Juma FD, Rogers HJ, Trounce JR.First pass hepatic metabolism of cyclophosphamide [proceedings]Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1979 Apr;7(4):422P.". In: Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1979 Apr;7(4):422P. UN-HABITAT; 1979. Abstract
1 The concentrations of cyclophosphamide in plasma and saliva were determined in seven patients following administration of single doses of cyclophosphamide during chemotherapy for lymphoma. 2 The saliva/plasma ratio was 0.77 +/- 0.24 (s.d.) and showed no time-dependence being rapidly established following intravenous and oral administration. 3 The T 1/2 of cyclophosphamide (8.38 +/- 2.25 h) determined from salivary measurements was not significantly different from that in plasma (8.24 +/- 2.60 h). It was not possible to estimate the apparent volume of distribution or total body clearance utilizing the salivary cyclophosphamide concentration without appropriate correction for the saliva/plasma concentration ratio. 4 The binding to the plasma protein of normal plasma of cyclophosphamide was 13.4 +/- 5.3%. The Scatchard plot for binding to bovine serum albumin indicates only weak binding to non-specific sites. 5 Salivary cyclophosphamide therefore indicates the concentration of the unbound fraction of plasma cyclophosphamide.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Ranitidine in the treatment of peptic ulceration in Kenyans.East Afr Med J. 1985 Oct;62(10):752-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Oct;62(10):752-4. UN-HABITAT; 1985. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of antipyrine were studied in 12 healthy volunteers and 10 patients of Kenya African origin with Hodgkin's lymphoma. The half-life of antipyrine was 12.2 +/- 1.3 h (mean + s.d.), while the apparent volume of distribution (V) was 0.67 +/- 0.11 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) and the total body clearance was 40.7 +/- 3.2 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) in the healthy volunteers. The antipyrine half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was 17.1 +/- 2.7 h (mean +/- s.d.). The apparent volume of distribution was 0.72 +/- 0.14 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) which was larger than in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.05). The total body clearance was 30.3 +/- 9.4 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean + s.d.) and this was reduced compared with that in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.02). After cytotoxic therapy the half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was significantly decreased to 8.3 +/- 1.3 h (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.07), and the apparent volume of distribution was reduced to 0.65 +/- 0.07 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.05) while the total body clearance increased to 52.8 +/- 5.5 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.01).

D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Juma FD, Rogers HJ, Trounce JR.The pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide, phosphoramide mustard and nor-nitrogen mustard studied by gas chromatography in patients receiving cyclophosphamide therapy.Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1980 Oct;10(4):327-35.". In: Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1980 Oct;10(4):327-35. UN-HABITAT; 1980. Abstract
Cyclophosphamide pharmacokinetics were studied in seven patients with moderate to severe renal insufficiency (creatinine clearances 0-51 ml . min-1), and compared with a matched control group of patients with normal renal function. The mean half-life of cyclophosphamide following intravenous administration in the normal group was 8.21 +/- 2.33 (SD) h whilst that in renal failure was 10.15 +/- 1.80 h: these were significantly different. The total body clearance in the normal control group was 58.6 +/- 10.9 ml . kg-1h-1 which was significantly larger than in renal failure where it was 48.8 +/- 10.9 ml . kg-1h-1. Vd beta, Vdss and Vc were not significantly different between the two groups. A linear relationship exists between beta, the first order disposition rate constant and endogenous creatinine clearance since this drug shows a relatively small degree of compartmentalisation. The plasma half-life of phosphoramide mustard, a cytotoxic metabolite of cyclophosphamide, shows a parallel and significant increase in renal failure with the parent compound. The t1/2 in normal patients was 8.33 +/- 2.0 h, whilst in the renal failure group it was 13.37 +/- 4.23 h. Total alkylating activity as measured by the nitrobenzyl-pyridine reaction showed a significant increase in renal failure. This data suggests that in pharmacokinetic terms it may not be necessary to alter the dose of cyclophosphamide until there is severe renal impairment. Further studies correlating the efficacy and toxicity of the drug with its pharmacokinetics in renal failure are necessary.
D E, W K, J. K. "THE EFFECT OF GENERAL ELECTIONS ON STOCK RETURNS AT THE NAIROBI SECURITIES EXCHANGE." European Scientific Journal. 2016;11(28):1857-7881. AbstractEffects_of_general_elections_on_stock_returns_at_the_nairobi_securities_exchange.pdf

The performance of the financial markets is significantly impacted by
the political environment during eneral ellections. This paper focussed on the
effect of general ellections on the stock retuns at the Nairobi Securities
exchange. Emperical results have given inconsistent results on whether
general election events negatively of positively impact the stock return. The
study adopted event study methodology and analysed secondary data
collected from the NSE around the 1997, 2002, 2007 and 2013 general
election dates in Kenya. The study found that market reaction to elections is
highly negative or positive depending on the volatility of the election
environment. Analysis of the cumulative abnormal returns (CAR) found that
the 2002 and 2013 general elections were insignificant, while the CAR
around the 1997 and 2007 general election events were found to be
significant at 5% level of significance. The study, thus recommends that
stock market, investors and other stakeholders not to overlook electioneering
events, and to implement policies that will cusion the security market against
political risks during general elections to enhance investor confidence

D A, H S, JA O’o, KO A. "Anatomical variations of the carotid arteries in adult Kenyans. ." East Afr Med J. 2008;85 (5):244-247. AbstractWebsite

Background: Prolapsed intervertebral disk (PID) disease can be managed conservatively or surgically with different reported outcomes.Objective: The present study aimed at assessing the management and outcomes of slipped intervertebral disk disease at the Kenyatta National hospital.Study Design: A retrospective cross-sectional study.Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) a referral and teaching Hospital in Kenya.Patients and Methods: Consecutive files of all cases of slipped intervertebral disk disease from January1997 to December 2007 were retrieved from the Medical records at the Kenyatta National Hospital. The biodata, management methods and the outcomes of the procedures were recorded. The collecteddata was analyzed using the SPSS 17.0 for Windows.Results: Six hundred and three cases were reviewed. All patients received analgesics and bed rest.Five percent of the patients were put on bilateral traction for two weeks while 4% of the patients had corsets. Thirty five per cent of the patients were surgically managed. Over a third of the surgically managed patients had laminectomies. Microdiscectomy was increasingly popular in the latter half ofthe study period. Of the managed patients 95% reported improvement while 92% were complication free. The rate of reherniation and reoperation was 1.5% and 1.2% respectively.Conclusion: The management of PID at Kenyatta National Hospital is largely successful with few cases of complications. In selected patients both conservative and surgical care are used in tandem. Microdiscectomy is an increasingly popular surgical procedure at the KNH.

D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Sorbitol levels in normal Africans and in insulin dependent diabetics.East Afr Med J. 1988 Feb;65(2):99-101.". In: East Afr Med J. 1988 Feb;65(2):99-101. UN-HABITAT; 1988. Abstract
Eight brands of antacid tablets commonly available in the private market in Kenya were subjected to in-vitro tests for neutralizing capacity. The neutralizing capacity per gram and per tablet of the products was compared. The neutralizing capacity in millilitres of 0.1 M HC1 per gram ranged from 103.10 for Gelusil to 225.13 for Maalox, with others ranging between +/- 18.1% and -12% about the average. The neutralizing capacity per tablet ranged from 64.90 ml for Magnesium trisilicate Co tablets B.P. to 263.15 ml for Maalox, with the others ranging between +/- 24.9% and -33.1% about the average. This shows high variation in the neutralizing capacities of the different brands available especially in relations to the neutralizing capacities per tablet due to the high variation in the tablet weight.
D K, J M, Evans A. "Factors Influencing Change Management Process at Tamoil Kenya Limited." Business Administration and Management. 2012;2(8):655-662.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Juma FD, Gitau W, Gachoka C.The use of HBA1c in evaluation of diabetic control in Kenya Africans.East Afr Med J. 1983 Jan;60(1):60-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 1983 Jan;60(1):60-3. UN-HABITAT; 1983. Abstract
The pharmacokinetics of pindolol was studied in 8 normal Africans following administration of a single oral 10 mg dose. The mean peak concentration was 30.2 +/- 5.0 ng X ml-1, the mean half-life (t1/2) of the elimination phase was 3.4 +/- 1.1 h, and the total body clearance was 628 +/- 13 ml X min-1. The apparent volume of distribution was 3.0 +/- 1.31 X kg-1. The values are the same as those reported in Europeans.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Editor of Curriculum of Clinical Pharmacology at all levels 1989.". In: BOOK. UN-HABITAT; 1989. Abstract
In this study, the investigation of hydralazine acetylator phenotype was undertaken for the first time in African hypertensives at Kenyatta National Hospital. A total of 25 randomly selected patients with moderate to severe hypertension (diastolic pressure 105-130 mmHg), participated in the phenotyping study. The phenotyping was done by administering oral standard hydralazine dose of 150 mg/day in three divided doses. The 24 hour urinary MTP/hydralazine ratio was used to categorize patients into slow and fast acetylators. Of the patients studied 69.9% were slow acetylators while 30.4% were fast acetylators. The mean 24 hour urinary MTP/hydralazine ratio for slow acetylators was 1.01 +/- 0.95. This was significantly different from the fast acetylators where the mean 24 hour urinary MTP/hydralazine ratio was 10.6 +/- 4.4 (P < 0.001). The acetylator phenotyping divided the patients into two distinct populations and no further arbitrary method was required to divide the patients into either group.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Juma FD.Effect of liver failure on the pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide.Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1984;26(5):591-3.". In: Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1984;26(5):591-3. UN-HABITAT; 1984. Abstract
The pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide was investigated in 7 patients in severe liver failure. The pharmacokinetic data were compared with those derived from a matched control group of patients with normal liver function. The half-life (t1/2) of cyclophosphamide following intravenous administration in patients with liver failure was 12.5 +/- 1.0 h (m +/- SD), which was significantly longer than in the normal controls in whom it was 7.6 +/- 1.4 h (p less than 0.001). The mean total body clearance (Clt) was significantly smaller in liver failure at 44.8 + 8.61 X kg-1 than in the controls in whom it was 63.0 +/- 7.61 X kg-1 (p less than 0.01). It is concluded that severe liver disease has a significant effect on the disposition of cyclophosphamide, and that it could lead to accumulation of the drug in the body.
D DRNJUGUNAKARANJA. "Nganga J C, Karanja D N and Mutune M N. The prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in pigs in Kenya.". In: Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 40:331-334. Springer; 2008.
D M, I.M. M, C. O. "The Spectrum of Radiographic and Sonographic Findings in Patients with Shoulder Pain at the Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Medicine, University of Nairobi." EAOJ. 2017;11(1):12-21. AbstractAJOL

