Bio

Curriculum Vitae

Dr Philip Mwachaka is a Lecturer at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. He is an anatomist interested in neuroscience research, currently pursuing Master of Medicine (Neurosurgery) at the University of Nairobi, Kenya. He is a holder of MSc. Human Anatomy (2014), MBChB (2010) and BSc Anatomy (2007).

Publications


Submitted

Reporter, N.  Submitted.  Kenya: {Scientists} {Bank} {On} {Abandoned} {Bodies} for {Study}. The Nation (Nairobi). AbstractWebsite
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  Submitted.  Pathophysiology of {Diabetes} {Mellitus} : {Critical} {Care} {Nursing} {Quarterly}. Abstract

As we learn more about the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus, we find that there is more yet to be learned. This may sound like a trite statement, but in reality it is true. The following article reviews the basic pathophysiology of both type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus as...

  Submitted.  Problem loading page. Abstract
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  Submitted.  Physiological control mechanisms and homeostasis {NEGATIVE} {FEEDBACK} {MECHANISMS} {Control} of body temperature. Abstract

Physiological control mechanisms and homeostasis NEGATIVE FEEDBACK MECHANISMS Control of body temperature

  Submitted.  Problem loading page. Abstract
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WHO.  Submitted.  {WHO} {\textbar} {Visual} impairment and blindness. WHO. Abstract

WHO fact sheet on blindness and visual impairment providing key facts, definitions, causes, who is at risk, global and WHO response.

for History, {C, Media} N.  Submitted.  Zotero {Quick} {Start} {Guide}. Abstract
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2015

Gakonyo, J, Butt F, Mwachaka P, Wagaiyu E.  2015.  Arterial blood supply variation in the anterior midline mandible: {Significance} to dental implantology. International Journal of Implant Dentistry. 1:1–5., Number 1 AbstractWebsite
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Mwachaka, PM, Saidi H, Odula PO, Mandela PI.  2015.  Effect of monocular deprivation on rabbit neural retinal cell densities. Journal of ophthalmic & vision research. 10:144., Number 2 AbstractWebsite
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Ogeng’o, J, Elbusaidy H, Sinkeet S, Olabu B, Mwachaka P, Martin Inyimili.  2015.  Variant origin of the superior cerebellar artery in a black {Kenyan} population. Eur. J. Anat. 19:287–290., Number 3 AbstractWebsite
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Silvestri, D, Blevins M, Afzal A, Andrews B, Derbew M, Kaur S, Mipando M, Mkony C, Mwachaka P, Ranjit N, others.  2015.  Medical and nursing students' intentions to work abroad or in rural areas: {An} eight-country cross-sectional survey in {Asia} and {Africa}. Annals of Global Health. 81:52., Number 1 AbstractWebsite
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Silvestri, D, Blevins M, Afzal A, Andrews B, Derbew M, Kaur S, Mipando M, Mkony C, Mwachaka P, Ranjit N, others.  2015.  Non-cognitive attributes predict medical and nursing students’ intentions to migrate or work rurally: {An} eight-country cross-sectional survey in {Asia} and {Africa}. Annals of Global Health. 1:63., Number 81 AbstractWebsite
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Board, MPD.  2015.  Approved {Training} {Institutions} - {Medical} {Practitioners} and {Dentists} {Board}. Abstract

Ensuring the provision of quality & ethical health care.

Silvestri, D, Blevins M, Afzal A, Andrews B, Derbew M, Kaur S, Mipando M, Mkony C, Mwachaka P, Ranjit N, others.  2015.  Medical and nursing students' intentions to work abroad or in rural areas: {An} eight-country cross-sectional survey in {Asia} and {Africa}. Annals of Global Health. 81:52., Number 1 AbstractWebsite
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Silvestri, D, Blevins M, Afzal A, Andrews B, Derbew M, Kaur S, Mipando M, Mkony C, Mwachaka P, Ranjit N, others.  2015.  Non-cognitive attributes predict medical and nursing students’ intentions to migrate or work rurally: {An} eight-country cross-sectional survey in {Asia} and {Africa}. Annals of Global Health. 1:63., Number 81 AbstractWebsite
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Mwachaka, PM, Saidi H, Odula PO, Mandela PI.  2015.  Effect of monocular deprivation on rabbit neural retinal cell densities. Journal of ophthalmic & vision research. 10:144., Number 2 AbstractWebsite
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Ogeng’o, J, Elbusaidy H, Sinkeet S, Olabu B, Mwachaka P, Martin Inyimili.  2015.  Variant origin of the superior cerebellar artery in a black {Kenyan} population. Eur. J. Anat. 19:287–290., Number 3 AbstractWebsite
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Gakonyo, J, Butt F, Mwachaka P, Wagaiyu E.  2015.  Arterial blood supply variation in the anterior midline mandible: {Significance} to dental implantology. International Journal of Implant Dentistry. 1:1–5., Number 1 AbstractWebsite
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  2015.  Gastric {Outlet} {Obstruction}, jan. AbstractWebsite

