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2015
Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mbithi PMF, Mbuthia P.G. Claw disorders in dairy cows under smallholder zero-grazing units. Saarbrucken: Scholar's Press; 2015.
2013
Nguhiu-Mwangi DJ, Aleri DJW, Mogoa DEGM, Mbithi PPMF. "Indicators of Poor Welfare in Dairy Cows Within Smallholder Zero-Grazing Units in the Peri-Urban Areas of Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Insights from Veterinary Medicine. InTech; 2013. Abstract

Animal welfare lacks a good universal definition and a satisfactory distinction from the term “well being”. However, a consensual definition is essential for practical, legislative and scientific purposes. Without a clear definition, animal welfare cannot be effectively studied or conclusively assessed to provide remedial measures to its violation [1-3]. Animal welfare is therefore defined as the ability of an animal to interact or cope comfortably with its environment, resulting in satisfaction of both its physical and mental state [4-6]. This satisfaction enhances expression of normal behavioural patterns by the animal [7,8].

In the context of welfare, “environment” refers to internal factors (within the animal) and external factors (in the animal’s physical environment) to which the animal responds with its physiological and psychological systems [6,9]. In contrast, animal “well being” is defined as the animal’s perception of its state in trying to cope with its environment [1,5]. Concisely, animal “well-being” refers to the current state of the animal, but animal welfare is a more general term referring to past, present and future implications of the animal’s state [10].

The assessment of animal welfare is base on the provisions of five freedoms, which include:

Freedom from hunger and thirst, availed through provision of ready access to water and a diet to maintain health and vigour,

Freedom from pain, injury and disease, availed through disease prevention and treatment,

Freedom from fear and distress, availed through avoidance of conditions that cause mental suffering,

Freedom to have normal behaviour patterns, availed through provision of sufficient space and appropriate physical structures,

Freedom from thermal or physical discomfort, availed through provision of a comfortable environment.

Knowledge of animal physiology, animal behavior and animal needs based on the five freedoms is paramount in assessing as well as enforcing animal welfare. Animals need to be provided with amble comfort related to these five freedoms. They should be kept in housing or environments that will minimize adverse climatic variations or exposures to extremes of cold or heat, rain, strong continuous winds and direct solar exposures. Appropriate conditions minimizing trauma, development of lesions and disease outbreaks are essential. Continuous availability of water and provision of adequate wholesome feeds, which consist of balanced constituent rations supplying specific nutritional needs to the body, is required. Animals should be provided with housing conditions and environments that allow them to display natural behavior such as unhindered movement, free expression of oestrus or heat symptoms necessary for mating or insemination in order to have continued sustainable reproduction, social relationships that include animal-to-animal and animal-to-human cordial interactions; and finally minimizing or preventing any causes of suffering as much as possible [11].

Smallholder dairy farming occupies a vast proportion of agricultural production and the main livelihood of the people in most developing (third world) countries particularly in Africa, Asia and South America. In Kenya, smallholder zero-grazing dairy units contribute about 80% of the national commercial dairy herd [12] and over 70% of all the marketed milk [13-16]. Each of the Kenyan smallholder zero-grazing dairy units has 2 to 10 milking cows most of which are exotic breeds (Friesian, Ayrshire, Guernsey, Jersey or crosses of these exotic breeds). Some smallholder farmers, who have better financial resources, manage to have up to 20 or more cows. The cows are raised on small plots of land measuring between 0.25 to 2 acres. Only few smallholder farmers would have land measuring a maximum of 5 acres. The Kenyan smallholder zero-grazing dairy units are unique because they have varied designs and management practices. They vary in housing designs, nutritional and management protocol from unit to unit to the extent that they can correctly be referred to as zero-grazing “subunits” that are devoid of a consistent production system. The nutritional regimes and management practices not only vary from unit to unit, but also within the same unit from time to time [17]. The cows in these units are invariably zero-grazed [13,18] and have sub-optimal production [14,18,19], which is attributed to a number of constraints such as inadequate feeding, poor nutrition, substandard animal husbandry, lack of proper dairy farming facilities that include inadequate space to move and interact freely. All these factors predispose the cows to diseases and other stressful conditions [14,20,21].

A high number of smallholder zero-grazing dairy units are concentrated in the peri-urban areas owing to availability of ready market for milk and milk products among city and town residents [13,18]. The high and rapid population growth in developing countries has led to a reduction of agricultural lands that support the livelihood of the people. This has triggered a shift from fewer large-scale farms to numerous intensified smallholder production units in an endeavor to maximize economic profits [22]. The resulting low income following land subdivision to smallholder enterprises, affects the livelihood of majority of the citizens in the involved countries [16,21]. The low income poses financial challenges that make it difficult to afford adequate dairy farming facilities, hence the progressively deteriorating husbandry standards that precipitate stressful conditions, which further exacerbate poor welfare of the dairy cattle in these smallholder units. These interacting multiple factors, cause a vicious circle of events that eventually have negative effects on physiology, behavior, disease susceptibility and productivity of the dairy cows [23,24]. The welfare of food animals has become a major concern to consumers of animal products in many parts of the world. Consumers of products such as meat and meat products, milk and eggs are demanding to know how the animals from which these products have been obtained are handled with respect to animal welfare ethics [25,26].

Dairy cattle housing should provide the animal with protection from harsh environmental extremes [27]. Good housing systems are those that are well designed for ease of management and maintenance at all times [27-29]. It is proposed that all confinement for animals should be constructed and operated to meet the legal requirements for protection of the animal as well as maintain high quality animal products [30]. Good animal housing systems are those that enhance provision of all the five freedoms that an animal should have to satisfy its welfare [28,31]. If these basic needs cannot be met in the animal house, then health, welfare and production of the animal will be compromised. These concerns are particularly critical in the smallholder zero-grazing systems, in which dairy cows are confined throughout their growth and production life. Naturally, cattle are grazing animals and therefore pasture-grazing is a more welfare-friendly system because it allows free expression of normal animal behavior compared to the restricted indoor zero-grazing systems. Conversely, high yielding dairy cows may not get all their nutritional demands from grazing only, and this may compromise their welfare with regard to nutrition. This means that both zero-grazing and pasture-grazing systems have positive and negative effects on the welfare of dairy cattle [32]. However, zero-grazing systems demand more articulate precision in design, construction and management because they have a higher inclination to compromising welfare of the housed dairy cattle. Although pasture-grazing allows free expression of normal cattle behavior and provides sufficient comfortable lying space, the pasture forage has lower nutritional value than the high plane feeding of the zero-grazing units and therefore cattle in pastures may spent long hours grazing depending on the quality and amount of forage in the pasture, hence less time resting, which influences the resting aspect of welfare negatively [33]. In comparison, indoor housing systems provide high level feeding and increase intake rates, thus fulfilling nutritional requirements faster, reducing eating times, leaving more time for cattle to rest and ruminate [34]. However, indoor housing systems have limited space allowance, which increases competitive aggressive behavior within the herd [35], restriction of natural foraging behavior and opportunity to feed selectively [36], negative effects on the cow comfort [33], and high incidence of diseases such as lameness and mastitis [37,38]. All these factors in the indoor housing have adverse effects on the welfare of cattle. In Kenya, the practice of zero-grazing dairy production is inevitable owing to the reduced land sizes. Hence, the importance of drawing reliable direct indicators of poor welfare existing in these zero-grazing systems in order to introduce corrective remedial measures, particularly in relation to designing of the construction of welfare-acceptable and cow-comfortable zero-grazing units no matter how simple or cheap.

Improvements of animal welfare may be achieved through (a) assessment of animal welfare, (b) identification of risk factors potentially leading to welfare problems and (c), interventions in response to the risk factors. Improvements can be enhanced by directly dealing with the risk factors of animal welfare within the farming unit. Therefore, there must be good reliable way of measuring or assessing whether or not poor animal welfare exists within the practiced farming systems. In this process the animal based parameters help us to identify the animal’s response to the system, and therefore indicating the negative impact of the potential risk factors existing within the farming system [39]. Traditionally, farm animal welfare assessment has focused on the measurement of resources provided to the animal such as housing-and-housing design criteria [40,41]. Although such indirect resource-based welfare assessment criteria are quick, easy and have some degree of reliability, basing the welfare verdict solely on their findings may not necessarily mean that the welfare of the animals is good or poor. Other husbandry aspects that affect animal welfare are management practices and the human-animal relationship, but their measurement may be more difficult. However, the provision of good management and environmental resources does not necessarily result in a high standard of animal welfare. Direct animal-level parameters such as health or behavior can be taken as indicators of the animals’ feelings and a measure of bodily state of the animal. These are more reliable because they indicate how the animal has been affected by some factors existing within the proximate environment or housing system of the animal and how it has responded to these factors. Welfare assessment should therefore be based primarily on such animal-related parameters. In practice, resource or management-based parameters should also be included in an on-farm assessment protocol when closely correlated to animal-associated measurements and because they can form the basis for the identification of causes of welfare problems [39]. It is however challenging to select and develop reliable and at the same time feasible measurements for on-farm assessment protocols. Attempts to create an operational welfare assessment protocol primarily relying on animal-related parameters have mainly been made with regard to dairy cows [42-45].