Background: Shoulder pain is a common complaint. Prevalence estimates vary from 6.9% to 26% in the general population. The most frequent cause of shoulder pain is rotator cuff disease. Shoulder radiography is the primary imaging modality in shoulder pain but is limited in the evaluation of the soft tissues. MRI is the chief modality used in the evaluation of shoulder soft tissues both locally and elsewhere but is limited by cost and availability. Shoulder ultrasonography is a cost effective modality for evaluating the soft tissues but is underutilized locally. No data is available in our local population regarding spectrum of findings in shoulder radiographs and ultrasound.
Objective: This study was designed to determine the spectrum of shoulder radiographic and sonographic findings in patients with shoulder pain.
Setting: Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Medicine, University of Nairobi. It is located within the old wing of Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: This was a cross sectional descriptive study.
Subjects: A total of 72 patients with shoulder pain who were referred for shoulder radiographs.
Method: The study was conducted over a period of four months between the months of January 2016 to April 2016. Seventy two consecutive patients with shoulder pain referred for shoulder radiographs had a complementary shoulder ultrasound scan done and findings of both examinations recorded in the data collection form. Statistical analysis of the findings was then done using SPSS version 20 IBM. No surgery findings were available to correlate with the imaging findings.
Results:. Radiographs identified abnormalities in 36 (50%) patients’ majority of which were degenerative changes. Ultrasound identified abnormalities in 57 (79%) patients with the bulk of lesions seen within the rotator cuff. There was statistically significant association between presence of greater tuberosity degenerative changes and rotator cuff tears (p<0.001).
Conclusion: The combination of shoulder radiography and ultrasound significantly increased the diagnostic yield by evaluating both osseous and soft tissue components. These findings aim to increase the awareness and utility of shoulder ultrasound locally.

D MN, Ogutu O. "Chap.3 Integrating: Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) into Maternal Child Health Services: .". In: 16. Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) Training Curriculum. Population Council Publication; 2002.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS, N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "Cardiovascular risk factor profiles in mild to moderate hypertensives seen at Kenyatta National Hospital.East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):693-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):693-5. UN-HABITAT; 1993. Abstract
Sixty newly diagnosed adult patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension were assessed to determine their cardiovascular risk factor profiles. Detailed history and physical examinations were done. Resting 12-lead ECG was done and serum levels of uric acid, fasting cholesterol, and fasting glucose were determined. Twenty nine patients had hypertension and two or more cardiovascular risk factors. The most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors other than hypertension were electro-cardiovascular left ventricular hypertrophy (31.7%), obesity (28.3%) and hypercholesterolaemia (28.3%). About a half of these patients (48.3%) can be classified as high risk hypertensives. This calls for aggressive management of cardiovascular risk factors as a whole and not just hypertension alone if we are to reduce incidence of hypertensive complications.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Juma FD.Practical therapeutics malaria chemoprophylaxis.East Afr Med J. 1984 Mar;61(3):254-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Mar;61(3):254-9. UN-HABITAT; 1984. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of antipyrine were studied in 12 healthy volunteers and 10 patients of Kenya African origin with Hodgkin's lymphoma. The half-life of antipyrine was 12.2 +/- 1.3 h (mean + s.d.), while the apparent volume of distribution (V) was 0.67 +/- 0.11 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) and the total body clearance was 40.7 +/- 3.2 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) in the healthy volunteers. The antipyrine half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was 17.1 +/- 2.7 h (mean +/- s.d.). The apparent volume of distribution was 0.72 +/- 0.14 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) which was larger than in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.05). The total body clearance was 30.3 +/- 9.4 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean + s.d.) and this was reduced compared with that in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.02). After cytotoxic therapy the half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was significantly decreased to 8.3 +/- 1.3 h (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.07), and the apparent volume of distribution was reduced to 0.65 +/- 0.07 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.05) while the total body clearance increased to 52.8 +/- 5.5 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.01).

D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Nishiyama Y, Moriyasu M, Ichimaru M, Iwasa K, Kato A, Mathenge SG, Chalo Mutiso PB, Juma FD.Quaternary isoquinoline alkaloids from Xylopia parviflora.Phytochemistry. 2004 Apr;65(7):939-44.". In: Phytochemistry. 2004 Apr;65(7):939-44. UN-HABITAT; 2004. Abstract
From the quaternary alkaloidal fraction of the bark and the root of Xylopia parviflora (Annonaceae), four isoquinoline alkaloids, xylopinidine, dehydrocoreximine, N, N-dimethylanomurine and N-methylphoebine were isolated along with the known compounds, pycnarrhine, lotusine, 6,7-dimethoxy-2-methyl-isoquinolinium salt, 1,2-dehydroreticuline, (-)-phellodendrine, (+)-tembetarine, (-)-litcubine, (+)-magnoflorine, tetradehydroreticuline, (-)-oblongine, (+)-menisperine, (+)-N-methylcorydine, stepharanine, (+)-xanthoplanine, dehydrodiscretine, jatrorrhizine and palmatine. 3,4-Dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-methyl-isoquinolinium and N-methylpurpuerine were isolated as natural products for the first time. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide in Kenyan African children with lymphoma. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1984 Jul;18(1):106-7.". In: Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1984 Jul;18(1):106-7. UN-HABITAT; 1984. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of antipyrine were studied in 12 healthy volunteers and 10 patients of Kenya African origin with Hodgkin's lymphoma. The half-life of antipyrine was 12.2 +/- 1.3 h (mean + s.d.), while the apparent volume of distribution (V) was 0.67 +/- 0.11 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) and the total body clearance was 40.7 +/- 3.2 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) in the healthy volunteers. The antipyrine half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was 17.1 +/- 2.7 h (mean +/- s.d.). The apparent volume of distribution was 0.72 +/- 0.14 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) which was larger than in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.05). The total body clearance was 30.3 +/- 9.4 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean + s.d.) and this was reduced compared with that in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.02). After cytotoxic therapy the half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was significantly decreased to 8.3 +/- 1.3 h (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.07), and the apparent volume of distribution was reduced to 0.65 +/- 0.07 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.05) while the total body clearance increased to 52.8 +/- 5.5 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.01).

D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Juma FD, Rogers HJ, Trounce JR, Bradbrook ID.Pharmacokinetics of intravenous cyclophosphamide in man, estimated by gas-liquid chromatography.Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1978;1(4):229-31.". In: Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1978;1(4):229-31. UN-HABITAT; 1978. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "The interactions between the drug industry and the prescribers and their effects on the quality and quantity of drugs.East Afr Med J. 1984 Nov;61(11):793-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Nov;61(11):793-6. UN-HABITAT; 1984. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of antipyrine were studied in 12 healthy volunteers and 10 patients of Kenya African origin with Hodgkin's lymphoma. The half-life of antipyrine was 12.2 +/- 1.3 h (mean + s.d.), while the apparent volume of distribution (V) was 0.67 +/- 0.11 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) and the total body clearance was 40.7 +/- 3.2 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) in the healthy volunteers. The antipyrine half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was 17.1 +/- 2.7 h (mean +/- s.d.). The apparent volume of distribution was 0.72 +/- 0.14 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) which was larger than in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.05). The total body clearance was 30.3 +/- 9.4 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean + s.d.) and this was reduced compared with that in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.02). After cytotoxic therapy the half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was significantly decreased to 8.3 +/- 1.3 h (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.07), and the apparent volume of distribution was reduced to 0.65 +/- 0.07 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.05) while the total body clearance increased to 52.8 +/- 5.5 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.01).

