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Odhiambo SA, ZP Q, PM N, Kosgei RJ, AB K, Ayieko P, PK K, A O, Odawa FX, GN G, MK K, O K, O O. "Born Too Soon: Provide Corticosteriods at the earliest opportunity even if dose is not completed." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East & Central Africa. 2019;30(2):62-63.Website
Matara DN, Nguta JM, Musila FM, Mapenay IO, Ali HM, Omambia VM. "Botanical description, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological effects of Croton dichogamus Pax (Euphorbiaceae). ." The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2021;10(1):42-47.
Matara DN, Nguta JM, Musila FM, Mapenay I, Ali HM, Omambia VM. "Botanical description, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological effects of Croton dichogamus pax (Euphorbiaceae). ." Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2021;10(1).
Awino ZB, Nkirote C. "Bottlenecks in the Execution of Kenya Vision 2030 Strategy: An Empirical Study ." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2012;2(3):505-512.
Uhl GR, Arinami T, Teasenfitz L, Macharia D, Iwasaki S, Inada T, Lujilde J, Hope B, Akinshola EB, Brusco A, Gardner E, Tagliaferro PA, Mora Z, Perchuk A, Myers L, Meozzi PA, Patel S, Gong J-P, Ishiguro H, Onaivi mail ES. "Brain neuronal CB2 cannabinoid receptors in drug abuse and depression: from mice to human subjects.". 2008.
Gachago MM, AG K. "Branch Retinal Vein Occlusions. A Review." JOECSA. 2017;21(1):1-8.
Kihara AB, Kiarie G, Cheserem EJ, Amin M, Issak B, Rogena E, Kosgei RJ. "Breast cancer in pregnancy; routine examination, diagnosis and management- A case report ." Case reports in clinical medicine. 2013;2:119-122.breast_cancer_in_pregnancy_routine_examination_diagnosis_and_managemen_a_case_report.pdf
Angeline Anyona Aywak1*, Timothy Musila Mutala1, Purity Ndaiga1, Callen Onyambu1, Raza2 S. "Breast Cancer Prevalence Among Patients Referred for Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." The Journal of Global Radiology. 2018;4(1):1-7.
Angeline Anyona Aywak, Mutala TM, Ndaiga P, Onyambu C, S. R. "Breast Cancer Prevalence Among Patients Referred for Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." The Journal of Global Radiology. 2018;4(1):1-7.Website
AA A, TM M, P N, C O, S. R. "Breast Cancer Prevalence Among Patients Referred for Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." J Glob Radiol. 2018;4((1)):10.7191/jgr.2018.1037.
Ásbjörnsdóttir KH, Slyker JA, Weiss NS, Mbori-Ngacha D, Maleche-Obimbo E, Dalton Wamalwa, John-Stewart G. "Breastfeeding is associated with decreased pneumonia incidence among HIV-exposed, uninfected Kenyan infants." AIDS. 2013;27(17):2809-15. Abstract

HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants have higher infectious disease morbidity and mortality than unexposed infants. We determined the incidence and risk factors for pneumonia, a leading cause of infant mortality worldwide, in a cohort of HEU infants. Identifying predictors of pneumonia among HEU infants may enable early identification of those at highest risk.

Ásbjörnsdóttir KH, Slyker JA, Maleche-Obimbo E, Dalton Wamalwa, Phelgona Otieno, Grace C. John-Stewart, Gichuhi CM, John-Stewart G. "Breastfeeding Is Associated with Decreased Risk of Hospitalization among HIV-Exposed, Uninfected Kenyan Infants." J Hum Lact. 2015. Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants are a growing population in sub-Saharan Africa, with higher morbidity and mortality than HIV-unexposed infants. HEU infants may experience increased morbidity due to breastfeeding avoidance.

Ásbjörnsdóttir KH, Slyker JA, Maleche-Obimbo E, Dalton Wamalwa, Phelgona Otieno, Grace C. John-Stewart, Gichuhi CM, John-Stewart G. "Breastfeeding Is Associated with Decreased Risk of Hospitalization among HIV-Exposed, Uninfected Kenyan Infants." J Hum Lact. 2015. Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants are a growing population in sub-Saharan Africa, with higher morbidity and mortality than HIV-unexposed infants. HEU infants may experience increased morbidity due to breastfeeding avoidance.

Kimani PM;, Buruchara R;, Ampofo K;, Pyndji M;, Chirwa RM;, Kirkby R. "Breeding beans for smallholder farmers in Eastern, Central, and Southern Africa: Constraints, achievements, and potential."; 2001. Abstract

Serious declines in food security and income in sub-Saharan Africa over the past two decades have resulted in widespread poverty and malnutrition, especially among resource-poor smallholders and the urban poor. The common bean is a major part of their food requirements and source of income, but there have been declines in bean productivity, attributable to a number of factors and estimated at nearly 3,000,000 t per year. In the last 16 years, the Pan-African Bean Research Alliance (PABRA) together with NARS partners, farmers, NGOs, and other stakeholders have sought to overcome these constraints by breeding highyielding, disease- and pest-resistant cultivars adapted to poor soils, with characteristics acceptable for domestic and export markets, and seed production and delivery systems for smallholder producers, among other things. A record 188 distinct varieties have been released and have contributed significantly to improvements in the livelihoods of resource-poor rural communities through increased availability of food and household income, savings in cooking time, reduced wood fuel consumption, gender equity, and empowerment of women and other vulnerable groups. Adoption rates of up to 100% indicate that accelerated dissemination and adoption of improved bean cultivars can significantly contribute to improving food security, household income, and poverty alleviation, especially for the most vulnerable group

Kimani PM, Mulanya MM, Narla RD, Ambuko J, Ouma L, Shibairo S, Hutchinson M, Owino WO, Njuguna J, Kosgei PK, others. "Breeding runner bean for grain yield, disease resistance and short-day adaptation in eastern Africa.". In: Proc. Fourth RUFORUM Biennial Conference.; 2014:. Abstract
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Otieno SP. Bridge on Fire. Simon, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2009.
Waema TM, Camara S, Abdelnour NJ, Luckin R. Bridging the global digital divide with participatory customisation..; 2008.
Landais E, Huang X, Havenar-Daughton C, Murrell B, Price MA, Wickramasinghe L, Ramos A, Bian CB, Simek M, Allen S, Karita E, Kilembe W, Lakhi S, Inambao M, Kamali A, Sanders EJ, Anzala O, Edward V, Bekker L-G, Tang J, Gilmour J, Kosakovsky-Pond SL, Phung P, Wrin T, Crotty S, Godzik A, Poignard P. "Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Responses in a Large Longitudinal Sub-Saharan HIV Primary Infection Cohort." PLoS Pathog.. 2016;12(1):e1005369. Abstract

Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are thought to be a critical component of a protective HIV vaccine. However, designing vaccines immunogens able to elicit bnAbs has proven unsuccessful to date. Understanding the correlates and immunological mechanisms leading to the development of bnAb responses during natural HIV infection is thus critical to the design of a protective vaccine. The IAVI Protocol C program investigates a large longitudinal cohort of primary HIV-1 infection in Eastern and South Africa. Development of neutralization was evaluated in 439 donors using a 6 cross-clade pseudo-virus panel predictive of neutralization breadth on larger panels. About 15% of individuals developed bnAb responses, essentially between year 2 and year 4 of infection. Statistical analyses revealed no influence of gender, age or geographical origin on the development of neutralization breadth. However, cross-clade neutralization strongly correlated with high viral load as well as with low CD4 T cell counts, subtype-C infection and HLA-A*03(-) genotype. A correlation with high overall plasma IgG levels and anti-Env IgG binding titers was also found. The latter appeared not associated with higher affinity, suggesting a greater diversity of the anti-Env responses in broad neutralizers. Broadly neutralizing activity targeting glycan-dependent epitopes, largely the N332-glycan epitope region, was detected in nearly half of the broad neutralizers while CD4bs and gp41-MPER bnAb responses were only detected in very few individuals. Together the findings suggest that both viral and host factors are critical for the development of bnAbs and that the HIV Env N332-glycan supersite may be a favorable target for vaccine design.

Carron M, Alarcon P, Karani M, Muinde P, Akoko J, Onono J, F`evre E, Ḧasler B, Rushton J. "The broiler meat system in Nairobi, Kenya: using a value chain framework to understand animal and product flows, governance and sanitary risks." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2017;147:90-99.
Amolo M. BRP 314 N ew religious movement in Africa. Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; 2013.
Amolo M. BRP 318 : History of Christianity. Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; 2013.
English M, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Agweyu A, Gathara D, Oliwa J, Ayieko P, Were F, Paton C, Tunis S, Forrest CB. "Building Learning Health Systems to Accelerate Research and Improve Outcomes of Clinical Care in Low- and Middle-Income Countries." PLOS Medicine. 2016;10(1371). Abstractbuilding_learning_health_systems_to_accelerate_research_and_improve_outcomes_of_clinical_care_in_low-_and_middle-income_countries.pdf

Achieving universal coverage that supports high-quality care will require that health systems are designed to integrate the delivery of health services with the generation of new knowledge about the effectiveness of these services.
System strengthening and research will need to be better integrated to achieve this in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) so that changes in coverage, quality, and impact are measured, costs are contained, and health systems are responsive to users’ needs and concerns.
In high-income countries, learning health systems (LHS) are emerging to meet similar needs. The LHS vision aspires to engage policy makers, researchers, service providers, and patients in learning that uses and strengthens routinely collected data to conduct pragmatic, contextually appropriate research, promote rapid adoption of findings to improve quality and outcomes, and promote continuous learning.
Although there are significant challenges, we should begin to develop LHS in LMIC for their immediate and longer term benefits and to avoid having to retrofit health systems with the capability to promote learning at a later date and even greater cost.
A global coalition on how to build LHS effectively that shares accumulating learning could enable such a strategy.

English M, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Agweyu A, Gathara D, Oliwa J, Ayieko P, Were F, Paton C, Tunis S, Forrest CB. "Building Learning Health Systems to Accelerate Research and Improve Outcomes of Clinical Care in Low- and Middle-Income Countries." PLoS Med.. 2016;13(4):e1001991. AbstractWebsite

Mike English and colleagues argue that as efforts are made towards achieving universal health coverage it is also important to build capacity to develop regionally relevant evidence to improve healthcare.

