Bio

Curriculum Vitae

Dr Philip Mwachaka is a Lecturer at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. He is an anatomist interested in research on clinical and experimental neurosurgery and neuroscience. He is a holder of Master of Medicine (Neurosurgery) - 2020, MSc. Human Anatomy (2014), MBChB (2010) and BSc Anatomy (2007).

Publications


Submitted

  Submitted.  . Abstract
n/a

2015

Gakonyo, J, Butt F, Mwachaka P, Wagaiyu E.  2015.  Arterial blood supply variation in the anterior midline mandible: {Significance} to dental implantology. International Journal of Implant Dentistry. 1:1–5., Number 1 AbstractWebsite
n/a
Mwachaka, PM, Saidi H, Odula PO, Mandela PI.  2015.  Effect of monocular deprivation on rabbit neural retinal cell densities. Journal of ophthalmic & vision research. 10:144., Number 2 AbstractWebsite
n/a
Ogeng’o, J, Elbusaidy H, Sinkeet S, Olabu B, Mwachaka P, Martin Inyimili.  2015.  Variant origin of the superior cerebellar artery in a black {Kenyan} population. Eur. J. Anat. 19:287–290., Number 3 AbstractWebsite
n/a
Silvestri, D, Blevins M, Afzal A, Andrews B, Derbew M, Kaur S, Mipando M, Mkony C, Mwachaka P, Ranjit N, others.  2015.  Non-cognitive attributes predict medical and nursing students’ intentions to migrate or work rurally: {An} eight-country cross-sectional survey in {Asia} and {Africa}. Annals of Global Health. 1:63., Number 81 AbstractWebsite
n/a
Silvestri, D, Blevins M, Afzal A, Andrews B, Derbew M, Kaur S, Mipando M, Mkony C, Mwachaka P, Ranjit N, others.  2015.  Medical and nursing students' intentions to work abroad or in rural areas: {An} eight-country cross-sectional survey in {Asia} and {Africa}. Annals of Global Health. 81:52., Number 1 AbstractWebsite
n/a
Board, MPD.  2015.  Approved {Training} {Institutions} - {Medical} {Practitioners} and {Dentists} {Board}. Abstract

Ensuring the provision of quality & ethical health care.

Silvestri, D, Blevins M, Afzal A, Andrews B, Derbew M, Kaur S, Mipando M, Mkony C, Mwachaka P, Ranjit N, others.  2015.  Medical and nursing students' intentions to work abroad or in rural areas: {An} eight-country cross-sectional survey in {Asia} and {Africa}. Annals of Global Health. 81:52., Number 1 AbstractWebsite
n/a
Silvestri, D, Blevins M, Afzal A, Andrews B, Derbew M, Kaur S, Mipando M, Mkony C, Mwachaka P, Ranjit N, others.  2015.  Non-cognitive attributes predict medical and nursing students’ intentions to migrate or work rurally: {An} eight-country cross-sectional survey in {Asia} and {Africa}. Annals of Global Health. 1:63., Number 81 AbstractWebsite
n/a
Mwachaka, PM, Saidi H, Odula PO, Mandela PI.  2015.  Effect of monocular deprivation on rabbit neural retinal cell densities. Journal of ophthalmic & vision research. 10:144., Number 2 AbstractWebsite
n/a
Ogeng’o, J, Elbusaidy H, Sinkeet S, Olabu B, Mwachaka P, Martin Inyimili.  2015.  Variant origin of the superior cerebellar artery in a black {Kenyan} population. Eur. J. Anat. 19:287–290., Number 3 AbstractWebsite
n/a
Gakonyo, J, Butt F, Mwachaka P, Wagaiyu E.  2015.  Arterial blood supply variation in the anterior midline mandible: {Significance} to dental implantology. International Journal of Implant Dentistry. 1:1–5., Number 1 AbstractWebsite
n/a
  2015.  Gastric {Outlet} {Obstruction}, jan. AbstractWebsite

Gastric Outlet Obstruction. Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO, also known as pyloric obstruction) is not a single entity; it is the clinical and pathophysiological consequence of any disease process that produces a mechanical impediment to gastric emptying.