D M, A L. "Caring for children with acute, treatable and preventable medical conditions ." African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2010;4 (1):33-37.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Juma FD, Rogers HJ, Trounce JR.The kinetics of salivary elimination of cyclophosphamide in man.Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1979 Nov;8(5):455-8.". In: Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1979 Nov;8(5):455-8. UN-HABITAT; 1979. Abstract
1 The concentrations of cyclophosphamide in plasma and saliva were determined in seven patients following administration of single doses of cyclophosphamide during chemotherapy for lymphoma. 2 The saliva/plasma ratio was 0.77 +/- 0.24 (s.d.) and showed no time-dependence being rapidly established following intravenous and oral administration. 3 The T 1/2 of cyclophosphamide (8.38 +/- 2.25 h) determined from salivary measurements was not significantly different from that in plasma (8.24 +/- 2.60 h). It was not possible to estimate the apparent volume of distribution or total body clearance utilizing the salivary cyclophosphamide concentration without appropriate correction for the saliva/plasma concentration ratio. 4 The binding to the plasma protein of normal plasma of cyclophosphamide was 13.4 +/- 5.3%. The Scatchard plot for binding to bovine serum albumin indicates only weak binding to non-specific sites. 5 Salivary cyclophosphamide therefore indicates the concentration of the unbound fraction of plasma cyclophosphamide.
D E, D O. "The effects of Rights Issue Announcements on Stock Returns for Firms Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange." International Journal of Education and Research . 2016;3(9): 2411-5681 . AbstractEffects_of_rights_issue_announcements_on_stock_returns_at_the_nairobi_securities_exchange-1.pdf

Rights issue is a secondary equity issue in which new additional shares are issued to the existing
shareholders in exchange for cash (capital) needed by a publicly quoted company, either for
expansion purposes or to finance company operations. The rights are issued to the shareholders in
the proportion of their existing holdings. Empirical studies give mixed results on the direction of
stock returns upon a rights issue announcement. Since there has been no consensus on how capital
markets generally respond to rights issue announcement, this study investigates the effect of rights
issue announcement on stock returns of companies listed at an organised exchange. The study
adopts an event study technique on a sample of twelve companies which issued rights between
January 1, 2007 and August 31, 2014. Secondary data on share prices is collected from the Nairobi
Securities Exchange (NSE) database. The study establishes that stock prices and returns changes
significantly in the post announcement period than in the preannouncement period. Analysis of
mean abnormal return reveales that rights issue announcement results into either positive or
negative stock return. Based on the cumulative average abnormal return (CAAR), the study
concludes that rights issue announcement results into a negative abnormal stock return for the listed
firms. The study therefore recommends that the investment banks and listed companies should
consider the negative abnormal stock price reactions and the subsequent negative abnormal stock
return changes to the announcement of rights issue while setting the discounted rights issue prices
so as to ensure that during the issue period, the stock trading prices do not fall below the rights issue
price, a fact that can lead to the collapse of the rights issue exercise. The study recommends further
academic exploration on the effects of repeat rights issues on stock prices and returns so as to
understand the possible response of investors to seasonal issues.

D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. ""Author of Essentials of Clinical Pharmacology in 1987.".". In: BOOK. UN-HABITAT; 1987. Abstract
Eight brands of antacid tablets commonly available in the private market in Kenya were subjected to in-vitro tests for neutralizing capacity. The neutralizing capacity per gram and per tablet of the products was compared. The neutralizing capacity in millilitres of 0.1 M HC1 per gram ranged from 103.10 for Gelusil to 225.13 for Maalox, with others ranging between +/- 18.1% and -12% about the average. The neutralizing capacity per tablet ranged from 64.90 ml for Magnesium trisilicate Co tablets B.P. to 263.15 ml for Maalox, with the others ranging between +/- 24.9% and -33.1% about the average. This shows high variation in the neutralizing capacities of the different brands available especially in relations to the neutralizing capacities per tablet due to the high variation in the tablet weight.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Juma FD.Practical therapeutics–the use of antibiotics and related chemotherapeutic agents.East Afr Med J. 1981 Dec;58(12):901-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Dec;58(12):901-6. UN-HABITAT; 1981. Abstract
The pharmacokinetics of pindolol was studied in 8 normal Africans following administration of a single oral 10 mg dose. The mean peak concentration was 30.2 +/- 5.0 ng X ml-1, the mean half-life (t1/2) of the elimination phase was 3.4 +/- 1.1 h, and the total body clearance was 628 +/- 13 ml X min-1. The apparent volume of distribution was 3.0 +/- 1.31 X kg-1. The values are the same as those reported in Europeans.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Mefloquine disposition in normals and in patients with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria.Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1989 Jan-Mar;14(1):15-7.". In: 10: Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1989 Jan-Mar;14(1):15-7. UN-HABITAT; 1989. Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Juma FD.Practical therapeutics: treatment of clinical attack of malaria.East Afr Med J. 1984 Jan;61(1):86-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Jan;61(1):86-9. UN-HABITAT; 1984. Abstract
The pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide was investigated in 7 patients in severe liver failure. The pharmacokinetic data were compared with those derived from a matched control group of patients with normal liver function. The half-life (t1/2) of cyclophosphamide following intravenous administration in patients with liver failure was 12.5 +/- 1.0 h (m +/- SD), which was significantly longer than in the normal controls in whom it was 7.6 +/- 1.4 h (p less than 0.001). The mean total body clearance (Clt) was significantly smaller in liver failure at 44.8 + 8.61 X kg-1 than in the controls in whom it was 63.0 +/- 7.61 X kg-1 (p less than 0.01). It is concluded that severe liver disease has a significant effect on the disposition of cyclophosphamide, and that it could lead to accumulation of the drug in the body.
D S, N J, P W, M D’lima, chindia ML, E D, A N. "Diagnostic challenges of oral and cutaneous Kaposi’s sarcoma in resource-limited settings." Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine. 2015.
D Díaz GC. "The {Olfactory} {System} as a {Puzzle}: {Playing} with {Its} {Pieces}." Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007). 2013. Abstract
n/a
and D O Mbuge GRLGO. "Analysis of Natural Degradation of HDPE Lining Using Time-Dependent Properties." Polymer Engineering and Science. 2011;51(6):1198-1205.
D'Costa LJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bowmer I, Fransen L. "Single dose spectinomycin for the treatment of chancroid: a comparison of 2 g versus 4 g.". 1983.
D'Hooghe TM, Nyachieo A, Chai DC, Kyama CM, Spiessens C, Mwenda JM. "Reproductive research in non-human primates at Institute of Primate Research in Nairobi, Kenya (WHO Collaborating Center): a platform for the development of clinical infertility services.". 2008. Abstract

The Institute of Primate Research (IPR; www.ipr.or.ke) is a WHO collaborating center for research in reproductive biology, infectious diseases and ecology/conservation. It includes a fully equipped surgical complex, >5000 square feet of laboratory space, a quarantaine facility, library, conference room, administrative offices, etc. More than 500 primates can be housed at IPR, mainly baboons. Reproductive research at IPR is applied to endometriosis, assisted reproduction, prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV and includes the investigation of immunocontraceptives and placental retroviruses. Reproductive research capacities of IPR include: videolaparoscopic surgical equipment, surgical experience, endometrial biopsies and uterine flushes, ovarian stimulation, laparoscopic oocyte aspiration, hormonal analyses in baboon blood and urine, sperm assessment, in vitro culture and reproductive immunological investigations. During the last years, simultaneously with the development of baboon IVF, there have been contacts with several Kenyan gynecologists at the level of KEMRI (Kenya Medical Research Institute), KOGS (Kenyan Obstetrical and Gynecological Society), Kenyatta National Hospital and Aga Khan Hospital in Nairobi to develop clinical infertility services including low-budget high-quality IVF in Nairobi. The logic behind this initiative is that the Kenyans trained in non-human primate embryology, and IVF would be natural partners to develop human IVF in Kenya.

D. DRONGORE. "Risk Factors for Infection and Disease with the Malaria parasite in Areas of Stable Malaria in Proceedings of IVth International Conference on Tropical Medicine and Malaria 17-21 November 1996 Nagasaki, Japan.". In: Proceedings of IVth International Conference on Tropical Medicine and Malaria 17-21 November 1996 Nagasaki, Japan. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1996. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Reports of osteopaenia/rickets of prematurity are on the increase due to improved survival rates of low birthweight infants. OBJECTIVE: To establish the incidence of rickets of prematurity by the age of six months in premature infants born at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Newborn unit and paediatric outpatient follow up clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Successive surviving infants of birthweight less than 2000 g residents in Nairobi. RESULTS: Incidence of rickets of prematurity by six months of age was 58.8%. Rickets appeared more commonly in male infants compared to female infants. CONCLUSION: Rickets of prematurity is a common problem in the premature infants seen at Kenyatta National Hospital. Routine vitamin D supplements to premature infants in adequate doses of at least 400iu per day should be adopted in our centre.
D. DRONGORE. "Three Chapters in: Guidelines to Rational Drug Use. Fr.von Wassow, J.K.Ndele and R.Korte MacMillan Publications 1997.". In: MacMillan Publications 1997. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1997. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Reports of osteopaenia/rickets of prematurity are on the increase due to improved survival rates of low birthweight infants. OBJECTIVE: To establish the incidence of rickets of prematurity by the age of six months in premature infants born at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Newborn unit and paediatric outpatient follow up clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Successive surviving infants of birthweight less than 2000 g residents in Nairobi. RESULTS: Incidence of rickets of prematurity by six months of age was 58.8%. Rickets appeared more commonly in male infants compared to female infants. CONCLUSION: Rickets of prematurity is a common problem in the premature infants seen at Kenyatta National Hospital. Routine vitamin D supplements to premature infants in adequate doses of at least 400iu per day should be adopted in our centre.
D. DRONGORE. "Training Manual for Care of AIDS Patients in the Community for STD/HIV Control Project - Co-author.". In: Co-author. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Reports of osteopaenia/rickets of prematurity are on the increase due to improved survival rates of low birthweight infants. OBJECTIVE: To establish the incidence of rickets of prematurity by the age of six months in premature infants born at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Newborn unit and paediatric outpatient follow up clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Successive surviving infants of birthweight less than 2000 g residents in Nairobi. RESULTS: Incidence of rickets of prematurity by six months of age was 58.8%. Rickets appeared more commonly in male infants compared to female infants. CONCLUSION: Rickets of prematurity is a common problem in the premature infants seen at Kenyatta National Hospital. Routine vitamin D supplements to premature infants in adequate doses of at least 400iu per day should be adopted in our centre.
D. DRKINYUAPATRICKI. "van Kooten, G.C., E.H. Bulte and Patrick Kinyua, 1997. Game Cropping and Wildlife Conservation in Kenya: A Dynamic Simulation Model with Adaptive Control, Agricultural Systems 54 (August): 439-462.". In: Research and Extension Results, Margarini Settlement Scheme Agronomy Programme - Short Rains 1978. Margarine Project Report. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1997.
D. E. "EFFECT OF NATIONAL ANNUAL BUDGET READING ON EQUITY RETURNS AT THE NAIROBI SECURITIES EXCHANGE." DBA Africa Management Review. 2016;6(1):107-118. AbstractEffect_of_national_annual_budget_reading_on_equity_returns_at_the_nairobi_securities_exchange1.pdf