Mathai M, Stoep A, Kumar M, M.Kuria, Obondo A, Kimani V, Amugune B, Makanyengo M, Mbwayo A, Child M, Unutzer J, Kiarie J. "Building Mental Health Research Capacity in Kenya: a South-North Collaboration." Glob Soc Wek . 2018;2018:1-12.
Owusu F, Kalipeni E, Awortwi E. "Building research capacity for African institutions: confronting the research leadership gap and lessons from African research leaders." International Journal of Leadership in Education. 2015:1-26.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Bura Irrigation Settlement Project: A Socio-economic survey, IDS Consultancy Report (Ruigu, G. Alila, P. and Chitere, P.).". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1984.
ADHIAMBO DRROGENAEMILY. "Burkitt , versus diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a practical approach Bellan C, Lazzi S, Defalco G, Rogena EA, Leoncini L.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2009. Abstract

Burkitt Lymphoma (BL) is listed in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lymphoid tumours as an aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, characterized by a high degree of proliferation of the malignant cells and deregulation of the c-MYC gene. The main diagnostic challenge in BL is to distinguish it from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). While in children BL and DLBCL types probably do not differ clinically, and the differential diagnosis between BL and DLBCL may theoretically appear clear-cut, in adults daily practice shows the existence of cases that have morphological features, immunophenotypic and cytogenetics intermediate between DLBCL and BL, and cannot be classified with certainty in these categories. Distinguishing between BL and DLBCL is critical, as the two diseases require different management. This review summarizes the current practical approach, including the use of a large panel of antibodies, and cytogenetic and molecular diagnostic techniques, to distinguish between BL, DLBCL and the provisional category of B-cell lymphoma, unclassificable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma, now listed in the updated WHO classification. <?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

KA W, A V, DO A, EAO D, A M, AK L, J G, chindia ML. "Burning mouth syndrome presenting with oral lichen planus – A case report." African Journal of Oral Health Sciences. 2014.
Wakoli KA, Vilembwa M, Awange DO, Dimba EAO, Mamujee A, Limo A, Gichana J, Chindia ML. "Burning Mouth Syndrome presenting with Oral Lichen Planus–Case Report." JOURNAL OF THE KENYA DENTAL ASSOCIATION. 2011;3:198-200. Abstract
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Wakoli KA, Vilembwa M, Awange DO, Dimba EAO, Mamujee A, Limo A, Gichana J, Chindia ML. "Burning Mouth Syndrome presenting with Oral Lichen Planus–Case Report." JOURNAL OF THE KENYA DENTAL ASSOCIATION. 2011;3:198-200. Abstract
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Gannon KE, Conway D, Pardoe J, Ndiyoi M, Batisani N, E. O, Olago D, Opere A, et al. "Business experience of floods and drought-related water and electricity supply disruption in three cities in sub-Saharan Africa during the 2015/2016 El Niño." Global Sustainability . 2018;1:e14. AbstractWebsite

The El Niño event in 2015/2016 was one of the strongest since at least 1950. Through surveys and interviews with key informants, we found businesses in the capital cities of Zambia, Botswana and Kenya experienced major disruption to their activities from El Niño related hydroelectric load shedding, water supply disruption and flooding, respectively. Yet, during the 2015/2016 El Niño, fluctuations in precipitation were not extreme considering the strength of the El Niño event. Results therefore highlight that even fairly moderate precipitation anomalies can contribute to major disruption to economic activity. Addressing the risk of disruption – and supporting the private sector to adapt – is a development priority.

Gannon KE, Conway D, Pardoe J, Ndiyoi M, Batisani N, Odada E, Olago D, et al. "Business experience of floods and drought-related water and electricity supply disruption in three cities in sub-Saharan Africa during the 2015/2016 El Niño." Global Sustainability. 2018;1:e14. AbstractWebsite

The El Niño event in 2015/2016 was one of the strongest since at least 1950. Through surveys and interviews with key informants, we found businesses in the capital cities of Zambia, Botswana and Kenya experienced major disruption to their activities from El Niño related hydroelectric load shedding, water supply disruption and flooding, respectively. Yet, during the 2015/2016 El Niño, fluctuations in precipitation were not extreme considering the strength of the El Niño event. Results therefore highlight that even fairly moderate precipitation anomalies can contribute to major disruption to economic activity. Addressing the risk of disruption – and supporting the private sector to adapt – is a development priority.

P.O Alila, et al. "Business in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions." University of Nairobi Press; 2012. Abstract
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PATRICK ALILA, et al. "Business in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions." University of Nairobi Press; 2007. Abstract
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A MRSOMBOKMARGARET. "Business Plan, a manual for Higher Diploma in entrepreneurship ILO, UNDP.". In: The Kenya Times (Nairobi: November 27,1983), p.6. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1993. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
Awino ZB, M MJ. "Business Process Outsourcing Strategy And Performance Of Kenyan State Corporations." Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences (JETEMS). 2014;5(7):37-43.
Oribu W, King’oriah PG, Agwata DJ, Gongera PGE. "Business Sustainability: A Need To Re-Look Environmental Practices And Initiatives." European Journal of Business and Management. 2014;Vol.6, No.3. Abstractbusiness_sustainability-a_need_to_relook_environmental_practices_and_initiatives.pdf

Due to the increasing degradation of the natural business enterprises’ environmental commitment has become an
important variable in most of today’s competitive business environment. This is because activities of most
enterprises are the main causes of environmental degradation which in turn impact on the sustainability of their
performance. This study looks at the specific business environmental practices and initiatives and how they
impact on their sustainability. The overall objective of the study was to establish the impact of environmental
initiatives on business sustainability around Lake Naivasha. The study design was descriptive survey in order to
pick behaviors which needed to be mitigated for purposes of business sustainability. Purposive random sampling
was used from the target population which comprised of farming, hospitality and fishing sectors. Discriminant
analysis was used to analyze the data and the key findings of the study show that business sustainability depends
mainly on the current environmental practices and initiatives that have been put in place. The study recommends
that business associations be at the frontline in regulating activities by their members in order to achieve
sustainability.

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Waga DD, Andreeva-Grigorovich AS, Maslun NV. "Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of the Paleocene sedimentsof the Odessa Gas Field (NW Black Sea)." Geobios. 2010;1(43):33-43.
Andreeva-Grigorovich AS, Waga DDO. "Calcareous nannofossils from the Paleogene deposits of the Northern Forecaucasus (Russia) and South-Eastern Part of Great Donbas (Ukraine)." International Journal of Algae. 2012;14(1. 80):93-106.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Cameron W, Clementson D, D.". In: J. Inf. Diseases. 1991. IBIMA Publishing; 1991. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To measure the proportion of nosocomial diarrhea cases associated with Salmonella and Shigella species. DESIGN: Prospective 6-month survey. SETTING: Tertiary care center in a developing country. PATIENTS: Pediatric and adult patients admitted with the previous 24 hours and all consenting adult or pediatric medical patients with nosocomial diarrhea. OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella species isolated from rectal swabs at admission and among subjects with nosocomial diarrhea. RESULTS: Salmonella species and Shigella species were isolated from 3.0% and 2.5%, respectively, of 667 patients screened on admission. All admission Salmonella isolates were identified in children under 13 years of age; Shigella prevalence was similar for children and adults. Children with Salmonella at admission were significantly older and more likely to have diarrhea, fever, and some indicators of malnutrition than those from whom Salmonella was not isolated. Salmonella and Shigella were isolated from rectal cultures in 36 (10%) and 9 (2.5%) of 360 nosocomial gastroenteritis cases, respectively. Nosocomial cases occurred equally in adults and children. In adults, nosocomial Salmonella acquisition was associated with sharing a room with a diarrhea patient and previous institutionalization. In children, it was associated with recent antimicrobial therapy, crowding at home, and age between 6 months and 6 years. Nine (41%) of 22 nosocomial Salmonella cases in adults occurred in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection, while none of 79 HIV-1-positive patients had Salmonella isolated at admission. CONCLUSIONS: Salmonella is a frequent cause of nosocomial gastroenteritis in this tertiary care institution in a developing country. Risk factors appear to differ for children and adults, and HIV-1-infected subjects may be at increased risk of acquisition. Control measures feasible for the limited resources available to such institutions require evaluation. PIP: Researchers analyzed data on 667 patients admitted between March 9 and September 14, 1988 to the Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya to verify the contribution of Salmonella and Shigella species to hospital acquired infections and to identify factors associated with admission and nosocomial infection. Laboratory personnel isolated Salmonella and Shigella in 12.5% (10% and 2.5% respectively) of the 360 patients with nosocomial diarrhea. Their overall prevalence was 3% and 2.5% respectively. These 2 bacteria were isolated from rectal swabs from 19 of the 27 hospital units. Most of the isolates were restricted to 5 units. All of the Salmonella isolates at admission were children under 13 years old (3.6% of 556 children). Shigella prevalence at admission was 2.5% for children and 3.6% for adults. The risk of nosocomial diarrhea caused by these 2 bacteria was much greater in children older than 6 months and younger than 6 years than in children of other ages (odds ratio [OR]=21.7; p=.006). The most significant variables which independently affected nosocomial diarrhea caused by these bacteria in children were recent antimicrobial therapy (OR=26.4; p=.001) and living in crowded homes (OR=1.2; p=.02). Another determinant was poor hair color indicating malnutrition (p=.03). Even though there were no significant differences between adults with nosocomial diarrhea caused by these bacteria and those with no nosocomial diarrhea, sharing a room with people with diarrhea, being in the hospital within the last 30 days, and being HIV-1 positive were factors that almost reached significance. In fact, 9 of their 22 (41%) adults with positive cultures of Salmonella were HIV=1 positive yet Salmonella was not isolated from any of the 70 HIV-1 positive patients at admission. Salmonella contributed greatly to nosocomial diarrhea at this hospital. The hospital should evaluate and redesign its control measures within available limited resources.
Bitange NM, Chemining’wa GN, Ambuko J, Owino W. "Can calcium sprays alleviate jelly seed in mango fruits?" Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics. 2020;Vol. 121 (1):35-42.abstract
Bitange NM, Chemining'wa GN, Ambuko J, Owino WO. "Can calcium sprays alleviate jelly seed in mango fruits?" Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics (JARTS). 2020;121:35-42. Abstract
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Zhang X, Wallace OL, Domi A, Wright KJ, Driscoll J, Anzala O, Sanders EJ, Kamali A, Karita E, Allen S, Fast P, Gilmour J, Price MA, Parks CL. "Canine distemper virus neutralization activity is low in human serum and it is sensitive to an amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin protein." Virology. 2015;482:218-24. Abstract

Serum was analyzed from 146 healthy adult volunteers in eastern Africa to evaluate measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) neutralizing antibody (nAb) prevalence and potency. MV plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) results indicated that all sera were positive for MV nAbs. Furthermore, the 50% neutralizing dose (ND50) for the majority of sera corresponded to antibody titers induced by MV vaccination. CDV nAbs titers were low and generally were detected in sera with high MV nAb titers. A mutant CDV was generated that was less sensitive to neutralization by human serum. The mutant virus genome had 10 nucleotide substitutions, which coded for single amino acid substitutions in the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) glycoproteins and two substitutions in the large polymerase (L) protein. The H substitution occurred in a conserved region involved in receptor interactions among morbilliviruses, implying that this region is a target for cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies.