2014

Mwachaka, P, Kigera JWM.  2014.  Clinical trials in {Surgery}. Annals of African Surgery. 11, Number 2 AbstractWebsite
n/a
Mwachaka, P, El-busaidy H, Sinkeet S, Ogeng&\#x2019, O J.  2014.  Variations in the {Position} and {Length} of the {Vermiform} {Appendix} in a {Black} {Kenyan} {Population}, apr. ISRN Anatomy. 2014:e871048. AbstractWebsite

Background. Topography of the appendix influences its mobility, degree of mobilization of the cecum, and need for additional muscle splitting during appendectomy. Although appendectomy is a common surgical procedure, there is a paucity of data on its topography in black Africans. Methods. The position and length of the appendix and relation of the appendicular base with spinoumbilical line were determined in 48 cadavers obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Results. The commonest appendicular types in males were retrocecal 10 (27&\#x25;) while in females was subileal 4 (36.4&\#x25;). The average length of the appendix was 76.5 &\#xb1; 23.6&\#x2009;mm. The base of the appendix was located along, below, and above the spinoumbilical line in 25 (52.1&\#x25;), 9 (18.8&\#x25;), and 14 (29.2&\#x25;) cases, respectively. Conclusion. The topography of appendix in Kenyans shows variations from other populations. Knowledge of these variations is important during appendicectomy.

Mwachaka, P, Saidi H, Odula P, Mandela P, Mwachaka P, Saidi H, Odula P, Mandela P.  2014.  Effects of {Monocular} {Deprivation} on the {Dendritic} {Features} of {Retinal} {Ganglion} {Cells}. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MORPHOLOGY. 32:1144–1151., Number 4 AbstractWebsite
n/a
Ogeng'o, JA, Mwachaka P, Ongeti KW.  2014.  Non muscle cells in the tunica media of the aorta. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Ogeng'o, JA, Ongeti K, Obimbo M, Olabu B, Mwachaka P.  2014.  Features of {Atherosclerosis} in the {Tunica} {Adventitia} of {Coronary} and {Carotid} {Arteries} in a {Black} {Kenyan} {Population}. Anatomy Research International. 2014:e456741. AbstractWebsite

Introduction. Histologic changes which occur in the tunica adventitia during initiation, progression, and complications of atherosclerosis are seldom reported. This study aimed at describing the features of atherosclerosis in the tunica adventitia of two of the commonly afflicted arteries, namely, left anterior descending coronary and common carotid in black Kenyans. Materials and Methods. Specimens from 108 individuals [76 males and 32 females, mean age 34.6] were processed for paraffin embedding. Seven micron thick sections were stained with Mason&\#x2019;s trichrome and Haematoxylin/Eosin and examined with a light microscope. Results. Features of atherosclerosis were present in the tunica adventitia of 14.8&\#x25; of left anterior descending arteries and 11.1&\#x25; of common carotid arteries. Increase in adventitial thickness was associated with increased density of vasa vasora in 8.3&\#x25; of both arteries. In the left anterior descending and common carotid arteries, 6.5&\#x25; and 3.7&\#x25; of cases, respectively, the tunica adventitia thickened without intimal hyperplasia. Conclusion. Features of atherosclerosis occur in the tunica adventitia of coronary and carotid arteries in over 10&\#x25; of the black Kenyans studied. These features often precede the intimo medial changes. Tunica adventitia should therefore be prioritized in evaluation for atherosclerosis, in individuals at risk. This may enhance early detection and intervention.

Saidi, H, ONGETI K, Mandela P, Mwachaka P, Olabu B.  2014.  Kiman's histology text and manual. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Silvestri, DM, Blevins M, Afzal AR, Andrews B, Derbew M, Kaur S, Mipando M, Mkony CA, Mwachaka PM, Ranjit N, others.  2014.  Medical and nursing students' intentions to work abroad or in rural areas: a cross-sectional survey in {Asia} and {Africa}. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 92:750–759., Number 10 AbstractWebsite
n/a
Padmavathi, G.  2014.  Study of the variations of superior cerebellar artery in human cadavers. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 2:699–703., Number 2 AbstractWebsite
n/a
Hussein, IH, Hankin M, Dany M, Wasserman J, Jurjus A.  2014.  Perception and emotional impact of dissection on medical students ({LB}13), jan. The FASEB Journal. 28:LB13., Number 1 Supplement AbstractWebsite