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of budget reading on equity returns at
Nairobi Securities Exchange. The study adopts descripting staristics design using event model
methodology to establish the correlation between the variables. Secondary data on stock
performance around the 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 budget reading dates was collected
from the NSE database. Data analysis was done using SPSS program to generate the descriptive
statistics, and the study finds that the reading of national budget has significant effect on the
stock returns at NSE during the event period, depending on information content. Analysis of the
AAR, CAR and SCAR of the companies in the NSE-20 share index, during the 5 day event
period before and after the annual national budget reading finds that other than year 2010 that
records no statistical significance of SCAR, the SCAR p value for 2009, 2011, 2012 and 2013
are all less than p = 0.05, suggesting that the market returns for four years deviated significantly
from their means during the event period of budget readings. Therefore, the study recommends
that investors, investment banks, listed companies and the capital markets authority to consider
the effect of national budget reading on stock returns, to formulate policies that can cussion
investors against the effects of budget reading.

D. DRONGORE. "Ongore D., 1985 Knowledge Attitudes and Practices of A Rural Population on malaria and the Mosquito Vector. MPH Thesis University of Nairobi.". In: MPH Thesis University of Nairobi. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1985. Abstract
A study of malaria on the Kano Plain, Kisumu District, Western Kenya, was carried out between April and August, 1985. The study included a knowledge, attitudes and practices (K.A.P.) survey on malaria illness and the mosquito vector. Overall knowledge about malaria illness was found to be good. However, treatment and prevention practices of malaria were found to be poor. Knowledge of the mosquito and its relationship to malaria was found to be high. Knowledge of methods of prevention of mosquito bites was also found to be high but actual use of the methods was low. Knowledge of traditional methods of prevention of mosquito bites was also found to be high. Actual use was again found to be low.
D. OJ,, J.N Kiiru, O.M. Olanya, and D.O. Ukuku, Imungi J, Nyankanga RO. "Plant characteristics and growth parameters of vegetable pigeon pea cultivars." Subtropical Agriculture and Environments. 2016;( 67:):1-12.Plant characteristics and growth parameters of vegetable pigeon pea cultivars.pdf
D. OO. "EAC Integration, a Boon for the Youths of Region." New Path. 2012;12:6-8.
D. DRONGORE. "Ongore D., 1993. Risk Factors for Infection and Disease with the Malaria Parasite in Children Living in an Area of Intense and Perennial Transmission. PhD Thesis University of Liverpool.". In: PhD Thesis University of Liverpool. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1993. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Reports of osteopaenia/rickets of prematurity are on the increase due to improved survival rates of low birthweight infants. OBJECTIVE: To establish the incidence of rickets of prematurity by the age of six months in premature infants born at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Newborn unit and paediatric outpatient follow up clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Successive surviving infants of birthweight less than 2000 g residents in Nairobi. RESULTS: Incidence of rickets of prematurity by six months of age was 58.8%. Rickets appeared more commonly in male infants compared to female infants. CONCLUSION: Rickets of prematurity is a common problem in the premature infants seen at Kenyatta National Hospital. Routine vitamin D supplements to premature infants in adequate doses of at least 400iu per day should be adopted in our centre.
D. DRONGORE. "Ongore D. and Nyabola L. 1996 The Role of Shops and Shopkeepers in Malaria Control East African Medical Journal 73(6):390-394.". In: East African Medical Journal 73(6):390-394. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1996. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Reports of osteopaenia/rickets of prematurity are on the increase due to improved survival rates of low birthweight infants. OBJECTIVE: To establish the incidence of rickets of prematurity by the age of six months in premature infants born at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Newborn unit and paediatric outpatient follow up clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Successive surviving infants of birthweight less than 2000 g residents in Nairobi. RESULTS: Incidence of rickets of prematurity by six months of age was 58.8%. Rickets appeared more commonly in male infants compared to female infants. CONCLUSION: Rickets of prematurity is a common problem in the premature infants seen at Kenyatta National Hospital. Routine vitamin D supplements to premature infants in adequate doses of at least 400iu per day should be adopted in our centre.
D. DRONGORE. "Training Manual on STDs/HIV for Kenya Medical Training Colleges, Kenya -.". In: Co-author. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Reports of osteopaenia/rickets of prematurity are on the increase due to improved survival rates of low birthweight infants. OBJECTIVE: To establish the incidence of rickets of prematurity by the age of six months in premature infants born at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Newborn unit and paediatric outpatient follow up clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Successive surviving infants of birthweight less than 2000 g residents in Nairobi. RESULTS: Incidence of rickets of prematurity by six months of age was 58.8%. Rickets appeared more commonly in male infants compared to female infants. CONCLUSION: Rickets of prematurity is a common problem in the premature infants seen at Kenyatta National Hospital. Routine vitamin D supplements to premature infants in adequate doses of at least 400iu per day should be adopted in our centre.
D. DRKINYUAPATRICKI. "Kinyua P.I.D., G.C. Van Kooten and E.H. Bulte, 1998. African Wildlife Policy: Protecting Wildlife Herbivores on Private Game Ranches, European Review of Agricultural Economics 27 (2):227-244.". In: Research and Extension Results, Margarini Settlement Scheme Agronomy Programme - Short Rains 1978. Margarine Project Report. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1998.
D. DRONGORE. "Draft Report The Apparent Prevalence of Human Brucellosis Among Patients Attending Health Facilities in Nairobi with Special Emphasis in Kibera .". In: Draft Report The Apparent Prevalence of Human Brucellosis Among Patients Attending Health Facilities in Nairobi with Special Emphasis in Kibera . Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1985. Abstract
A study of malaria on the Kano Plain, Kisumu District, Western Kenya, was carried out between April and August, 1985. The study included a knowledge, attitudes and practices (K.A.P.) survey on malaria illness and the mosquito vector. Overall knowledge about malaria illness was found to be good. However, treatment and prevention practices of malaria were found to be poor. Knowledge of the mosquito and its relationship to malaria was found to be high. Knowledge of methods of prevention of mosquito bites was also found to be high but actual use of the methods was low. Knowledge of traditional methods of prevention of mosquito bites was also found to be high. Actual use was again found to be low.
D. DRONGORE. "Ongore D., Minawa, A., Kamunvi, F and Knight R. 1989 Knowledge Attitudes and Practices of a Rural Population on Malaria and the Mosquito Vector East African Medical Journal 66(2):79-90.". In: East African Medical Journal 66(2):79-90. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1989. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Reports of osteopaenia/rickets of prematurity are on the increase due to improved survival rates of low birthweight infants. OBJECTIVE: To establish the incidence of rickets of prematurity by the age of six months in premature infants born at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Newborn unit and paediatric outpatient follow up clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Successive surviving infants of birthweight less than 2000 g residents in Nairobi. RESULTS: Incidence of rickets of prematurity by six months of age was 58.8%. Rickets appeared more commonly in male infants compared to female infants. CONCLUSION: Rickets of prematurity is a common problem in the premature infants seen at Kenyatta National Hospital. Routine vitamin D supplements to premature infants in adequate doses of at least 400iu per day should be adopted in our centre.
D. DRONGORE. "The Role of Local Shops in Malaria Control in Proceedings of the European Conference on Tropical Medicine 7-10 May 1996 Hamburg, Germany.". In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Tropical Medicine 7-10 May 1996 Hamburg, Germany. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1996. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Reports of osteopaenia/rickets of prematurity are on the increase due to improved survival rates of low birthweight infants. OBJECTIVE: To establish the incidence of rickets of prematurity by the age of six months in premature infants born at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Newborn unit and paediatric outpatient follow up clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Successive surviving infants of birthweight less than 2000 g residents in Nairobi. RESULTS: Incidence of rickets of prematurity by six months of age was 58.8%. Rickets appeared more commonly in male infants compared to female infants. CONCLUSION: Rickets of prematurity is a common problem in the premature infants seen at Kenyatta National Hospital. Routine vitamin D supplements to premature infants in adequate doses of at least 400iu per day should be adopted in our centre.
D. DRONGORE. "Insecticide-treated nets in the prevention of malaria. Ongore D. East Afr Med J. 2005 Oct;82(10):493-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Oct;82(10):493-4. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Reports of osteopaenia/rickets of prematurity are on the increase due to improved survival rates of low birthweight infants. OBJECTIVE: To establish the incidence of rickets of prematurity by the age of six months in premature infants born at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Newborn unit and paediatric outpatient follow up clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Successive surviving infants of birthweight less than 2000 g residents in Nairobi. RESULTS: Incidence of rickets of prematurity by six months of age was 58.8%. Rickets appeared more commonly in male infants compared to female infants. CONCLUSION: Rickets of prematurity is a common problem in the premature infants seen at Kenyatta National Hospital. Routine vitamin D supplements to premature infants in adequate doses of at least 400iu per day should be adopted in our centre.
D. DRONGORE. "Ongore D. Editorial: Insecticide-Treated Nets in Prevention of Malaria East African Medical Journal Vol. 82(10) October 2005.". In: East African Medical Journal Vol. 82(10) October 2005. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Reports of osteopaenia/rickets of prematurity are on the increase due to improved survival rates of low birthweight infants. OBJECTIVE: To establish the incidence of rickets of prematurity by the age of six months in premature infants born at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Newborn unit and paediatric outpatient follow up clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Successive surviving infants of birthweight less than 2000 g residents in Nairobi. RESULTS: Incidence of rickets of prematurity by six months of age was 58.8%. Rickets appeared more commonly in male infants compared to female infants. CONCLUSION: Rickets of prematurity is a common problem in the premature infants seen at Kenyatta National Hospital. Routine vitamin D supplements to premature infants in adequate doses of at least 400iu per day should be adopted in our centre.
D. DRKINYUAPATRICKI. "Kinyua P.I.D., 1998. Game Ranching in Machakos District: An Application of Mathematical Programming to the Study of Wildlife Policy. Ph.D. dissertation, University of British Columbia.". In: Research and Extension Results, Margarini Settlement Scheme Agronomy Programme - Short Rains 1978. Margarine Project Report. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1998.
D. DRONGORE. "A study of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of a rural community on malaria and the mosquito vector. Ongore D, Kamunvi F, Knight R, Minawa A. East Afr Med J. 1989 Feb;66(2):79-90.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Feb;66(2):79-90. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1989. Abstract
A study of malaria on the Kano Plain, Kisumu District, Western Kenya, was carried out between April and August, 1985. The study included a knowledge, attitudes and practices (K.A.P.) survey on malaria illness and the mosquito vector. Overall knowledge about malaria illness was found to be good. However, treatment and prevention practices of malaria were found to be poor. Knowledge of the mosquito and its relationship to malaria was found to be high. Knowledge of methods of prevention of mosquito bites was also found to be high but actual use of the methods was low. Knowledge of traditional methods of prevention of mosquito bites was also found to be high. Actual use was again found to be low.
and D. G Njeru, W. O Mwanda KNGWEC. "Prevalence of Cytomegalovirus Antibodies in Blood." Review Article MEDICOM. 2009;2009(8, 12): 58-68.abstract_-_prevalence_of_cytomegalovirus_antibodies_in_blood_donors.pdf
D. Mang’oka, Mathenge IM, Onyambu C. "The spectrum of radiographic and sonographic findings in patients with shoulder pain at the department of diagnostic imaging and radiation medicine, University of Nairobi." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2017;11(1). AbstractWebsite