A PKARANIFLORIDA. "Capacity Building and Women Empowerment, Towards realization of Kenya Vision 2030”: .". In: the Kenya Public Service Week . Kenyatta International Conference Center (KICC) ; 2009.
Mwai AO;, Malmfors B;, Andersson-Eklund L;, Philipsson J;, Rege JEO;, Hanotte O;, Fulss R. Capacity building for sustainable use of animal genetic resources in developing countries. ILRI-SLU Project progress report for the period 1999-2003.; 2005. Abstract

To promote a sustainable and improved use of animal genetic resources in developing countries, ILRI in collaboration with the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), and supported by Sida (Sweden), launched a project training the trainers, for national agricultural research systems (NABS) scientists (national university teachers and researchers) in developing countries. The main objectives of the project were to strengthen subject knowledge and skills, and teaching and communication skills of scientists teaching and supervising students in animal breeding and genetics at least up to MSc level. Other objectives were to catalyse curriculum development, stimulate contacts and networking, and to develop computer-based training resources relevant for use by NARS scientists in teaching and research. This capacity building project was an integrated component of the ILRI research agenda on Animal Genetic Resources. It was also an endeavour by ILRI to collaborate with and strengthen NARS institutions and scientists. The project was initially planned to include regions in sub-Saharan Africa, SouthEast Asia and South Asia, resources allowing, Latin America. The activities in each region or sub-region included: planning activities (questionnaire, country visits, planning workshop), training course for university teachers and researchers (three weeks, combining training in animal genetics/breeding and teaching methodologies), development of an Animal Genetics Training Resource' (on CD-ROM, and later also on the Web), follow-up activities, including impact assessment (questionnaires and follow-up workshops). During the period 1999 to 2003 a full round of activities was completed for sub Saharan Africa. The training course was conducted for Eastern/Southern Africa (20 scientists from 10 countries) and for Western/Central Africa (18 scientists from 10 countries). The planning and follow-up workshops were performed jointly for the region. In addition, the planning activities and training course (18 scientists from 9 countries) were completed for South-East Asia. Version 1 of the computer-based training resource (CD) was released in late 2003. The resource contains modules, i.e. core texts on issues related with farm animal genetic resources, quantitative methods and teaching methods, and Resources containing case studies, breed information, maps, examples, exercises, video clips, a glossary and a virtual library. It also contains references to web links, books and other CDs. The participants found the training courses very useful; average score for Overall Impression was 8.2 (scale 1-9). They also indicated that the computer-based training resource would be a valuable tool both in teaching and in research, but had not yet had a chance to explore and use it fully. Impact assessments for Africa (questionnaire and follow-up workshop) showed that the training course has already had a substantial impact in many of the participants. Impact assessments for Africa (questionnaire and follow-up workshop) showed that the training course has already had a substantial impact in many of the participants' home institutions, both on teaching methods and on course content. Students have shown more interest and understanding of animal breeding and genetics. The impact on participants' research has been just as large; more focus on research involving indigenous animal genetic resources, improved research proposal writing, research methodologies and science communication skills, and also more efficient supervision of students' research. Many of the participants have actively disseminated materials and experiences from the course to colleagues in their home institutions. Other important outcomes have been increased contacts and an open e-mail network `Afrib' formed by the African course participants. The project also strengthened Swedish knowledge and expanded PhD activities on animal genetic resources in developing countries; these were valuable `spin-off effects' of the project. The 'training the trainers' approach adopted in the ILRI-SLU project seems to be a good model for effective capacity building to promote a sustainable use of animal genetic resources in developing countries. The approach was innovative and has functioned well; the model could be extended to other disciplines. Furthermore, linking universities from the North to those of the South, with a CGIAR institute playing both a facilitating and catalytic role was beneficial. The project will now proceed to South Asia and version 2 of the computer-based training resource will be developed. More impact analyses will also be performed.

Muasya MK, et al. "Capacity of Kenyan Health Facilities for Decentralized Dental Training. .". In: 101st FDI Scientific conference. Turkey; 2013.
Sanchez JL, Johns MC, Burke RL, Vest KG, Fukuda MM, Yoon IK, Lon C, Quintana M, Schnabel DC, Pimentel G, Mansour M, Tobias S, Montgomery JM, Gray GC, Saylors K, Ndip LM, Lewis S, Blair PJ, Sjoberg PA, Kuschner RA, Russell KL, Blazes DL, Witt CJ, Money NN, Gaydos JC, Pavlin JA, Gibbons RV, Jarman RG, Stoner M, Shrestha SK, Owens AB, Iioshi N, Osuna MA, Martin SK, Gordon SW, Bulimo WD, Waitumbi DJ, Assefa B, Tjaden JA, Earhart KC, Kasper MR, Brice GT, Rogers WO, Kochel T, Laguna-Torres VA, Garcia J, Baker W, Wolfe N, Tamoufe U, Djoko CF, Fair JN, Akoachere JF, Feighner B, Hawksworth A, Myers CA, Courtney WG, Macintosh VA, Gibbons T, Macias EA, Grogl M, O'Neil MT, Lyons AG, Houng HS, Rueda L, Mattero A, Sekonde E, Sang R, Sang W, Palys TJ, Jerke KH, Millard M, Erima B, Mimbe D, Byarugaba D, Wabwire-Mangen F, Shiau D, Wells N, Bacon D, Misinzo G, Kulanga C, Haverkamp G, Kohi YM, Brown ML, Klein TA, Meyers M, Schoepp RJ, Norwood DA, Cooper MJ, Maza JP, Reeves WE, Guan J. "Capacity-building efforts by the AFHSC-GEIS program." BMC Public Health. 2011;11 Suppl 2:S4. AbstractWebsite

Capacity-building initiatives related to public health are defined as developing laboratory infrastructure, strengthening host-country disease surveillance initiatives, transferring technical expertise and training personnel. These initiatives represented a major piece of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) contributions to worldwide emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance and response. Capacity-building initiatives were undertaken with over 80 local and regional Ministries of Health, Agriculture and Defense, as well as other government entities and institutions worldwide. The efforts supported at least 52 national influenza centers and other country-specific influenza, regional and U.S.-based EID reference laboratories (44 civilian, eight military) in 46 countries worldwide. Equally important, reference testing, laboratory infrastructure and equipment support was provided to over 500 field sites in 74 countries worldwide from October 2008 to September 2009. These activities allowed countries to better meet the milestones of implementation of the 2005 International Health Regulations and complemented many initiatives undertaken by other U.S. government agencies, such as the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Department of State.

Bulimo W, JL S, MC J, RL B, KG V, MM F, IK Y, C L, M Q, DC S, G P, M M, S T, JM M, GC G, K S, LM N, S L, PJ B, PA S, RA K, KL R, DL B, Group AFHSC-GEISCBW, CJ W, NN M, JC G, JA P, RV G, RG J, M S, SK S, AB O, N I, MA O, SK M, SW G, WD B, DJ W, B A, JA T, KC E, MR K, GT B, WO R, T K, VA L-T, J G, W B, N W, U T, CF D, JN F, JF A, B F, A H, CA M, WG C, VA M, T G, EA M, M G, ' O, AG L, HS H, L R, A M, E S, R S, W S, TJ P, KH J, M M, B E, D M, D B, F W-M, D S, N W, D B, G M, C K, G H, YM K, ML B, TA K, M M, RJ S, DA N, MJ C, JP M, WE R, J G. "Capacity-building efforts by the AFHSC-GEIS program.". 2011. AbstractWebsite
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Ngugi RW, Maana I, Amanja D, Adam CS, Collier P, Ndung’u N. "Capital market and economic growth in Kenya.". In: Kenya Policies for Prosperity. Oxford University Press; 2010.
O’Connell SA, Maturu BO, Mwega FM, Ndung’u N, Ngugi RW, Adam CS, Collier P. "Capital mobility, monetary policy and exchange rate management in Kenya.". In: Kenya Policies for Prosperity. Oxford University Press; 2010.
Mwirigi M, Nkando I, Olum M, Attah-Poku S, Ochanda H, Berberov E, Potter A, Gerdts V, Perez-Casal J, Wesonga H, Soi R, Naessens J. "Capsular polysaccharide from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides shows potential for protection against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia." Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2016;178:64-69. Abstract

Abstract Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe respiratory disease
caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) which is widespread in Africa.
The capsule polysaccharide (CPS) of Mmm is one of the few identified virulence
determinants. In a previous study, immunization of mice against CPS generated antibodies,
but they were not able to prevent multiplication of Mmm in this model animal. However, mice
cannot be considered as a suitable animal model, as Mmm does not induce pathology in ...

Osanjo G, Aluvaala E, Wadegu M, Bulimo W, Guantai AN, Okalebo FA, Oluka M, Mulaa F. "Carbohydrate active enzymes (Cazymes) as drug targets and tools for synthesis of medicinal compounds.". In: 1st International Scientific Conference, College Of Health Sciences, University Of Nairobi.; 2011.
Osanjo G, Aluvaala E, Wadegu M, Bulimo W, Guantai AN, Mulaa F, Okalebo FA, Oluka M. "Carbohydrate active enzymes (Cazymes) as drug targets and tools for synthesis of medicinal compounds.". 2011.Website
Osanjo G, Aluvaala E, Wadegu M, Bulimo W, Guantai AN, Mulaa F, Okalebo FA, Oluka M. "Carbohydrate active enzymes (Cazymes) as drug targets and tools for synthesis of medicinal compounds.". 2011. Abstract
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Jumba IO, Wandiga SO, MARUFU L, KITUYI E, HUBER B, ANDREAE MO, HELAS G. "Carbon Monoxide and nitric oxide from biofuel fires in Kenya." Energy Conversion and Management 42, 1517-1542.. 2001. Abstract

Emission ratios (ER) of CO and NO relative to CO2 are reported from real time emission measurements on biofuel fires in Kenya. The experiments were based on available fuels burning in local popular traditional and improved stoves. The mean dCO/dCO2 ratios were 71, 79 and 74 mmol molt-1for firewood, charcoal and agricultural residues, respectively, while the corresponding mean d/NO/d/CO2 ratios for these fuels, in the same order, were 1.8, 2 and 2.2 mmol molt-1, respectively. Whereas stove design characteristics largely influenced the dCO/dCO2 ratios, the fuel nitrogen content was the major factor determining the dCO/dCO2 ratios. The dCO/dCO2 ratio for fuel derived NO is not affected by fire temperature but linearly depend on the fuel nitrogen content. Other important fuel parameters that influenced the observed emission ratio patterns include fuel moisture content, size and volatile matter content in the case of charcoal. In comparison to savanna and forest fires, biofuel fires tend to favour formation of reduced or partially oxidised compounds. It is clear that a change in energy preference up the "energy ladder" leads to a reduction in the CO ER, an important result for emission mitigation policy design.
© 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Etd.
Keywords: Trace gases: Emission ratios; Biofuels; Stoves; Biomass burning

A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Carcinoma of the Esophagus - II. An experience in Kenya.". In: The Nairobi Journal of medicine. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1988. Abstract
A retrospective study of 42 patients with perforations of the oesophagus during the period 1981-1987 indicated that 57.1% of the perforations were iatrogenic. Diseases of the oesophagus and in contiguous structures and foreign bodies in the oesophagus caused perforations in 31% of the cases. Perforations in 35.7% of the patients were located in the middle third of the oesophagus. The lower and upper thirds were affected in 31% of the patients in each site. The presenting physical signs included tachycardia (78.6%), fever (76.2%) and dyspnoea (59.5%). The main accompanying symptoms were chest pain and coughs in 100% and in 50% of the patients respectively. Radiographic findings showed hydropneumothorax in 40.5% of the cases and consolidation in 38.1% of the patients. Oesophagoscopy was positive in 78% of cases tested while thoracocentesis was positive in all cases that were tested.
Ayuo PO, Abinya NA, JOSHI MD, Lore W. "Cardiovascular features in adolescents and adults with sickle cell anaemia.". 1993. Abstractcardiovascular_features_in_adolescents_and_adults_with_sickle_cell_anaemia.pdfWebsite