Dissection contributes significantly to anatomical knowledge and the development of professionalism for medical students. This study assessed student emotional stress and coping in the anatomy lab and the perception of dissection on learning. A survey of Medicine I students (n=100) assessed: demographics, emotions and stress of the first dissection, anxiety, coping, and learning. With a response rate of 40%, our findings include: positive attitude towards the first dissection (n=33) although some students still found it stressful (n=17); cultural views impacted the lab experience (n=24); some used spirituality (n=10) or humor (n=6) to cope; most agreed that dissection enhanced understanding of anatomy (n=31) and the connection of between theoretical and applied knowledge (n=37); promoted teamwork (n=35); and highlighted respect for the human body (n=31) and the spirit of organ donation (n=28). While some have assumed that students have a negative attitude towards human dissection, our study showed that the majority of students reported a positive impact on various aspects of professionalism and humanism. We conclude that dissection is useful for students to establish not only technical skills and knowledge of the body, but also qualities associated with inter-professional teamwork and a humanistic attitude, without posing significant emotional stress.

Mwachaka, P, El-busaidy H, Sinkeet S, Ogeng&\#x2019, O J.  2014.  Variations in the {Position} and {Length} of the {Vermiform} {Appendix} in a {Black} {Kenyan} {Population}, apr. ISRN Anatomy. 2014:e871048. AbstractWebsite

Background. Topography of the appendix influences its mobility, degree of mobilization of the cecum, and need for additional muscle splitting during appendectomy. Although appendectomy is a common surgical procedure, there is a paucity of data on its topography in black Africans. Methods. The position and length of the appendix and relation of the appendicular base with spinoumbilical line were determined in 48 cadavers obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Results. The commonest appendicular types in males were retrocecal 10 (27&\#x25;) while in females was subileal 4 (36.4&\#x25;). The average length of the appendix was 76.5 &\#xb1; 23.6&\#x2009;mm. The base of the appendix was located along, below, and above the spinoumbilical line in 25 (52.1&\#x25;), 9 (18.8&\#x25;), and 14 (29.2&\#x25;) cases, respectively. Conclusion. The topography of appendix in Kenyans shows variations from other populations. Knowledge of these variations is important during appendicectomy.

Qin, W, Xuan Y, Liu Y, Jiang T, Yu C.  2014.  Functional {Connectivity} {Density} in {Congenitally} and {Late} {Blind} {Subjects}, mar. Cerebral Cortex. :bhu051. AbstractWebsite

Visual deprivation during different developmental periods leads to different structural and functional alterations in the brain; however, the effects of visual deprivation on the spontaneous functional organization of the brain remain largely unknown. In this study, we used voxel-based functional connectivity density (FCD) analyses to investigate the effects of visual deprivation during different developmental periods on the spontaneous functional organization of the brain. Compared with the sighted controls (SC), both the congenitally blind (CB) and the late blind (LB) exhibited decreased short- and long-range FCDs in the primary visual cortex (V1) and decreased long-range FCDs in the primary somatosensory and auditory cortices. Although both the CB and LB exhibited increased short-range FCD in the dorsal visual stream, the CB exhibited greater increases in the short- and long-range FCDs in the ventral visual stream and hippocampal complex compared with the LB. Moreover, the short-range FCD of the left V1 exhibited a significant positive correlation with the duration of blindness in the LB. Our findings suggest that visual deprivation before the developmental sensitive period can induce more extensive brain functional reorganization than does visual deprivation after the sensitive period, which may underlie an enhanced capacity for processing nonvisual information in the CB.

