Bio

Publications


2013

Muasya, MK, Ng’ang’a P, Opinya GN, Macigo FG.  2013.  Traumatic dental injuries to permanent anterior teeth in 12-15 year old children in Nairobi. Abstract

To determine the prevalence and pattern of occurrence of traumatic injuries to permanent anterior teeth. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional survey. Setting: Public primary schools in the City of Nairobi. Subjects: A sample of 1382 children (672 males and 710 females) were interviewed and examined. Results: Among the 1382 children examined, 222(16.1%) had experienced traumatic dental injuries (TDIs). Males had experienced a significantly higher prevalence of trauma 126(18.8%) than females 96(13.5%) p=0.008. Falls were the leading cause of TDIs as reported by 78(35.1%) children. Amongst the, male children, falls were the leading cause of traumatic injuries to the permanent anterior teeth 47(37.3%). Approximately half 43(44.8%) of the females did not remember the cause of injury while 31 (36.5%) had sustained TDIs due to falls. One hundred and seventy two (77.5%) children who had experienced TDIs had no symptoms associated with the traumatised teeth. Ninety six (43.2%) of the children were injured while in the home environment. The maxillary central incisors were the most commonly traumatised teeth accounting for 220(73.5%) out of 299 injured teeth. The most frequently observed type of dental trauma was enamel fracture 206(68.9%) followed by enamel-dentin fracture 71(23.8%). Two hundred (90%) children had not sought treatment for TDIs. Conclusion: Overall traumatised permanent incisors were found to occur fairly frequently with males having experienced significantly more TDIs than females. The prevalence of TDIs was 16.1%; enamel fractures were the most frequently observed injury and falls were the leading cause of trauma.

2012

Ng'ang'a, PM.  2012.  A study of occlusal anomalies and tooth loss in children aged 13-15 years in Nairobi. Abstract

Two hundred and fifty one African children aged 13-15 years were examined for specific intra- and inter-arch malocclusions and tooth loss. The children were from 6 schools randomly selected from 154 primary schools in Nairobi. Overall, 47% of the children were found to have malocclusion, the most frequently encountered anomaly being crowding. Some of the anomalies showed prevalences which differed markedly from those previously reported for American and British Caucasians of comparable age-groups. Nineteen per cent of the children had missing teeth due to caries, 5.6% due to extractions as part of orthodontic treatment and 13% due to other reasons. The mean number of permanent teeth missing due to caries was 0.2, orthodontic treatment 0.1 and due to other reasons 0.2. Almost all the teeth lost as a result of caries were molars and those due to orthodontic indications were premolars. No teeth were recorded as missing due to periodontal disease or trauma. The study indicated a need to exercise caution in trying to relate the numerical values for prevalence of malocclusions in current textbooks to the present population. The results also showed that the proportion of permanent teeth lost was small.

2009

Ng’ang’a, P.  2009.  Status Of Orthodontic Services In Kenya.
MayumiNomura, Yamaguchi H, Motegi E, Rugh JD, Ng’ang’a PM, Gakunga PT, Hatch JP.  2009.  Esthetic preferences of European American, Hispanic American, Japanese, and African Judges for soft - tissue profiles.

2007

MACHARIA, PROFNGANGAPETER, MUSAKULU DRKEMOLIARTHUR.  2007.  Rwakatema DS, Ng'ang'a PM, Kemoli AM.Orthodontic treatment needs among 12-15 year-olds in Moshi, Tanzania. East Afr Med J. 2007 May;84(5):226-32.. East Afr Med J. 2007 May;84(5):226-32.. : Elsevier Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To assess malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among 12-15-year-olds in Moshi municipality, Tanzania. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Moshi municipality, Tanzania. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and eighty nine randomly selected primary school children in Moshi municipality in the year 2003. RESULTS: Maxillary median diastema occurred in 20.1% of the children. Crowding and spacing in the incisor segments occurred in 41.2% and 28.4% respectively with significantly more crowding in males than in females (p = 0.009). Anterior irregularities occurred in 46% of the sample in the maxilla and 51.6% in the mandible. These irregularities were significantly more common in the females than in males in the maxilla and mandible (p = 0.014