Animal-level indices for on-farm welfare assessment can be divided into ethological or behavioural and pathological or health parameters; physiological indicators are mostly unavailable for feasibility reasons. Ethological parameters include individual animal behavior, animal-to-animal interaction, human-animal interaction, agonistic behavior and other abnormal behavior. The commonest animal health indicators of cattle welfare are lameness, external body injuries, disease incidence, body condition score and body cleanliness. The main welfare health problem in cattle is lameness, particularly caused by lesions resulting from disruptions of the horn of the claw predisposed by factors such as concrete floors, zero-grazing systems and uncomfortable stalls [45,46]. One of the main shortcomings that exacerbates welfare problems of lameness in cattle and this would even be more prevalent in zero-grazing systems in developing countries, is the lack of valid and reliable lameness diagnostic methods. There is generally lack of sensitive methods of recognizing early change in the gait of lame cattle [44,47,48]. The most reliable and sensitive way of detecting early changes in gait for diagnosis of lameness is the use of automated gait-scoring computer aided systems, which are very scarcely used all over the world [49]. Moreover, these automated facilities are expensively unaffordable to the poor smallholder farmers in developing countries such as Kenya. Claw disorders particularly those related to laminitis are highly prevalent in smallholder zero-grazing dairy units and subunits in the peri-urban areas of Nairobi, Kenya and probably in other parts of Kenya with similar production systems [50]. These have been found to be highly associated with housing and management factors within the zero-grazing units [17,50]. This high prevalence of claw lesions together with a high prevalence of injuries or signs of injuries in specific parts of the body as well as soiling and body condition scores of dairy cows in the smallholder zero-grazing units in the peri-urban areas of Nairobi, Kenya [51,52] was thought to be reliable indicators of the state of welfare of dairy cattle particularly when correlated with the prevailing zero-grazing conditions.

Parameters used to assess animal welfare should be able to inform us about the state of welfare. Three requirements are essential for parameters or indicators used to assess animal welfare. These include: “validity”, which asks the question, “what does the parameter in consideration tell us about the animal’s welfare state?”; “reliability”, which considers inter-observer reliability and asks the question, “do different observers see the same thing?” and the third requirement is “feasibility”, which considers the practical aspects of doing the recordings, asking the questions, “how easy is it to record the parameter?, how long does it take to assess the parameter?, and what equipment is needed for measuring the parameter?” [39].

There is a high likelihood among farmers with zero-grazed dairy cows to focus more on whatever it takes to cause their cows produce as much milk as possible at the expense of the health and welfare considerations of the animal. High milk yielding cows often develop a compromise of energy-balance deficits, which infringes on their welfare. As a result of energy deficit stress, these dairy cows become easily susceptible to metabolic and reproductive problems [53]. The uniqueness of the zero-grazing systems in Kenya which consists of subunits that are inconsistently varied in designs, in feeding regimes in relation to feed types, quality and quantity, as well as substandard management practices makes them a rich source of information on management of welfare of cattle. Information acquired from studies in these smallholder zero-grazing subunits will serve to demonstrate how animal-level parameters can be useful in indicating the welfare state of the dairy cattle and how these indicators are associated with the housing design, feeding and management practices in these varied and substandard zero-grazing units and generally suggest possible remedial welfare improvement measures.

The intent of this paper is to present the results from two studies carried out at different times with collection of data from some of the zero-grazing units in the same area but looking at separate objectives. These studies dealt with assessment of the state of welfare of dairy cattle in those units and the prevalent risk factors for poor welfare. In particular, it was planned 1) to determine the role of claw lesions in predicting the welfare of zero-grazed dairy cows with respect to housing designs, floor type, feeding and management practices in the peri-urban areas of Nairobi Kenya; 2) and to determine the role of body injuries, body soiling and body condition scores in predicting the welfare of zero-grazed dairy cows with respect to housing designs, floor type, feeding and management practices in the peri-urban areas of Nairobi Kenya.

2012
Nkando I, Ndinda J, Kuria J, Naessens J, Mbithi F, Schnier C, Gicheru M, McKeever D, Wesonga H. "Efficacy of two vaccine formulations against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in Kenyan indigenous cattle.". 2012. Abstract

A live, attenuated vaccine is currently the only viable option to control of CBPP in Africa. It has been suggested that simple modifications to current vaccines and protocols might improve efficacy in the field. In this report we compared the current vaccine formulation with a buffered preparation that maintains Mycoplasma viability at ambient temperature for a longer time. Groups of animals were vaccinated with the two formulations and compared with non vaccinated groups. Half of the animals in each group were challenged 3 months post vaccination, the other half after 16 months. Protection levels were measured using the pathology index, calculated from post mortem scores of lesions from animals killed during the course of clinical disease. In the challenge at 3 months post vaccination, the protection levels were 52% and 77% for the modified and current vaccine preparations, respectively. At 16 months post vaccination, the protection levels were 56% and 62% for the modified and current vaccine preparations, respectively. These findings indicate that there are no differences in protection levels between the two vaccines. Because of its longer half life after reconstitution, the modified vaccine might be preferred in field situations where the reconstituted vaccine is likely not to be administered immediately.

2011
DW G, P.M.F. Mbithi, Musimba NK. "Preliminary study of three medicinal plants used as anthelmintic for livestock in Kibwezi and Tunyo divisions of Makueni and Marakwet district.". 2011:81-83. Abstract

Three preliminarv experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of three medicinal plants used as anthelmintics in humans and livestock in Kibwczi and Tunyo divisions of Mukueni and Marakwet district respectivelv. At double the dosage used traditionally. powdered Albizia anthelmintica, fresh Maerua subcodata. Powdered M. edulis, fresh M. edulis and fresh Albizia anthelmintica had a percentage faecal egg count reduction of 55..1.51.4.49.4. 16.2 and 13.5 percent respcctivelv

2009
J. Nguhiu-Mwangi, P.M.F. Mbithi, Wabacha JK, Mbuthia PG. "PREVALENCE OF LAMINITIS AND THE PATTERNS OF CLAW LESIONS IN DAIRY COWS IN NAIROBI AND THE PERI-URBAN DISTRICTS.". 2009;(57):199-208. Abstract

Prospective study was carried out to determine the characteristics of claw lesions in
dairy cattle in Nairobi and the peri-urban districts between December 2005 and May
2006. The gaits of 300 dairy cows in 29 zero-grazed and 3 pasture-grazed farms were evaluated and their claws examined for laminitis and other lesions. A retrospective study was also conducted on case records for dairy cattle foot lameness in the Large Animal Clinic of the University of Nairobi. Claws were also collected from abattoirs and examined for lesions. Data was analyzed with GENSTAT for Windows Discovery Edition 2. From the retrospective study, the prevalence of laminitic lesions was 0.79% while infective lesions particularly interdigital necrobacillosis and sole abscesses had prevalence of 35.7% and 11.1% respectively. In the prospective study, the prevalence of laminitis was 70.3%, sole bruising 45%, heel erosion 27.3%, white line separation 18% and double soles 17%. However, the total prevalence of infective claw lesions was 4.7%. Abattoir claws had lesions with similar trends as prospective survey. Current nutrition, housing and management practices that are adopted for increasing productivity and improving hygiene, may account for changes seen in claw lesion patterns of increased laminitis and decreased infective lesions in dairy cattle.

2008
Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mbithi PMF, Wabacha JK, Mbuthia PG. "Factors associated with the occurrence of claw disorders in dairy cows under smallholder production systems in urban and peri-urban areas of Nairobi, Kenya." Veterinarski Arhiv. 2008;78(4):343-355. Abstract2008-_factors_associated_with_claw_disorders.pdf

A cross-sectional study was carried out between December 2005 and June 2006 in smallholder dairy farms
within and around Nairobi, Kenya to determine risk factors associated with the occurrence of claw disorders in
dairy cows. Farm-and cow-level factors were evaluated in 32 farms and 300 cows respectively. The occurrence
of claw disorders was determined. Chronic laminitis was significantly (P<0.05) associated with three or higher
parities (χ2 = 11.57, P = 0.009), lactation period between 90 to 180 days (χ2 = 9.75, P = 0.021), overstocking
(O.R. = 1.7, χ2 = 24.29, P = 0.0002), absence of cubicle bedding (O.R. = 1.6, χ2 = 29.13, P = 0.003), earthen
floor (O.R. = 1.5, χ2 = 8.98, P = 0.0006) and a curb dividing walk-alleys and cubicles (O.R. = 1.5, χ2 = 5.06, P
= 0.0262). Subclinical laminitis was significantly (P<0.05) associated with lactation period between 1-90 days
(χ2 = 9.06, P = 0.028), and concentrate feeding (O.R. = 2.08, χ2 = 5.5, P = 0.0212). However, lack of mineral
supplementation and leaving manure (slurry) in the walk alleys for a long time seemed to enhance laminitis.
Concentrate feeding had positive (contributor) (β-estimate = 2.187, P<0.05) association with sole bruising,
while mineral supplementation (β-estimate = -4.59, P<0.05) and earthen floor (β-estimate = -1.796, P<0.05)
had negative (protector) association. White line separation was enhanced by concentrate feeding (β-estimate =
3.69, P = 0.002), but reduced by mineral supplementation (β-estimate = -4.07, P<0.05), and frequent manure
(slurry) removal from walk-alleys (β-estimate = -3.58, P<0.05). Non-slip and non-defective concrete floors
were negatively (protectively) (β-estimate = -1.969, P<0.05) associated with heel erosion.
Key words: claw disorders, farm-level factors, dairy cows, smallholder

J N-M, P.M.F M, J.K W, P.G M. "Prognostic indicators and the importance of trimming in non-infective claw disorders in cattle.". 2008. Abstract

A cross-sectional study was conducted in 32 smallholder dairy farms in Nairobi and its environs, in which 300 cowswere examined for clawdisorders. The objectivewas to evaluate characteristics of claw disorders in dairy cows in smallholder production units in Nairobi and its environs. After a purposive selection of the farms and a systematic sampling of the cows, hind limb claws of all the 300 cows were examined for disorders. Thorough washing and trimming of the clawswere done. Claw disorders that were chronic in nature were the most destructive and incorrigible by claw trimming. Apart from chronic nature of the disorders, other prognostic indicators were the laminitic features of claw damage which mainly included invasive erosions of the horn leading to excessively thinned sole, excessively softened and crumbling horn of the sole, widespread penetrating sole haemorrhages and crookedly shaped claws.These features of chronic laminitis occurred concurrently with heel or sole erosion, white line separation, sole ulcers, horizontal hoof wall fissures and double soles. In most smallholder farms, cowswith these disorders were neglected to the extent that trimming was inadequately corrective. Regular claw examination and corrective trimming should be adopted as routine procedures in dairy cow production.