Background: Shoulder pain is a common complaint. Prevalence estimates vary from 6.9% to 26% in the general population. The most frequent cause of shoulder pain is rotator cuff disease. Shoulder radiography is the primary imaging modality in shoulder pain but is limited in the evaluation of the soft tissues. MRI is the chief modality used in the evaluation of shoulder soft tissues both locally and elsewhere but is limited by cost and availability. Shoulder ultrasonography is a cost effective modality for evaluating the soft tissues but is underutilized locally. No data is available in our local population regarding spectrum of findings in shoulder radiographs and ultrasound.
Objective: This study was designed to determine the spectrum of shoulder radiographic and sonographic findings in patients with shoulder pain.
Setting: Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Medicine, University of Nairobi. It is located within the old wing of Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: This was a cross sectional descriptive study.
Subjects: A total of 72 patients with shoulder pain who were referred for shoulder radiographs.
Method: The study was conducted over a period of four months between the months of January 2016 to April 2016. Seventy two consecutive patients with shoulder pain referred for shoulder radiographs had a complementary shoulder ultrasound scan done and findings of both examinations recorded in the data collection form. Statistical analysis of the findings was then done using SPSS version 20 IBM. No surgery findings were available to correlate with the imaging findings.
Results:. Radiographs identified abnormalities in 36 (50%) patients’ majority of which were degenerative changes. Ultrasound identified abnormalities in 57 (79%) patients with the bulk of lesions seen within the rotator cuff. There was statistically significant association between presence of greater tuberosity degenerative changes and rotator cuff tears (p<0.001).
Conclusion: The combination of shoulder radiography and ultrasound significantly increased the diagnostic yield by evaluating both osseous and soft tissue components. These findings aim to increase the awareness and utility of shoulder ultrasound locally.