2006

MACHARIA, PROFNGANGAPETER, MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER, MUSAKULU DRKEMOLIARTHUR.  2006.  Rwakatema DS, Ng'ang'a PM, Kemoli AM. Awareness and concern about malocclusion among 12-15 year-old children in Moshi, Tanzania.East Afr Med J. 2006 Apr;83(4):92-7.. East Afr Med J. 2006 Apr;83(4):92-7.. : Elsevier Abstract
Department of Dentistry, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College, Tumaini University, P.O. Box 3010, Moshi, Tanzania. OBJECTIVE: To assess awareness and concern about malocclusion in 12-15 year-olds in Moshi, Tanzania. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Moshi Municipality in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and ninety eight randomly selected Public primary school children aged 12-15 years (158 males and 140 females). RESULTS: About 56% of the respondents thought their teeth were properly aligned. However only 29.1% of the respondents reported being dissatisfied with the way their teeth appeared in their mouth. About 25% of the respondents found their teeth to have been worse than most of their age-mates. Children who reported to have been teased due to their malocclusion comprised 25.8%. Those who thought it was unpleasant to stay with malaligned teeth constituted 55.7% of the respondents. Subjective orthodontic treatment need was reported by 69.1% of the sample. Majority of the children (75%) were ready to accept orthodontic treatment. There were significant correlations between factors of awareness and those of concern about malocclusion among the subjects. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of very little orthodontic treatment exposure in this population, awareness and concern about malocclusion was reported by a significant proportion of the children. These findings form a baseline line for future studies on the trends of awareness and concern towards malocclusion in this population. They will also be useful in the planning of orthodontic services in Tanzania.

2005

MACHARIA, PROFNGANGAPETER, MUTHONI DRNGATIAEDITH.  2005.  Ngatia EM, Ng'ang'a PM, Muita JW, Imungi JK. Dietary patterns and nutritional status of pre-school children in Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 2005 Oct;82(10):520-5.. East Afr Med J. 2005 Oct;82(10):520-5.. : Elsevier Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the dietary patterns and nutritional status of pre-school children in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Pre-schools in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and four pre-school children (149 males and 155 females) aged three to five years were assessed. RESULTS: About 96% of the children had been breastfed 46.7% of them for 12-24 months (46.7%), and the mean breastfeeding duration was 20.17 months. The most commonly consumed foods on a daily basis were fruits, vegetables bread, ugali, porridge and milk. The level of malnutrition was low with underweight at 16% stunting 4.3% and wasting 1.0%. The factors that positively correlated with child nutritional status were the age of the mother and father. CONCLUSIONS: The children were consuming a variety of foods both at home and in school, and this together with the high literacy levels the parents/guardians could have contributed towards the good nutritional status.

2004

MACHARIA, PROFNGANGAPETER.  2004.  Sanya BO, Ng'ang'a PM, Ng'ang'a RN. Causes and pattern of missing permanent teeth among Kenyans.East Afr Med J. 2004 Jun;81(6):322-5.. East Afr Med J. 2004 Jun;81(6):322-5.. : Elsevier Abstract
Malindi District Hospital, PO Box 4, Malindi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the causes and pattern of missing permanent teeth among Kenyans. DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Five districts in Kenya. SUBJECTS: Seven hundred and twenty two persons aged 6-85 years (346 males and 376 females). METHODS: This study was undertaken in October 2001 during the National Dental Health Action Month organised by the Kenya Dental Association. Six centres in five districts were identified and subjects randomly selected. Intra- oral examination was done visually and results were recorded on specially designed clinical examination forms. RESULTS: The mean number of missing teeth in the population was 1.60. Among those with missing teeth, the mean number of missing teeth was 3.35. The most commonly missing teeth were lower molars followed by upper molars. No record of complete edentulousness in both jaws was encountered. Dental caries was the commonest cause of tooth loss (52.6%), followed by periodontal disease (27.6%). Extractions, as a form of traditional practice, accounted for 12.3% of total tooth loss. Orthodontic treatment and trauma accounted for 2.2% and 2.0% respectively of total tooth loss. The upper and lower posteriors were the commonest teeth lost due to dental caries and periodontal disease. Teeth lost due to trauma were mostly upper anteriors, whereas those extracted due to traditional practices were exclusively lower anteriors. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show that the commonly lost teeth are molars and the principal cause of tooth loss is dental caries followed by periodontal disease. Overall, very few extractions had been done for orthodontic reasons.
MACHARIA, PROFNGANGAPETER, MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER.  2004.  Ng'ang'a PM.Status of orthodontic services in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 2004 Jan;81(1):1-2.. East Afr Med J. 2004 Jan;81(1):1-2.. : Elsevier Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the dietary patterns and nutritional status of pre-school children in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Pre-schools in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and four pre-school children (149 males and 155 females) aged three to five years were assessed. RESULTS: About 96% of the children had been breastfed 46.7% of them for 12-24 months (46.7%), and the mean breastfeeding duration was 20.17 months. The most commonly consumed foods on a daily basis were fruits, vegetables bread, ugali, porridge and milk. The level of malnutrition was low with underweight at 16% stunting 4.3% and wasting 1.0%. The factors that positively correlated with child nutritional status were the age of the mother and father. CONCLUSIONS: The children were consuming a variety of foods both at home and in school, and this together with the high literacy levels the parents/guardians could have contributed towards the good nutritional status.