Fifty five sickle cell anaemia (SCA) patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital were studied with a view to elucidating their cardiovascular status. Their age range was 13 to 27 years (median 18.9 years). They comprised 27 males and 28 females and their mean haemoglobin concentration was 8.5 +/- 1.4 g/dl. Haemoglobin level of 8.0-9.9 g/dl seen in 30 patients was noted to confer the lowest incidence of exertional dyspnoea and palpitation. Similarly, patients with this haemoglobin level had the lowest mean heart rate. The mean blood pressure was 114.9 +/- 9.9 mmHg systolic and 64.6 +/- 10 mmHg diastolic. Blood pressures, ejection fraction (EF) and differential fibre shortening (%D) were found to be directly related to haemoglobin level, whereas cardio-thoracic index (CTI) and left ventricular dimensions were inversely related to haemoglobin level. Mean echocardiographic measurements were within normal limits and left ventricular functions were found to be normal in 80.9% of the patients indicating that the majority of SCA patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital have good cardiac function

Owiti E, Awiti M, Mwabu G. "The Care of Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Kenya: A Cost - Effectiveness Analysis.". In: XV International AIDS Conference. Bangkok . Medimond, Italy; 2004.
Kailemia M, Kariuki N, Laving A, Agweyu A, Wamalwa. D. "Caregiver oral rehydration solution fluid monitoring charts versus standard care for the management of some dehydration among Kenyan children: a randomized controlled trial." International Health. 2018;10(6):442-450. Abstract

Diarrhoea is a major cause of child mortality. Although oral rehydration solution (ORS) is an efficacious intervention for correcting dehydration, inadequate monitoring may limit its effectiveness in routine settings. We evaluated the effect of using a caregiver-administered chart to monitor oral fluid therapy on hydration status among children with some dehydration.

AN S, A K, Benki-Nugent S, Chebet D GL, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, G J-S, Slyker JA, John-Stewart GC. "Caregivers’ report of HIV-associated oral manifestations among HIV-unexposed, exposed, and infected Kenyan children." Int J Paediatr Dent. 2020;2021;00:1-8.(2021;00:1-8.):2021;00:1-8.
D M, A L. "Caring for children with acute, treatable and preventable medical conditions ." African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2010;4 (1):33-37.
C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH, A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Carolyne G O Wasonga, Sheila A. Okoth, Joseph C Mukuria and Charles O.A. Omwandho MUSHROOM POLYSACCHARIDE EXTRACTS DELAY PROGRESSION OF CARCINOGENESIS IN MICE.". In: 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS). Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 2008.
C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH, A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Carolyne G O Wasonga, Sheila A. Okoth, Joseph C Mukuria and Charles O.A. Omwandho MUSHROOM POLYSACCHARIDE EXTRACTS DELAY PROGRESSION OF CARCINOGENESIS IN MICE.". In: 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS).; 2008. Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting

Mibei EK, Ambuko J, Giovannoni JJ, Onyango AN, Owino WO. "Carotenoid profiling of the leaves of selected African eggplant accessions subjected to drought stress." Food Science & Nutrition. 2017;5:113-122. Abstract
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Skilton MR, Sullivan TR, Ayer JG, Harmer JA, Toelle BG, Webb K, Marks GB, Celermajer DS. "Carotid extra-medial thickness in childhood: early life effects on the arterial adventitia." Atherosclerosis. 2012;222:478-482. Abstract

{OBJECTIVE: Structural modification of the arterial adventitia may be an early event in atherosclerosis. Carotid extra-medial thickness is a new measure of arterial adventitial thickness. We examined the association of cardiovascular risk factors with extra-medial thickness, in childhood. METHODS: Carotid extra-medial thickness was assessed by high-resolution ultrasound in 389 non-diabetic children aged 8-years. A non-fasting blood sample was collected from 314 participants. Associations of gender, age, lipoproteins, blood pressure, BMI z-score, waist:height ratio and parental history of early vascular disease, with extra-medial thickness were examined. RESULTS: Carotid extra-medial thickness was lower in girls (r=-.163

AMOLO DROGADAPENINA. "A Case for Inheritance. In More Modern African Stories. Charles R. Larson (editor). Fontana Books, Great Britain.". In: Paper Submitted for review, Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1975. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
Abungu NO, Munda JL, Akumu AO. "A Case for the Revision of Power Engineering Syllabi at Kenyan Universities.". In: The IASTED( International Association of Science and Technology for Development ) International Conference, ENERGY AND POWER SYSTEMS. International Association of Science and Technology for Development (IASTED; 2005. Abstract

This paper presents a summary of the current status of Electrical Power Engineering Education at Kenyan universities, followed by a summary of the situation on the same at universities world-wide. Against a backdrop of expected changes in the Kenyan power industry, the paper discusses the industry expectations of a power systems graduate currently and in the future, making a case for the revision of the current power engineering syllabi, concluding with recommendations and strategies for making the required changes.

Dechant W, Pamba HO, Awan AM. "A case of internal ophthalmomyiasis in Kenya (author's transl).". 1981. AbstractWebsite

An unusual case of ophthalmomyiasis is reported, in which two living fly larvae were observed inside the patient's eye. One larva was removed from the anterior chamber by paracentesis; the other was destroyed on the retina by photocoagulation. The mode of infestation, clinical picture and treatment are discussed in brief.

P K, AN K, WE M, JD M. "A case of Trypanosoma congolense savannah type infection and its management in a dog." J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., . 2014;1(4):232-234.
Ogeng’o J, Ouko I, Wambui A, Amuti T. "A case Report on unusual elongation of the Sustentaculum tali." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2020;9(1):1678-1680.
Njogu REN, Njenga LW, Kariuki DK, Amir O. Yusuf, Wendt OF. "Catalytic Properties of Luminescent Tris-Homoleptic Cyclometalated Iridium(III) Complexes in the Oxidation of Morin in Visible Light. ." Journal of Physical Sciences. 2020;5. AbstractJournal of Physical Sciences

The photo-oxidation of Morin, 2′,3,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone by six luminescent homoleptic tris-cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes was investigated with the aim of evaluating the catalytic properties of the complexes. The Iridium complexes were synthesized using 2-(1-naphthyl)-pyridine (npy) ligand and its derivatives such as npy-OMe, npy-CF3 and npy-Me to form Tris-homoleptic cyclometalated complexes; Ir(npy)3, Ir(npy-OMe)3, Ir(npy-CF3)3, Ir(npy-Me)3, Ir(Me-npy-Me)3, and Ir(Me-npy)3 with substitution at para position relative to nitrogen. The ligand substitution positions were found to influence the excited state lifetimes, where the complexes exhibited long lifetimes, τ, 1.4 – 3.6 μs, ensuring time for substrates to react before relaxation to ground state. All the six complexes displayed reversible or pseudo reversible redox processes with ground state oxidation potential range of 0.57 to 0.93V compared to Standard Calomel Electrode in CH2Cl2. The complexes degraded morin with rate constants kobs between 0.023-0.036 s -1 within a timescale of 12 minutes. The Ir(npy-Me)3 complex was found to have a high degradation with a rate constant of kobs = 0.036 s -1. Degradation reactions using all the six Iridium (III) complexes photoredox catalysts were found to follow first order kinetics and ca. 10-fold faster compared to similar oxidative reaction

AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. ""Catchment Conservation and Rehabilitation Programme, in Dying Lake Victoria (1996) Annex XXL pp 90.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 1996.
O K V, A C J, G W F, B T G, E D. "Catha edulis (khat) induces cell death by apoptosis in leukemia cell lines.". 2003. AbstractWebsite

Khat is the Celastraceus edulis plant, a flowering evergreen tree or large shrub, which grows in the Horn of Africa and southwestern Arabia. Khat use has been associated with development of oral cancer, but its molecular effects remain controversial. This study describes a novel cytotoxic effect of whole khat extract on three leukemia cell lines. Cells were exposed to khat extract and harvested for analysis by fluorescent and electron microscopy, trypan blue exclusion, as well as immunoblotting to characterize the mode of cell death. In a separate series, cells were pretreated with a panel of caspase inhibitors for possible inhibitory effects. Khat induced a rapid cell death effect in HL-60, Jurkat, and NB4 cells that occurred within 2 h of exposure. The treated cells retained their ability to exclude trypan blue dye, a key feature in the apoptotic process. Exposed cells consistently developed morphological features of manifest apoptosis. Z-VAD, a pan-caspase inhibitor, completely inhibited toxic activity for up to 8 h, with partial inhibition by other caspase-specific agents. Western blot analysis showed specific cleavage of caspase-3 in khat-exposed cells. This study shows that khat induces cell death by apoptosis in a process sensitive to inhibition by caspase inhibitors, suggesting that subcellular interactions could be of particular relevance for the biological effects of khat in the cell death process and possibly carcinogenesis

ADHIAMBO DRNYIKALROSE. "Cattle and Small Ruminant Breeds Utilization and Assessment of the Impact of Breeding schemes on livestock productivity in East and Central Africa (2005 -2007) CURRENT RESEARCH sponsored by ASARECA AARNET.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2007. Abstract
No abstract available.
Ayuya, J.M., Mangi, N., Gichanga J. "Cattle gastrointestinal helminths on some farms in Njabini area of Kinangop Division, Nyandarua District, Kenya.". In: 24th Inter Norden Sheep Conference. Na1robi, Kenya; 1993.
MURERAMANZI S, KAMBANDA D, KAMBANDA D, RULINDA JB, MUDAHERANWA G, A. GAHONDOGO. "Causes du Desinteret des Etudiants pour les Sciences pures au Rwanda.". In: Etudes Rwandaises. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Causes of Calf Mortality in Peri-urban areas of Nairobi, Kenya (2010). Gitau, G.K., Aleri, J.W., Mbuthia, P.G. and Mulei, C.M.". In: Journal of Tropical Animal Health and Production. 42: 1643 . KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Agwata JF. "Causes of Forest loss and Suggestions on Forest Conservation and Protection in Kenya." First Joint Environmental Research Seminar, Stanley Hotel, Nairobi, 12th June 2006; 2006. Abstract
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Achollah AM, Karanja DN, Ng’ang’a CJ, Bebora LC. "Causes of organ condemnations in cattle at slaughter and associated financial losses in Siaya County, Kenya." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health . 2020;12(2):27-35.
Achollah AM, Karanja DN, Ng’ang’a CJ, Bebora LC. "Causes of organ condemnations in cattle at slaughter and associated financial losses in Siaya County, Kenya." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2020;12:27-35.
Munyua SJM;, Agumbah, G.J.O; Njenga KKMN; KJ, Njenga MN;, Njenga MN;, Kuria KJ;, Kamau JA. "Causes Of Pre-Weaning Mortality In Small And Medium Scale Intensive Piggeries In Central Kenya."; 1987.
Munyua SJM;, Agumbah GJO;, Njenga MN;, Kuria KJ;, Kamau JA. "Causes Of Pre-Weaning Mortality In Small And Medium Scale Intensive Piggeries In Central Kenya."; 1987.
Munyua SJM;, Agumbah GJO;, Njenga MN;, Kuria KJ;, Kamau JA. "Causes Of Pre-Weaning Mortality In Small And Medium Scale Intensive Piggeries In Central Kenya."; 1987.
Anzala O, Bashir MF OOBJJJWGMGOMF. "CD4 and CD8 T - Lymphocyte distribution among healthy Kenyans enrolling in an HIV vaccine trial.". In: International Conference AIDS. Bangkok, Thailand; 2004.
Alimonti JB, Koesters SA, Kimani J, Matu L, Wachihi C, Plummer FA, Fowke KR. "Cd4+ T Cell Responses In Hiv-exposed Seronegative Women Are Qualitatively Distinct From Those In Hiv-infected Women.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

The immune response of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed seronegative (ESN) women may be qualitatively different from that in those infected with HIV (HIV(+)). In a cohort of female commercial sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya, we found significantly lower (P< or =.01) levels of CD4(+)-specific immune activation and apoptosis in the ESN women compared with those in the HIV(+) women. Compared with the HIV(+) women, a lower proportion of the ESN women showed p24 peptide pool responses by the short-term, CD4(+)-specific, interferon (IFN)- gamma intracellular cytokine staining assay, whereas the proportion showing responses by the long-term, CD8(+)-depleted T cell proliferation assay was similar. Interestingly, the ESN responders had a 4.5-fold stronger proliferation response (P=.002) than the HIV(+) group. These data suggest that, compared with those in HIV(+) women, CD4(+) T cells in ESN women have a much greater ability to proliferate in response to p24 peptides.