Gilbert-Kawai, ET, Milledge JS, Grocott MPW, Martin DS.  2014.  King of the {Mountains}: {Tibetan} and {Sherpa} {Physiological} {Adaptations} for {Life} at {High} {Altitude}, nov. Physiology. 29:388–402., Number 6 AbstractWebsite

Anecdotal evidence surrounding Tibetans' and Sherpas' exceptional tolerance to hypobaric hypoxia has been recorded since the beginning of high-altitude exploration. These populations have successfully lived and reproduced at high altitude for hundreds of generations with hypoxia as a constant evolutionary pressure. Consequently, they are likely to have undergone natural selection toward a genotype (and phenotype) tending to offer beneficial adaptation to sustained hypoxia. With the advent of translational human hypoxic research, in which genotype/phenotype studies of healthy individuals at high altitude may be of benefit to hypoxemic critically ill patients in a hospital setting, high-altitude natives may provide a valuable and intriguing model. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the scientific literature encompassing Tibetan and Sherpa physiological adaptations to a high-altitude residence. The review demonstrates the extent to which evolutionary pressure has refined the physiology of this high-altitude population. Furthermore, although many physiological differences between highlanders and lowlanders have been found, it also suggests many more potential avenues of investigation.

McMenamin, PG, Quayle MR, McHenry CR, Adams JW.  2014.  The production of anatomical teaching resources using three-dimensional (3D) printing technology, jun. Anatomical Sciences Education. :n/a–n/a. AbstractWebsite

The teaching of anatomy has consistently been the subject of societal controversy, especially in the context of employing cadaveric materials in professional medical and allied health professional training. The reduction in dissection-based teaching in medical and allied health professional training programs has been in part due to the financial considerations involved in maintaining bequest programs, accessing human cadavers and concerns with health and safety considerations for students and staff exposed to formalin-containing embalming fluids. This report details how additive manufacturing or three-dimensional (3D) printing allows the creation of reproductions of prosected human cadaver and other anatomical specimens that obviates many of the above issues. These 3D prints are high resolution, accurate color reproductions of prosections based on data acquired by surface scanning or CT imaging. The application of 3D printing to produce models of negative spaces, contrast CT radiographic data using segmentation software is illustrated. The accuracy of printed specimens is compared with original specimens. This alternative approach to producing anatomically accurate reproductions offers many advantages over plastination as it allows rapid production of multiple copies of any dissected specimen, at any size scale and should be suitable for any teaching facility in any country, thereby avoiding some of the cultural and ethical issues associated with cadaver specimens either in an embalmed or plastinated form. Anat Sci Educ. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

Karau, BP, Wamachi A, Ndede K, Mwamisi J, Ndege P.  2014.  Perception to {Cadaver} {Dissection} and {Views} on {Anatomy} as a {Subject} between {Two} {Pioneer} {Cohorts} in a {Kenyan} {Medical} {School}, jul. Anatomy Journal of Africa. 3:318–323., Number 2 AbstractWebsite
n/a
Chen, W, Abramowitz MK.  2014.  Metabolic acidosis and the progression of chronic kidney disease, apr. BMC Nephrology. 15:55., Number 1 AbstractWebsite

Metabolic acidosis is a common complication of chronic kidney disease. Accumulating evidence identifies acidosis not only as a consequence of, but as a contributor to, kidney disease progression. Several mechanistic pathways have been identified in this regard. The dietary acid load, even in the absence of overt acidosis, may have deleterious effects. Several small trials now suggest that the treatment of acidosis with oral alkali can slow the progression of kidney disease. PMID: 24708763

Gilbert-Kawai, ET, Milledge JS, Grocott MPW, Martin DS.  2014.  King of the {Mountains}: {Tibetan} and {Sherpa} {Physiological} {Adaptations} for {Life} at {High} {Altitude}, nov. Physiology. 29:388–402., Number 6 AbstractWebsite

Anecdotal evidence surrounding Tibetans' and Sherpas' exceptional tolerance to hypobaric hypoxia has been recorded since the beginning of high-altitude exploration. These populations have successfully lived and reproduced at high altitude for hundreds of generations with hypoxia as a constant evolutionary pressure. Consequently, they are likely to have undergone natural selection toward a genotype (and phenotype) tending to offer beneficial adaptation to sustained hypoxia. With the advent of translational human hypoxic research, in which genotype/phenotype studies of healthy individuals at high altitude may be of benefit to hypoxemic critically ill patients in a hospital setting, high-altitude natives may provide a valuable and intriguing model. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the scientific literature encompassing Tibetan and Sherpa physiological adaptations to a high-altitude residence. The review demonstrates the extent to which evolutionary pressure has refined the physiology of this high-altitude population. Furthermore, although many physiological differences between highlanders and lowlanders have been found, it also suggests many more potential avenues of investigation.