2007
J. Nguhiu-Mwangi, P.M.F. Mbithi' WMJKPG. "Prevalence Of Sole Haemorrhages And Its Correlation With Subclinical And Chronic Laminitis In Dairy Cows." Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2007;55:232-242. Abstract

Prevalence and risk factors of laminitis were determined in 300 dairy cows from 29 zero-grazed and 3 pasture-grazed dairy farms in Nairobi and the peri-urban districts.
Lameness was assessed using a universally recognized locomotion scoring system.
Claws were examined and 1-2mm thick layer of the horn of the sole was trimmed-off to further expose underlying lesions. Location of lesions on the under-side of the claws was recorded corresponding to 6 universally recognized zones. Prevalence of subclinical and chronic laminitis was 49.3% and 21 % respectively. While sole haemorrhages were recorded in 82% of the 70.3% of the cows with laminitis (both subclinical and chronic), it was nevertheless present in all the 49.3% of the cows with
subclinical phase of laminitis. Haemorrhages were categorized into 5 universally recognized scores. Haemorrhages in zone 4 of the claw under-side were frequently associated with subclinical laminitis while those in zones 2, 3 and 6 were frequently associated with chronic laminitis. Slight to moderate (score 1 and 2) haemorrhages were significantly correlated (X2 = 18.01, P< 0.0001) with subclinical laminitis. Moderate to severe (score 2 and 3) haemorrhages were significantly correlated (X2 = 33.08, p

J. Nguhiu-Mwangi, P M F. Mbithi' WMJKPG. "Radiographic features oflaminitic claws of dairy cows around Nairobi." A Journal of the Kenya Veterinary Association. 2007. Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the common radiographic features in laminitic claws
from dairy cows using abattoir samples. A total of 192 claws were collected from Wangige slaughter
slab and 126 claws from Kiserian abattoir. The claws were examined for gross lesions. Dorso-palmar/
dorso-plantar and lateral radiographic exposures of each clawwere taken and evaluated for radiographic
changes. Subclinical and chronic laminitis was respectively present in 35% and 21% of the claws
examined and 44% of the claws showed extreme deformities. Concurrent appearance oflesions was in
2~Al ofthe claws.Radiographic changes were observed in the pedal bones but not in the adjacent joints.
Dilated vascular channels (61%) and prominently visible non-dilated vascular channels (24%) in the
pedal bones were observed in subclinical and chronic laminitis. The most frequently observed radiographic
changes in pedal bones were: irregular (serrated) margins (14%), exostoses (8%), and narrowing (6%),
complete absence (3%) or partial absence (1%) of its apex.Other changes on the pedal bones were: rotation
(4%), "dropping (sinking)" (3%), fissure fractures (2%), periostitis (1%) and osteolysis (1%). Most of
these radiographic changes were seen in claws that had chronic laminitis with extreme deformities. It
is concluded that radiographic changes in laminitis occur during the chronic phase and are most severe
when concurrent extreme deformities of the claws are present.

2006
Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mbithi PMF, Wabacha JK, Mbuthia PG. J. Nguhiu-Mwangi; P.M.F. Mbithi; J.K. Wabacha; and P.G. Mbuthia. Sole haemorrhage is the most diagnostic sign of subclinical and chronic laminitis in cattle.Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2006 special.; 2006. Abstract

The insidious nature of laminitis makes it difficult to diagnose early enough. In most cases diagnosis is made after the condition has devastated the claw irreversibly with inevitable consequences of culling the animal. A study to determine prevalence and risk factors of laminitis was conducted on 300 dairy cows in 29 zero-grazed and 3 pasture-grazed farms within Nairobi and the peri-urban districts between December 2005 and May 2006. Locomotion score was made by walking the cows on unyielding surface to evaluate gait and straightness of the back. After washing the hind claws of each cow, they were grossly examined for any sign of claw lesions. A 1-2mm layer of horn was trimmed-off from the soles of these claws and the soles scrutinized for underlying signs of laminitis. Each weight-bearing surface of the claw was divided into 6 universally recognized zones. The prevalence of subclinical and chronic laminitis was 49.3% and 21% respectively. Claw deformities were observed in 47% of the cows but may all not have been associated with laminitis. Signs and lesions on the claws suggesting presence of laminitis but could also occur independent of laminitis were: horizontal ridges of the claw wall, sole and heel erosions, double soles and white line separation. It was observed that 82% of the cows with subclinical and chronic laminitis had sole horn haemorrhages. However, all the cows with sole haemorrhages had either subclinical or chronic laminitis. But all the cows with subclinical laminitis had haemorrhages. This implies that sole haemorrhage is mainly a good sign of subclinical laminitis. The number of zones involved determined severity of the haemorrhages. There was significant association at 95% CI between sole haemorrhage-score and number of haemorrhagic zones in which subclinical laminitis was associated with slight to moderate haemorrhages (score 1 and 2

2005
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "The ability of Phenylbutazone and dexamethazone to modulate postoperative phenomena in cattle. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 28 pp. 29-32.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract

The ability of Phenylbutazone and Dexamethazone to modulate post operative tempetature, limping, joint pain and joint mobility after joint surgery in calves was assessed. Intramuscular injections of 4.4mg/kg Phenylbutazone or 0.2 mg/kg Dexamethazone were given to two groups of calves. Both Dexamethazone and Phenybutazone were effective in reducing pain, limping and fever with a tendency fo Dexamethazone to be more potent than Phenylbutazone. However there was no significant difference between the ability of Dexamethazone and Phenylbitazone to module these controlled use of the anti-inflammatory drugs in the immediate post-operative period in cattle in beneficial.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "Ernest Njoroge, Peter Mbithi, Timothy Wachira, Joseph Gathuma, Peter Gathura, T E Maitho, Japhet Magambo, Eberhard Zeyhle (2005) Comparative Study of Albendazole and Oxfendazole in the Treatment of Cystic Echinococcosis in Sheep and Goats. International J.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract

The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of teo drugs, albendazole and oxfendazole in treatment of cystic echinococcosis using naturally infected sheep and goats. Fifteen (15) animals were randomly selected into 3 groups of 5 animals each, with each group having 2 sheep and 3 goats respectively. Two groups were treated orally with either albendazole of oxfendaole at 30 mg/kg body weight twice a week for 4 weeks while the third group served as controls. Ultrasound and post mortem examination of the animals , and microscopic examination of protoscolices for eosin dye exclusion and flame cell motility were used to determine the efficacy of the two drugs. Ultrasound examination revealed that 4 animals in the albendazole group and 3 in oxfendazole group had decreased cyst viability (p<0.05). There were no changes in idendifiable cysts of control animals. Microscopic ecaminaiton showed that 60.9% (14/23) of the cysts from albendazole group had dead protoscolices compared to 93.3% (14/15) and 27.3% (3/11) for oxfendazole and control groups respectively. There were no significant differences between the effect of either albendazole or oxfendazole between sheep and goats. In the present study , oxfendazole has a higher efficacy (93.3%) than albendazole (60.7%) when administered at the same dosage rate (30mg/kg-body weight) and for the same period 9twice weekly for 4 weeks). Based on the findings in this study, exfendazole seems promising as an alternative drug for treatment of cystic echinococcosis.

Gakuya DW, Mbithi PMF, Mugambi JM, Maitho TE, Musimba NKR. "Evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extracts of albizia anthelmintica and maerua edulis against the nematode heligmosomoides polygyrus infections in mice. Kenya Veterinaria.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract

Anthelmintic activity of the water extracts of Albizia anthemintica bark and Maerua_edulis root was evaluated in mice that had been experimentally infected with the instestinal nematode heligmosmoides polygyrus. The mice were randomly allocated into six treatment grops and once control group. Groups 1,2 and 3 were given and one dose of water extratss of a. anthelmintica at 5gm/kg, 10gm/kg and 20 gm/kg bodyweight respectively in a divided dose on day 17 post-infection. Groups 4, 5 and 6 were given water extracts of M. edulis at a dosage of 5 gm/kg, 10gm aand 20 gm bodyweight respectively in a divided dose. Group 7 was the control and was concurrently gien a double oral dose of 0.2ml pf physiological saline each. Mortality of some mice was observed in four groups after treatment. Five days after treatment, faecal worm egg count reduction was determined. The results showed a percentage faecal H. polygyrus egg count reduction of 72%, 69%, 50%, 42% in groups 2,6,3 and I respectively. Seven days after treatment there was a reduction I worm counts at postmortem of 68%, 36%, 20%, 19%, 16% and 14% in groups 1,5,2,3, 6 and 4 respectively compared to untreated controls. These results indicate that the plant extracts had anthelmintic activity and support the use f these plants as anthelmintics.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.D. Mande, P.M.F. Mbithi, et al (2005). Some clinical features of osteoarthritis in the hip joints of adult dogs in Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 28 pp.20-22.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of 95% ethyl alcohol in PAIR technique. Animals naturally infected with Echinococcus were randomly divided into two groups. In the test group, cysts (n=7) were punctured, drained and injected with 95% ethyl alcohol, while in the control group, cysts (n=9) were only punctured and drained. The procedure was done under ultrasound guidance. Ultrasound showed collapsed endocysts after cyst puncture in both groups. One month later, there was decrease in cyst size, increased echogenicity and complete or partial detachment of the endocyst. Postmortem examination of the cysts in test group showed gross degeneration with marked fibrosis of the surrounding liver tissue. Incision of the cysts revealed turbid yellow cystic contents and degenerated endocysts. Microscopically, only debris and dead protoscoleces with detached hooks were seen. In the control group, the cysts appeared grossly intact but flaccid. Incision of the cysts showed clear fluid with intact endocysts. However, microscopic examination of the cyst fluid showed that the protoscoleces were dead with detached hooks. In the test group, histopathology showed host cell reaction consist of infiltrated, adventitial layer with neutrophils, eosinophils and plasma cells. In addition, the liver tissue was destroyed and replaced with young fibroblasts and mesenchymal cells. In the control group, histopathology showed detachment of the laminate layer of the cyst from the adventitia, and inflammatory cells in both the adventitia and the liver tissues. However, the degree of inflammation was markedly less in the control than in the test group. The findings suggest that puncture alone may be sufficient to kill the protoscoleces, possibly due to the detachment of the endocyst from the host wall.