2003

Kavia, D, Gathece LW, Mulli TK, Nganga PM.  2003.  A survey of orthodontic treatment experiences among Kenyans.
MACHARIA, PROFNGANGAPETER.  2003.  Ng'ang'a PM, Ng'ang'a RN. Maxillary incisor root forms in orthodontic patients in Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2003 Feb;80(2):101-4.. East Afr Med J. 2003 Feb;80(2):101-4.. : Elsevier Abstract
{ Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, radiographically, the root forms of maxillary incisors in a sample of patients seeking orthodontic treatment in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: A retrospective study of maxillary incisor root forms based on periapical radiographs. SETTING: A private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprised 393 maxillary incisors in 100 consecutive subjects (51 boys, 49 girls) aged 9-24 years. Intra-oral periapical radiographs of the incisors were evaluated. An index was used to categorise the roots as follows: 0=normal

2002

MACHARIA, PROFNGANGAPETER, MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER.  2002.  Ng'ang'a PM, Guthua SW, Ng'ang'a RN. Multiple supernumerary teeth in association with malocclusion: report of two cases.East Afr Med J. 2002 Apr;79(4):221-3.. East Afr Med J. 2002 Apr;79(4):221-3.. : Elsevier Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Although multiple supernumerary teeth without any associated syndromes are rare, their occurrence can create a variety of clinical problems such as derangement of the occlusion, prevention of eruption of permanent teeth, damage to adjacent teeth, cystic degeneration and root resorption. Hence, clinical and radiographic evaluation of patients should always be thorough in order to detect their presence. Furthermore, because the clinical management of multiple supernumerary teeth poses a great challenge to clinicians, timely, appropriate consultation and interdisciplinary approach to treatment is extremely important. We report two cases, a 14 year-old boy with eight and a 13-year-old girl with seven supernumerary teeth not associated with syndromes. In the boy, the teeth were bilaterally distributed in all quadrants in the premolar regions, and in the girl they were distributed bilaterally in the premolar regions in the mandible and bilaterally distal to the upper third molars. The clinical implications and management are discussed.