Gastric Outlet Obstruction. Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO, also known as pyloric obstruction) is not a single entity; it is the clinical and pathophysiological consequence of any disease process that produces a mechanical impediment to gastric emptying.

2014

Mwachaka, P, Kigera JWM.  2014.  Clinical trials in {Surgery}. Annals of African Surgery. 11, Number 2 AbstractWebsite
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Mwachaka, P, El-busaidy H, Sinkeet S, Ogeng&\#x2019, O J.  2014.  Variations in the {Position} and {Length} of the {Vermiform} {Appendix} in a {Black} {Kenyan} {Population}, apr. ISRN Anatomy. 2014:e871048. AbstractWebsite

Background. Topography of the appendix influences its mobility, degree of mobilization of the cecum, and need for additional muscle splitting during appendectomy. Although appendectomy is a common surgical procedure, there is a paucity of data on its topography in black Africans. Methods. The position and length of the appendix and relation of the appendicular base with spinoumbilical line were determined in 48 cadavers obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Results. The commonest appendicular types in males were retrocecal 10 (27&\#x25;) while in females was subileal 4 (36.4&\#x25;). The average length of the appendix was 76.5 &\#xb1; 23.6&\#x2009;mm. The base of the appendix was located along, below, and above the spinoumbilical line in 25 (52.1&\#x25;), 9 (18.8&\#x25;), and 14 (29.2&\#x25;) cases, respectively. Conclusion. The topography of appendix in Kenyans shows variations from other populations. Knowledge of these variations is important during appendicectomy.

Mwachaka, P, Saidi H, Odula P, Mandela P, Mwachaka P, Saidi H, Odula P, Mandela P.  2014.  Effects of {Monocular} {Deprivation} on the {Dendritic} {Features} of {Retinal} {Ganglion} {Cells}. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MORPHOLOGY. 32:1144–1151., Number 4 AbstractWebsite
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Ogeng'o, JA, Mwachaka P, Ongeti KW.  2014.  Non muscle cells in the tunica media of the aorta. AbstractWebsite
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Ogeng'o, JA, Ongeti K, Obimbo M, Olabu B, Mwachaka P.  2014.  Features of {Atherosclerosis} in the {Tunica} {Adventitia} of {Coronary} and {Carotid} {Arteries} in a {Black} {Kenyan} {Population}. Anatomy Research International. 2014:e456741. AbstractWebsite

Introduction. Histologic changes which occur in the tunica adventitia during initiation, progression, and complications of atherosclerosis are seldom reported. This study aimed at describing the features of atherosclerosis in the tunica adventitia of two of the commonly afflicted arteries, namely, left anterior descending coronary and common carotid in black Kenyans. Materials and Methods. Specimens from 108 individuals [76 males and 32 females, mean age 34.6] were processed for paraffin embedding. Seven micron thick sections were stained with Mason&\#x2019;s trichrome and Haematoxylin/Eosin and examined with a light microscope. Results. Features of atherosclerosis were present in the tunica adventitia of 14.8&\#x25; of left anterior descending arteries and 11.1&\#x25; of common carotid arteries. Increase in adventitial thickness was associated with increased density of vasa vasora in 8.3&\#x25; of both arteries. In the left anterior descending and common carotid arteries, 6.5&\#x25; and 3.7&\#x25; of cases, respectively, the tunica adventitia thickened without intimal hyperplasia. Conclusion. Features of atherosclerosis occur in the tunica adventitia of coronary and carotid arteries in over 10&\#x25; of the black Kenyans studied. These features often precede the intimo medial changes. Tunica adventitia should therefore be prioritized in evaluation for atherosclerosis, in individuals at risk. This may enhance early detection and intervention.