Tang J, Li X, Price MA, Sanders EJ, Anzala O, Karita E, Kamali A, Lakhi S, Allen S, Hunter E, Kaslow RA, Gilmour J. "CD4:CD8 lymphocyte ratio as a quantitative measure of immunologic health in HIV-1 infection: findings from an African cohort with prospective data." Front Microbiol. 2015;6:670. Abstract

In individuals with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, CD4:CD8 lymphocyte ratio is often recognized as a quantitative outcome that reflects the critical role of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells in HIV-1 pathogenesis or disease progression. Our work aimed to first establish the dynamics and clinical relevance of CD4:CD8 ratio in a cohort of native Africans and then to examine its association with viral and host factors, including: (i) length of infection, (ii) demographics, (iii) HIV-1 viral load (VL), (iv) change in CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count (CD4 slope), (v) HIV-1 subtype, and (vi) host genetics, especially human leukocyte antigen (HLA) variants. Data from 499 HIV-1 seroconverters with frequent (monthly to quarterly) follow-up revealed that CD4:CD8 ratio was stable in the first 3 years of infection, with a modest correlation with VL and CD4 slope. A relatively normal CD4:CD8 ratio (>1.0) in early infection was associated with a substantial delay in disease progression to severe immunodeficiency (<350 CD4 cells/μl), regardless of other correlates of HIV-1 pathogenesis (adjusted hazards ratio (HR) = 0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.29-0.63, P < 0.0001). Low VL (<10,000 copies/ml) and HLA-A*74:01 were the main predictors of CD4:CD8 ratio >1.0, but HLA variants (e.g., HLA-B*57 and HLA-B*81) previously associated with VL and/or CD4 trajectories in eastern and southern Africans had no obvious impact on CD4:CD8 ratio. Collectively, these findings suggest that CD4:CD8 ratio is a robust measure of immunologic health with both clinical and epidemiological implications.

Magambo JK, Wachira TM, et al. "Cellular immunity in Echinococcus granulosus cyst." African Journal of Health Sciences. 1995;1:250.
ABINYA NO, D.A.SPINA, LLEONCINII, MEGHA T, A NYONG'0, GALLORINII M. "CELLULAR KINETIC AND PHENOTYPIC HETEROGENEITY IN AND AMONG BURKITT'S AND BURKITT-LIKE LYMPHOMAS.". 1997.
Mugo F, Abaru M. CF-Risks and Mitigation measures.; 2007.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Chabari, F.N., A. C. Ackello-Ogutu and M.O. Odhiambo (1988). Factors Determining Market Prices of Small Ruminants from a Pastoral Production System in Kenya. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal, Vol 52, No.4.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1988.
S. N, M. V, F. K, M. K, F. B, C. O’, A. M, N. H. "Challenges and prospects of integrating livestock into smallholder organic pineapple production in Uganda. ." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2015;26(#113).
Odera S, Julius Oyugi, Kirui A, Aballa A, Noel Onyango, others. "Challenges Faced by House-Hold Contacts of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in an Urban Setting in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Infectious Diseases & Case Reports. SRC/JIDSCR-165. DOI: doi. org/10.47363/JIDSCR/2021 (2). 2021;146:2-4. Abstract
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NAFUNA TERESAM, Waweru PW, Kimathi BM, Njiru LN, Osuala TM, Osiemo MR, Orucho MN, Koimur S, Mwenje SN, Njeru FM, Okoola RE, Ininda JM, Mugo RM, Ombaka EO, Muthama NJ, Manene MM, Mutai BK, Ang’u C, Opere AO, Nzioka JM, Ouma JO, Andang’o HA, Kimani, P.M; Kimani JM, Kimani NM. Challenges Faced By Kenya Sugar Board In Implementing Strategy On Service Delivery To Sugar Cane Millers In Kenya.; 2012. AbstractUniversity of Nairobi

A company's strategy is management's action plan for running the business and conducting its operations. Strategy on service delivery is thus an important element of this management process. For global business market acceleration, business must respond to customers faster than ever with value added products and services, while they struggle to maintain temporary competitive advantage. The study was guided by the main objective which was to identify the challenges of implementation of strategy on service delivery by Kenya Sugar Board to Sugar Millers and to determine possible solutions to these Challenges. It utilized a case study on the Kenya Sugar Board. The target population was the managerial personnel at KSB and a total of eight representatives (one from eight sugar factories). Primary data was collected by the use of interview guide.

Awino ZB, Wamalwa RW. "Challenges Facing the Implementation of Differentiation Strategy in the Operations of the Mumias Sugar company Limited.". In: AIBUMA 2010 Conference. Kenyatta International Conference Center, Nairobi-Kenya; 2010.
Kirui G, Gakuya DW, Abuom TO. "Challenges in food animal practice in the urban areas- Nairobi City and its environs.". In: The Kenya Veterinary Association, Commonwealth Veterinary Association and university Nairobi, Faculty of Veterianry Medicine Joint Scientific Conference. Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2017.
Angeyo KH, Kaniu MI. "Challenges in rapid soil quality assessment and opportunities presented by multivariate chemometric energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering spectroscopy." Geoderma. 2015;241–242:32-40. Abstract

There is, especially in precision agriculture, an increasing demand world over for affordable sensors for in situ (field deployable) soil quality assessment (SQA) applicable at an ecological scale due to the interplay between soil quality and environmental degradation. Although spectrometric (particularly optical) techniques offer the opportunity to meet this demand due to their high analytical versatility, their utility in rapid SQA is limited by the complexity of the soil matrix, and the interpretation of the resulting spectra and (usually) multivariate quality assurance (i.e. SQA) data. In this paper, we examine the utility of spectrometric techniques for soil analysis and critique their applicability to rapid SQA; in particular, we appraise their potential for development towards intelligent portable SQA systems for in situ application. We then evaluate in this perspective the applicability of a new method we have recently developed namely chemometrics energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering spectrometry (EDXRFS) for SQA, emphasizing its potential for realizing rapid intelligent sensor architecture for in situ SQA. We conclude that a point of care soil sensor that infers soil properties, and intelligently modulates precision agriculture may be realized by integrating the EDXRFS spectroscopy method to a portable XRF spectrometer.

Aleri JW;, Nguhiu JM;, Mogoa, E.M; Mulei CM, Mogoa, E.M; Mulei CM. "Challenges In The Smallholder (zero - Grazing) Production Systems Of Nairobi And Its Environs: A Welfare Perspective.".; 2012.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Challenges in the Smallholder (zero-grazing) Production Systems of Nairobi and its Environs: A Welfare Perspective (2012). J.W. Aleri., J.M. Nguhiu., E.M. Mogoa and C.M. Mulei.". In: Faculty of veterinary medicine 8th Biennal scientific conference and the 46th KVA annual Scientific conference 25 . KVA; 2012. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Akaranga SI, I.O.Otieno, Kayeli EC. "The Challenges of Christian Marriage in Africa." Impact Journal of Transformation. 2021;4(1):46-55.impact_journal_of_transforrmation_vol_4_no_1_46_55.pdf
Mbatia PN, et al. "Challenges of implementing Free Primary Education in Kenya.". In: Experiences from the districts. Nairob: UNESCO; 2005.
Sandra LD;, Ada E;, Joan S;, G.; A, Y.; J, Jr.; CC, Oduma JA, B.; F, O.; A, A.; OJ,; DRM, Muheez D;, et al. "Challenges Unique to the design of a Comprehensive Questionnaire Assessing Breast Cancer Risk factors among Women in Sub-Saharan Africa. JHCPU 21:11– 16.". 2010.
ABDULLAH DRHASSANMOHAMMED. "Changes and Improvement in Water Management Practices in the Mwea Irrigation Scheme, Kenya, Rural and Environmental Engineering Journal.". In: High Ridge Teachers College, Nairobi, Kenya for Ministry of Education, Kenya. University of Birmingham; 2003.
Kirui GK, Saifuddin Fidahussein Dossaji, Amugune NO. "Changes in Phytochemical Content During Different Growth Stages in Tubers of Five Varieties of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.)." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science Journal. 2018;6(1):12-22.
Omondi PAO, Awange JL, Forootan E, Ogallo LA, Barakiza R, Girmaw GB, Komutunga E. "Changes in temperature and precipitation extremes over the Greater Horn of Africa region from 1961 to 2010.". 2013.Website
Roxby AC, Fredricks DN, Odem-Davis K, Ásbjörnsdóttir K, Masese L, Fiedler TL, De Rosa S, Jaoko W, Kiarie JN, Overbaugh J, McClelland SR. "Changes in Vaginal Microbiota and Immune Mediators in HIV-1-Seronegative Kenyan Women Initiating Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2016;71(4):359-66. Abstractchanges_in_vaginal_microbiota_and_immune_mediators_in_hiv-1-seronegative_kenyan_women_initiating_depot_medroxyprogesterone_acetate.pdfPUBMED

Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is associated with HIV acquisition. We studied changes in vaginal microbiota and inflammatory milieu after DMPA initiation.