2001

MACHARIA, PROFNGANGAPETER, MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER.  2001.  Ng'ang'a RN, Ng'ang'a PM. Hypodontia of permanent teeth in a Kenyan population.East Afr Med J. 2001 Apr;78(4):200-3.. East Afr Med J. 2001 Apr;78(4):200-3.. : Elsevier Abstract
Kiambu District Hospital, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence of hypodontia (except 3rd molars) in a population of orthodontic patients. DESIGN: A retrospective case study. SETTING: Private orthodontic practice in Nairobi PATIENTS: Six hundred and fifteen orthodontic patients aged eight to fifteen years. RESULTS: Hypodontia occurred in 39 children (6.3%). The missing teeth were observed in 24 males (7.2%) and 15 females (5.3%). Of the children with hypodontia, about 80% lacked one or two teeth, 54% had hypodontia involving anterior teeth, 18% lacked single posterior teeth and 8% had two or more teeth missing in the same quadrant. The highest recorded number of missing teeth in any one individual was seven. The most frequently missing teeth were mandibular 2nd premolars (30%), maxillary 2nd premolars (24%) and maxillary lateral incisors (22%) in that order. CONCLUSIONS: Our data for hypodontia were within the wide range reported in the literature. The finding of patients with hypodontia involving the anterior teeth and others missing more than two teeth in the same quadrant was an indication of a great need for orthodontic treatment. The present findings reiterate the neeed for a thorough radiographic evaluation of patients prior to removal of permanent teeth for orthodontic reasons.
MACHARIA, PROFNGANGAPETER.  2001.  2001: Ngatia, E.M., Imungi J.K., Muita J.W., Ng. E. Afr. Med. J. 78:673 . : Elsevier Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Although multiple supernumerary teeth without any associated syndromes are rare, their occurrence can create a variety of clinical problems such as derangement of the occlusion, prevention of eruption of permanent teeth, damage to adjacent teeth, cystic degeneration and root resorption. Hence, clinical and radiographic evaluation of patients should always be thorough in order to detect their presence. Furthermore, because the clinical management of multiple supernumerary teeth poses a great challenge to clinicians, timely, appropriate consultation and interdisciplinary approach to treatment is extremely important. We report two cases, a 14 year-old boy with eight and a 13-year-old girl with seven supernumerary teeth not associated with syndromes. In the boy, the teeth were bilaterally distributed in all quadrants in the premolar regions, and in the girl they were distributed bilaterally in the premolar regions in the mandible and bilaterally distal to the upper third molars. The clinical implications and management are discussed.
MACHARIA, PROFNGANGAPETER.  2001.  2001: Ngatia E.M., Ng. Afr. J. Oral Hlth Sci. 2:44-46.. : Elsevier Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Although multiple supernumerary teeth without any associated syndromes are rare, their occurrence can create a variety of clinical problems such as derangement of the occlusion, prevention of eruption of permanent teeth, damage to adjacent teeth, cystic degeneration and root resorption. Hence, clinical and radiographic evaluation of patients should always be thorough in order to detect their presence. Furthermore, because the clinical management of multiple supernumerary teeth poses a great challenge to clinicians, timely, appropriate consultation and interdisciplinary approach to treatment is extremely important. We report two cases, a 14 year-old boy with eight and a 13-year-old girl with seven supernumerary teeth not associated with syndromes. In the boy, the teeth were bilaterally distributed in all quadrants in the premolar regions, and in the girl they were distributed bilaterally in the premolar regions in the mandible and bilaterally distal to the upper third molars. The clinical implications and management are discussed.
MACHARIA, PROFNGANGAPETER.  2001.  2001: Ng. Afr. J. Oral Hlth Sci. 2: 35-38.. : Elsevier Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Although multiple supernumerary teeth without any associated syndromes are rare, their occurrence can create a variety of clinical problems such as derangement of the occlusion, prevention of eruption of permanent teeth, damage to adjacent teeth, cystic degeneration and root resorption. Hence, clinical and radiographic evaluation of patients should always be thorough in order to detect their presence. Furthermore, because the clinical management of multiple supernumerary teeth poses a great challenge to clinicians, timely, appropriate consultation and interdisciplinary approach to treatment is extremely important. We report two cases, a 14 year-old boy with eight and a 13-year-old girl with seven supernumerary teeth not associated with syndromes. In the boy, the teeth were bilaterally distributed in all quadrants in the premolar regions, and in the girl they were distributed bilaterally in the premolar regions in the mandible and bilaterally distal to the upper third molars. The clinical implications and management are discussed.
MACHARIA, PROFNGANGAPETER.  2001.  2001: Ngatia E.M., Ng. Afr. J. Oral Hlth Sci, 2: 22-29. : Elsevier Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Although multiple supernumerary teeth without any associated syndromes are rare, their occurrence can create a variety of clinical problems such as derangement of the occlusion, prevention of eruption of permanent teeth, damage to adjacent teeth, cystic degeneration and root resorption. Hence, clinical and radiographic evaluation of patients should always be thorough in order to detect their presence. Furthermore, because the clinical management of multiple supernumerary teeth poses a great challenge to clinicians, timely, appropriate consultation and interdisciplinary approach to treatment is extremely important. We report two cases, a 14 year-old boy with eight and a 13-year-old girl with seven supernumerary teeth not associated with syndromes. In the boy, the teeth were bilaterally distributed in all quadrants in the premolar regions, and in the girl they were distributed bilaterally in the premolar regions in the mandible and bilaterally distal to the upper third molars. The clinical implications and management are discussed.
MACHARIA, PROFNGANGAPETER.  2001.  2001: Ng. E. Afr Med. J. 78: 200-203.. : Elsevier Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Although multiple supernumerary teeth without any associated syndromes are rare, their occurrence can create a variety of clinical problems such as derangement of the occlusion, prevention of eruption of permanent teeth, damage to adjacent teeth, cystic degeneration and root resorption. Hence, clinical and radiographic evaluation of patients should always be thorough in order to detect their presence. Furthermore, because the clinical management of multiple supernumerary teeth poses a great challenge to clinicians, timely, appropriate consultation and interdisciplinary approach to treatment is extremely important. We report two cases, a 14 year-old boy with eight and a 13-year-old girl with seven supernumerary teeth not associated with syndromes. In the boy, the teeth were bilaterally distributed in all quadrants in the premolar regions, and in the girl they were distributed bilaterally in the premolar regions in the mandible and bilaterally distal to the upper third molars. The clinical implications and management are discussed.