D.A A’o, O WANDIGAS, O JI, den J VBP, B NB. "Organochlorine pesticide residue levels in soil from the Nyando River Catchment, Kenya ." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2015;2(1):18-32.
D.A A’o, O WANDIGAS, O JI, den J VBP, B NB, O MV, A WG, P N-K, H K. "Occurrence, abundance and distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in the Nyando River catchment, Kenya." African Journal of Aquatic Science. 2015;40(4):373-392.benthic_macroinvertevertebrates_in_nyando_river.pdf
D.C K, F.M O, M. H, E.M A, Kimenju, J.W. "Dr. Dora C. Kilalo - publication." East African Agriculture and Forestry Journal. 2013;(special).
D.C W, E.M O, Farquhar C, Richardson BA, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Inwani I, Benki-Nugent S, G J-S. "1. Predictors of mortality in HIV-1 infected children on antiretroviral therapy in Kenya: a prospective cohort." BCM Pediatr. 2010:10-33.predictors_of_mortality_in_hiv-1infected_children.pdf
and D.C. Kemboi, H.W. Chegeh BNMNMNGLCPN. "Seasonal Newcastle disease antibody titre dynamics in village chickens of Mbeere District, Eastern Province, Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2013;vol 25(181).
D.C. Munasighe, A.H.S. Elbusaidy KMDNNB. "The development of the Solar Industry in Kenya.". 1979.
D.D. K, Z.I. O, P.K. N. "Application of GIS to Water Quality Management for the City of Nairobi Water Supply." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2014;7(1):5-23.oonge.docx
D.D. K, Z.I. O, P.K. N. "Application of GIS to Water Quality Management for the City of Nairobi Water Supply." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2014;7(1):5-23.oonge.docx
D.D.Keruyu, Z.I.Oonge, P.K.Ndiba. "The Effect of Surface Treatment on Corrosion Behavior of 316L Stainless Steel." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2014;7(1).
D.E. DRIKAMARILAWRENCE. "Ikamari, L.D.E. 2000. Regional variation in infant mortality in Kenya: A search for explanations. Pp: 119-139.". In: Population and Development in Kenya. Editors: Oucho, J, Ocholla-Ayayo ABC, Ayiemba, E.H.O, and Omwanda, L. O. ISCTRC; 2000. Abstract
This paper seeks to identify some the factors that underlie regional variation in infant mortality in Kenya. The data drawn from the 1988/89 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey were used for this purpose. Logistic regression is used to analyse the data. On the basis of infant mortality estimates obtained, provinces were grouped into two groups: High (HMP) and low (LMP). The results obtained show that the values of explanatory variables in LMP region than in the high mortality region. However, their differences did not explain much of the variation in infant mortality between the two mortality regions. Decomposing the results revealed that the differences were largely due to the differences in the nature or structure of relationships, as represented by logit coefficients, between mortality and explanatory variables. The results indicate that the lower average level of maternal education, higher proportion of preceding child loss, higher proportion mothers belonging to low economic status households and a lower proportion of mothers belonging to households possessing livestock and lower use of modern contraception modestly contributed to high infant mortality in the high mortality region
D.E. DRIKAMARILAWRENCE. "An upsurge in early childhood mortality in Kenya: A search of explanations African Journal of Health Sciences: 11(1&2): 9-20.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences: 11(1&2): 9-20. ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
This study seeks to document recent trends in early childhood mortality in the country and to offer some plausible explanations for the upsurge in the trends. Data and information from various sources are used in this paper to achieve this purpose. The results obtained show that infant, child and under-five mortality rates had declined in the 1960s and 1970s but were taking un upward trend since early 1990s. This situation is attributable to a combination of factors, including increased poverty, adverse effects of economic hardships and cost recovery programs associated with structural adjustment programs, increased childhood malnutrition, decreased use of certain maternity care services, decline in the coverage of child immunisations, inability of the public health system to provide services, and the HIV/ AIDS epidemic and the recent ethnic clashes that rocked some parts of the Rift Valley, Coast, Nyanza and Western province. In order to reverse the upward trend in mortality, there is an urgent need to intensify efforts to reduce poverty, to enable most people to have adequate food supply, improve the public health sector so that it can deliver health care to all people; to make greater efforts to raise the living standards of rural populations and improve the quality of housing, sanitary and sewerage conditions in urban slums. In addition, concerted efforts must continue to be made to contain the spread of HIV/AIDS, to assist AIDs orphans and to eliminate completely and to avoid recurrence of ethnic clashes and cattle rustling.
D.E. DRIKAMARILAWRENCE. "Maternal Health Care Utilization in Teso.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2004. Abstract
Journal of African Health Sciences (11) 1&2: 21-32
D.E. DRIKAMARILAWRENCE. "Regional variation in infant and child mortality in Kenya.". In: Population and Development in Kenya. Editors: Oucho, J, Ocholla-Ayayo ABC, Ayiemba, E.H.O, and Omwanda, L. O. ISCTRC; 1998. Abstract
This paper seeks to identify some the factors that underlie regional variation in infant mortality in Kenya. The data drawn from the 1988/89 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey were used for this purpose. Logistic regression is used to analyse the data. On the basis of infant mortality estimates obtained, provinces were grouped into two groups: High (HMP) and low (LMP). The results obtained show that the values of explanatory variables in LMP region than in the high mortality region. However, their differences did not explain much of the variation in infant mortality between the two mortality regions. Decomposing the results revealed that the differences were largely due to the differences in the nature or structure of relationships, as represented by logit coefficients, between mortality and explanatory variables. The results indicate that the lower average level of maternal education, higher proportion of preceding child loss, higher proportion mothers belonging to low economic status households and a lower proportion of mothers belonging to households possessing livestock and lower use of modern contraception modestly contributed to high infant mortality in the high mortality region
D.E. DRIKAMARILAWRENCE. "Ikamari, L.D.E 2001,.". In: Anthropological Perspectives.pp 23-44. ISCTRC; 2001. Abstract
This paper discusses in the use of both qualitative and quantitative research methods in differential mortality. It uses both quantitative data and several case studies drawn from Western and Central provinces of Kenya to illustrate that both research approaches can be used simultaneously and in a complimentary way.
D.E. DRIKAMARILAWRENCE. "Covariates of age at first marriage and birth in Kenya: a hazard model analysis. A paper submitted to the Editor, Journal of Health and Population in Developing Countries. CB# 7411, 1107 McGavran-Greenberg, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Cha.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2004. Abstract
Journal of African Health Sciences (11) 1&2: 21-32
D.E. DRIKAMARILAWRENCE. "Ikamari, L.D.E., 2000. .". In: Journal of Population Studies and Development, Volume 7(1 & 2): 187-200. ISCTRC; 2000. Abstract
This paper illustrates in details how to use decomposition procedures to account for areal and temporal differences in the level of mortality, using the case of infant mortality in Kenya. Logistic regression is used to decompose the effects of various factors on the risk of mortality. The major advantage of the methodology described here is that it can identify the factors that account for differences in mortality levels between two or more places, and, if used or temporal mortality changes in the same place. In essence, these methods if used correctly, disentangle differences in the values of explanatory variables of mortality between two regions, or between two different time periods in the same place that are due to the differences in the values of the explanatory variables , and those that are due to the structure of relations between mortality and the explanatory variables.
D.E. DRIKAMARILAWRENCE. "Maternal Care Utilisation in Teso District African Journal of Health Sciences, 11(1&2):21-32.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences: 11(1&2): 9-20. ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
This paper sets to establish the level of awareness of antenatal care, the timing of antenatal clinic visits, the level of utilisation of maternal health care, to identify the main service providers, and to identify some of the barriers to the utilisation of maternal health care in Teso District. This paper uses the data and information collected in Teso District between the year 2000 and the year 2001. Descriptive statistics are the main tools of data analysis. The results obtained indicate that most respondents in the study area are aware of the importance of antenatal care, the majority seek antenatal care but late in their pregnancy, and that most of the childbirths take place at home mainly because of lack of access to institutionalised care, lack of quick means of transport, inability to meet user charges and associated costs, the availability of cheap and more accessible alternative care providers (TBAs), and the poor quality of services offered at the local health facilities. The traditional birth attendants and nurse/midwives are the main providers of maternal health care. The barriers to utilisation of maternal health care are manifold. The major constraints are unavailability and inaccessibility of health facilities, competing priorities, poverty, exorbitant user charges and associated costs, and poor services offered at the local health facilities. Reducing or removing these barriers would result in increased utilisation of maternal health care in the study area.
D.G. N, C.K. M, L.W. M, E.M. M. "Trends of Acute Poisoning cases occurring at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm.Sci.. 2012;15(2):29-34.
D.K K. "Water Quality Analysis."; 2001.
D.K O, J.W. G. "An aberrant uterus: A case report." East African Medical Journal. 2015:1-4.
D.K O, Gichuhi WJ. "Obstetric complications of cervical stenosis: a case report and literature review." East African Medical Journal. 2015.
and D.K. KIBOR NYAIMWANJERIOEK. "EFFECTS OF ENTERAL GLUTAMINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON REDUCTION OF INFECTION IN ADULT PATIENTS WITH SEVERE BURNS." East African Medical Journal . 2014;91(No.1). Abstract

EFFECTS OF ENTERAL GLUTAMINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON REDUCTION OF INFECTION IN ADULT PATIENTS WITH SEVERE BURNS
D.K. KIBOR, O.E. NYAIM and K. WANJERI
ABSTRACT
Objective: To determine the effect of enteral glutamine in reducing the incidence of post burn infections in patients with severe burns.
Design: A double blind randomised clinical trial.
Setting: Burns unit and ward 4D of Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya
Subjects: Sixty patients with severe burns who were randomised to two arms of treatment: (1) the glutamine group and (2) isonitrogenous arm acting as the control.
Results: Patients’ demographic and baseline clinical characteristics were similar in both arms of treatment. For the entire four-week treatment period, the odds ratio of a positive blood culture was almost three-fold higher among patients in the control group compared to those in the Glutamine group (p = 0.04). There was also a higher incidence of positive swab cultures from the non glutamine group.
Conclusion: Enteral glutamine supplementation in severely burnt adult patients reduces blood infection by a factor of three. It also significantly reduces the incidence of burn wound infections.

and D.K.Kariuki, J.M.Ndolo IOJDROR. "Alternative Energy Resources in Kenya: A Case Study for Coal.". 2008.
D.M L, Githigia S.M., P C, H.M. A, J.M K. "Manangement of bovine paillomatosis using an autogenous vaccine: A case study in Bukura Agricultural College, western Kenya." Biennial Scientific Conference. 2012;8(12):39. Abstract

Bovine Papillomatosis is a papillomavirus infection in cattle characterized by presence of warts of various sizes on the body of the affected animals. The virus usually affects the epithelial cells of the skin causing hyperproliferative lesions. Six types of papillomavirus are involved where BVP-3, BVP-4 and BVP-6 types cause true pappilomas. Five cases of bovine papillomatosis were noted on Bukura Agricultural College farm where the diseases presented as dry cauliflower-like warts of varying sizes especially on the neck and shoulder regions. Some smaller warts were also found around the eyes. Diagnosis was based on the clinical signs. An autogenous bovine specific wart vaccine was prepared from the wart samples and administered subcutaneously three times at two weeks interval. T;he warts started regressing 28 days after the first vaccination (day0) and disappeared after 10 weeks. Based on the previous studies, this case study confirms that an autogenous bovine papillomavirus specific vaccine is a successful method of controlling bovine papillomatosis.

and D.M Munyasi OMFMSM. "An overview of small scale stone crusher Industry in Western Kenya in the proceedings of the 20th Engineers International conference.". In: 20th Engineers International conference. Tom Mboya Labour College- Kisumu; 2013.
D.M. N, Khasakhala LI, Mutiso V, Mbwayo A, Mathai M. "The Prevalence Of Depression Among Adolescents In Nairobi Public Secondary Schools.". 2012.
D.N T, J.O J'a, J.M K, J.O A, F.M K, K.E G. "Population Viability Analysis of Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis michaeli) in Lake Nakuru Nationa park Kenya." Biodiversity and Endangered Species. 2015;3(1):2332-2543.
D.N. K, Bebora L.C, Ngatia T.A. "Postweaning diarrhea, meningitis and infertility are emerging threats to pig industry in Kenya.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Scientific Conference . Nairobi; 2006.2006_-_post-weaning_diarrhoea_meningitis_and_infertility_in_pigs.pdf
D.N. Kariuk i, J.Kithinji PMCAMN. . Explore Chemistry, Form 1.; 2003.
and D.N. Kariuki PMCAMN. Explore Chemistry, Form 2.; 2003.
D.N. Kariuki, A.H.S. Elbusaidy MTMHM. "Production of salt at Lake Magadi and possible improvements.". 1979.
D.N. Kariuki PMC. Explore Chemistry, Form 4.; Submitted.
and D.N. Kariuki PMCAMN. Explore Chemistry, Form 3.; 2004.
D.N. Kariuki TNHM & LW. "Dietary sources of fluoride in Kenya.". 1983.
D.N. Kariuki and S.F.A. Kettle, & Ti Soi Sang. "Vibrational Spectra of molecular crystals of impure metal carbonyls".". 1976.
D.N. Kariuki and S.F.A. Kettle IC. "Raman Spectra of mixed crystals of transition metal hexacarbonyls.". 1978.
D.N. Mungai, A. Muthee SYJGKAZGKM, Berhanu B. "Impact Assessment of the Public Works Programme." The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and the World Bank, 157 pp; 2009. Abstract
n/a
and D.N.OBONYO1, 2* SONGA2 OYIEKE1 NYAMASYO1 MUGO3JMFA. "Bt-transgenic maize does not deter oviposition by two." Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2008;10:424-433.obonyo_1.pdf
D.O O, E.S A, R.W M, Kimenju J.W. "Farmer-Friendly Strategies of Managing Weeds in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) Production." International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences . 2013;2(4):78-82.abstract_farmer_friendly_strategies_in_weed_control_ojowi_ariga_et_al_2013.pdf
D.O O. "Country Diagnostic Report, Kenya.". In: International Water Security Conference. Oxford, UK; 2015.
D.O. O, Mavuti KM, Aloo-Obudho P, Ojuok JE, Britton JR. "Fish habitat suitability and community structure in an equatorial Lake Naivasha, Kenya. ." Hydrobiologia . In Press.
D.O. O, S.O. D, M. O, G.O O. Country Diagnostic Report, Kenya. Lonon: University of Oxford; 2015.
D.W G, P.N M, S.M M, S.G K, G.M M, A N. "Effect of Supplementation of Moringa Oleifera (LAM) leaf meal in layer chicken feed. International Journal of poultry science 13(7): 379-384." International Journal of Poultry Science. 2014;13(7):379-384.fin2600.pdf
D.W. G, Mbugua PN, B. K, Kiama SG. "Effect of Supplementation of Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal in Broiler Chicken Feed." International Journal of Poultry Science . 2014;13 (4): 208-213, 2014. Abstracteffect_of_supplementation_of_moringa_oleifera_leaf_mela_in_broiler_chicken_feed.pdf