AKUKU DROKOTHPATRICK. "Changing pattern of intracranial lesions.". In: East Afr Med J. 2000 Jan;77(1):1-3. East African Medical Journal; 2000. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
Ombongi FO, Absaloms HO, Kibet PL. "Channel and Power Allocation for mm-wave Device-to-Device Enabled Vehicular Network." International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research (IJSTR). 2020;9(9):294-300.
Agwanda A. Chapter 6: Kenya Demographic and Health Survey: Other Proximate Determinants of Fertility: Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, 2003 Report. Calverton, Maryland: . Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Ministry of Health (MOH) and ORC MACRO ; 2004.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo EOT, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 1 in Trends in distributed computing applications.". In: Trends in distributed computing applications. Nairobi; 2014.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo OET, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 10 Distributed Computing Systems Research and Applications with focus on resource sharing.". In: Distributed Computing Systems Research and Applications with focus on resource sharing. Nairobi; 2012.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo EOT, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 10 in Trends in distributed computing applications.". In: Trends in distributed computing applications. Nairobi; 2014.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo EOT, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 11 in Trends in distributed computing applications.". In: Trends in distributed computing applications. Nairobi; 2014.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo EOT, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 13 in Trends in distributed computing applications.". In: Trends in distributed computing applications. Nairobi; 2014.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo OET, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 2 Distributed Computing Systems Research and Applications with focus on resource sharing.". In: Distributed Computing Systems Research and Applications with focus on resource sharing. Nairobi; 2012.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo OET, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 3 Distributed Computing Systems Research and Applications with focus on resource sharing.". In: Distributed Computing Systems Research and Applications with focus on resource sharing. Nairobi; 2012.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo OET, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 6 Distributed Computing Systems Research and Applications with focus on resource sharing.". In: Distributed Computing Systems Research and Applications with focus on resource sharing. Nairobi; 2012.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo EOT, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 6 in Trends in distributed computing applications.". In: Trends in distributed computing applications. Nairobi; 2014.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo EOT, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 7 in Trends in distributed computing applications.". In: Trends in distributed computing applications. Nairobi; 2014.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo EOT, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 8 in Trends in distributed computing applications.". In: Trends in distributed computing applications. Nairobi; 2014.
Stephen AO, Joyce KGN, Hellen N, Alex WN, Jared N’auO. "CHARACTERISATION AND ADSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS IN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT FROM PAINT AND COATING INDUSTRIES IN NAIROBI, KENYA." International Journal of Engineering Applied Sciences and Technology. 2019;4(5):41-46. Abstractabstract.pdfInternational Journal of Engineering Applied Sciences and Technology

Description
A study was conducted to estimate current status of physico-chemical characteristics of effluents emanating from three paint factories within the main industrial area of Nairobi County. The effluents were analysed for temperature, pH, oil and grease, total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total sulphur and heavy metal ions and compared to Kenyan effluent discharge standards. The results were as follows: pH 6.48-6.89, temperature 28.07-28.30 oC, COD 916.77-1881.20 mg/L, total phosphorus 145.00-149.32 mg/L, TSS 6382.33-7395.33 mg/L, oil and grease 3525.00-6374.33 mg/L, total sulphur 72.62-73.41 mg/L, total nitrogen 1586.67-4442.67 mg/L. Heavy metal concentrations were 3.03-4.18 mg/L, 2.07-3.04 mg/L and 5.38-17.21 mg/L respectively for cadmium, chromium and lead. Adsorbent was made from waste rubber tyres and tested for its suitability in removing three heavy metal ions namely cadmium, lead and chromium from the effluent samples by varying adsorbent dosage, pH and contact time.

Were F, Ayieko P, English M, Githanga D. "Characteristics of admissions and variations in the use of basic investigations, treatments and outcomes in Kenyan hospitals within a new Clinical Information Network ." Archives of Diseases of Childhood. 2016;101:223-229. Abstractarch_dis_child-2016-ayieko-223-9.pdf

Background Lack of detailed information about hospital activities, processes and outcomes hampers planning, performance monitoring and improvement in low-income countries (LIC). Clinical networks offer one means to advance methods for data collection and use, informing wider health system development in time, but are rare in LIC. We report baseline data from a new Clinical Information Network (CIN) in Kenya seeking to promote data-informed improvement and learning. Methods Data from 13 hospitals engaged in the Kenyan CIN between April 2014 and March 2015 were captured from medical and laboratory records. We use these data to characterise clinical care and outcomes of hospital admission. Results Data were available for a total of 30 042 children aged between 2 months and 15 years. Malaria (in five hospitals), pneumonia and diarrhoea/dehydration (all hospitals) accounted for the majority of diagnoses and comorbidity was found in 17 710 (59%) patients. Overall, 1808 deaths (6%) occurred (range per hospital 2.5%–11.1%) with 1037 deaths (57.4%) occurring by day 2 of admission (range 41%–67.8%). While malaria investigations are commonly done, clinical health workers rarely investigate for other possible causes of fever, test for blood glucose in severe illness or ascertain HIV status of admissions. Adherence to clinical guideline-recommended treatment for malaria, pneumonia, meningitis and acute severe malnutrition varied widely across hospitals. Conclusion Developing clinical networks is feasible with appropriate support. Early data demonstrate that hospital mortality remains high in Kenya, that resources to investigate severe illness are limited, that care provided and outcomes vary widely and that adoption of effective interventions remains slow. Findings suggest considerable scope for improving care within and across sites.

Johannsson, et al. "Characteristics of Air Breathing in Lake Magadi Tilapia: is there a relationship with Diel Patterns in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in the Lake?". In: The Canadian Society of Zoologists meeting. Mount Allison University, Sackville, NB Canada.; 2012.
A. DROKOOLARAPHAELE. "The characteristics of cold air outbreaks over the Eastern Highlands of Kenya.". In: Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 73, 177-187. Kenya Met Soc; 2000. Abstract
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Abong' GO, Okoth MW, Kabira JN. "Characteristics of fresh (ware) potato traders in Nairobi and Nakuru towns, Kenya.". In: Contribution of agriculture to achieving MDGs. Nairobi: IeCAB2010-eBook; 2010.fresh_potato_traders_characteristics.pdf
Abong' GO, Okoth MW, Kabira JN. "Characteristics of fresh (ware) potato traders in Nairobi and Nakuru towns, Kenya.". In: Contribution of Agricultural Sciences towards achieving the Millenium Development Goals. Nairobi: FaCT Publishing, Kenya.; 2010.2010_-_potato_traders_e-book_publication.pdf
Lingappa JR, Kahle E, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Magaret A, Baeten J, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife K, de Bruyn G, Glenda Gray, Hoosen M. Coovadia, McIntyre J, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington W, Corey L, Wald A, Celum C. "Characteristics of HIV-1 discordant couples enrolled in a trial of HSV-2 suppression to reduce HIV-1 transmission: the partners study." PLoS ONE. 2009;4(4):e5272. Abstract

The Partners HSV-2/HIV-1 Transmission Study (Partners Study) is a phase III, placebo-controlled trial of daily acyclovir for genital herpes (HSV-2) suppression among HIV-1/HSV-2 co-infected persons to reduce HIV-1 transmission to their HIV-1 susceptible partners, which requires recruitment of HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples. We describe the baseline characteristics of this cohort.

Okoya, Mumenya, Abuodha, Dulo. "Characteristics of Kenyan Rice Husk Ash Produced Under Controlled Burning." International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT). 2021;10(11):549-554.
Marete" "AG, Mosi" "RO, Amimo" "JO, Jung'a" "JO. "Characteristics of lactation curves of the Kenya alphine dairy goats in smallholder farms." Open Journal of Animal Science. 2014;4:92-102.
Marete A, Mosi R, Amimo J, Junga J. "Characteristics of Lactation Curves of the Kenya Alpine Dairy Goats in Smallholder Farms." Open Journal of Animal Sciences. 2014;4:92-102.
A. DRSWAZURIMUHAMMED. ""Characteristics of Real Property," paper presented to a Vision Consult Workshop in Kitwe, Zambia, 27th September, to 1st October, 1993.". In: Key issues for Developing Countries. 1992 Ed., Bhatnagar S.C., pp. 103-114. Tata-Mcgraw-Hill. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 1993. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
ABONG&#39; MRGEORGEOOKO. "Characteristics of the industry, constraints in processing, and marketing of potato crisps in Kenya." Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences. 2010;8(1):936-943. AbstractWebsite

There has been an increase in the number of potato crisps processors in Kenya in the last few decades. However, the characteristics of these firms are not clearly known. This study was designed to characterize the potato crisps processing industry in Kenya in terms of varieties used, pre-processing handling practices and constraints encountered. The potato crisps industry was surveyed between December 2009 and February 2010 using a structured questionnaire. Using labels of a total of 24 brands of potato crisps found selling in 80 supermarkets and kiosks in Nairobi, the processors were identified, contacted, visited and interviewed. Together 23 processors were identified and these had processing plants in Nairobi and Nakuru. The information collected included size of firm, range of products, constraints in processing crisps, marketing of the product and the variety of potatoes processed. The number of employees in the processing industries ranged from 2 to 250; 61 % of the processing firms had 5 or less employees, 22 % had 6-10 employees and only 4 % had 100 or more employees. In addition to potato crisps, 60 % of the firms also processed peanuts, 30 % processed chevda and potato sticks, 26 % processed pop-corns, 13 % processed banana crisps, 9 % processed cassava crisps and 4 % also processed arrow root crisps, spices, peas and herbs. About 4 % identified the main constraints as lack of proper equipment and market, 64 % complained of lack of potatoes and their poor quality while 43 % indicated lack of finances to increase volume of production. As pertains to produce sales, 83 % of the processors sell their products directly to supermarkets, 4 % through wholesalers and 13 % directly to individuals and shops. Dutch Robyjn was the potato cultivar of choice for many processors and other cultivars were used in processing during periods of scarcity of   cv. Dutch Robyjn. A large number of processors (70 %) stored their raw potatoes for relatively short periods of time ranging from 2 days to 3 weeks. A few (30 %) processing firms, stored potatoes for a month or longer. The potato crisps processing industry in Kenya is largely dominated by small scale processors who process crisps only as one of a diversity of other products. The industry is faced with several constraints including raw potato price fluctuations, scarcity and poor quality of potatoes, lack of facilities, skills and information on raw potato storage. The industry relies heavily on one variety that is not always available for all the processors. This information is important for potato breeders and postharvest technologists to avail sufficient suitable potato cultivars for crisping