2000

MACHARIA, PROFNGANGAPETER.  2000.  2000: Ng. Afr. J. Oral Hlth Sci. 1:16-18.. : Elsevier Abstract
Kiambu District Hospital, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence of hypodontia (except 3rd molars) in a population of orthodontic patients. DESIGN: A retrospective case study. SETTING: Private orthodontic practice in Nairobi PATIENTS: Six hundred and fifteen orthodontic patients aged eight to fifteen years. RESULTS: Hypodontia occurred in 39 children (6.3%). The missing teeth were observed in 24 males (7.2%) and 15 females (5.3%). Of the children with hypodontia, about 80% lacked one or two teeth, 54% had hypodontia involving anterior teeth, 18% lacked single posterior teeth and 8% had two or more teeth missing in the same quadrant. The highest recorded number of missing teeth in any one individual was seven. The most frequently missing teeth were mandibular 2nd premolars (30%), maxillary 2nd premolars (24%) and maxillary lateral incisors (22%) in that order. CONCLUSIONS: Our data for hypodontia were within the wide range reported in the literature. The finding of patients with hypodontia involving the anterior teeth and others missing more than two teeth in the same quadrant was an indication of a great need for orthodontic treatment. The present findings reiterate the neeed for a thorough radiographic evaluation of patients prior to removal of permanent teeth for orthodontic reasons.
MACHARIA, PROFNGANGAPETER.  2000.  2000: Ng. Afr. J. Oral Hlth Sci. 1:8-11.. : Elsevier Abstract
Kiambu District Hospital, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence of hypodontia (except 3rd molars) in a population of orthodontic patients. DESIGN: A retrospective case study. SETTING: Private orthodontic practice in Nairobi PATIENTS: Six hundred and fifteen orthodontic patients aged eight to fifteen years. RESULTS: Hypodontia occurred in 39 children (6.3%). The missing teeth were observed in 24 males (7.2%) and 15 females (5.3%). Of the children with hypodontia, about 80% lacked one or two teeth, 54% had hypodontia involving anterior teeth, 18% lacked single posterior teeth and 8% had two or more teeth missing in the same quadrant. The highest recorded number of missing teeth in any one individual was seven. The most frequently missing teeth were mandibular 2nd premolars (30%), maxillary 2nd premolars (24%) and maxillary lateral incisors (22%) in that order. CONCLUSIONS: Our data for hypodontia were within the wide range reported in the literature. The finding of patients with hypodontia involving the anterior teeth and others missing more than two teeth in the same quadrant was an indication of a great need for orthodontic treatment. The present findings reiterate the neeed for a thorough radiographic evaluation of patients prior to removal of permanent teeth for orthodontic reasons.

1997

MACHARIA, PROFNGANGAPETER.  1997.  1997: Ng. Acta Odontol Scand. 55: 325-32.. : Elsevier Abstract
Kiambu District Hospital, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence of hypodontia (except 3rd molars) in a population of orthodontic patients. DESIGN: A retrospective case study. SETTING: Private orthodontic practice in Nairobi PATIENTS: Six hundred and fifteen orthodontic patients aged eight to fifteen years. RESULTS: Hypodontia occurred in 39 children (6.3%). The missing teeth were observed in 24 males (7.2%) and 15 females (5.3%). Of the children with hypodontia, about 80% lacked one or two teeth, 54% had hypodontia involving anterior teeth, 18% lacked single posterior teeth and 8% had two or more teeth missing in the same quadrant. The highest recorded number of missing teeth in any one individual was seven. The most frequently missing teeth were mandibular 2nd premolars (30%), maxillary 2nd premolars (24%) and maxillary lateral incisors (22%) in that order. CONCLUSIONS: Our data for hypodontia were within the wide range reported in the literature. The finding of patients with hypodontia involving the anterior teeth and others missing more than two teeth in the same quadrant was an indication of a great need for orthodontic treatment. The present findings reiterate the neeed for a thorough radiographic evaluation of patients prior to removal of permanent teeth for orthodontic reasons.
MACHARIA, PROFNGANGAPETER, MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER.  1997.  Ng'ang'a PM, Stenvik A, Ohito F, Ogaard B. The need and demand for orthodontic treatment in 13- to 15-year-olds in Nairobi, Kenya.Acta Odontol Scand. 1997 Oct;55(5):325-8.. Acta Odontol Scand. 1997 Oct;55(5):325-8.. : Elsevier Abstract

Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, University of Nairobi Dental School, Kenya. The need for orthodontic treatment in Kenya was previously not been investigated. This study was undertaken to assess the need for orthodontic treatment in 13- to 15-year-old children in Nairobi. The objective need was assessed in 919 children by using the Norwegian treatment need index, and the subjective need was assessed in 739 children by using a structured questionnaire. Objective treatment need was recorded in 29% and subjective need in 33% of the children. Less than 1% were allocated the 'very great need' category. Relatively more girls than boys were dissatisfied with the appearance of their teeth, and a significantly higher number of girls (P < 0.001) said they would like to have their teeth straightened. The children's perceived need for treatment correlated significantly with the treatment need index. Fixed appliances were found necessary for correcting malocclusion in 23% of the children and removable appliances in 6%. Future studies in Kenya should be directed at determining the societal perception of malocclusion, upon which treatment standards may be based.