  2014.  Diabetic {Ketoacidosis} {Treatment} , oct. AbstractWebsite

Treatment & Management: Diabetic Ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute, major, life-threatening complication of diabetes that mainly occurs in patients with type 1 diabetes, but it is not uncommon in some patients with type 2 diabetes.

Mwachaka, P, Saidi H, Odula P, Mandela P, Mwachaka P, Saidi H, Odula P, Mandela P.  2014.  Effects of {Monocular} {Deprivation} on the {Dendritic} {Features} of {Retinal} {Ganglion} {Cells}. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MORPHOLOGY. 32:1144–1151., Number 4 AbstractWebsite
n/a
Ogeng'o, JA, Mwachaka P, Ongeti KW.  2014.  Non muscle cells in the tunica media of the aorta. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Francoz, M, Fenolland J-R, Giraud J-M, El Chehab H, Sendon D, May F, Renard J-P.  2014.  Reproducibility of macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness measurement with cirrus {HD}-{OCT} in normal, hypertensive and glaucomatous eyes, mar. The British journal of ophthalmology. 98:322–328., Number 3 Abstract

AIM: To evaluate the intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility of macular retinal ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thickness measurement by automated detection on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images in normal, hypertensive (ocular hypertensive (OHT)) and glaucomatous eyes. METHODS: A total of 138 eyes were enrolled in three groups: 69 normal, 35 OHT and 34 primary open-angle glaucoma eyes. All patients underwent a complete ocular examination, 24-2 automated perimetry, biometry and pachymetry. Macular imaging was performed in each eye using the Cirrus HD-OCT 4000 with software V.6.0. (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, California, USA) three times on the same day by each of two observers, and the GC analysis (GCA) algorithm provided parameters expressed as average, minimum and six sectoral GC-IPL thicknesses. Reproducibility was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV) and test-retest variability (TRTV) calculated as 1.96 times the SD. RESULTS: Mean GC-IPL thickness was 82.27±7.37 μm, 76.84±7.01 μm and 66.16±11.16 μm in normal, OHT and glaucoma groups, respectively. GC-IPL thickness was significantly lower in glaucomatous eyes than in normal and OHT eyes (p{\textless}0.0001 for all parameters). In all groups, ICC ranged from 96.4 to 99.9% and 92.5 to 99.8%, CV ranged from 0.41 to 2.24% and 0.55 to 1.67%, and TRTV ranged from 0.61 to 2.64 μm and 0.83 to 2.22 μm for intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of GCA algorithm reproducibility in normal, OHT and glaucomatous eyes. The reproducibility of GC-IPL thickness measurements using the Cirrus HD-OCT GCA algorithm was found to be highly satisfactory. GC-IPL thickness may be a promising new OCT parameter for analysis of ganglion cell damage in glaucoma.

Ogeng’o, J, ONGETI K, Obimbo M, Olabu BO, Mwachaka P.  2014.  {FEATURES} {OF} {ATHEROSCLEROSIS} {IN} {THE} {TUNICA} {ADVENTITIA} {OF} {CORONARY} {AND} {CAROTID} {ARTERIES} {IN} {A} {BLACK} {KENYAN} {POPULATION}. Anatomical Research International. 2014, Number In press Abstract
n/a
Gilbert-Kawai, ET, Milledge JS, Grocott MPW, Martin DS.  2014.  King of the {Mountains}: {Tibetan} and {Sherpa} {Physiological} {Adaptations} for {Life} at {High} {Altitude}, nov. Physiology. 29:388–402., Number 6 AbstractWebsite