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing Moringa oleifera leaf meal
(MOLM) at different levels in broiler chicken. Broiler starter and finisher diets were formulated using raw
materials obtained from local feed manufacturers. MOLM was first analyzed for crude protein and then added
to diets at levels of 0% (T1), 7.5% (T2), 7.5% (T3) (without Methionine and lysine), 15 (T4) and 30% (T5). Two
hundred (200) day old broiler chicks were randomly allocated into the 5 treatment groups with 4 replicates
of 10 birds each and the diets introduced. The feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), weight gain, lipid
profile, abdominal fat pad and feed digestibility were determined. The MOLM crude protein level was 23.33%.
The weight gain was significantly different between the various diets with the highest weight gain being in
T1 at 1464 and the lowest in diet T5 at 500. MOLM supplementation at levels above 7.5% decreased the feed
intake and dry matter digestibility. The abdominal fat pad (AFP) was significantly higher in T1 compared to
T2, T4 and T5. The males had a significantly high levels of High density lipids (HDL) than females in T2, T3
and T4 (p<0.05). The yellow colour of the carcass increased with the increased levels of MOLM. It was
concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) was well tolerated and can only be included in the feed
to levels of up to 7.5% as higher levels affected weight gain, feed intake and digestibility. Further studies on
the yellowing of the carcass, its quality and acceptability by consumers is needed.
Key words: Moringa oleifera leaf meal, broiler chicken, feed intake, weight gain, abdominal fat pad, feed
digestibility

D.W. Gakuya, Nganga CJ, Waruiru RM, Sabuni AZ, Muasa BS. "Evaluation of anthelmintic efficacies in controlling gastrointestinal helminth.". In: 49th KVA Annual Scientific Conference. Busia county,Kenya; 2015.evaluation_of_anthelmintic_efficacies_in_controlling_gastrointestinal_helminth.pdf
D.W. Gakuya, T.O.Abuom, C.Onyango, L.K.Cheruiyot. "Use of sodium hypochlorite (jik) in the management of dermatophytosis (ringworm) in a dairy cattle farm in Kiambu County.". In: 9th Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific conference and Exhibition. PHPT Auditorium,CAVS,University of Nairobi; 2014.
D.W. Gakuya, C.J. Ng'ang'a, Karanja DN, J.K.Wabacha, Mutune. MN. "Multiple anthelmintic resistance on a sheep farm in Kenya and its implication for helminth control." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2007;55:226-230.13_gakuya_et_al_2007.pdf
D.W. Gakuya, S.M.Itonga, J.M. Mbaria, J.K.Muthee, J.K.Musau. "Ethnobotanical survey of biopesticides and other medicinal plants traditionally used in Meru Central district of Kenyaf ." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2013;145:547-553.
D.W. Gakuya, G.M.Muchemi, A.G.Thaiyah, P.B.Gathura. "One health:The potential of zoonotic diseases in human,livestock and wildlife interface in Kenya.". In: Pathways Kenya 2016:integrating Human Dimensions into Fisheries and wildlife management programme. Mount Kenya Safari Park,Nanyuki,Kenya; 2016.
D.W. Gakuya, Okoth MO, J.Muraya, C.J.Nganga, J.K.Muthee. "An outbreak of acute helminthosis in a sheep and goat farm in Machakos County.". In: 9th Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific conference and Exhibition. PHPT Auditorium,CAVS,University of Nairobi; 2014.an__outbreak_of__acute_helminthosis__in__a_sheep_and_goat__farm__in_machakos_county.pdf
D.W. Gakuya, C.M.Mulei. "AN INVESTIGATION OF THE INCIDENCES OF EAST COAST FEVER (ECF), ANAPLASMOSIS AND BABESIOSIS IN THE BOVINE CASES MANAGED BY AMBULATORY SERVICES OF THE FACULTY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE, KABETE." Kenya Veterinarian. 2005;29:21-24. AbstractWebsite

The purpose of this investigation was to establish the incidences of tick borne diseases (TBD) in cattle. The diseases investigated were East Coast Fever (ECF), anaplasmosis and babesiosis. The data used was obtained from the large animal clinic of the Faculty of Veterinary medicine covering a period of 8 years (1996-2003). From the total number of bovine cases recorded (8706), the incidences of the clinical tick borne diseases was 7.8%, with ECF, anaplasmosis and babesiosis accounting for 62.9%, 32.8% and 4.3% of the cases respectively. The confirmed cases of the tick borne diseases represented 2% of all total bovine cases (8706) attended by ambulatory services over this period although only 42.7% were presented for laboratory confirmation. East Cost Fever, Anaplasmosis and babesiosis were confirmed in 65 %, 41.7% and 61.5% of their respective clinical cases. It was concluded that tick-borne diseases were a major problem and ECF was still the most prevalent tick-borne disease in this area. Issues on the number of cases in this area, sample collection, field and laboratory diagnosis are discussed

D.W. Gakuya, P.N.Mbugua, S.M.Mwaniki, S.G.Kiama, G.M.Muchemi, A.Njuguna. "Effect of supplementation of Moringa oleifera(LAM) leaf meal in layer chicken feed." International Journal of Poultry Science. 2014;13(7):379-383.effect_of_supplementation_of_moringa_oleiferalam_leaf_meal_in_layer_chicken_feed.pdf
D.W. Gakuya, D.Muasya. "Management of clinical mastitis in dairy cows.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association-SEVET branch,CPD scientific seminar . PCEA Nyamacaki Church hall, Nyeri ; 2014.management_of_clinical_mastitis.pdf
D.W.Muasya, W.E.Mwangi, P.Kimeli, G.K.Gitau, D.W. Gakuya, J.D. Mande. "A retrospective study on isolation and antimicrobial sensitivity trends of mastitis causing pathogens in bovine and goats in Kabete, Kenya.". In: 9th Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific conference and Exhibition. PHPT Auditorium,CAVS,University of Nairobi; 2014.
Da Silva EJ, Freire J, Hillali A, Keya S. "Nuestros amigos los microbios.". 1987.
Daar AS, Jacobs M, Ndetei D. "Declaration on mental health in Africa: moving to implementation." Global Health Action. 2014;7. AbstractWebsite

rgent action is needed to address mental health issues globally. In Africa, where mental health disorders account for a huge burden of disease and disability, and where in general less than 1% of the already small health budgets are spent on these disorders, the need for action is acute and urgent. Members of the World Health Organization, including African countries, have adopted a Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan. Africa now has an historic opportunity to improve the mental health and wellbeing of its citizens, beginning with provision of basic mental health services and development of national mental health strategic plans (roadmaps). There is need to integrate mental health into primary health care and address stigma and violations of human rights. We advocate for inclusion of mental health into the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, and for the convening of a special UN General Assembly High Level Meeting on Mental Health within three years.

Keywords: Africa; mental health; WHO action plan; roadmap; basic services; policy; implementation; stigma; human rights; post-2015 Agenda; UN General Assembly

Responsible Editor: Peter Byass, Umeå University, Sweden.

Dadu CK. A Negotiated Framework for Rehabilitation of Riparian Zones in Nairobi City: The Case of Mathare River Valley (Kenya) . Nairobi; 2010. Abstract

Short Outline

Traditionally, riparian zones have been conceived as natural areas adjacent to water bodies. Today these are infiltrated by other non-traditional functions, particularly human settlement related; their management is a complicated negotiation.