1996

MACHARIA, PROFNGANGAPETER.  1996.  Ng'ang'a PM, Ohito F, Ogaard B, Valderhaug J. The prevalence of malocclusion in 13- to 15-year-old children in Nairobi, Kenya.Acta Odontol Scand. 1996 Apr;54(2):126-30.. Acta Odontol Scand. 1996 Apr;54(2):126-30.. : Elsevier Abstract
Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, University of Nairobi Dental School, Kenya. Data on occlusal features and the need for orthodontic treatment in Kenya is scanty. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of malocclusion in children in Nairobi, Kenya. Nine hundred and nineteen children aged 13-15 years (468 male, 451 female) were examined. The registration method used was that described by Bjork et al. The prevalence of malocclusion was 72%. The predominant anteroposterior relationship of the dental arches was neutral occlusion (93%). Specific malocclusion traits were highest for crowding (19%), rotations (19%), posterior crossbite (10%), maxillary overjet (10%), and frontal open bite (8%). There was no statistically significant difference in the overall prevalence of malocclusion between males and females, but some occlusal traits were significantly higher in males. Although the findings indicate that the present population is not characterized by a substantial difference in the overall prevalence of malocclusion compared with other communities, some traits differed in prevalence from those reported elsewhere.
MACHARIA, PROFNGANGAPETER.  1996.  1996: Ng. Acta Odontol Scand. 54:12 . : Elsevier Abstract

Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, University of Nairobi Dental School, Kenya. The need for orthodontic treatment in Kenya was previously not been investigated. This study was undertaken to assess the need for orthodontic treatment in 13- to 15-year-old children in Nairobi. The objective need was assessed in 919 children by using the Norwegian treatment need index, and the subjective need was assessed in 739 children by using a structured questionnaire. Objective treatment need was recorded in 29% and subjective need in 33% of the children. Less than 1% were allocated the 'very great need' category. Relatively more girls than boys were dissatisfied with the appearance of their teeth, and a significantly higher number of girls (P < 0.001) said they would like to have their teeth straightened. The children's perceived need for treatment correlated significantly with the treatment need index. Fixed appliances were found necessary for correcting malocclusion in 23% of the children and removable appliances in 6%. Future studies in Kenya should be directed at determining the societal perception of malocclusion, upon which treatment standards may be based.

1995

MACHARIA, PROFNGANGAPETER.  1995.  Malocclusion in children aged 3-6 years in Nairobi, Kenya.Kabue MM, Moracha JK, Ng'ang'a PM. East Afr Med J. 1995 Apr;72(4):210-2.. East Afr Med J. 1995 Apr;72(4):210-2.. : Elsevier Abstract
Dental Surgeon, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. The prevalence of malocclusion in the deciduous dentition of 221 children aged 3-6 years in Nairobi, Kenya is reported. The children were drawn from six randomly selected preprimary schools (kindergarten, nurseries, and pre-units) from different areas of the city. Overall, 51% of the children were found to have some form of malocclusion. Maxillary overjet accounted for 13%, deep bite 13%, dental midline displacement 6%, frontal openbite 12% and anterior crossbite 5%. Anthropoid spaces were observed in 85% of the children, while over 60% had spacing in the incisor region. Straight terminal plane of the deciduous second molars was diagnosed in 53% of the children, mesial step in 43% and distal step occlusion in one percent of the children. The results suggest a need for interceptive orthodontic treatment in some of the children.
MACHARIA, PROFNGANGAPETER.  1995.  1995: Kabue M. M., Moracha, J. Ng. E. Afr. Med. J. 72: 210-212.. : Elsevier Abstract
Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, University of Nairobi Dental School, Kenya. Data on occlusal features and the need for orthodontic treatment in Kenya is scanty. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of malocclusion in children in Nairobi, Kenya. Nine hundred and nineteen children aged 13-15 years (468 male, 451 female) were examined. The registration method used was that described by Bjork et al. The prevalence of malocclusion was 72%. The predominant anteroposterior relationship of the dental arches was neutral occlusion (93%). Specific malocclusion traits were highest for crowding (19%), rotations (19%), posterior crossbite (10%), maxillary overjet (10%), and frontal open bite (8%). There was no statistically significant difference in the overall prevalence of malocclusion between males and females, but some occlusal traits were significantly higher in males. Although the findings indicate that the present population is not characterized by a substantial difference in the overall prevalence of malocclusion compared with other communities, some traits differed in prevalence from those reported elsewhere.

1994

Chindia, ML, Ng'ang'a PM.  1994.  Alcohol injection in the management of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia: a report of six cases.. AbstractWebsite

The report revisits the role of alcohol in the treatment of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (PTN). The study included 6 patients, 3 male and 3 female, average age 50 years. In 3 cases PTN involved both the infraorbital and mental nerves; in 2 cases the infraorbital alone while one case had buccal branch involvement. In each case 2mls standard Lignocaine was infiltrated at each site followed by 2mls 60% sterile alcohol. All patients reported swelling postoperatively. One case with mental and infraorbital nerve involvement complained of oral dysaesthesia. Another patient with similar involvement failed to respond and developed trismus. Responders remained pain-free for 9 months on average. While paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (PTN) has been recognised for centuries, the aetiology and definitive treatment remain obscure. Since this is a debilitating condition, management should aim at improving the quality of life. Alcohol is available, affordable and offers useful results where medical resources provide limited PTN treatment modalities.