Abong' GO, Okoth MW, Imungi JK, Kabira JN. "Characteristics of the industry, constraints in processing, and marketing of potato crisps in Kenya." Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences. 2010;8(1):936-943.
A. DROKOOLARAPHAELE. "Characteristics of the ITCZ over equatorial Eastern Africa based on station rainfall records.". In: J. Afric. Meteorol. Soc.,3, 61-101. Kenya Met Soc; 1998. Abstract
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Ogallo LJ, et al. "The Characteristics of wet spells in Tanzania." E.Afr.agric.For.J. 1982;47(4):87-95.
L Z, ME E, G K, S R, P M, B C, K M, S I, A J, R D, V F, S O, B G, C M, E O, P L, MM A-K, C H-H, SS S, A H, W D, DY G, SG A, AG D, BA S, DM B, A ES, AS I, J M, F B-T, BN O, O I, C S, R M, A AF, N K, A D, M S, OS O, T O, HH E, AO M, AM A, P M, D O, J M, S Y, BM M. "Characteristics, complications, and gaps in evidence-based interventions in rheumatic heart disease: the Global Rheumatic Heart Disease Registry (the REMEDY study)." Eur Heart J. . 2014.
Ngugi HN, Mutuku FM, Ndenga BA, Musunzaji PS, Mbakaya JO, Aswani P, IRUNGU LUCYW, Mukoko D, Vulule J, Kitron U, LaBeaud AD. "Characterization and productivity profiles of Aedes aegypti (L.) breeding habitats across rural and urban landscapes in western and coastal Kenya." Parasites & vectors. 2017;10(1):331.
Mutuku FM, Ngugi HN, Ndenga BA, Musunzaji PS, Mbakaya JO, Aswani P, IRUNGU LUCYW, Mukoko D, Vulule J, Kitron U, LaBeaud AD. "Characterization and productivity profiles of Aedes aegypti (L.) breeding habitats across rural and urban landscapes in western and coastal Kenya.". 2017.
Amiri S, Timamy R. "Characterization and the Construction of Gender Identity in John Habwe’s Maumbile si Huja." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;1(9):1-181.
Achilla. R, Bulimo. W, Schnabel. D, Wurapa. E. Characterization of Adenoviruses Circulating in Kenya.. Accra, Ghana; 2011. Abstract
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Abubakar LU, Mutie AM, Kenya EU, Muhoho A. "Characterization of algae oil (oilgae) and its potential as biofuel in Kenya." Journal of Applied Phytotechnology in Environmental Sanitation . 2012;1 (4):147-153.abstract-apes.pdf
Habimana V, Bett RC, Amimo JO, Kibegwa FM, Githae DK, Jung'a JO, IshagAJour HZA. "Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Detected from Dairy Cow Feces and Rumen Fluid bacterial pathogens." Africa Journal of Microbial Research. 2019.
M.W. W, Hansted L, Gikungu M, G K, AS B. "Characterization of Kenyan Honeys Based on Their Physicochemical Properties, Botanical and Geographical Origin." International Journal of Food Science . 2019;2019(2932509):10.
Ouko A, Okoth S, Amugune N, J V. "Characterization of Mating Type Genes in Aspergillus flavus Populations from Two Locations in Kenya." Advances in Agriculture. 2018;2018.
Wadegu M, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Mukunzi S, Majanja J, Opot B, Osuna F, Muthoni J, Njiri J, Mwangi J, Kibet K, Ocholla S, Wurapa E. "Characterization of neuraminidase inhibitor susceptibility of influenza A isolates obtained in Kenya, 2008-2011.". In: Options for the Control of Influenza VII. Cape Town, South Africa; 2013:. Abstract

Background: Vaccines and antivirals are the mainstay for mitigation and clinical management of influenza infections. However, due to the ever-changing antigenic profile, vaccine formulations are revised every year to make them efficacious. Neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors, mainly oseltamivir and zanamivir, function both as prophylactic and as treatment agents. In NA inhibition by antivirals, inhibitor molecules mimic NA’s natural substrate and bind to the active site, preventing NA from cleaving host cell receptors and releasing new virus. Currently, there exist no data on antiviral susceptibility profiles of influenza A isolates circulating within the Eastern African region. Here we characterised the antiviral susceptibility of the 2008-2011 influenza A viruses circulating in Kenya by combining both the genotypic data involving known molecular markers in NA protein responsible for drug resistance and IC50 data generated from NA inhibition assays. Materials and Methods: Nasopharyngeal swab specimens from consenting outpatients aged ≥ 2 months were obtained and transported to the National Influenza Centre and screened by real-time RT-PCR using primers targeted at the matrix and haemagglutinin genes of influenza A subtypes. Positive specimens were inoculated onto MDCK monolayers to isolate virus. RNA was extracted from virus isolates followed by PCR amplification of NA gene segments. Nucleotide sequencing was performed using the BigDye chemistry prior to analyses using a suite of bioinformatics tools. Drug susceptibility was determined by enzyme inhibition assay using fluorescent substrate with known NA inhibitor–resistant and –sensitive viruses as controls. IC50 values were determined using curve-fitting software (Grafit 7.0), which is based on 50% of fitted upper asymptote. Results: Of 836 influenza A virus isolates obtained (2008- 2011), 108 (13%) were analysed for markers of resistance to NA inhibitors: 64% (7/11) of the 2008 seasonal influenza A/H1N1 isolates analysed showed oseltamivir-resistant marker H275Y, while all 33 (100%) influenza A/H3N2 isolates obtained showed sensitivity to oseltamivir. Genetic analyses of the A (H1N1) pdm09 isolates obtained in 2009-2010 showed that all were sensitive to oseltamivir. All 14 influenza A/H3N2 isolates obtained in 2011 were also shown to be sensitive to oseltamivir. A total of 28 isolates were further subjected to phenotypic susceptibility assay. The mean zanamivir IC50 values were 1.75, 2.53 and 1.84 nM for the subtypes H1N1, pH1N1 and H3N2, respectively. Two of the 2008 sH1N1 and one of the sH1N1 obtained in 2009 showed normal sensitivity to oseltamivir in the NA inhibitor susceptibility assay (mean IC50 of 1.28 nM). The rest of the 2008-2009 sH1N1 analysed (n = 8) showed highly reduced sensitivity to oseltamivir. The IC50 values in the fluorescent assay ranged from 73 to 984 nM. Pandemic A/H1N1 strains obtained between 2009 and 2011 indicated oseltamivir IC50 values of 1.60 to 6.32 nM—categorised as normal sensitivity. All 8 candidate influenza A/H3N2 isolates obtained between 2008 and 2011 were sensitive to oseltamivir, with IC50 values ranging from 0.16 to 0.94 nM. The 2011 WHO ranges and median IC50 values for oseltamivir carboxylate were 0.4 to 10 nM and 0.5 nM, 0.1 to 5 nM and 0.2 nM, and 0.2 to 10 nM and 0.6 nM for wild-type sH1N1, sH3N2 and pH1N1, respectively. The 2011 WHO ranges and median IC50 values for oseltamivir carboxylate were 257 to 3455 nM and 458.2 nM and 132 to 2179 nM and 191.3 nM for mutant types sH1N1 and pH1N1, respectively. The WHO IC50 values for zanamivir, both for mutant and wild-type strains, ranged from 0.2 to 3 nM for all subtypes, with no significant differences between the mutant and wild-type strains for each subtype. Conclusion: Overall, our genotypic data demonstrate that there was oseltamivir resistance in seasonal influenza A (H1N1) viruses isolated in Kenya in 2008-2009. Most of the 2008-2009 sH1N1 isolates depicted highly reduced sensitivity to oseltamivir. This was due to the presence of the H275Y mutation in the NA protein sequence. H275Y mutation increased the IC50 value by 50- to 100-fold. Resistance to NA inhibitors was found to be specific to both drug and virus subtype. The drug susceptibility profile will be best informed using both elevated IC50 vales and known molecular markers of resistance.

Mwendwa R, Owino OW, Ambuko J, Wawire M, Nenguwo N. "Characterization of postharvest physiology attributes of six commercially grown tomato varieties in Kenya." African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 2016;16:10613-10631. Abstract
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Mutisya JM, Mobegi VA, Kinyua JK, Kivecu MN, Okoth RO, Chemwor GC, Mwakio EW, Cheruiyot AC, Yeda RA, Okello CO, Juma JA, Opot BH, Juma DW, Roth AL, Akala HM, Andagalu BM. "Characterization of sulfated polysaccharide activity against virulent Plasmodium falciparum {PHISTb/RLP1} protein." F1000Res.. 2020;9:1268. Abstract

Background: The emergence of artemisinin resistance in South East Asia calls for urgent discovery of new drug compounds that have antiplasmodial activity. Unlike the classical compound screening drug discovery methods, the rational approach involving targeted drug discovery is less cumbersome and therefore key for innovation of new antiplasmodial compounds. Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) utilizes the process of host erythrocyte remodeling using Plasmodium-helical interspersed sub-telomeric domain (PHIST) containing proteins, which are amenable drug targets. The aim of this study is to identify inhibitors of PHIST from sulfated polysaccharides as new antimalarials. Methods: 251 samples from an ongoing study of epidemiology of malaria and drug resistance sensitivity patterns in Kenya were sequenced for PHISTb/RLP1 gene using Sanger sequencing. The sequenced reads were mapped to the reference Pf3D7 protein sequence of PHISTb/RLP1 using CLC Main Workbench. Homology modeling of both reference and mutant protein structures was achieved using the LOMETs tool. The models were refined using ModRefiner for energy minimization. Ramachandran plot was generated by ProCheck to assess the conformation of amino acids in the protein model. Protein binding sites predictions were assessed using FT SITE software. We searched for prospective antimalarials from PubChem. Docking experiments were achieved using AutoDock Vina and analysis results visualized in PyMOL. Results: Sanger sequencing generated 86 complete sequences. Upon mapping of the sequences to the reference, 12 non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms were considered for mutant protein structure analysis. Eleven drug compounds with antiplasmodial activity were identified. Both modeled PHISTb/RLP1 reference and mutant structures had a Ramachandran score of >90% of the amino acids in the favored region. Ten of the drug compounds interacted with amino acid residues in PHISTb and RESA domains, showing potential activity against these proteins. Conclusion: This research identifies inhibitors of exported proteins that can be used in in vitro tests against the Plasmodium parasite.

Bishop R, Asefa G, Jamnadass R, Odongo D, Osuji P. "Characterization of Tannin-tolerant Bacterial Isolates from East African Ruminants." Anaerobe. 2001;7: 5-15.
Mamah D, Musau A, Mutiso VN, Owoso A, Abdallah AB, Cottler LB, Striley CW, Walker EF, Ndetei DM. "Characterizing psychosis risk traits in Africa: A longitudinal study of Kenyan adolescents." Schizophr. Res.. 2016;176(2-3):340-8. AbstractWebsite

The schizophrenia prodrome has not been extensively studied in Africa. Identification of prodromal behavioral symptoms holds promise for early intervention and prevention of disorder onset. Our goal was to investigate schizophrenia risk traits in Kenyan adolescents and identify predictors of psychosis progression. 135 high-risk (HR) and 142 low-risk (LR) adolescents were identified from among secondary school students in Machakos, Kenya, using the structured interview of psychosis-risk syndromes (SIPS) and the Washington early recognition center affectivity and psychosis (WERCAP) screen. Clinical characteristics were compared across groups, and participants followed longitudinally over 0-, 4-, 7-, 14- and 20-months. Potential predictors of psychosis conversion and severity change were studied using multiple regression analyses. More psychiatric comorbidities and increased psychosocial stress were observed in HR compared to LR participants. HR participants also had worse attention and better abstraction. The psychosis conversion rate was 3.8%, with only disorganized communication severity at baseline predicting conversion (p=0.007). Decreasing psychotic symptom severity over the study period was observed in both HR and LR participants. ADHD, bipolar disorder, and major depression diagnoses, as well as poor occupational functioning and avolition were factors relating to lesser improvement in psychosis severity. Our results indicate that psychopathology and disability occur at relatively high rates in Kenyan HR adolescents. Few psychosis conversions may reflect an inadequate time to conversion, warranting longer follow-up studies to clarify risk predictors. Identifying disorganized communication and other risk factors could be useful for developing preventive strategies for HR youth in Kenya.