FELIX PROFMBITHIPETERMULWA. "P.M.F Mbithi, E.M. Njoroge, J.M.Gathuma, T.M. Wachira, J.K. Magambo, S. Njiru and E. Zeyhle (2005). Evaluation of Ethyl Alcohol in Treatment of Cystic Echinococcosis using Puncture Aspiration Introduction Reaspiration (PAIR) Technique. Journal of Animal a.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of 95% ethyl alcohol in PAIR technique. Animals naturally infected with Echinococcus were randomly divided into two groups. In the test group, cysts (n=7) were punctured, drained and injected with 95% ethyl alcohol, while in the control group, cysts (n=9) were only punctured and drained. The procedure was done under ultrasound guidance. Ultrasound showed collapsed endocysts after cyst puncture in both groups. One month later, there was decrease in cyst size, increased echogenicity and complete or partial detachment of the endocyst. Postmortem examination of the cysts in test group showed gross degeneration with marked fibrosis of the surrounding liver tissue. Incision of the cysts revealed turbid yellow cystic contents and degenerated endocysts. Microscopically, only debris and dead protoscoleces with detached hooks were seen. In the control group, the cysts appeared grossly intact but flaccid. Incision of the cysts showed clear fluid with intact endocysts. However, microscopic examination of the cyst fluid showed that the protoscoleces were dead with detached hooks. In the test group, histopathology showed host cell reaction consist of infiltrated, adventitial layer with neutrophils, eosinophils and plasma cells. In addition, the liver tissue was destroyed and replaced with young fibroblasts and mesenchymal cells. In the control group, histopathology showed detachment of the laminate layer of the cyst from the adventitia, and inflammatory cells in both the adventitia and the liver tissues. However, the degree of inflammation was markedly less in the control than in the test group. The findings suggest that puncture alone may be sufficient to kill the protoscoleces, possibly due to the detachment of the endocyst from the host wall.

Mande M; M; IBJBAJD; PM. "Pathophysiology and Clinical Management of Degenerative Joint Disease." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2005;28:33-36. Abstract

Degenerative joint disease is a common and important disease that affects humans as well as domestic animals especially dogs and horses. The etiological factors for the disease in humans and animals are similar. The disease is characterized by progressive deterioration of the joint, thinning ofhyaline cartilage,joint effusion
and periarticular osteophyte formation. Trauma, sepsis, prolonged immobilization, immune-mediated disease, congenital malarticulation (e.g. hip dysplasia) or developmental diseases (eg. osteochondrosis), may incite the development of degenerative joint disease. The insults stimulate the release of degenerative enzymes from chondrocytes and these destroy the articular cartilage matrix. Two distinct functional process in injured chondrocytes are responsible for the positive
feed-back cascade that ultimately results in joint destruction. The catabolic process is induced by proinflammatory stimuli and causes secretion of proteases, suppression ofmatrix synthesis and inhibition
of chondrocyte proliferation. The anabolic program causes the increased production of extracellular matrix, protease inhibitors and cell replication. In the recent past a lot ofbasic and clinical research on degenerative joint disease has been conducted. Deeper understanding ofthe pathophysiology has resulted in the development of new treatment modalities for the disease. Practicing clinicians need to keep abreast with new knowledge and biomedical technology in order to
manage their patients in the best way possible. This paper collates the current knowledge ofthe pathophysiology and clinical management of degenerative joint disease with special reference to the canine species

2004
Mbithi PMF;, Mwangi JAN. Principles of Veterinary Surgery  .; 2004.Website
Linda GM;, Ogara W;, Maingi N;, Mbithi PMF. "Capture and sampling of Thompson’s Gazelles for gastrointestinal parasites in Marula ranch in Kenya."; 2004. Abstract

Thompson’s gazelles are an important part of wildlife in Kenya and their meat is utilised for human consumption. Gastrointestinal (GIT) parasites however, may be a limiting factor to their management and utilisation. A survey of the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites in Thompson’s gazelles was conducted on a game ranch in October 2003. 31 male and female gazelles were captured using net screens. Fecal samples were collected directly from their rectum. Nematode EPG, presence of fluke eggs, cestode eggs and coccidial oocyts were determined on each sample using a modified McMaster technique. All the 31 captured gazelles were shedding strongyle-type nematode eggs and coccidial oocyts. Trichuris eggs were found in only 1 out of 3 fecal samples from the young males and in none of the samples from 6 young females and 22 adult gazelles. Fluke and cestode eggs were not found in any of the samples. Fecal cultures revealed predominance of Haemonchus, Gazellostrongylus and Trichostronglus in fecal samples from the captured gazelles.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "D.W Gakuya, P.M.F. Mbithi, T.E Maitho and N.K.R. Musimba (2004). Potential use of plant antihelmintics for the control of livestock helminthoses in Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 26 pp. 14-26.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2004. Abstract

Anthelmintic activity of the water extracts of Albizia anthemintica bark and Maerua_edulis root was evaluated in mice that had been experimentally infected with the instestinal nematode heligmosmoides polygyrus. The mice were randomly allocated into six treatment grops and once control group. Groups 1,2 and 3 were given and one dose of water extratss of a. anthelmintica at 5gm/kg, 10gm/kg and 20 gm/kg bodyweight respectively in a divided dose on day 17 post-infection. Groups 4, 5 and 6 were given water extracts of M. edulis at a dosage of 5 gm/kg, 10gm aand 20 gm bodyweight respectively in a divided dose. Group 7 was the control and was concurrently gien a double oral dose of 0.2ml pf physiological saline each. Mortality of some mice was observed in four groups after treatment. Five days after treatment, faecal worm egg count reduction was determined. The results showed a percentage faecal H. polygyrus egg count reduction of 72%, 69%, 50%, 42% in groups 2,6,3 and I respectively. Seven days after treatment there was a reduction I worm counts at postmortem of 68%, 36%, 20%, 19%, 16% and 14% in groups 1,5,2,3, 6 and 4 respectively compared to untreated controls. These results indicate that the plant extracts had anthelmintic activity and support the use f these plants as anthelmintics.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "E.M. Njoroge, E. Zeyhle, J.K. Magambo, P.M.F. Mbithi and J.M. Gathuma. (2004). Evaluation of cost of ultrasound surveys for cystic echinococcosis in goats in a nomadic pastoral community. International Archives of the Hydatidosis Vol. 35 pp. 100-102.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2004. Abstract

A study was carried to evaluate the cots of performing ultrasound surveys I goats in a nomadic set-up. The cost of ultrasound examination was determined by calculating how much money was required to perform a scan per goat. This was based on purchase price of portable ultrasound equipment, clippers/shavers, electric cables, and electric generator. It was also based on recurrent expenditure on items that are used during ultrasound examination. A total of 472 animal were examined I ultrasound, out of which 15 were identified to have cystic echinococcosis. In 12 (80.0%) animals, the cysts were thin-walled unilocular (TCE1) while in 3 (20.0%0 animals, they appeared as thick-walled unilocular structures (TCE4). Calcification appeared as hyper echoic ring in the cyst wall in 1 (6.7%) animal. Multiple unilocular cysts (TCE3) separated by the liver parenchyma were imaged in 13 (86.7%) animals. Single miltiloculated cysts (TCE2) appeared in 1 (6.7%) animal while multiple multiloculated cysts were observed in 1 (6.7%) animal. Cost of ultrasound examination per goat was found to be US$ 0.714. The technique could determine the presence, size, nature and exact location of the Echonococcus cysts. Although the initial cost of ultrasound equipment was high, the running costs were inexpensive compared to other diagnostic tests. The cost of ultrasound examination per animal was however inversely proportional to the number of animals scanned.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "E.M. Njoroge, P.M.F. Mbithi, T.M. Wachira, J.K. Magambo and E. Zeyhle (2004). Ethyl Alcohol: Is it necessary in the P.A.I.R Technique? International Archives of the Hydatidosis Vol. 35 pp. 149-150.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2004. Abstract