MACHARIA, PROFNGANGAPETER.  1994.  Chindia ML, Ng'ang'a PM. Alcohol injection in the management of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia: a report of six cases.East Afr Med J. 1994 Jan;71(1):49-50.. East Afr Med J. 1994 Jan;71(1):49-50.. : Elsevier Abstract
Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Sugery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The report revisits the role of alcohol in the treatment of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (PTN). The study included 6 patients, 3 male and 3 female, average age 50 years. In 3 cases PTN involved both the infraorbital and mental nerves; in 2 cases the infraorbital alone while one case had buccal branch involvement. In each case 2mls standard Lignocaine was infiltrated at each site followed by 2mls 60% sterile alcohol. All patients reported swelling postoperatively. One case with mental and infraorbital nerve involvement complained of oral dysaesthesia. Another patient with similar involvement failed to respond and developed trismus. Responders remained pain-free for 9 months on average. While paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (PTN) has been recognised for centuries, the aetiology and definitive treatment remain obscure. Since this is a debilitating condition, management should aim at improving the quality of life. Alcohol is available, affordable and offers useful results where medical resources provide limited PTN treatment modalities.

1993

MACHARIA, PROFNGANGAPETER.  1993.  Ng'ang'a PM, Valderhaug J.Prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in primary schoolchildren in Nairobi, Kenya.Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1993 Feb;21(1):15-8.. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1993 Feb;21(1):15-8.. : Elsevier Abstract

Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Dental School, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in 513 primary school children in Nairobi. The clinical examination was performed in a room with natural daylight using Thylstrup & Fejerskov's index (TFI). Overall, 18% of 6-8-yr-olds had dental fluorosis in the primary dentition and 76% of 13-15-yr-olds in the permanent dentition. There was no significant sex difference (P > 0.05) in either the prevalence or the severity of fluorosis. In children with mixed dentition, the prevalence and severity of fluorosis was higher in the permanent teeth. In the permanent dentition, no clear difference was demonstrable in the severity between the anterior and the posterior teeth. The degree of fluorosis in most of the children in the area served with river water (0.2-0.4 ppm F-) was of a very mild form. However, in the area served with borehole waters, 48% of the children and 40% of the teeth were found to have TFI scores > or = 5. Measures to reduce dental fluorosis are necessary in the latter area.

MACHARIA, PROFNGANGAPETER.  1993.  Ng'ang'a PM, Ogaard B. Dental caries and fluorides in relation to fixed orthodontic treatment: a review.East Afr Med J. 1993 Feb;70(2):75-7.. East Afr Med J. 1993 Feb;70(2):75-7.. : Elsevier Abstract
Dental School, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. This paper reviews the cariological aspects of fixed orthodontic treatment and discusses the role played by topical fluorides. During fixed orthodontic treatment, carious lesions may occur in the form of white spots. These may constitute an aesthetic problem. The clinical management of white spot lesions remains unresolved. In order to prevent development of these lesions, the use of topical fluorides is advocated. The need for patient co-operation in the use of self-administered topical fluorides is critical. To reduce this critical need, the use of fluoride-releasing orthodontic cements is recommended. The literature suggests that calcium fluoride, which is the major reaction product on enamel during topical fluoride application, plays an important role in the cariostatic mechanism.
MACHARIA, PROFNGANGAPETER.  1993.  Aasrum E, Ng'ang'a PM, Dahm S, Ogaard B. Tensile bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with a fluoride-releasing light-curing adhesive. An in vitro comparative study.. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1993 Jul;104(1):48-50.. : Elsevier Abstract
Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. A light-curing, fluoride-releasing adhesive (VP 862, Vivadent, Liechtenstein) for bonding of brackets has been produced for inhibition of white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment. The tensile bond strength after 24 hours and 6 months was investigated and compared with two other light-curing adhesives (Transbond, 3M Corp., Monrovia, Calif., and Heliosit-Orthodontic, Vivadent, Liechtenstein) and two chemical-curing adhesives (Concise, 3M, Monrovia Calif., and Saga Bond, Saga Orthodontics, Kongsvinger, Norway). All adhesives produced adequate strength to be recommended for clinical use. The light-curing adhesives produced slightly lower bond strengths after 24 hours and 6 months, except Transbond, which showed an increase in bond strength in this period approaching the two chemical adhesives.
MACHARIA, PROFNGANGAPETER.  1993.  1993: Ng. Oral Epidemiol. 21:15-18.. : Elsevier Abstract