Olumeh1* DE, Adam2 R, Otieno1 DJ, Oluoch-Kosura1 W. "Characterizing Smallholder Maize Farmers’ Marketing in Kenya: An Insight into the Intra-Household Gender, Wealth-Status, Educational and Credit Access Dimensions ." Journal of Marketing and Consumer Research www.iiste.org. 2018;Vol.48(ISSN):2422-8451.
Waita SM, Ogacho AA, Aduda BO. "Charge Transport in Bare and MgO-coated TiO2 Thin Films and in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Effect of Film Thickness.". In: Electroceramics (ICE 2007). Arusha Tanzania; 2007. Abstract

Electron transport in bare and MgO-coated colloidal TiO2 thin films has been studied using surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS), while the charge transport in dye-sensitized solar cells based on annealed titanium dioxide films prepared by oblique reactive DC magnetron sputtering has been studied by the intensity–modulated photocurrent and photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS and IMVS). The SPS results obtained showed a dispersive electron transport with strongly retarded photocurrents, and the electron diffusion coefficient measured in a parallel plate capacitor arrangement was observed to be strongly dependent on film thickness. Further, the MgO buffer layer initially enhanced the effective diffusion coefficient but beyond certain MgO concentration the diffusion coefficient decreased. From the IMPS/IMVS studies, the electrons transit more rapidly at higher light intensities whereas the electron lifetime diminishes with increase in light intensity. The electron transit and lifetimes were found to increase with film thickness. Grain boundaries with associated trap and / or energy barriers and their passivation by MgO are proposed to explain the observed transport properties.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Charles O. A. Omwandho, Susanne E. M. Gruessner, Hans R Tinnerberg. Early Pregnancy loss and neonatal deaths associated with Klebsiella pneumonia infection: A mini Review of possible Occupational Health Risk.". In: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics 273 (5): 258 .; 2006. Abstract

Recurrent pregnancy loss is a disease of grave psychological and economic concern. The etiology in the vast majority of the cases is unknown or at best poorly understood. Although Klebsiella pneumonia infections have been reported in humans and animals during pregnancy, there is hardly any information to indicate whether or not these infections may be responsible for early pregnancy loss. We present a review of literature and report for the first time in humans, Klebsiella pneumonia infection in placenta of a 38-year-old secondary recurrent aborter (parity 2 + 3).

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Charles O. A. Omwandho, Susanne E. M. Gruessner, Timothy K. Roberts, Hans R Tinneberg. Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG): Modes of action in the management of Recurrent Pregnacy loss and selected Autoimmune disorders.". In: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 42 (4): 359 .; 2004. Abstract

Recurrent pregnancy loss has been associated with autoimmune responses to membrane phospholipids and alloimmune reactions against paternally derived molecules on the trophoblast. The problem is psychologically and economically stressful as it undermines the capacity of some couples to reproduce and participate effectively in the day-to-day economic activities. This article reviews the adoption of intravenous immunoglobulin as a form of therapy for the clinical management of recurrent pregnancy loss and of selected autoimmune disorders. Side effects, contraindications and safety of use are discussed.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Charles O.A. OMWANDHO(1)and Takayuki KUBOTA(2) 1. Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi (P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya) 2.Department of Drug Formulation Development, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agricultural and Food Research.". In: Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly (JARQ Vol. 44 No. 1, 2020).; 2010. Abstract

Salmonellosis is assocciated with massive public health and economic losses globally. It is estimated to cost poultry farmers in the United States of America up to US$114 million annually. Attempts to develop effective vaccines and eradicate Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) from hen hopuses are undermined by serios limitations. This article reviews documnet contamination routes and limitations on the rapid development of vaccines. Host-parasite interactions and clinical pathology are discussed and methods for reducing S. Enteritidis infection and transmission suggested.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans Rudolf Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS INTRAVENOUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN A MULTI-HEAD MAGIC BULLET?". In: 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS).; 2008. Abstract
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A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?". In: 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS).; 2008. Abstract
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A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Charles O.A. Omwandho1 , Lutz Konrad 2, Gulden Halis3,4, Frank Oehmke 2 and Hans-Rudolf Tinneberg 2 1Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi,Nairobi, Kenya. 2Department of Gynecology ond Obstetrics, klinskstr. 32, 35392 Giessen, Germany 3Fertili.". In: http://biochem.uonbi.ac.ke/sites/default/files/chs/medschool/biochem/Role%20of%20FGF-Bs%20in%20normal%20human%20endometrium%20and%20endometriosis1.doc.; 2009. Abstract
Fombong AT, Teal PEA, Arbogast RT, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Torto B. "Chemical communication in the honey bee scarab pest Oplostomus harlodi: Role of (Z)-9- Pentacosene." Journal of Chemical Ecology. 2012;38:1463-1473.Website
Fombong AT, Teal TE, Arbogast RT, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Torto B. "Chemical communication in the honey bee scarab pest Oplostomus haroldi: role of (Z)-9-pentacosene." Journal of Chemical Ecology. 2012;38(12):1463-1473. AbstractPubMed link

Oplostomus haroldi Witte belongs to a unique genus of afro-tropical scarabs that have associations with honey bee colonies, from which they derive vital nutrients. Although the attributes of the honey bee nest impose barriers to communication among nest invaders, this beetle still is able to detect conspecific mates for reproduction. Here, we show, through behavioral studies, that cuticular lipids serve as mate discrimination cues in this beetle. We observed five steps during mating: arrestment, alignment, mounting, and copulation, and a post-copulatory stage, lasting ~40–70 % of the total mating duration, that suggested mate guarding. Chemical analysis identified the same nine straight-chain alkanes (C23–C31), six methyl-branched alkanes (6), and five mono-unsaturated alkenes in the cuticular lipids of both sexes. Methyl alkanes constituted the major component (46 %) of male cuticular lipids, while mono-unsaturated alkenes were most abundant (53 %) in females. (Z)-9-Pentacosene was twice as abundant in females than in males, and ~20 fold more concentrated in beetles than in worker bees. In mating assays, (Z)-9-pentacosene elicited arrestment, alignment, and mounting, but not copulation, by male beetles. These results represent the first evidence of a contact sex pheromone in a scarab beetle. Such contact pheromones may be an essential, cryptic mechanism for arthropods associated with eusocial insects.

Kiprop EK;, Narla RD;, Mibey RK;, Akundabweni LMS. "Chemical Control Of Septoria Leaf Spot On Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp,) In Kenya."; 2007. Abstract

Three foliar fungicides namely, Antracol, Kocide 101 and Folicur were evaluated for the control of Septoria leaf spot caused by S. vignicola V.G. Rao on cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] at two field sites in Kenya: Kabete and Katumani. The cowpea variety used was the high yielding Machakos 66 that was also susceptible to Septoria leaf spot. Reduction in disease incidence and severity of Septoria leaf spot on cowpea was obtained with the three fungicides. However, significant (P≤0.05) increase in seed yields was obtained when Kocide 101 and Antracol were applied to cowpea plants with the disease at Katumani. Folicur was found to be phytotoxic to cowpea plants and hence reduced plant dry weight and seed yield at both sites. Based on the cost-benefit analysis of the fungicides in the present study, Antracol and Kocide 101 are recommended for the control of Septoria leaf spot on high yielding cowpea varieties in arid and semi-arid areas. The Pearson correlation (r) between the disease incidence and seed yield was 0.75 (P=0.46), while that between disease severity and seed yield was 1.00 (P=0.01).

Kiprop EK;, Narla, R. D.; Mibey ARK; LM, Mibey RK;, Akundabweni LMS. "Chemical Control Of Septoria Leaf Spot On Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp,) In Kenya."; 2007. Abstract

Three foliar fungicides namely, Antracol, Kocide 101 and Folicur were evaluated for the control of Septoria leaf spot caused by S. vignicola V.G. Rao on cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] at two field sites in Kenya: Kabete and Katumani. The cowpea variety used was the high yielding Machakos 66 that was also susceptible to Septoria leaf spot. Reduction in disease incidence and severity of Septoria leaf spot on cowpea was obtained with the three fungicides. However, significant (P≤0.05) increase in seed yields was obtained when Kocide 101 and Antracol were applied to cowpea plants with the disease at Katumani. Folicur was found to be phytotoxic to cowpea plants and hence reduced plant dry weight and seed yield at both sites. Based on the cost-benefit analysis of the fungicides in the present study, Antracol and Kocide 101 are recommended for the control of Septoria leaf spot on high yielding cowpea varieties in arid and semi-arid areas. The Pearson correlation (r) between the disease incidence and seed yield was 0.75 (P=0.46), while that between disease severity and seed yield was 1.00 (P=0.01).

Mwero JN, Abuodha SO. "Chemical Reaction Characteristics of Sugarcane Waste Fiber Ash Blended Cement: Heat of Hydration and Chemical Shrinkage.". In: 2nd Knowledge Exchange for Young Scientists (KEYS), Conference. Accra, Ghana; 2016.
Mutiso, P.B.C. NMYSG, et al. "Chemical studies on roots of Uvaria welwitschii." J. Nat. Med . 2011;65:313-321 .
Langat MK, Crouch N, Ndunda B, Midiwo JO, Aldhaher A, Alqahtani A, Mulholland DA. "The Chemistry of African Croton species." Planta Medica. 2016;81(S 01):384. AbstractFull text link

The genus Croton is one of the largest of Euphorbiaceae sensu stricto, and consists of over 1300 species of trees, shrubs and herbs that are distributed worldwide in the warm tropics and subtropics. It is reported that 124 Croton species occur in continental Africa whilst a further 156 species are endemic to Madagascar. Another 12 species occur in the Indian Ocean islands of Comoros, Mauritius, Reunion and Sao Tome and Principe [1]. We discuss the chemistry, chemotaxonomic patterns and biological activities of selected compounds from ten African Croton taxa: C. alienus, C. dichogamus, C. gratissimus var. gratissimus, C. megalobotrys, C. megalocarpoides, C. megalocarpus, C. menyhartii, C. pseudopulchellus, C. rivularis and C. sylvaticus. Examples of compounds to be presented include cembranoids (1-3) from C. gratissimus var. gratissimus [2,3], ent-kauranes (4-5) from C. pseudopulchellus [4], ent-clerodanes (6-8) from C. sylvaticus, C. megalocarpus and C. megalocarpoidies, and both halimanes (9) and crotofolanes (10 – 11) from C. dichogamus. Triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids and cyclohexanol derivatives from Croton will also be discussed. Selected cembranoids from C. gratissimus were tested against a chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum (D10) and against the PEO1 and PEO1TaxR ovarian cancer cell lines [2]. Compound 1 showed moderate activity against the PEO1 (IC50= 132 nM) and PEO1TaxR (IC50= 200 nM) ovarian cancer cell lines. Selected ent-kauranoids were tested for their effects on Semliki Forest Virus replication and for cytotoxicity against human liver tumour cells (Huh-7 strain). Other Croton-derived compounds were tested for antimicrobial and antifungal activities [5,6], antiplasmodial activity using two strains of Plasmodium falciparum, antileishmanial activities against Leishmania donovanii [5], and cytotoxic activity against NCI59 cancer cell panels, and colorectal and VERO cancer cell lines.
Keywords: Croton, Euphorbiaceae, ent-clerodanes, cembranoids, crotofolanes

Mukhono PM, Angeyo HK, Dehayem-Massop A, Kaduki KA. "Chemometrics -Assisted Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of High Background Radiation Areas Geothermal Field Matrices.". In: African Spectral Imaging Network (AFSIN) International Workshop on Spectral Imaging in Remote Sensing. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Dehayem-Massop A, Angeyo HK, Kaduki KA. "Chemometrics and Machine Learning Approaches for Direct and Rapid Quantitative and Exploratory Analysis of Trace Elements by LIBS.". In: LAM 10 International Workshop: Optics Photonics and Lasers in Science and Technology for Sustainable Development. 13-18 January 2014, Dakar, Senegal; 2014. Abstract
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