Anecdotal evidence surrounding Tibetans' and Sherpas' exceptional tolerance to hypobaric hypoxia has been recorded since the beginning of high-altitude exploration. These populations have successfully lived and reproduced at high altitude for hundreds of generations with hypoxia as a constant evolutionary pressure. Consequently, they are likely to have undergone natural selection toward a genotype (and phenotype) tending to offer beneficial adaptation to sustained hypoxia. With the advent of translational human hypoxic research, in which genotype/phenotype studies of healthy individuals at high altitude may be of benefit to hypoxemic critically ill patients in a hospital setting, high-altitude natives may provide a valuable and intriguing model. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the scientific literature encompassing Tibetan and Sherpa physiological adaptations to a high-altitude residence. The review demonstrates the extent to which evolutionary pressure has refined the physiology of this high-altitude population. Furthermore, although many physiological differences between highlanders and lowlanders have been found, it also suggests many more potential avenues of investigation.

Gilbert-Kawai, ET, Milledge JS, Grocott MPW, Martin DS.  2014.  King of the {Mountains}: {Tibetan} and {Sherpa} {Physiological} {Adaptations} for {Life} at {High} {Altitude}, nov. Physiology. 29:388–402., Number 6 AbstractWebsite

Anecdotal evidence surrounding Tibetans' and Sherpas' exceptional tolerance to hypobaric hypoxia has been recorded since the beginning of high-altitude exploration. These populations have successfully lived and reproduced at high altitude for hundreds of generations with hypoxia as a constant evolutionary pressure. Consequently, they are likely to have undergone natural selection toward a genotype (and phenotype) tending to offer beneficial adaptation to sustained hypoxia. With the advent of translational human hypoxic research, in which genotype/phenotype studies of healthy individuals at high altitude may be of benefit to hypoxemic critically ill patients in a hospital setting, high-altitude natives may provide a valuable and intriguing model. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the scientific literature encompassing Tibetan and Sherpa physiological adaptations to a high-altitude residence. The review demonstrates the extent to which evolutionary pressure has refined the physiology of this high-altitude population. Furthermore, although many physiological differences between highlanders and lowlanders have been found, it also suggests many more potential avenues of investigation.

  2014.  Hypertension, sep. AbstractWebsite

Hypertension. Hypertension affects approximately 75 million adults in the United States and is a major risk factor for stroke, myocardial infarction, vascular disease, and chronic kidney disease.

Saidi, H, ONGETI K, Mandela P, Mwachaka P, Olabu B.  2014.  Kiman's histology text and manual. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Chen, W, Abramowitz MK.  2014.  Metabolic acidosis and the progression of chronic kidney disease, apr. BMC Nephrology. 15:55., Number 1 AbstractWebsite

Metabolic acidosis is a common complication of chronic kidney disease. Accumulating evidence identifies acidosis not only as a consequence of, but as a contributor to, kidney disease progression. Several mechanistic pathways have been identified in this regard. The dietary acid load, even in the absence of overt acidosis, may have deleterious effects. Several small trials now suggest that the treatment of acidosis with oral alkali can slow the progression of kidney disease. PMID: 24708763

Mazyala, EJ, Revocatus M, Manyama M, Msuya S, Rambau P, Kimwaga E, Magelle N, Machimu Y, Joshua M, Magori CC.  2014.  Human {Bodies} {Bequest} {Program}: {A} {Wake}-{Up} {Call} to {Tanzanian} {Medical} {Schools}, nov. Advances in Anatomy. 2014:e940472. AbstractWebsite

Introduction. Studying anatomy through dissection of human cadavers requires a regular supply of human bodies. Tanzanian medical schools depend entirely on collecting unclaimed bodies in hospital mortuaries. This method is no longer reliable. This study aimed at evaluating sources and profile of cadavers in Tanzanian medical schools and addressing challenges and suggests appropriate lasting solutions. Methods. Seven spreadsheets were sent electronically to seven medical schools in Tanzania to capture data related to sources and profiles of cadavers received. Only 2 out of 7 responded timely. Results. 100&\#x25; of all cadavers in Tanzanian medical schools are unclaimed bodies of black population. Female cadavers accounted for 0&\#x2013;20&\#x25;. About 9 days elapse before embalmment of cadavers. Conclusion. It is the time to jump onto body bequest wagon.

UoN Websites Search