Department of Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The uptake of alkali soluble and alkali insoluble fluoride on and in fluorotic enamel was investigated in vitro. Teeth from Kenya, assigned score 3 in accordance with Thylstrup-Fejerskov's fluorosis index, were used. The enamel was treated with either a neutral 2% NaF solution, a 0.2% NaF solution (pH 5.5), or the supernatant from a 0.1% NaF-containing toothpaste (pH 7). The treatment time was 1 h. The reaction product formed on the enamel was analyzed by KOH extraction and acid etching. Significantly higher amounts of alkali soluble fluoride were formed on the enamel from the 2% and 0.2% NaF solutions, as compared with the control. There was also a significant increase in the firmly bound fluoride after treatment with the neutral 2% NaF solution.

MACHARIA, PROFNGANGAPETER.  1993.  1993: Aasrum E., Ng. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofac Orthop 104:48-50.. : Elsevier Abstract

Department of Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The uptake of alkali soluble and alkali insoluble fluoride on and in fluorotic enamel was investigated in vitro. Teeth from Kenya, assigned score 3 in accordance with Thylstrup-Fejerskov's fluorosis index, were used. The enamel was treated with either a neutral 2% NaF solution, a 0.2% NaF solution (pH 5.5), or the supernatant from a 0.1% NaF-containing toothpaste (pH 7). The treatment time was 1 h. The reaction product formed on the enamel was analyzed by KOH extraction and acid etching. Significantly higher amounts of alkali soluble fluoride were formed on the enamel from the 2% and 0.2% NaF solutions, as compared with the control. There was also a significant increase in the firmly bound fluoride after treatment with the neutral 2% NaF solution.

MACHARIA, PROFNGANGAPETER.  1993.  1993: Cruz R., Ng. Scand J Dent Res. 1993 Feb;101(1):5-8.. : Elsevier Abstract

Department of Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The uptake of alkali soluble and alkali insoluble fluoride on and in fluorotic enamel was investigated in vitro. Teeth from Kenya, assigned score 3 in accordance with Thylstrup-Fejerskov's fluorosis index, were used. The enamel was treated with either a neutral 2% NaF solution, a 0.2% NaF solution (pH 5.5), or the supernatant from a 0.1% NaF-containing toothpaste (pH 7). The treatment time was 1 h. The reaction product formed on the enamel was analyzed by KOH extraction and acid etching. Significantly higher amounts of alkali soluble fluoride were formed on the enamel from the 2% and 0.2% NaF solutions, as compared with the control. There was also a significant increase in the firmly bound fluoride after treatment with the neutral 2% NaF solution.

MACHARIA, PROFNGANGAPETER.  1993.  1993: Ng. East Afr Med J. 1993 Mar;70(3):175-8.. : Elsevier Abstract

Department of Dental Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The prevalence of dental caries, malocclusion and fractured incisors was investigated in 245 children from a pastoral community in Kenya. Forty-eight per cent of them were found to be caries-free. The overall mean DMFT was 1.9 (s.d. 2.7). Among those with caries, the mean DMFT was 3.0 (s.d. 2.0). Fifty-eight per cent of the children had malocclusion. Overall, 84% of the sample had Angle's Class I, 11% Class II and 5% Class III molar relation. The prevalence of fractured incisors was 15%. Most of the fractures were in the maxilla and involved enamel only. Minimal treatment had been carried out on the children.

1992

MACHARIA, PROFNGANGAPETER.  1992.  Ng'ang'a PM, Valderhaug J. Dental caries in primary school children in Nairobi, Kenya. Acta Odontol Scand. 1992 Oct;50(5):269-72.. Acta Odontol Scand. 1992 Oct;50(5):269-72.. : Elsevier Abstract
The purpose of this study was to record the caries status in children attending public primary schools in Nairobi. The sample comprised 513 children, 262 aged 6-8 years and 251 aged 13-15 years. The children were drawn from six randomly selected schools in the city. Clinical examination was carried out in a room with natural daylight, using the WHO (1977) criteria. Fifty-four per cent of the 6- to 8-year-olds and 50% of the 13- to 15-year-olds were caries-free. The mean dmft in the 6- to 8-year-olds was 1.7, and the mean dmfs was 3.5. The mean DMFT in the 13- to 15-year-olds was 1.8, and the mean DMFS was 2.9. The d- and D-components dominated and were mainly located in the occlusal surfaces. The f-component of the dmft and the F-component of the DMFT comprised 1% and 10%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) in the prevalence of caries between males and females in the younger age group. In the older age group, however, females had a higher (p < 0.05) prevalence than males. In general, the study showed a low caries prevalence in Nairobi children.

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