Traditionally, riparian zones have been defined, planned, and managed as natural areas adjacent to rivers or water bodies; seen in this context, the riparian zone as a land use would largely have a recreational and/or environmental function attached to it. Consequently, when it comes to river restoration and rehabilitation, the above characteristics have formed the bulk of the desired end-state. However, the situation becomes much more complex where, for various reasons such as lack of access to urban land especially for the poor, such areas are infiltrated by other non-traditional uses, particularly those related to human settlement. In Nairobi, and Mathare River Valley in particular, the bulk of human activities occupying and using the riparian zone fall under the pro-poor informal sector; these include shanty dwelling units, informal micro-industry, urban agriculture (including livestock farming), informal breweries, and clay works. For decades, the Mathare riparian corridor has been colonized and utilized by the urban poor now estimated at over 6000 households organized into villages; whereas majority use it for dormitory purposes only, a significant number have relied on it for extractive and processing micro-economic functions with tangible benefits. Both dimensions have triggered serious problems related to environmental quality and carrying capacity. A significant proportion of these households have settled much into the flood zone that is considered as hazardous.
Recently the Government of Kenya, through a ministerial statement, put the riparian communities on notice pending total recovery of the riparian reserve. The immediate impact is the imminent displacement of large amount of dwellings, but also such a move is predicted to have adverse effects on key livelihoods and socio-economic activities of the community in the long-term. The pronouncement has been met by anxiety and resistance on the community side, who argue that complete recovery of the riparian zone for exclusive natural and recreational functions will have far-reaching effects and thus is not sustainable. Other than exchanges through the media, there has not been any effort towards dialogue, neither has there been initiated any meaningful research to establish the true extent of potential impacts of enforcing the pronouncement in total. The research employs GIS mapping techniques as well as field surveys to develop community profiles; overlays will be conducted to assess level of displacement and its impacts, which will be interpreted in scenario development. The output is a negotiated framework for rehabilitation of Nairobi riparian zone anchored on four components: community mapping, impact assessment, scenario development, and consensus building.

Keywords
Riparian; Rehabilitation; Framework; Livelihoods

Dadu K. Institutionalization of Participatory Design in Kenya. Nairobi: Centre for Urban Research and Innovation (CURI); Submitted.
Dagcinar A, Kaya AH, Aydin ME, Kopuz C, Senel A, Demir MT, Corumlu U, Celik F, Sam B. "The superior cerebellar artery: anatomic study with review." Neurosurgery Quarterly. 2007;17:235-240. AbstractWebsite
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Dagcinar A, Kaya AH, Aydin ME, Kopuz C, Senel A, Demir MT, Corumlu U, Celik F, Sam B. "The {Superior} {Cerebellar} {Artery}: {Anatomic} {Study} {With} {Review}." Neurosurgery Quarterly. 2007;17:235-240. AbstractWebsite
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Dahlin J, Kanui T, Wambugu SN, Abelson KSP. "The suspended formalin test: A method designed for studying formalin-induced behaviour in the Speke's Hingeback Tortoise (Kinixys spekii)." Scandinavian Journal of Animal Science. 2012;39(1):11-15. Abstractjoakim_dahlin-_suspended_formalin_test_-tortoise.pdf

The present study aimed to develop a method for testing pain-related behaviour induced by formalin in the Speke’s hingeback tortoise (Kinixys spekii). These animals retract their head and limbs into their shell when approached, making behavioural testing almost impossible. It was found that suspending the animals in the air, facing away from the observer, made the animals keep their limbs out of the shell. Subcutaneous injection of formalin induced easily identifiable and quantifiable behaviours that lasted for 20 minutes. Contrary to the biphasic effect of formalin observed in rats and mice, the response in tortoises was monophasic. The suspended formalin test may be useful for studying nociceptive mechanisms in tortoises, which in turn will be important for a further understanding of the nociceptive system in reptiles as well as in mammals.

Dahlin J, Wambugu SN, Abelson KSP. "The suspended formalin test: A method designed for studying formalin-induced behaviour in the Speke's Hingeback Tortoise (Kinixys spekii).". 2012. AbstractWebsite

The present study aimed to develop a method for testing pain-related behaviour induced by formalin in the Speke’s hingeback tortoise (Kinixys spekii). These animals retract their head and limbs into their shell when approached, making behavioural testing almost impossible. It was found that suspending the animals in the air, facing away from the observer, made the animals keep their limbs out of the shell. Subcutaneous injection of formalin induced easily identifiable and quantifiable behaviours that lasted for 20 minutes. Contrary to the biphasic effect of formalin observed in rats and mice, the response in tortoises was monophasic. The suspended formalin test may be useful for studying nociceptive mechanisms in tortoises, which in turn will be important for a further understanding of the nociceptive system in reptiles as well as in mammals.

Dalton Wamalwa, Benki-Nugent S, Langat A, Tapia K, Ngugi E, Moraa H, Maleche-Obimbo E, Otieno V, Inwani I, Richardson BA, Chohan B, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart GC. "Treatment interruption after 2-year antiretroviral treatment initiated during acute/early HIV in infancy." AIDS. 2016;30(15):2303-13. Abstract

Treatment interruption has been well tolerated and durable in some pediatric studies but none have compared treatment interruption with continued antiretroviral treatment (ART) following ART initiation in early HIV. The objective of this study was to compare outcomes in treatment interruption versus continued ART among early-treated infants.

Dalton Wamalwa, Benki-Nugent S, Langat A, Tapia K, Ngugi E, Moraa H, Maleche-Obimbo E, Otieno V, Inwani I, Richardson BA, Chohan B, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart GC. "Treatment interruption after 2-year antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiated during acute/early HIV in infancy: a randomized trial." AIDS. 2016. Abstract

Treatment interruption (TI) has been safe and durable in some pediatric studies but none have compared TI to continued antiretroviral treatment (ART) following ART initiation in early HIV. The objective of this study was to compare outcomes in TI versus continued ART among early-treated infants.

Dalupan CMG, Haywood C, Wardell AD, Cordonnier-Segger M-C, Kibugi R. Building enabling legal frameworks for sustainable land-use investments in Zambia, Tanzania and Mozambique: A synthesis. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia; 2015. Abstract
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Dalupan CMG, Haywood C, Wardell AD, Cordonnier-Segger M-C, Kibugi R. Building enabling legal frameworks for sustainable land-use investments in Zambia, Tanzania and Mozambique: A synthesis. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia; 2015. Abstract
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Dalupan CMG, Haywood C, Wardell AD, Cordonnier-Segger M-C, Kibugi R. Building enabling legal frameworks for sustainable land-use investments in Zambia, Tanzania and Mozambique: A synthesis. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia; 2015. Abstract
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Damaris M, O. OD, Jackson GE, Kariuki DK. "Speciation of Some Heavy Metals in Ngong River using the Joint Expert Speciation System (JESS)." BEST-IJHAMS. 2014;2(10):59-70.
Dambolena JS, Zunino MP, Lopez AG, Rubinstein HR, Zygadlo JA, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO, Mwangi JM, Mwalukumbi JM, Kariuki ST. "Essential oils composition of Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. From Kenya and their inhibitory effects on growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticillioides." Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies. 2010;11:410-414.
Dambolenaa JS;, Zuninoa MP;, Lópezb AG;, Rubinsteinc HR;, Zygadloa JA;, Mwangi JW;, Thoithi GN;, Kibwage IO;, Mwalukumbi JM;, Kariuki ST. "Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies.". 2011. Abstract

This work investigated the constituents and the efficacy against Fusarium verticillioides infection and fumonisin production of essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. from different locations in Kenya.The oil of leaves and flowering tops of O. basilicum from Sagana contained mainly linalool (95%). The flowering tops and leaves from Yatta contained mainly camphor (32.6 and 31.0%, respectively) and linalool (28.2 and 29.3, respectively). Eugenol was the main constituent in the oil of O. gratissimum leaves from both Sagana (95.5%) and Yatta (70.1%). The oil of the flowering tops had significantly less eugenol. The main component of the oil of flowering tops from Yatta was Z-β-ocimene (34.1%). Oil from both species had some antifungal activity. The oils of O. basilicum and O. gratissimum from different locations showed chemical variation, antifungal activity, free radical scavenging capacity and antimycotoxicogenic property. These properties are attributed to the phenolic compound eugenol.Industrial relevanceThis manuscript gives the chemical composition and some biological effects of essential oil of two Ocimum species in Kenya namely Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. The work reveals that there are chemovarieties of these plants in different locations in the country. Of significance is the presence of very high amounts of linalool in one chemovariety of O. basilicum while geranial and neral are major in another. The third variety contains almost equal amounts of camphor and linalool. The first two containing high quantities of linalool, geranial and neral could be cultivated after agronomic studies to provide essential oils useful in perfumery, soap or food industry while that containing camphor and linalool may find use in medicine.Proper seed selection and good agricultural practice for O. gratissimum containing high amount of eugenol could serve as good substitute for cloves which grows best only in a few islands in East Africa. Clove oil due to its high eugenol content has many biological activities including those demonstrated in the present work, and many applications in medicine and commercial world.There is need for more research on these plants especially on cultivation and commercial exploitation of the herbs.

Damian. "The Minimal Resolution Conjecture for an ideal of general points in a projective space." International Journal of Algebra. 2011;4(9-12):477-500. AbstractLink

The Minimal Resolution Conjecture (MRC) of Lorenzini predicts that the minimal free resolution of the homogeneous ideal I of S general points in a projective space of dimension n, contains no ghost terms, i.e. as predicted by Anna Lorenzini. I used the "la method d'Horace" to prove that a given evaluation map is of bijective and deduced maximal rank.

Damle SG. Text Book of Paediatric Dentistry. New Dehli: Arya (Med) Publishing House; 2012.
Damme VPA, Maertens D, Arrumm A, Hamerlynck O, Ollevier F. "The role of Callionymus Iyra and C. Reticulatus in the life cycle of Lernaeoceralusci in the Belgian coastal waters (Southern Bight of the North Sea)." Journal of Fish Biology . 1993;42:395-401.

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