The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of 95% ethyl alcohol in the pair technique using sheep and goat modes. A total of 6 animals (4 sheep and 2 goats) were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into two groups of 3 animals each (2 sheep and 1 goat). In the first group (test group), 7 cysts were punctured in vivo, cyst fluid drained and injected with 95% ethyl alcohol while the second group (controls) 9 cysts were only punctured and cysts fluid drained. The procedure was done under ultrasound guidance. The animals were then monitored for one month. Ultrasound showed that in both groups there was collapse of the endocysts after cyst puncture. One month later, the cysts showed decrease in size, increased echogenicity, and completed or partial detachment of the endcoyst. Post mortem examination showed that in 95% ethyl alcohol group (test group), the cysts were grossly degenerated with marked fibrosis of the surroundings liver tissue. Incision of the cysts revealed turbid yellow cystic fluid and degenerated endocysts. On microscopic examination of the cyst fluid, the protocols were dead, with detached hooks, in the puncture only group (control group), the cysts appeared grossly intact but flaccid. Incision of these cysts showed clear fluid with intact endcoysts. However, microscopic examination of the cyst fluid showed that the protocoleces were dead with detachments of hooks. A histopathological examination of the test group showed marked host cell reaction consisting of infiltration of the adventiatl layer with neutrophils, eosinophils, and plasma cells. In addition, the liver tissue was severely destroyed and replaced with you and disorganised fibroblasts and mesenchmal cess. In most necrotic areas, the laminate layer could not be collected together with adherent liver tissue and the adventiatil layer appeared completely degenerate and was replaced by acute inflammatory cells. In the control group, there was detachment of the laminate layer of the cyst from the adventitia. Additionally inflammatory cells were observed in the adventitia and the liver tissues. However, the degree of inflammation was markedly less than in the test group. Inflammatory cells were identified only in small parts of the liver tissues while most of the tissues were intact with hepatocytes being predominant in an organised appearance. The findings suggest that puncture alone may be sufficient to kill the protoscholeces, possibly due to detachment of the endocyst used; more studies need to be carried out to verify the necessity for using ethyl alcohol in PAIR techniques.

PROF. MBITHI PMF, M DRMUNYUASJ. "J.K. Wabacha, C.M. Mulei, M.N. Kyule, K.H. Zessin, P.M.F. Mbithi, W.K. Munyua and J.M. Maribei. (2004). Helminthosis in smallholder pig herds in Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 26 pp. 29-33.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2004. Abstract

A study was conducted in sixty-two randomly selected herds in Kikuyu division, Kiambu District in Central Kenyan Highlands to obtain prevalence, spectrum and intensity of gastrointestinal helminths in pigs kept by smallholder farmers. Faecal samples from a total of 598 pigs of various age-group categories (piglets, weaners, growers and adults) were taken during a period of a 4 months in 1999 ad examined for helminthes eggs (EPG) using modified McMaster technique. Gastrintestinal helminth eggs wewre observed in 57 (91.9%) of the herds. The Helminths observed were Strongles (35.1%). Ascarids (10%), Trichuris (4), Strongloids (3.2%) and Tapeworms (0.3%). The overall prevalence of the helminaths was 43.5%. the prevalence among the various age groups differed significantly (p<0.01) with the highest prevalence in the weaners (55.6%) and the lowest in the piglets (22.9%). The prevalence of Strongles and Strongloids differed significantly (p<0.01) among the age groups. The highest prevalence for Strongyles was in the growers (41.7%) and the lowest in the piglets (22.9%) while the highest prevalence for lowest in the adults (0.8%). The prevalence of Ascarids differed significantly (p<0.01) among the age groups with the highest prevalence in weaners (27.8%) and the lowest in the piglets (3.6%). The prevalence of Trichuris worms was significantly (p<0.5) higher in the weaners than in the piglets. The high prevalence of the Gatrointestinal helmnths observed indicates the need to control these parasites due to their detrimental effects on productivity and also due to their public health significance.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "Mogoa E.G.M. and P.M.F. Mbithi (2004). Pain and its Management in Animals. The Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 27 pp.10-14.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2004. Abstract

Pain is a perception, an unpleasant experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. It is usually caused by mechanical, chemical or thermal stimulation of specialised paid receptors (nociceptors) in tissues. In routine veterinary practice, such acute insulsts causing intense stimulation encountered include tissue trauma including surgery, burns and fractures. As veterinary practitioners, we are ethically obliged to prevent paid and suffering where possible and alleviate it, should it occur, as it contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. In order to do this, we needed to be able to assess pain in animals and manage it appropriately. Paid assessment can be made based on anthropomorphism behavioural responses of the patient and clinical signs. The behavioural and physiological responses that accompany paid such as vocalisation, withdrawal reflex guarding of the affected area and increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system are measurable. Pain control in animals can be achieved through limitation of neciceptor stimulation, interruption of peripheral transmission, inhibition of noceceptive transmission at the level of the spinal cord, modulation of brain pathways by systemic administration of analgesics or, though balanced or multimode analgesia by simultaneous use of a number of the above strategies. Although the selection and techniques of administration of individual analgesic drugs vary, local and opioid analgesics, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tranquillisers and other combination therapies when used appropriately can control paid and alleviate suffering in animals experiencing pain. This paper looks at paid and its management in animals.

2003
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "C.M. Mulei and P.M.F. Mbithi (2003). Metabolic and Nutritional Diseases of Food Animals. Published by, University of Nairobi Press.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2003. Abstract

Pain is a perception, an unpleasant experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. It is usually caused by mechanical, chemical or thermal stimulation of specialised paid receptors (nociceptors) in tissues. In routine veterinary practice, such acute insulsts causing intense stimulation encountered include tissue trauma including surgery, burns and fractures. As veterinary practitioners, we are ethically obliged to prevent paid and suffering where possible and alleviate it, should it occur, as it contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. In order to do this, we needed to be able to assess pain in animals and manage it appropriately. Paid assessment can be made based on anthropomorphism behavioural responses of the patient and clinical signs. The behavioural and physiological responses that accompany paid such as vocalisation, withdrawal reflex guarding of the affected area and increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system are measurable. Pain control in animals can be achieved through limitation of neciceptor stimulation, interruption of peripheral transmission, inhibition of noceceptive transmission at the level of the spinal cord, modulation of brain pathways by systemic administration of analgesics or, though balanced or multimode analgesia by simultaneous use of a number of the above strategies. Although the selection and techniques of administration of individual analgesic drugs vary, local and opioid analgesics, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tranquillisers and other combination therapies when used appropriately can control paid and alleviate suffering in animals experiencing pain. This paper looks at paid and its management in animals.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.D. Mande and P.M.F. Mbithi (2003). Volume of ligamentum capitis femoris in osteoarthritis of the hip joints of adult dogs. Journal of South African Veterinary Medical Association. 74 (1) 11-13.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2003. Abstract

Pain is a perception, an unpleasant experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. It is usually caused by mechanical, chemical or thermal stimulation of specialised paid receptors (nociceptors) in tissues. In routine veterinary practice, such acute insulsts causing intense stimulation encountered include tissue trauma including surgery, burns and fractures. As veterinary practitioners, we are ethically obliged to prevent paid and suffering where possible and alleviate it, should it occur, as it contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. In order to do this, we needed to be able to assess pain in animals and manage it appropriately. Paid assessment can be made based on anthropomorphism behavioural responses of the patient and clinical signs. The behavioural and physiological responses that accompany paid such as vocalisation, withdrawal reflex guarding of the affected area and increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system are measurable. Pain control in animals can be achieved through limitation of neciceptor stimulation, interruption of peripheral transmission, inhibition of noceceptive transmission at the level of the spinal cord, modulation of brain pathways by systemic administration of analgesics or, though balanced or multimode analgesia by simultaneous use of a number of the above strategies. Although the selection and techniques of administration of individual analgesic drugs vary, local and opioid analgesics, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tranquillisers and other combination therapies when used appropriately can control paid and alleviate suffering in animals experiencing pain. This paper looks at paid and its management in animals.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "Peter M.F. Mbithi, Charles M. Mulei and G.M. Magoa (2003). Restraint of Domestic, Wild and Laboratory Animals: A manual for students, practitioners and animal handlers. Published by, University of Nairobi Press.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2003. Abstract

Pain is a perception, an unpleasant experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. It is usually caused by mechanical, chemical or thermal stimulation of specialised paid receptors (nociceptors) in tissues. In routine veterinary practice, such acute insulsts causing intense stimulation encountered include tissue trauma including surgery, burns and fractures. As veterinary practitioners, we are ethically obliged to prevent paid and suffering where possible and alleviate it, should it occur, as it contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. In order to do this, we needed to be able to assess pain in animals and manage it appropriately. Paid assessment can be made based on anthropomorphism behavioural responses of the patient and clinical signs. The behavioural and physiological responses that accompany paid such as vocalisation, withdrawal reflex guarding of the affected area and increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system are measurable. Pain control in animals can be achieved through limitation of neciceptor stimulation, interruption of peripheral transmission, inhibition of noceceptive transmission at the level of the spinal cord, modulation of brain pathways by systemic administration of analgesics or, though balanced or multimode analgesia by simultaneous use of a number of the above strategies. Although the selection and techniques of administration of individual analgesic drugs vary, local and opioid analgesics, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tranquillisers and other combination therapies when used appropriately can control paid and alleviate suffering in animals experiencing pain. This paper looks at paid and its management in animals.

Mande JO, Mbugua SW, Buoro IBJ, Gathumbi PK. "Volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris in osteoarthritic hip joints of adult dogs.". 2003. Abstract

Ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs were made of 32 adult dogs under general anaesthesia. The hip joints were evaluated according to the severity of osteoarthritic changes graded as 0,1,2 or 3. The dogs were euthanased, the hip joints opened and the lignlllelltulll capitis fellloris dissected out ill toto. The volume of each ligament was determined using a water displacement technique and the mean volume compared to the four radiographic grades of osteoarthritis. There was an inverse correlation (r = -0.75) between the mean volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris and the increasing severity of osteoarthritis as assessed by radiography. The results confirmed the crucial role of radiography in the clinical evaluation of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in the adult dog. Assessment of the volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris revealed that it is an important tool for research in canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis.