Saidi, H, ONGETI K, Mandela P, Mwachaka P, Olabu B.  2014.  Kiman's histology text and manual. AbstractWebsite
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Silvestri, DM, Blevins M, Afzal AR, Andrews B, Derbew M, Kaur S, Mipando M, Mkony CA, Mwachaka PM, Ranjit N, others.  2014.  Medical and nursing students' intentions to work abroad or in rural areas: a cross-sectional survey in {Asia} and {Africa}. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 92:750–759., Number 10 AbstractWebsite
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Padmavathi, G.  2014.  Study of the variations of superior cerebellar artery in human cadavers. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 2:699–703., Number 2 AbstractWebsite
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Hussein, IH, Hankin M, Dany M, Wasserman J, Jurjus A.  2014.  Perception and emotional impact of dissection on medical students ({LB}13), jan. The FASEB Journal. 28:LB13., Number 1 Supplement AbstractWebsite

Dissection contributes significantly to anatomical knowledge and the development of professionalism for medical students. This study assessed student emotional stress and coping in the anatomy lab and the perception of dissection on learning. A survey of Medicine I students (n=100) assessed: demographics, emotions and stress of the first dissection, anxiety, coping, and learning. With a response rate of 40%, our findings include: positive attitude towards the first dissection (n=33) although some students still found it stressful (n=17); cultural views impacted the lab experience (n=24); some used spirituality (n=10) or humor (n=6) to cope; most agreed that dissection enhanced understanding of anatomy (n=31) and the connection of between theoretical and applied knowledge (n=37); promoted teamwork (n=35); and highlighted respect for the human body (n=31) and the spirit of organ donation (n=28). While some have assumed that students have a negative attitude towards human dissection, our study showed that the majority of students reported a positive impact on various aspects of professionalism and humanism. We conclude that dissection is useful for students to establish not only technical skills and knowledge of the body, but also qualities associated with inter-professional teamwork and a humanistic attitude, without posing significant emotional stress.

Mwachaka, P, El-busaidy H, Sinkeet S, Ogeng&\#x2019, O J.  2014.  Variations in the {Position} and {Length} of the {Vermiform} {Appendix} in a {Black} {Kenyan} {Population}, apr. ISRN Anatomy. 2014:e871048. AbstractWebsite

Background. Topography of the appendix influences its mobility, degree of mobilization of the cecum, and need for additional muscle splitting during appendectomy. Although appendectomy is a common surgical procedure, there is a paucity of data on its topography in black Africans. Methods. The position and length of the appendix and relation of the appendicular base with spinoumbilical line were determined in 48 cadavers obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Results. The commonest appendicular types in males were retrocecal 10 (27&\#x25;) while in females was subileal 4 (36.4&\#x25;). The average length of the appendix was 76.5 &\#xb1; 23.6&\#x2009;mm. The base of the appendix was located along, below, and above the spinoumbilical line in 25 (52.1&\#x25;), 9 (18.8&\#x25;), and 14 (29.2&\#x25;) cases, respectively. Conclusion. The topography of appendix in Kenyans shows variations from other populations. Knowledge of these variations is important during appendicectomy.

Qin, W, Xuan Y, Liu Y, Jiang T, Yu C.  2014.  Functional {Connectivity} {Density} in {Congenitally} and {Late} {Blind} {Subjects}, mar. Cerebral Cortex. :bhu051. AbstractWebsite

Visual deprivation during different developmental periods leads to different structural and functional alterations in the brain; however, the effects of visual deprivation on the spontaneous functional organization of the brain remain largely unknown. In this study, we used voxel-based functional connectivity density (FCD) analyses to investigate the effects of visual deprivation during different developmental periods on the spontaneous functional organization of the brain. Compared with the sighted controls (SC), both the congenitally blind (CB) and the late blind (LB) exhibited decreased short- and long-range FCDs in the primary visual cortex (V1) and decreased long-range FCDs in the primary somatosensory and auditory cortices. Although both the CB and LB exhibited increased short-range FCD in the dorsal visual stream, the CB exhibited greater increases in the short- and long-range FCDs in the ventral visual stream and hippocampal complex compared with the LB. Moreover, the short-range FCD of the left V1 exhibited a significant positive correlation with the duration of blindness in the LB. Our findings suggest that visual deprivation before the developmental sensitive period can induce more extensive brain functional reorganization than does visual deprivation after the sensitive period, which may underlie an enhanced capacity for processing nonvisual information in the CB.

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