2002
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "E.M. Njoroge, P.M.F. Mbithi, J.M. Gathuma, T.M. Wachira, P.B. Gachura, J.K. Magambo and E. Zeyhle (2002). A study of systic echinococcosis in slaughter animals in three selected areas of Northern Turkana. VETERINARY PARASITOLOGY. 104: 85-91.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2002. Abstract

Pain is a perception, an unpleasant experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. It is usually caused by mechanical, chemical or thermal stimulation of specialised paid receptors (nociceptors) in tissues. In routine veterinary practice, such acute insulsts causing intense stimulation encountered include tissue trauma including surgery, burns and fractures. As veterinary practitioners, we are ethically obliged to prevent paid and suffering where possible and alleviate it, should it occur, as it contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. In order to do this, we needed to be able to assess pain in animals and manage it appropriately. Paid assessment can be made based on anthropomorphism behavioural responses of the patient and clinical signs. The behavioural and physiological responses that accompany paid such as vocalisation, withdrawal reflex guarding of the affected area and increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system are measurable. Pain control in animals can be achieved through limitation of neciceptor stimulation, interruption of peripheral transmission, inhibition of noceceptive transmission at the level of the spinal cord, modulation of brain pathways by systemic administration of analgesics or, though balanced or multimode analgesia by simultaneous use of a number of the above strategies. Although the selection and techniques of administration of individual analgesic drugs vary, local and opioid analgesics, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tranquillisers and other combination therapies when used appropriately can control paid and alleviate suffering in animals experiencing pain. This paper looks at paid and its management in animals.

2001
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "D.R. Ndeereh, P.M.F. Mbithi and D.O. Kihurani (2001). The reversal of xylazine hydrochloride by yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine in goats. Tydskr.S.Afr.vet.Ver. (2001) 72(2): 64-67.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2001. Abstract

Yohimbine, 4-aminopyridine, and a combination of the 2 drugs were studied to assess their potential as antagonists to xylazine in goats. Twenty-four small East African goats were divided randomly into 4 groups of 6 goats each in a placebo-controlled study. They were all treated with intramuscular xylazine at 0.44 mg/kg. At the time of maximum sedation, sterile water was administered intravenously to the control group, 0.15% 4-aminopyridine at 0.4mg/kg to Group 2, 0.1% yohimbine at 0.25 mg/kg to Group 3, and the combination of the 2 drugs at the same dose rates to Group 4. The yohimbine/4-aminopyridine combination was also used to antagonise xylazine at 0.88mg/kg in 6 goats. The heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements, the pedal and palpebral reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimuli, the standing time and the total recovery time were established and evaluated to assess the effects of the treatments. The drugs reversed the xylazine-induced decrease in the heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements, and also rapidly restored the reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimulation. In addition, they significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the mean standing time. The mean total recovery time was decreased significantly (P < 0.05) by 4-aminopyridine and the yohimbine/4-aminopyridine combination, but non-significantly (P > 0.05) by yohimbine. No relapse in sedation occurred. Overall, the combination of yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine produced better responses than the individual drugs, and may therefore be used for rapid reversal of xylazine-induced sedation in goats. Yohimbine or 4-aminopyridine may also be useful for this purpose but recovery may be prolonged.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "Mogoa E.G.M., Mbithi, P.M.F., Nguhiu, J.M. and Kihurani D. (2001). Alpha-2-adrenoceptor agonists in veterinary practice. The Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 22 pp. 82-90.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2001. Abstract

Yohimbine, 4-aminopyridine, and a combination of the 2 drugs were studied to assess their potential as antagonists to xylazine in goats. Twenty-four small East African goats were divided randomly into 4 groups of 6 goats each in a placebo-controlled study. They were all treated with intramuscular xylazine at 0.44 mg/kg. At the time of maximum sedation, sterile water was administered intravenously to the control group, 0.15% 4-aminopyridine at 0.4mg/kg to Group 2, 0.1% yohimbine at 0.25 mg/kg to Group 3, and the combination of the 2 drugs at the same dose rates to Group 4. The yohimbine/4-aminopyridine combination was also used to antagonise xylazine at 0.88mg/kg in 6 goats. The heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements, the pedal and palpebral reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimuli, the standing time and the total recovery time were established and evaluated to assess the effects of the treatments. The drugs reversed the xylazine-induced decrease in the heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements, and also rapidly restored the reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimulation. In addition, they significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the mean standing time. The mean total recovery time was decreased significantly (P < 0.05) by 4-aminopyridine and the yohimbine/4-aminopyridine combination, but non-significantly (P > 0.05) by yohimbine. No relapse in sedation occurred. Overall, the combination of yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine produced better responses than the individual drugs, and may therefore be used for rapid reversal of xylazine-induced sedation in goats. Yohimbine or 4-aminopyridine may also be useful for this purpose but recovery may be prolonged.

Njoroge EM;, Mbithi PMF;, Gathuma JM;, Wachira TM;, Magambo, J.K.; Zeyhle E. "Use of ultrasound in diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in domestic intermediate hosts in Kenya."; 2001.
2000
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "D.R. Ndeereh, P.M.F. Mbithi and D.O. Kihurani (2000). Evaluation of 4-aminopyridine for the reversal of xylazine sedation in goats. Israel J. Vet. Med. 35 (1) pp. 23-26.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2000. Abstract

An assessment of the effects of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) on xylazine-induced sedation in goats was done. Twelve small clinically healthy East African goats were used. The goats were randomly divided into two groups of six animals. Xylazine was administered intramuscularly (IM) at 0.44mg/kg. Group 1 goats were given 1ml water for injection intravenously (IV) and served as the controls. Group 2 goats were given 0.15 percent 40AP at 0.4 mg/kg IV and served as the test group. The heart rates, respiratory rates, rates of ruminal movements, the standing times, total recovery times, pain sensation, pedal as well as the palpebral reflexes and the recovery phenomena were assessed. There was a faster return to near normal values of heart rates, respiratory rates, rates of ruminal movements, sensation to pain and re-appearance of reflexes in the 4-AP treated goats compared with the controls. The mean standing times (MST) and mean total recovery times (MTRT) were significantly reduced (P<0.05). However, 4-AP produced rough recovery phenomena that were undesirable. The results indicated that 4-AP is a potent reversal agent for sedation caused by xylazine in goats.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "D.R. Ndeereh, P.M.F. Mbithi and D.O. Kihurani. (2000). Clinical and experimental evaluation of yohimbine for the reversal of xylazine anaesthesia in goats. Kenya Vet. Journal 24 pp. 69-72.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2000. Abstract

Three preliminary experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of three medicinal plants used as anthelmintics in humans and livestock in Kibwezi and Tunyo divisions of Makueni and Marakwet District respectively. At double the dosage used traditionally, powdered Albizia anthelmintica, fresh Maerua ssubcordata, powdered M. Edulis, fresh M. edulis and fresh albizia anthelmintica had a percentage faecal egg count reduction of 55.4, 51.4, 49.4, 16.2 and 13.5 percent respectively.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "D.W. Gakuya, P.M.F. Mbithi and N.K.R. Musimba (2000). Preliminary study of three medicinal plants used as antihelmintics for livestock in Kibwezi and Tunyo divisions of Makueni and Marakwet districts, Kenya. Kenya Vet. Journal 24 pp. 81-93.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2000. Abstract

Three preliminary experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of three medicinal plants used as anthelmintics in humans and livestock in Kibwezi and Tunyo divisions of Makueni and Marakwet District respectively. At double the dosage used traditionally, powdered Albizia anthelmintica, fresh Maerua ssubcordata, powdered M. Edulis, fresh M. edulis and fresh albizia anthelmintica had a percentage faecal egg count reduction of 55.4, 51.4, 49.4, 16.2 and 13.5 percent respectively.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "E.M. Njoroge, P.M.F. Mbithi, J.M. Gathuma, J.K. Magambo and E. Zeyhle (2000). Application of ultrasonography in prevalence studies of hydatid cysts in goats in Northwestern Turkana, Kenya and Toposoland, Southern Sudan. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2000. Abstract

A study was done to determine the prevalence of hydatid cysts in goats using ultrasonogrphy. A total of 1390 goats were examined, 43.6% (606/1390) of them from northwestern Turkana, Kenya, and 56.4% (784/1390) from Toposland, Southern Sudan. Hydatid custs were visualized in 1.82% (11/606) of the goats from north-western Turkana and 4.34% (34/784) of those from Toposaland. Unlike abattoir surveys, the prevalence data obtained in this study were unbiased because entire flocks were examined. The lower prevalence rate of the disease in goats from Turkana was attributed to the hydatid disease control programme in that area, which is absent in Toposaland.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "Njoroge E.M., Maxson-Sage A., Wachira T.M., Zelye E.E., Weber E.P., Smith G., P.M.F. Mbithi and Gathuma J.M. (2000). Determination of sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography in diagnosis of hydatid cysts in the liver and right lung of sheep and goa.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2000. Abstract

Ultrasound examination of the liver and right lung followed by postmortem examination was performed in 300 animals (16 sheep and 284 goats). Thirty one (10.3%) were positive for hydatid cysts on ultrasound examination and 46 (15.3%) were positive on postmortem examination. Twenty-one hydatid positives on postmortem examination were falsely identified as negatives on ultrasound examination. Of the 254 animals negative on postmortem examination 6 (2.4%) were falsely identified as positive on ultrasound examination. The Sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound examination in detection of hydatid cysts in sheep and goats was 54.36% and 97.645 respectively. The positive predictive value was 80.64% while the negative predictive value was 92.19%.

1999
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.A. Nguhiu-Mwangi and P.M.F. Mbithi (1999). Anaesthesia in urinary tract disease. The Kenya Veterinarian 14, 28-31.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1999.
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.A. Nguhiu-Mwangi, P.M.F. Mbithi, D.O. Kihurani, S.M. Mbiuki (1999). Prognostic indicators and economic implications of advanced bovine ocular squamous cell carcinoma after radical surgery. The Kenya Veterinarian 14 , 23-25.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1999. Abstract

The productive life span of animals is shortened and the carcass devaluated by ocular squamous cell carcinoma. This causes remarkable economic losses in the cattle industry, particularly because the disease is most common at the peak of production (Farris and Fraunfelder 1976; cordy 1978). The carcinoma lesion initially involves the third eyelid, then spreads to the globe (Fox 1963), the eyelids (spradbrow and Hoffmann 1980), and even the orbital bones (Brier, Kleinschuster, and Corbett 1979).

Njoroge EM, Mbithi PMF;, Gathuma JM, Wachira TM, Maxson AD, Zeyhle EE. "Ultrasound in Livestock. A contribution to epidemiology of hydatidosis.". 1999.
1998
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "C.M. Mulei and Mbithi, P.M.F. (1998). A comparison of the clinical hematological values of healthy adult beef and dairy cattle at Kabete. The Kenya Veterinarian, Vol. 13 pp. 33-34.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1998. Abstract

Clinical hematological values have been established for healthy cattle of several breeds in various parts of the world. However, values of some blood components differ between laboratories (Schalm 1980) creating a problem when interpreting blood profiles for any particular area if the normal blood component values for the area are not known.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.D. Mande, I.B.J. Buoro, P.M.F. Mbithi and S.W. Mbugua (1998). Polysulfated glycosaminoglycans in the treatment of osteorthritis in animals. Kenya Veterinary Journal 23 (4) pp. 95-98.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1998. Abstract

This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.D. Mande, I.B.J. Buoro, S.W Mbugua and P.M.F. Mbithi, (1998). Experimental models of osteoarthritis. Kenya Veterinary Journal, 23 (4) pp. 91-94.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1998. Abstract

This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease

PROF. MBITHI PMF, K PROFWABACHAJAMES, M DRMUNYUASJ. "J.K. Wabacha, G.K. Gitau, J.M. Nduhiu, A.G. Thaiyah, P.M.F. Mbithi and S.J.M. Munyua (1998). An outbreak of urticarial form of swine erysipelas in a medium-scale piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya. J.S. Afr. Vet. Med. Ass. 69 (2) 61-64.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1998. Abstract

This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.K. Wabacha, G.K. Gitau, L.C. Bebora, C.O. Bwanga, Z.M. Wamuri and P.M.F. Mbithi (1998). Occurrence of dermatomycosis (Ringworm) due to trichophyton verrucosum in dairy calves and its spread to animal attendants. Kenya Veterinary Journal 23 (4) pp. 213-2.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1998. Abstract

This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease

Wabacha JK;, Gitau GK;, Nduhiu JM;, Thaiyah AG;, Mbithi PMF;, Munyua SJM;. "An Outbreak Of Urticarial Form Of Swine Erysipelas In A Medium -scale Piggery In Kiambu District, Kenya."; 1998.
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "P.M.F. Mbithi (1998). An overview of postgraduate training in veterinary clinics worldwide. Kenya Veterinary Journal 23 (4) pp. 217-221.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1998. Abstract

This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "P.M.F. Mbithi, J.M. Nduhiu and J.K. Mahia (1998). Incidence of animal skin surface infections and its correlation to environmental contamination: a clinical and experimental study. Kenya Veterinary Journal 23 (4) pp. 221-224.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1998. Abstract

This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease

1995
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "P. M. F. Mbithi (1995). Studies on pseudoarthrosis of the bovine metacarpophalangeal joints; Ph.D. Thesis in Clinical Studies, University of Nairobi.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1995. Abstract

This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease

1994
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "D.O. Kihurani, V.M. Nantulya, S.M. Mbiuki, E. Mogoa, J. Nguhiu-Mwangi and P.M.F. Mbithi (1994). Trypanosoma brucei, T. congolese and T. vivax infections in horses on a farm in Kenya. Trop. Anim. Hlth., Prod. 26 95-101.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1994. Abstract

The ease of cast breakage, the extent of cast wearing at the foot, the ability to bear weight on the cast limb, athe severity of lameness and cast related complications were compared clinically in three groups of six calves each, cast with three different plaster of Paris bandages namely Plasrun-gyps, Veronese and Salvagyps, and oberstaions made over the next 21 days. The casts were applied following aseptic joint surgery for immobilization. Cast breakage was seen in only one case in which Plasrun-gyps was used but observed most of the cases cast with Salvagyps and Veronese. Cast breakage was most often seen at the foot, in all plaster casts. All casts enables weight bearing in all calves and when lameness was seen to be severe this was due to broken casts whose edges impinged on soft tissue causing pain. On the basis of its having minimal breakages on clinical application, Plasrun-gyps was the most suitable for use on the limbs of calves.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.D. Mande, P.M.F. Mbithi and S.M. Mbiuki (1994). Clinical evaluation of casting bandages available in Kenya. Bull. Amim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 42, 103-107.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1994. Abstract

The ease of cast breakage, the extent of cast wearing at the foot, the ability to bear weight on the cast limb, athe severity of lameness and cast related complications were compared clinically in three groups of six calves each, cast with three different plaster of Paris bandages namely Plasrun-gyps, Veronese and Salvagyps, and oberstaions made over the next 21 days. The casts were applied following aseptic joint surgery for immobilization. Cast breakage was seen in only one case in which Plasrun-gyps was used but observed most of the cases cast with Salvagyps and Veronese. Cast breakage was most often seen at the foot, in all plaster casts. All casts enables weight bearing in all calves and when lameness was seen to be severe this was due to broken casts whose edges impinged on soft tissue causing pain. On the basis of its having minimal breakages on clinical application, Plasrun-gyps was the most suitable for use on the limbs of calves.

Kihurani DO, Nantulya VM, Mbiuki SM, Mogoa E, Mbithi PMF. "Trypanosoma brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections in horses on a farm in Kenya.". 1994.
1993
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "D. O. Kihurani, V. M. Nantulya, S. M. Mbiuki, E. Mogoa, J. Nguhiu-Mwangi and P. M. F. Mbithi. Trypanosoma brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections in horses on a farm in Kenya.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1993. Abstract

Equines are particularly susceptible to infection withTrypanosoma evansi andT. brucei, but rarely is naturalT. congolense andT. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group,T. brucei,T. congolense andT. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay (antigen ELISA).

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.D. Mande, P.M.F. Mbithi and S.M. Mbiuki (1993). Mechanical strength of some plaster of Paris casts. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 41, 151-153.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1993. Abstract

Five plaster of Paris casting bandages including Nairobi Enterprises, Salvagyps, Helm, Plasrum-gyps and Veronese, available on the Kenyan market were evaluated based on breaking strength. Helm plaster of Paris had a significantly higher mean maximum load compared to all the other products (p-0.050. Plasrun-gyps supported the highest mean maximum load per unit thickness. Based on this study, Helm and Plasrun-gyps are recommended as more suitable for cast application on the basis of their superior breaking strength.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.D. Mande, P.M.F. Mbithi and S.M. Mbiuki (1993). Radiological evaluation of plaster cast bandages. Bull. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 41, 151-153.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1993. Abstract

Five plaster of Paris casting bandages including Nairobi Enterprises, salvagyps, helm, Plasrunpgyps and Veronese, available on the Kenyan market were evaluated based on their resistance to abrasion. The mean loss in mass per square area for Nairobi enterprises and Salvagyps was significantly lower (P<0.05) indicating that these two products were more resistance to abrasion. A new method of evaluation of resistance to abrasion is also described.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.D. Mande, P.M.F. Mbithi and S.M. Mbiuki (1993). The resistance to abrasion of Plaster of Paris casts P.M.F. Mbithi and S.M. Mbiuki (1993). Radiological evaluation of plaster cast bandages. Bull. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 41, 151-153.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1993. Abstract

Five plaster of Paris casting bandages including Nairobi Enterprises, salvagyps, helm, Plasrunpgyps and Veronese, available on the Kenyan market were evaluated based on their resistance to abrasion. The mean loss in mass per square area for Nairobi enterprises and Salvagyps was significantly lower (P<0.05) indicating that these two products were more resistance to abrasion. A new method of evaluation of resistance to abrasion is also described.

1991
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.A. Nguhiu Mwangi, Peter M.F. Mbithi and S.M. Mbiuki (1991). Necrosis and sloughing of skin associated with limb cellulitis in 4 cows and a calf; predisposing causes, treatment and prognosis. Vet. Rec. 129, 129-195.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1991. Abstract

Four cows and a calf with non-suppurative limb cellulitis were observed subsequently to suffer skin necrosis and sloughing in the affected limbs, either on or distal to the metacarpus or metatarsus. In comparison with six cows with suppurative Corynebacterium pyogenes limb cellulitis, topical therapy or the cases with skin necrosis and sloughing was adequate and the prognosis was good, when compared with the rigorous systemic therapy applied to the cows with suppurative cellulitis, some of which died. The skin necrosis and sloughing resulting from limb cellulitis seemed to be encouraged by the paucity of tissue between the skin and the bone, by poor vascularity of the area and by the causative bacteria.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.A. Nguhiu Mwangi, Peter M.F. Mbithi, S.J.M. Munyua, S.M. Mbiuki and E.G. Mogoa (1991). Large animal abdominal hernias.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1991. Abstract

Equines are particularly susceptible to infection withTrypanosoma evansi andT. brucei, but rarely is naturalT. congolense andT. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group,T. brucei,T. congolense andT. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay (antigen ELISA).

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.D. Mande, P.M.F. Mbithi and S.M. Mbiuki (1991). The breaking strength and resistance to abrasion of some plaster of Paris Casing bandages. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 41, 143-146.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1991. Abstract

Five plasters and one fiberglass casting bandages available on the Kenyan market were evaluated for breaking strength and resistance to abrasion. Under the test conditions, scotch cast was found to be 2.6 times stronger than the strongest plaster of Paris preparation when the load per unit thickness was compared and was significantly different from the plaster casts in terms of maximum load (p=0.0001). Among the plaster products, there were significant statistical differences (p=0.029) in maximum strength with Helm and Plasrum-gyps withstanding the greatest load. Scotchcast was the most resistant to abrasion while among the plaster product, Salvaplast and POP-Nairobi Enterprises showed satisfactory resistance Heal, Plasrun-gyps and Veronese proved least resistant under the testing conditions.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "Peter M.F. Mbithi (1991). Comparative healing of untreated and saline bandage treated skin wounds of cattle. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 39, 191-194.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1991. Abstract

Equines are particularly susceptible to infection withTrypanosoma evansi andT. brucei, but rarely is naturalT. congolense andT. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group,T. brucei,T. congolense andT. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay (antigen ELISA).

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "Peter M.F. Mbithi and J.V. Bailey (1991). Comparative healing of nitrofurazone bandage treated and untreated skin wounds of cattle. Bull Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., 39, 93-96.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1991. Abstract

The healing of untreated and Nitrofurazone bandage treated excisional skin wounds on the metatarsal and/or metacarpal regions of cows were compared. There was no difference in the rate of wound healing and epithelization between the untreated and treated wounds healing and epithelialization between the untreated and treated wounds (P<0.05), but contraction was greater in the treated wounds (P>0.05). The untreated wounds did not produce exuberant granulation tissue and healed with thick firm scars. The treated wounds grew excessive granulation tissue and healed with thin friable scars that were very easilyt disrupted. Results suggested that skin lacerations on the distal limbs of healthy cattle do not benefit from topical antibiosis and or bandaging.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "Peter M.F. Mbithi, S.M. Mbiuki, J.A. Nguhiu Mwangi and D.O. Kihurani (1991). Non-fracture lameness in cattle: A retrospective study. Bull Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., 39, 307-309.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1991. Abstract

Out of 3,278 bovine cases seen and treated at the large animal Clinic, University of Nairobi (LAC-UON), 549 (16.74%) had non-fracture lameness (NFL). Foot lameness contributed to 65% of the NFL and the commonest cause of the foot lameness (37.34%) was septic arthritis of the distal interphalengeal joint. The data is being used to establish examination, therapeutic and preventive protocol to be followed in hospital as well as on farm herd health programs.

1990
J. A N-M, P.M M. "Anaesthesia in urinary tract disease.". 1990. Abstract

Surgical management of renal patients is a fascinating challenge requiring a detailed knowledge of anaesthetic techniques and a careful selection of the technique most compatible with each patient's condition. A knowledge of many facets of physiology, biochemistry and med icine that are influenced by urinary tract obstruction and renal dysfunction is paramount (Deutsch 1973). The function of the basic systems involved in homeostasis is generally impaired by anaesthesia. Therefore the degree of depression of renal haemodynarnics is inevitably of concem, especially so in anaesthesia of patients with urinary tract obstruction, or renal dysfunction (Bastron and Deutsch 1976; Deutsch 1973; Mazze and Cousins 1981). This paper deals with physiological, biochemical and medical factors that influence the action of anaesthetics in urinary tract disease, and thus affect the patient negatively. An insight is given on how to overcome some of these factors.

Mande J;, Mbithi PMF;, Mbiuki SM. "Caestrum poisoning in a colt.".; 1990.
Mbithi PMF;, Ferguson JG;, Leach DH. "Creation of pseudoarthrosis in young calves.".; 1990.
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.A. Nguhiu-Mwangi and Mbithi, P.M.F. (1990). Effect of location on severity and prognosis of limb cellulitis in cows. Vet. 125, 152.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1990. Abstract

Five plasters and one fiberglass casting bandages available on the Kenyan market were evaluated for breaking strength and resistance to abrasion. Under the test conditions, scotch cast was found to be 2.6 times stronger than the strongest plaster of Paris preparation when the load per unit thickness was compared and was significantly different from the plaster casts in terms of maximum load (p=0.0001). Among the plaster products, there were significant statistical differences (p=0.029) in maximum strength with Helm and Plasrum-gyps withstanding the greatest load. Scotchcast was the most resistant to abrasion while among the plaster product, Salvaplast and POP-Nairobi Enterprises showed satisfactory resistance Heal, Plasrun-gyps and Veronese proved least resistant under the testing conditions.

Mbithi PMF;, Mbiuki SM;, Nguhiu Mwangi JA;, Mogoa EG;, Kihurani DO. "Lameness in cattle in Kenya.".; 1990.
J. A N-M, D. O K;, P.M M, S. M M. "Prognosis indicators and economic implications of advanced bovine ocular squamous cell carcinoma after radical surgery.". 1990. Abstract

The productive life span of animals is shortened and the carcass devalued by ocular squamous cell carcinoma. This causes remarkable economic losses in the cattle industry, particularly because the disease is most common at the peak of production (Farris and Fraunfelder 1976; Cordy 1978). The carcinoma lesion initially involves the third eyelid, then spreads to the globe (Fox 1963), the eyelids (Spradbrow and Hoffmann 1980), and even the orbital bones (Brier, Kleinschuster, and Corbett 1979). In most cases, squamous cell carcinoma does not involve the orbit, but when it does, the prognosis is extremely guarded (Rebhun 1979). For such cases it is recommended that the animal be destroyed because effective enucleation would be unsuccessful. Occasionally, the lesion spreads to the draining lymph nodes, sinuses and the brain (Brier, Kleinschuster and Corbett 1979). Ocular squamous cell carcinoma is frequently subject to physical trauma and becomes infected and even infested with fly larvae (Spradbrow and Hoffmann 1980). When neglected, the carcinoma becomes ulcerated, infected and discharges foul smelling exudate. Apart from surgical excision, most other available methods of treatment are only effective for early carcinoma lesions (Spradbrow and Hoffman 1980). However, according to Rubin (1984), excisional surgery is most successful in superficial lesions whose margins are clearly distinct and within reach. For advanced extensive carcinoma lesions, a more radical surgery involving removal of most of the ocular and adjacent tissues is advocated (Spradbrow and Hoffmann 1980), and prognosis is even better when radical surgery involves block resection including removal of draining and adjacent lymph nodes such as the parotid (Brier, Kleinschuster, and Corbett 1979). Observation has revealed that most cases are not presented for treatment until the neoplasm is quite advanced and complicated (Fox 1963). In such cases the prognosis is poor even with the most radical surgery. Due to vast economic losses encountered, this paper is intended to point out some factors of advanced ocular carcinoma, as observed in seventeen cows, that may be used in making the prognosis before surgery is attempted. This of course would minimize economic losses from surgery and post-operative complication management of ocular squamous cell carcinoma. This article therefore correlates the clinical manifestation of the carcinoma lesions with the outcome of treatment.

1989
1987
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "P. M. F. Mbithi (1987). Alternatives in the management of limb wounds in cattle; M.V.Sc. Thesis in Veterinary Anesthesiology Radiology and Surgery, University of Saskatchewan, Canada.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1987. Abstract

Five plasters and one fiberglass casting bandages available on the Kenyan market were evaluated for breaking strength and resistance to abrasion. Under the test conditions, scotch cast was found to be 2.6 times stronger than the strongest plaster of Paris preparation when the load per unit thickness was compared and was significantly different from the plaster casts in terms of maximum load (p=0.0001). Among the plaster products, there were significant statistical differences (p=0.029) in maximum strength with Helm and Plasrum-gyps withstanding the greatest load. Scotchcast was the most resistant to abrasion while among the plaster product, Salvaplast and POP-Nairobi Enterprises showed satisfactory resistance Heal, Plasrun-gyps and Veronese proved least resistant under the testing conditions.

1985
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "P. M. F. Mbithi (1985) The use of skin grafts in the treatment of wounds of the distal limbs in cattle; M.Sc.Thesis in Clinical Studies, University of Nairobi.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1985. Abstract

Five plasters and one fiberglass casting bandages available on the Kenyan market were evaluated for breaking strength and resistance to abrasion. Under the test conditions, scotch cast was found to be 2.6 times stronger than the strongest plaster of Paris preparation when the load per unit thickness was compared and was significantly different from the plaster casts in terms of maximum load (p=0.0001). Among the plaster products, there were significant statistical differences (p=0.029) in maximum strength with Helm and Plasrum-gyps withstanding the greatest load. Scotchcast was the most resistant to abrasion while among the plaster product, Salvaplast and POP-Nairobi Enterprises showed satisfactory resistance Heal, Plasrun-gyps and Veronese proved least resistant under the testing conditions.

1981

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